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Chapter 3: Movement Of Substances Across the Substances 3.1 Movement Of Substances Across The Across The Plasma Membrane 1. (a) Figure 4 shows the fluid-mosaic model of membrane structure.

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Molecule P Molecule R Molecule Q

Z S

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No (a) (b)
Name the component of membrane Plasma membrane

Marking scheme

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Name the structures M, N, X , Y and Z. P: Phospholipids Bilayer (State the component of structure P) Trail Pahang 09 S: Hydrophilic head Q :Carrier protein R :Pore protien Z: Hydrophobic tails

(c)
Explain the main function of P

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Acts as a barrier between the internal and external environment of the cell // Allows only Specific molecules to pass through it // provide the structural basis for all cell membrane.

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Chapter 3: Movement Of Substances Across the Substances

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Note: All the question refer to the Diagram 1 No (d) Marking scheme
The Plasma membrane is said to be semi premable membrane What is the meaning of semi-preamble membrane
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Marks

A semi-permeable plasma membrane is a membrane that allows only certain substances to

Move freely across it. (e) (f)


State main component of layer P Lipid /Protein (f) Explain the causes that make plasma membrane have fluidity structure [kedah2008] P1-fluidity characteristics are caused by the protein molecules which are floating in the phospholipids bilayer. P2- the positions of the molecules also keep on changing / not fixed in the position. Molecule P move across the plasma membrane follow the concentration gradient Whereas Molecule Q move across structure X against the concentration gradient Name the process of movement substances across the plasma membrane as shown in molecule P, Q molecule R Molecule P: Facilitated diffusion Molecule Q: Simple diffusion /osmosis Molecule R: Active transport
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(g)

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(h)

Give one example of particle that move through P,Q and R R: Glucose /amino acid P: Water /carbon dioxide/oxygen /small lipid soluble Q: Natrium /Potassium

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(i) (j)

What type of passive transport occur at Q Simple diffusion State two feature of the particle that enables it to pass through the phospholipids bilayers of the cell membrane P1- Small P2- Soluble to phospholipids bilayer/lipid soluble

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Chapter 3: Movement Of Substances Across the Substances

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No (k)

Marking scheme
Explain how these molecules pass through the channel protein. P1- Small molecule /ion move through the pore protein in the channel protein by simple diffusion P2-The molecule are higher concentration (outside) diffuses the s\cell cause the molecule to diffuse to a lower concentration into the cell through the pore /down the concentration gradient

Marks 1 1 2

(l)

On diagram 2 ,draw arrow (


component during the day time

) to show the movement of oxygen across the cellular

Arrow from inside the cell to outside the cell, pass through phospholipids bilayer

(m)

Explain the answer in (b)(i) E1-(during day time), photosynthesis occurs in cell to produce O2 E2- O2 diffuses from a higher concentration region to lower concentration region// O2 diffuses by following the concentration gradient E3- O2 is non polar molecule /small molecule Any 3 Explain the arrangement of molecule P (Lipid) in Plasma membrane P1-Phospholipid molecule consists of two parts P2-Hydrophilic head contact with the extracellular environment and hydrophobic tail point toward each other P3-Phospholipid are arrange in double layer called, phospholipids bilayer

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(n)

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(o)

State the characteristic of phospholipid bilayer P1-it consist of hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail P2- Hydrophilic head contact with the extracellular environment and hydrophobic tail point toward each other P3-not rigid or static

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Chapter 3: Movement Of Substances Across the Substances

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No (a)
Essay Enhancement Coner

Marking scheme
All movements of substances have to pass through a plasma membrane. Explain why the plasma membrane is known as a semi permeable membrane P1- it only allows the passage of certain molecules and limits the passage of other molecules. P2-It consists of two layers of phospholipids with protein molecules scattered in them P3-Molecules that can pass through the plasma membrane easily are those that can dissolve in lipid and small uncharged molecules.

Marks

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P4- Molecules which cannot move through the plasma membrane but require proteins include 1 large molecules that do not dissolve in lipid and small charged molecules. P5 Channel protein does not require the binding of a molecule and conformational change to open. P6Channel protein allows molecules to steadily diffuse across the membrane through diffusion. P7However a carrier protein allows specific molecules to cross the cell membrane by undergoing a conformational change upon the binding of the molecule. P8 The conformational change opens a hole through which the molecule can enter or leave a cell.

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(b)

The figure below shows a fluid mosaic model of the plasma membrane

Explain the functions of the structures X, Y and Z in the movement of substances across the plasma membrane P1- Structure X allows hydrophobic molecules which can dissolve in lipids such as fatty acids, glycerol, steroid hormones, and vitamins A, D, E and K to move in and out of the cell. P2-Structure Y allows bigger molecules which do not dissolve in lipids like glucose and amino acids to move in and out of the cell. P3-Structure Z allows small charged molecules to move in and out of the cell.

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Chapter 3: Movement Of Substances Across the Substances Simple Diffusion No (a) Define Simple diffusion? [ESSAY] P1-The net movement of molecule /ions P2-from a high concentration to a region of lower concentration P3-down / follow the concentration gradient P4-Untill the dynamic equilibrium is achieved (b) Based on the diagram, state one example of a substance that moves across the plasma membrane. Describe the characteristic of that substances transport P1-Fatty acid/glycerol/vitamin A/D/E/K, Steroid S1-Small, non polar E1-They are lipid soluble /van move through the phospholipids bilayer OR P2-Carbon dioxide, water and oxygen S2-Small uncharged molecules E2-they are lipid soluble /can move through the phospholipids bilayer (c) SPM Clone 2003[Essay] Marking scheme

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Marks 1 1 1 1

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Explain briefly the process illustrated in the diagram P1-The process is known as simple diffusion

1 1 P3-the potassium manganate (VII) ions move from an area of higher concentration to an area of 1 lower concentration 1 P4-Until dynamic equilibrium is achieved 1 P5-The ions are equally distributed throughout the whole system and turn the solution purple 1
P2-the concentration of potassium manganate (VII) is higher at the bottom of the beaker

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Chapter 3: Movement Of Substances Across the Substances Osmosis

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No (a) (b)
Based on the figure, name the process Osmosis Define Osmosis

Marking scheme

Marks 1 1

(The net movement) of water molecules from a lower solute concentration region to a high solute concentration region through a semi permeable membrane

(c)

Describe what happen to the volume of the solution on both side A and side B after five Minutes P1-Definition P2-causing the level of solution rise on side A

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(d) (e)

State the molecule involved in this process Water molecule Describe what happen to solute concentration on side B . Explain your answer P1-The solute concentration will increase on side B P2-Salt diffuses from side A to side B, increasing the solute concentration P3-Water diffuses from side B to side A, reducing the amount of water and increasing the solute concentration

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(f)

State the differences of the process simple diffusion and osmosis D1-Simple diffusion involves the movement of any molecule, Osmosis involved only the movement of water molecule D3-Simple diffusion not require a semi- permeable membrane, Osmosis occurs through a semi permeable membrane

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Chapter 3: Movement Of Substances Across the Substances Facillitated Diffusion

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Trial Johor 2011 Trial Negeri Sembilan 2011

No (a) (b)
Facilitated diffusion Name molecule X Amino acid/glucose/small protein

Marking scheme
Based on the diagram, name the process occur

Marks 1 1 1 1

(c)

Describe and explain the following: The uptake of potassium ions by algae even that concentration of potassium ions is higher in the cell sap the external environment E1-Water enter plant roots by osmosis E2-The concentration of solutes is lower in the soil in than root cell E3-Water molecule moves across the semi preamble membrane and enter the root cell

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(d)

Explain how amino acid molecule are transported across the plasma membrane by the process shown in diagram 1.1 S1-Amino acid binds to a specific site on the carrier protein S2-Carier protein changes its shape and releases the amino acid on the other side S3-The movement of amino acid is down/follow the concentration gradient

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Chapter 3: Movement Of Substances Across the Substances

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No
Essay Enhancement Coner

Marking scheme
(a)The following information is about plasma membrane. The plasma membrane is semi-permeable and allows certain substances to move across. Based on the above statement, describe how an amino acid molecule is transported across the plasma membrane into the cell. P1-Amino acid is a large water soluble molecule P2-It requires carrier protein to move across the membrane P3-Amino acid will bind to the carrier protein which is specific to it P4-Carrier protein will change its shape to bring the amino acid molecule across the membrane P5-Lastly the carrier protein will release the amino acid and returns to its original shape (b)State the similarities and differences between passive transport (facilitated diffusion) and active transport in the movement of molecules across the cell membrane. Similarities : S1-Both occurs in living cells S2-Both occurs through a semi-permeable membrane S3-Both require carrier protein to bind with the substances Differences : Facilitated diffusion Molecules move down the concentration gradient Molecules move through pore proteins or carrier proteins Occurs until a dynamic equilibrium is achieved ATP or energy is not required Not dependent on cellular respiration Not affected by inhibitors Active transport Molecules move against the concentration gradient Molecules move through carrier proteins only Results in accumulation of substances in the cell or removal of substances from the cell ATP or energy is required Dependent on cellular respiration Inhibited by inhibitors such as respiratory poisons Each differences 1 mark ANY 2

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Chapter 3: Movement Of Substances Across the Substances

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Trial Johor 2009

No (c)

Marking scheme
Explain how molecule P move across the plasma membrane F -Molecule P moves across the plasma membrane by facilitated diffusion P1-Molecule P is water soluble/not soluble in lipid P2-Molecule P moves from higher concentration region to lower concentration region//against concentration gradient P3-Molecule P binds to the specific site of the carrier protein P4-Carier protein change its shape P5-Molecule P move through Carrier protein ( F + any 3P)

Marks 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Explain how gaseous exchange occur across the alveolus P1 : Oxygen diffuse/ moves across a( plasma membrane/through ( plasma membrane) to blood capillary P2: From higher (oxygen ) concentration ( in alveolus )to lower concentration ( in blood capillary) P3: On the other hand the partial pressure of carbon dioxide is lower in the air of the alveoli compared to the blood capillaries. P4: Carbon dioxide diffuse out of the blood capillaries into the alveoli. P5 : expelled through the nose or mouth into the atmosphere.

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Chapter 3: Movement Of Substances Across the Substances Active Transport

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Kedah Trial 2008 JUJ 2009 Trial Johor 2011 Trial Kelantan 2011

No (a)
Define active transport

Marking scheme
Movement of molecule or ions, against the concentration gradient across plasma membrane with the help of carrier protein and energy / ATP

Marks 1 1

(b)

State the process that involved in the uptake of mineral ions Active transport

(c)

Explain what will happen to the uptake of mineral ions by the root hair if the roots are immersed into the solution containing metabolic poisons such as cyanide. P1-metabolic poisons stopped the cell respiration P2-no energy/ATP is produced P3-active transported cannot occur P4-no uptake of mineral ions by roots cell (any 3)

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(d)
Sodium ions found to be higher in concentration outside a human cell while potassium ions is found to be higher outside the cell Describe the process that leads to the occurrence of the above situation P1-The carrier proteins opening end has active site, which are filled by the sodium ions. P2-An ATP molecule then attaches on the protein and release energy P3-The carrier Protein \change shape (and open to the other end, Where),it release the sodium ion to outside

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P4-Carier Protein Returns to its original shape and release the potassium ions Any 3

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Chapter 3: Movement Of Substances Across the Substances

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No (e)
solution

Marking scheme
Explain why paramecium has to pump its contractile vacuole when placed in 0.25 sucrose

Marks

P1-0.25%sucrose solution is hypotonic to cytoplasm P2-Water diffuses into that paramecium through osmosis P3-Excess water has to be expelled, otherwise the paramecium will burst

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(f)

Paramecium will and die when placed in the 0.25% sucrose solution added with respiratory poison

Explain the above statement P1-The poison will inhibit cellular respiration P2-No energy is produced P3-Contractile vacuole will not work/pump P4-Excess water cannot be expelled

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(g)

How unicellular organisms living in freshwater maintain the water balance? P1-Gaseous exchange in the alveoli occurs through diffusion P2-The concentration of oxygen in the alveoli is higher than that of the blood capillaries surrounding the alveoli P3-This causes oxygen to diffuses into the blood P4-Likewise, the higher concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood capillaries causes carbon dioxide to diffuse into the blood capillaries

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(h)

What is the important of the process in (a) to an organism It helps the organism to take in / accumulate glucose/amino acid

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Chapter 3: Movement Of Substances Across the Substances

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3.2 The movement of substances across the plasma membrane in everyday life Plant Cell In an experiment, the palisade mesophyl cell is immersed in distilled water for a certain period of time Type of solution Solution A Question & Marking Scheme (a) Based on the diagram, name the term use to describe the following/State the properties of the following solution/state the type of solution Hypotonic/hypotonic solution (b) State the condition of the cell in the following solution Turgid (c) Explain the effect of the following solution to plant cell/ Explain what will happen to this cellular component F1- This cellular component/ plasma membrane is pushed against the cell wall F2-The distilled water /solution is hypotonic to the cell sap
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E1-Distilled water is hypotonic to the cell sap // cell sap hypertonic to distilled

water
E2- Water molecule diffuses into the cell by osmosis E3-Vacuole Expand /swell up E4- the cell are highly turgid /Any 3

Solution C

(a) Based on the diagram, name the term use to describe the following/State the properties of the following solution/ state the type of solution Hypertonic/Hypertonic solution (b) State the condition of the cell in the following solution Flaccid (c) Name a physical process of plant cell in solution C Plasmolysis

(d) Explain the effect of the following solution to plant cell/ Explain what will happen to this cellular component P1-The solution is hyper tonic to cell sap P2-Water molecule diffuses out of the large central vacuole by osmosis P3-the plasma membrane pull away from the cell wall P4-Plant cell become flaccid /any3

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Chapter 3: Movement Of Substances Across the Substances Type of solution Solution B Question & Marking Scheme

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(a) Based on the diagram, name the term use to describe the following/State the properties of the following solution/ state the type of solution Isotonic/ Isotonic solution (b) Explain the effect of the following solution to plant cell/ Explain what will happen to this cellular component P1-the solution outside the cell is isotonic to the cell sap P2-Water diffuse in and out the cell at equal rate P3-the cell maintain its shape/not change P4- no plant cell shrinks /.any 3

A plasmolysed plant cell become turgid when immersed in distilled water

No (a) (b)
depalsmolysis Explain your answer

Marking scheme
What process does the plant cell experienced?

Marks 1 1

P1-plasmolysed cell can become turgid again by immersing in a hypotonic solution P2-water molecule diffuses in and the cell become turgid again

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(c)

Draw a labeled diagram of the condition of palisade mesophyl cell after being immersed in the distilled water D- The shape of the cell must be rectangular The cell wall is drawn with double line The vacuole must be large L-Label vacuole Reject other shape of the cell [2 marks]

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Chapter 3: Movement Of Substances Across the Substances Animal Cell
Trial Kelantan SPM

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Type of solution Solution M

Question& Marking scheme


(a) Name a physical process that causes the changes in erythrocyte cells L and M. Haemolysis

(b) What are the characteristics /properties of the solutions used to soak :/ state the type of solution(must have word SOLUTION) Hypotonic

(c) State the condition of the cell


State what your observe( / ) before P1 Normally get 1 marks Eg.P1-raw egg is floating Crenated (c) Explain the effect of the following solution to plant cell/ Explain what will happen to this cellular component/ Explain what happen on the red blood cells in solution M/Explain the phenomena(state the phenomena) P1-the solution is hypertonic to the red blood cell P2-Osmosis occur P3-Water molecule diffuses in the cells P4-the cell start to swell and eventually burst P5-Haemolysis occur P6-cytoplasmic fluid of red blood cells cause the solution change into clear red ANY 3

Solution K

(a) What are the characteristics /properties of the solutions used to soak : state the type of solution Isotonic (b) Explain the effect of the following solution to plant cell/ Explain what will happen to this cellular component/ Explain what happen on the red blood cells in solution/ Explain the phenomena(state the phenomena)

State what your observe( / ) before P1 Normally get 1 marks

P1-the solution outside the cell is isotonic to the cell sap P2-Water diffuse in and out the cell at equal rate P3-the cell maintain its shape/not change P4- no red blood cell shrinks /burst ANY 3

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Chapter 3: Movement Of Substances Across the Substances

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Type of solution
Solution L

Question& Marking scheme


(a) Name a physical process that causes the changes in erythrocyte cells L and M.

/state the type of solution


crenation (b) What are the characteristics /properties of the solutions used to soak :// state the type of solution(must have word SOLUTION) Hypertonic
Trial Kedah 2008

(c) State the condition of the cell Haemolysed

State what your observe( / )before P1 Normally get 1 marks

(c) Explain the effect of the following solution to plant cell/ Explain what will happen to this cellular component/ Explain what happen on the red blood cells in solution L/ Explain the phenomena(state the phenomena) P1-The solution is hypertonic to the red blood cell P2-Water molecule diffuses out of the cells by osmosis P3-creanation occurs

No (a)
Name of solution Solution L Solution M

Marking scheme
Use a tick (/) in the correct column to identify solution L and solution M Distilled water / / 10% salt solution

Marks

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Explain why paramecium has to pump its contractile vacuole when placed in 0.25 sucrose solution P1-0.25%sucrose solution is hypotonic to cytoplasm P2-Water diffuses into that paramecium through osmosis P3-Excess water has to be expelled, otherwise the paramecium will burst

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(b)

Cells P is mixed with detergent. The detergent dissolves lipids. After 10 minutes, the mixture is examined under a microscope; no cells P were seen but the mixture turn red and cloudy. Explain why? P1- Detergent dissolves the lipid in the plasma membrane. P2- Plasma membrane disintegrate/destroyed P3- Cytoplasm (of red blood cell) mix into the solution P4- Cell P is haemolysed AYN 3

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Chapter 3: Movement Of Substances Across the Substances
Trial Kedah 2008 Trial Kedah 2010

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No (a)

Marking scheme
Graph in Diagram 1.2 shows the percentage of red blood cells that are burst or shrink when placed in salt solution of different concentration. Based on the graph given, state the concentration which is isotonic to blood plasma. 0.45 g/100 cm3

Marks

1 (b)
Explain your answer in (b)(ii). Both percentage of haemolysis of red blood cells and percentage of crenation of red blood

Cells are zero (0%). (c)


Comment on the osmotic pressure at Q.

F: The osmotic pressure inside the red blood cells is equivalent to its environment.
P2 : Amount of water moving in and out of the cells are the same, P3 : therefore the size and structure of the red blood cells does not change

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Chapter 3: Movement Of Substances Across the Substances Trial Kedah 2010

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No (a) (b)
Osmosis Explain the process

Marking scheme
Name the process that causes the level of sucrose solution in the capillary tube change.

Marks 1 1 1 1 1

P1-Sucrose solution is hypertonic /more concentrated P2-water diffuse from distilled water into the sucrose solution P3-the level of sucrose solution in the capillary tube stop rising at the equilibrium stage/the concentration inside and outside the visking tube is the same /the amount of water diffuse into and out from the visking tubing is the same

(c)

A laboratory test shows that at the end of the experiment, the distilled water in the beaker did not consist of sucrose Explain why F-sucrose molecule is too large E-The visking tubing is a semi-permeable membrane/which only allow certain substances to pass through

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(c)

The red blood cell in solution Z is replaced with a plant cell Does the plant cell burst as the red blood cell did Explain why F - No P1-plant cell consist of cell wall P2-cell wall made up of cellulose

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Chapter 3: Movement Of Substances Across the Substances
Trial Johor 2010

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A strip of mustard green stem was placed in different of concentrations of sucrose solution Type of solution Solution A Question& Marking scheme (a) State the type solution A, when compared to the cell mustard Hypotonic Solution

(b) Explain why do the strips placed in solution J and solution L curved F1-the strips in solution J curved outward /toward the epidermis/epidermis layer P1-(Cortex) cells / (parenchyma) cell becomes turgid longer because water diffuses into the cell /protoplasm/cytoplasm by osmosis P2- Epidermal cells have a layer of cuticle on the outside P3- Which resist/ restrict the entry of water (and retain its normal size) Any 2

Solution B

(a) State the type solution B, when compared to the cell mustard Isotonic Solution c) State the solution which has osmotic concentration nearest to the cell sap of mustard green Solution B (ii) Explain your answer(c) (i) P1-The strip in solution B remain straight P2-because the (cortex/ Parenchyma) cell have not increase in turgidity /flaccidity //no change in size / remain the same P3-Water diffuses in and out at the same rate/Any 2

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Chapter 3: Movement Of Substances Across the Substances Type of solution Solution C 2008 Question& Marking scheme (a) State the type solution c, when compared to the cell mustard Hypertonic solution

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(b) Explain why do the strips placed in solution J and solution L curved as shown

F1 the strip in solution L curved inward /toward the cortex/parenchyma layer P1-Water diffuses out of the cytoplasm /protoplasm /cell sap of the (cortex ) cell
/ (Parenchyma) cells will shrink

P2- The cytoplasm and /or the vacuole of the cell will shrink

(d) Draw and labeled diagram of the condition of one of the mustard green cells after being immersed in solution A, B, C for 20 minutes D-Correct drawing -With vacuole -Doubled- line cell wall -Plasma membrane pulled away with some parts attached to the cell wall( totally detached from the cell wall is not accept) L-Correct Labels -Plasma /cell membrane -vacuole

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Chapter 3: Movement Of Substances Across the Substances Wilting of plant

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Trial Terrenganu 2010

No (a)

Marking scheme Name the process that is occurs in the diagram Osmosis

Marks 1 1

(b)

What is the factors that affects that direction in (a)(i) Relative concentration (of solute) inside and outside the cell Give an explanation what will happen to the plant of there is no water P1-soil become hypertonic P2-water molecule diffuses out of the root cell by osmosis P3-the plant cell become flaccid P4-the plant become wilt Explain the condition of plant after being spread with excess fertilizers P1-excess fertilizers cause the soil becomes hypertonic P2-water diffuses out from (cell) via osmosis P3-palnt cell loses water and cells are plasmolysed P4-hence plant wilt 1 1

(c)

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(d)

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(e)

A Chemical substance inhibits the respiration process in the root hairs cells of the plant. Explain the effect to the transport of the mineral ions into the root hair cells of the plant P1: The cell unable to produce energy // energy is not generated
P2: Active transport does not occur. P3: Thus, mineral ions cannot be transported into the cell. /any 2

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Chapter 3: Movement Of Substances Across the Substances

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No (f)

Marking scheme
Explain how water move to structure T xylem tissue P1-The cell sap of the root hair is hypetonic to the soil water P2-So, water diffuses into root hairs by osmosis P3-The entry o dater dilutes cell sap of root hairs // cell sap of root hairs become hypotonic compared to the cell sap of spongy mesophyll cell P4- water diffuses into spongy mesophyll cell /o these adjacent cells which become more diluted themselves, so osmosis continues across the S P5-the continuous flow of water in S creates a force known as root pressure to push water into xylem Essay enhancement coner

Marks 1 1 1 1 1 4

Diagram A

Diagram B

No (a)

Marking scheme
Diagram A shows a well watered plant .diagram B shows the same plants have not been watered for week. Based on biological knowledge, explain what happens to the plants in diagram A and B Diagram A P1-The soil solution is hypotonic to the cell sap o the plants cell P2-water diffuses into the cell by osmosis P3-Vacoule expand/swell up //cytoplasm to press outwards against the cell wall P4-Cell becomes turgid, supporting the plant upright Diagram B P1-The soil solution becomes hypotonic to the cell sap of the plant cell P2-water diffuses out from the cell by osmosis P3-Vacoule/cytoplasm shrink//plasma membrane pull away from the cell wall P4-the plasmolysed/flaccid cells causing the plant to wilt

Marks

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Chapter 3: Movement Of Substances Across the Substances Food Preservation

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Trial Negeri Sembilan

No (a)

Marking scheme
Explain the concept of osmosis in the preservation of mango P-The addition of preservatives such as concentrated salt/ sugar solution makes the surrounding solution hypertonic to the cell sap of the mango S1-Causing water to diffuse out from the cucumber cell by osmosis S2-The dehydrated condition of the mango prevent the growth of bacteria and fungi S3-Causes water to diffuse out the bacteria /fungi S4-Bacteria/fungi dehydrates and dies ANY 3

Marks 1 1 1 1 1 1

Essay enhancement corner

Trial Pahang 2011

No (a)

Marking scheme
Explain how natural preservation can preserves the cucumber for a long period of time P1-Immersed in salt and sugar solutions P2-Solution outside of the food is hypertonic compared to the cytoplasm P3-Water in the food diffuse out by osmosis P4-The cells in the food become dehydrated P5-microoraganism/bacteria/fungi lose water P6-these conditions are not favorable for the growth of microorganism

Marks 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

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Chapter 3: Movement Of Substances Across the Substances

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No (b)

Marking scheme
Diagram 3.1.2 and 3.1.3 show two types of food which can be preserved.

Marks

Diagram 3.1.2

Diagram 3.1.3

Explain how vinegar and concentrated salt solution can be used in the food preservation. P1-Vinegar is acidic and has low pH P2-This prevent the growth of microorganisms in mangoes P3-The mangoes can be preserved to last longer P4-Concentrated salt solutions hypertonic to the tissue of fish P5-Water diffuse out of fish cell by osmosis P6-Water also diffuse out of bacteria cell to the surroundings P7-The bacteria cells become plasmolysed P8-This prevent the growth of bacteria which cause food spoilage

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