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Global Outline Chapter 35: An Age of Anxiety

Intro Adolf Hitler dropped out of school and wanted to become an artist, not fight in any army Eventually found refuge in Munich, Germany, and volunteered in the army Discovered he had a real talent during WWI, blamed it on the Jews- took over Germany Changes in European society brought a sense of loss and anxiety During Great Depression, Stalin recast former tsarist empire to dictatorship of proletariat Mussolini and Hitler forged new national communities- radical political changes

I: Probing Cultural Frontiers Great War proved that European society wasnt as great as people thought Revolution in science, psychology, art, and architecture following the war Discovery of physicists undermined the Newtonian universe (natural laws governed events) Psychoanalysis suggested that human behavior was fundamentally irrational Disquieting new trends in the arts & architecture led to changes in science & psychology

A: Postwar Pessimism You are all a lost generation- Gertrude Stein- referred to Americans who congregated in Paris in the postwar year and expressed in poetry the thoughts of people after the war Artists became disillusioned- Ernest Hemingways A Farewell to Arms, Erich Maria Remarques All Quiet on the Western Front- works showed images of death & suffering Oswald Spenglers The Decline of the West- all societies pass through cycle of growth & decay Concluded that European society entered final stage of existence Arnold J. Toynbee published A Study of History- describes development of 26 societies Karl Barth, a Christian theologian, published epistle to the Romans- attacked idea of progress Reminded people that Christ couldnt forever improve the world Russian Niokolai Berdiaev said mans historical experience was failure, and it wont improve Great War destroyed belief of human progress- scientists originally wanted to lead humanity to a beneficial conquest of nature, then made poisonous gas during the war Democracy originally rose after the Great War, then thought of as a weak political system Many thought that it championed the tyranny of the average person- began to like elite rule Common people also disliked democracy- led to corrupt part politics Spanish philosopher Jose Ortega y Gassets Revolt of the Masses warned about democracy

B: Revolutions in Physics and Psychology Einsteins theory of special relativity- no single spatial/chronological framework in universe No longer spoke of space & time of absolutes- always varies with the motion of the observer Common sense universe had vanished- new scientific theories

Werner Heisenbergs About the Quantum-Theoretical Reinterpretation of Kinetic and Mechanical Relationships: established the uncertainty principle- said that the velocity and position of a subatomic particle can never be knowncant observe electrons Theory questioned notions of truth & violated fundamental law of cause & effect Objectivity no longer valid b/c observer was always part of the process under observation Sigmund Freud, doctor from Vienna, focused on psychological explanations of the mind Identified conflict between conscious and unconscious mental processes Dreams held the key to the deepest recesses of the human psyche Sexual drives & fantasies are most important source of repression (painful memories away) Oedipus complex- male children develop erotic attachment to mother & hostility to father Said his theory psychoanalysis, provided the keys to understanding all human behavior In 1920s, novelists, poets, painters acknowledged Freuds influence- focused on sxuality

C: Experimentation in Art and Architecture Photography became widespread- naturalistic landscapes, portraits, etc. Now, purpose of painting was to create reality, not mirror it (b/c cameras could do that) Many new pictorial schools- called themselves les fauves (wild beasts), expressionists, etc. All agreed to abolish the sovereignty of appearance- wanted to create new ideas, shapes French impressionist Edgar Degas experimented w/ visual angles & asymmetrical compositions after viewing 19th century Japanese prints Japanese painters focused on the flat, 2-dimmensional surface of the picture, placing figures off center, using primary colorsencouraged Europeans artists to take similar liberties! Postimpressionist Paul Gauguin inspired by the primitive painting in central America, Tahiti Said it held a sense of wonder that civilized people no longer possessed In Germany, group of young artists called the Bridge frequently viewed ethnographic museum to be inspired by the boldness & power of indigenous art Works of Pablo Picasso, leading proponent of cubism, displayed the influence of African art Generally accepted standards b/t good & bad art disappeared New, modern architecture began with the Bauhaus- brought together designers, architects + Located first in Weimar & then Dessau, Germany, Bauhaus = community of innovators Focused on a building style & interior designs that were suited for urban/indust. Landscape 1st director of the Bauhaus was Walter Gropius- theory of design = principle of architecture Gropius said design was functional, based on a marriage b/t engineering and art Designed buildings w/ simplicity of shape and used lots of glass 2nd director, Ludwig Mies von der Rohe- experimented w/ steel- led to city skyscrapers Bauhaus style prevailed after 1930 b/c its functionalism was suited for large apt. building Swiss-French architect Le Corbusier, under direction of Indias 1st prime minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, laid out the new capital city of Punjab, Chandigarh- built 3 buildings

II: Global Depression In 1929, world plunged into an economic depression Old capitalist system of trade and finance collapsed- world prosperity halted

A: The Great Depression By mid-1920s, economic normality returned to prewar conditions- industrial productivity This prosperity was fragile- still many serious international economic problems Europe as tied in a tangled financial system- war debts, reparations by Germany, U.S. funds... Govts of Austria & Germany relied on U.S. loans to finance reparation payments France & Britain used this money to pay back their U.S. loans 1928, U.S. lenders withdrew capital from Europe- then many more problems- reclaimed rubber was allowed (hurt Ceylon, D.E.I., Malaysia), reduced demand for certain raw materials, decrease in prices, use of oil undermined the coal industry, synthetics hurt the cotton industry, and the adoption of artificial nitrogen ruined the Chilean nitrate industry Overproduction hurt the agriculture industry- led to lower prices (wheat cheapest 400 yrs) After war, U.S. economy was great, but October 1929, hints of worldwide economic slow down caused U.S. investors to pull out of market- Black Thursday, 10/24, stocks plummeted Life savings lost, 11 people committed suicide by end of that day, more loans needed Drastic decreases in business activity, wages, & employment By 1932, industrial production fell to half of its 1929 level, national income dropped by half 44% of U.S. banks were out of business, deposits of millions of people disappeared Most of the world depended on U.S. economy- U.S. downfall really shook the whole world Nations that relied on exports of manufactured goods suffered the most (Germany & Japan) Countries that produced agricultural goods (coffee, sugar, cotton, rubber, ores) also hurt Wall Street banks refused to extend loans- caused Germany to have 35% unemployment and a 50% decreases in industrial productioncaused the rest of Europe to suffer Germany still a leading economic power- since no war in Germany, no physical destruction Since Japan depended on U.S. economy greatly, they felt effects of depression immediately Govts began to take over the economy- tariff barriers, import quotas, import prohibitions Practiced economic nationalism- wanted a self sufficient economy (angered other countries) Smoot-Hawley Tariff- raised duties on most manufactured goods- other nations imposed tariffs on imports of U.S. productssharp drop in international trade World production declined by 38% & trade dropped by more than 66%

B: Despair and Government Action 1933- unemployment in industrial societies reached 30 million (5x higher than 1929) Men lost jobs b/c of economic contraction, women b/c of economic trends & govt policies Unemployment initially affected men more b/c employers could pay women less Said that married women shouldnt work- govt forced their unemployment Charles Richet insisted that removing women would solve problem of male unemployment Shantytowns & breadlines appeared, marriage, birth, divorce rates down, suicide rates up Workers & farmers suffered the most- wealthy still able to live a comfortable lifestyle John Steinbecks The Grapes of Wrath described Great Depression situation U.S. govt policy of planned scarcity-destroyed surplus crops to raise prices (some starved)

C: Economic Experimentation Initially, most govts did nothing in response to crisis- hoped problem would solve itself

Some then tried to pursue deflationary measures- either way, capitalism was dying John Maynard Keynes- most influential economist of the 20thC- proposed answers The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money- said cause of depression was inadequate demand, urged govts to increase the money supply & public works projects Keyness theories did not become influential until after WWII Franklin Delano Roosevelts administration applied similar ideas- tried to reinflate economy Wanted to prevent collapse of bank, provide jobs, guarantee minimum wage, social security This program of reforms was called the New Deal- fed govt could intervene to help Started a trend toward social reform legislation in U.S. govt

III: Challenges to the Liberal Order Marxists said capitalism was dying & proletariat was going to rule Rulers of Russia, Vladimir Ilyich Lenin & Joseph Stalin, made Russia the first socialist society (Union of Soviet socialist Republics) Fascist movements promoted their alternatives to socialism- Italian & German ones popular

A: Communism in Russia Lenin had to defend the worlds 1st dictatorship of the proletariat against socialists & more Bolshevik Party called itself the Russian Communist Party had a lot of opposition Based in its capital at Moscow, they defeated al opposition Red Terror campaign- anticommunists known as Whites were arrested and executed Secret police killed 200,000, including Tsar Nicholas II, fearing he would become a White Peasants support the Bolsheviks, fearing that victory by Whites would return the monarchy Former Russian allies supported the Whites- sent supplied and troops to help them Whites were defeated by the Red Army in 1920- civil war resulted in 10 million deaths More people died from disease and starvation than from fighting New rulers embarked on a course of nationalization, a policy known as war communism Bolshevik govt abolished private property and took control of banks, industry, etc.0 Bolsheviks took control of churches & more- didnt take control of holdings of poor peasants Abolished private trade, took crops from peasants to feed ppl in the city, so produced less By 1920 industrial production fell to about 1/10th of prewar level & agricultural output Lenin faced country w/ destroyed factories, demobilized soldiers faster than could get jobs... Lenin tried to crush workers strikes & peasant rebellions, but knew he had to make peace with those who could help build up the economy- faced economic paralysis Decided on a reversal of war communism- New Economic Policy (NEP) temporarily restored the market economy and some private enterprise in Russia Allowed industries w/ fewer than 20 workers to have private ownership Peasants could sell their surpluses at free market prices, school to train engineers & techs Lenin suffered 3 paralytic strokes and died- didnt see success of NEP Bolsheviks wanted permanent revolution- said socialism would fail if not international stage Members of the Politburo, governing body of Communist Party, favored socialism in one country alone, thus repudiating the role of the Bolsheviks as leader of worldwide socialism Joseph Stalin, served as general secretary, promoted idea of socialism in one country Stalin meant man of steel- wanted to gain power & eventually became dictator

Replaced Lenins NEP w/ a plan for rapid economic development called First Five-Year Plan Aim was to transform Soviet Union from agricultural country to an industrial country Emphasized heavy steel and machinery industry, even at the expense of consumer goods Through Gosplan, the central state planning agency, Stalin tried to coordinate labor forces Stalins maximum centralization of national economy was opposite of capitalism Told people We are 50 to 100 yrs behind advanced countries- we shall do it or go under Collectivization of agriculture- created collective farm units, profits shared by all farmers Communism demanded abolition of private property & market choices Stalin said collectivization would increase efficiency of agricultural production Enforced most ruthlessly against the kulaks- wealthy peasants during NEP (3-5% of ppl) Outraged peasants reacted by slaughtering their livestock & burning their crops Millions of farmers left their land and fled to cities for work, making the situation worse The First Five-Year Plan set unrealistically high production targets, but the govt proclaimed success after only four years Before industrial plants that produced consumer products were made, industrial plants that made steel & hydroelectric plants were producedstill, Stalin had success Scarcity of consumer goods was balanced by full employment, low-cost utilities, cheap food Communist Party declared itself the Congress of Victors, then became Congress of Victims Stalin incited civil war within the party, which was made up of many treasonous Bolshevik elites- 2/3 of the delegates were purged from the congress Stalin removed all people suspected of opposition- high-ranking army officers, govt officials Placed them in labor camps- by 1939, 8 million Soviets in the camps, 3 million dead Stalin termed this process cleansing Establishment of the first dictatorship of proletariat proved viability of communism

B: The Fascist Alternative Fascism sought to create a new type of society- developed as reaction to communism Fascism derives from the fasces, an ancient Roman symbol of punitive authority consisting of a bundle of wooden rods strapped together around an axe Benito Mussolini adopted this symbol for the Italian Fascist movement Fascism developed in Germany in the guise of National Socialism (Nazism) Fascism was popular but rarely threatened political order- only overthrew a parliamentary system in Italy and Germany- Fascism spread, but never reproduced the intensity of Europe Fascism proved attractive to middle classes & rural populations who feared class conflict Also attractive to nationalists who said govts failed to recognize them for the war efforts Fascist groups devoted themselves to the revival of lost national traditions Most believed in veneration of the state, devotion to strong leader, emphasis on ethnocentrism, militarism, and ultranationalism Fascists dislike democrats and the idea of individualism- viewed it as weak & decadent Emphasized chauvinism (form of nationalism) and xenophobia (fear of foreign people) Fascist leaders viewed national boundaries as restraints limiting union of ethnic people

C: Italian Fascism

Disillusionment w/ uninspired political leadership & effective govt, economic turmoil, social discontent, and fear of socialism helped the fascist movement in Italy Benito Mussolini, former editor of Italys leading socialist daily Avanti! (Forward) and creator of paper Il Popolo dItalia (The People of Italy) led the fascist movement Thought the war was a turning point- said soldiers would create a new type of society In 1919 he established the Fasci Italiani di Combattimento (Italian Combat Veteran League) In 1921 he managed to elect 35 fascists to the Italian parliament Eliminated socialists by fascist armed squads known as Blackshirts Eventually Italy was in a civil war, and Mussolini and the fascists went to attack Rome King Victor Emmanuel III asked Mussolini to become new prime minister & form new govt Eventually Mussolini became dictator and ruled as Il Duce (the leader) Curbed freedoms, outlawed other political parties- exiled & imprisoned antifascists Mussolini crushed labor unions & prohibited labor strikes & tried to make corporatist order Corporatism- different interests in society came under the control of the state Created National Council of Corporations- but this was little more than a propaganda effort In 1932, said that 20thC will be a century of fascism & Italian power In 1938, issued anti-Semitic laws- excluded Jews from govt, said they were unpatriotic Mussolini was friends with Hitler- said world would revolve around Rome-Berlin Axis Italy & Germany signed a ten-year Pact of Steelboth countries had strong links of fascism

D: German National Socialism Hitler became chairman of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi movement) Attempted to overthrow the democratic Weimar Republic, which took over after WWI Hitler was jailed and then released- launched movement on a path of legality Hitler attracted many supporters who felt alienated from society & frightened by revolution Hitler promised to end the theory that young Germans caused all war problems Nazis were anti-Semetic, appealed to all classes, but mainly the lower-middle class Previous democratic party was not popular- corrupt and ineffective Paul von Hindenburg, president of Nazi Party, gave Hitler command Hitler promised a German Reich (empire)- began to gain power- outlawed all other political parties, eliminated liberal opposition and the working-class- only National Socialist Party Eliminated trade unions and collective bargaining, prohibited strikes, took control of police Nazis wanted more racially valuable children- prohibited abortion & birth control, encouraged marriage, used pronatalist (to increase births) propaganda Cult of motherhood- on 8/12, Hitlers moms b-day, women who bore many children received the Honor Cross of the German Mother (bronze, silver, or gold medal) This award was often called the rabbit decoration However, Nazis failed to increase birth rates- still remained below replacement level In 1933, began sterilizing people w/ hereditary sicknesses- schizophrenia, feeblemindedness, etc.- more than 30K sterilized in 5 years In 1935, began killing people that were deemed useless to society, especially the handicapped- total of 200K killed for this reason Began killing Jews because of 19th century racial theories- laws discriminated against Jews

1935- Nuremberg Laws deprived German Jews of citizenship & prohibited marriage and intercourse b/t Jews & other Germans Nazi party worked w/ govt agencies, banks, etc., to eliminate Jews from economic life Jewish doctors lost their gentile (non-Jewish clients), Jewish-owned businesses supervised Kristallnacht (the night of the broken glass)- Jewish storefronts broken, many fled Germany This pogrom (devastation) signaled that the position of Jews was about to deteriorate Approximately 250K Jews left Germany by 1938