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ISBN 5-02-025028-7
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).
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, ,

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: ..-.., . ..

c


ISBN 5-02-025028-7

.. , 2003 .


1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3
1.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5 .

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10
10
11
14
15
17

2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4 . . . . . .
2.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.2 . . . . . . . . . .
2.5 : . . . . . .

20
20
24
31
32
33
35
38

3.1 .
3.1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.2 . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.3 .
3.2 . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3 . . . . . . .

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41
41
41
44
45
50
51

4.1 . . . . . .
4.1.1 . . . . . . . . .
4.1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

55
55
56
58

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4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3 . . . . . . .
5
5.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.1 . . . . . . . . .
5.1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.3 . . . . . . . . . .
5.2 . . . . . . . . .
5.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.2
5.3.3 .
5.3.4 .
5.4 . .
6
6.1 ? . . . .
6.2 . . . . . . . . .
6.3
(OGY-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4
( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.5

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76
76
78
80
86
92
101
101
102
105
108
110

115
. . . . . 116
. . . . . 120
. . . . . 123
. . . . . 127
. . . . . 129

7

7.1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3

65
68

135
135
140
144


8.1 .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2 - .
8.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

152
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152
154
157
159

9
161
9.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
9.2 . . . . . . . . 167
9.3 168
9.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
9.3.2 . . . . . . . 174
9.3.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
9.4 . . . . 180
9.4.1 180
9.4.2 . 184
9.4.3
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
9.4.4 -
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
9.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
10 .

191
193

, ,
, .
.

,
.
, , ,
1990-

,
.

, .
: ,
,
. , ,
.
.
.
,
, ,
, , .
; , , . 7

,
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, ,
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.

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, , .
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, .
, , .
,
, 1998-2003
. 28 , , , , (-), , , , , , , , -, , , ;
(), (), (), CESAME (), INRIA
(), SUPELEC (), RIKEN (); CNRS ().
.


.
8

( 99-01-00672, 02-01-00765), 19 ( 1.4.


- ),
( -2257.2003.1). ,
19992000 .
, , .. ,
.. , .. , .. , .. , .. , .. , . , .. , .. , .. , .. , , ,
.. , , .. ,
, .. , .

.
.

-,
2003 .

1
1.1

,

. ,
: , , .
: 1948 . [21]. .

, .
, ( )
, .
, ,
, .
,
. , : ( ,
) (descriptive) ,
( ) , . ,
(prescriptive) [110]. , , .
,
, . ,
10

. ,
.
,
1990- : .
1.2
. 1990
. 1990 .
,
, . , . .
[192]. : (Science Citation Index),
1990- 300
, 3000 (.1.1, ). [192]
, , ( ) ,
: , . [192]
,
, , , ( )
. 1 [192] OGY
,
[192] 2002 . 1300.
1

, [192] [2, 3],


, .

[33]. ,
[2, 33] ,
, , .

11

. 1.1.

() ; () ( Science
Citation Index)

, . ,
.
, , , ,
. , : ( ) ( , ) : ,
,
. . ,
,
. ,
12


, .
[6, 140].

, () [82, 127].

:
, ,
,
. , (. 1.2).

(. 1.1, ).

. 1.2.

(Physical Review A,B,C,D,E; Physical Review Letters),


control .

13

1.3

,
. , . ,
1871 . , , .
,
, .

.
.
. ,
. , . ,
[174]. . ,
. , , [20, 40, 120].
, -
[91, 179].
1980- 1990- ,
.
() (1 = 1015 ).
,
. ,
, .
14

, , .
1.4

,
1990- . , , , :
.
, , .
: ()
(control parameter).
- , , . .
, .
, ,
. ,
,
: u(t) = const .
,
: u = u(t). , , ,
: [15],
.
. , , ,
15

[6, 69].
,
.
[95, 181],

( ).
, ( )
, .
u = const u = u(t)
,
, .
u = U(x) u = U(x, t), ( ) x = x(t).
,
.

.
. ,
, , . , ,
, ,
.

. , , ,
, ,
16

, . , , , .
, , ,
, - ,
. , ,
, ! ,
, ,
.
1.5
, , ,
. , ,
, . -,
().
( ).

(). ,

() , . .
. . ,
, [36]. .
.
, ,
17

. , , , ,
. , , . , :
, . ,
,
. [16, 36, 71].

.
( ), , , .
, , .
, ,
. , , .
, , () .
, .
, , . .
.

, ,
.
, , 18

, ,
, , . ,
. ,
,
control.
, ,
control , (, control theory
, control system ..).
,
.

(. . .. ,
1970- : -, ,
[74]).
, ,
: 29.01.77 . , -, .
, , .
;
,
.

.
19

, (
) ,
. ,
,
. , ,
, , , .
.
2.1
( )
. ,
.
, ,
. . ,
:
= F(x, u),
x

(2.1)

= d/dt
x = x(t) n- 1 ; x
x(t); u = u(t) m-
: x Rn
n- (); x = col(x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) - x1 , x2 , . . ., xn ; |x| = (x12 + x22 + . . . + xn2 )1/2 x Rn ;
1

20

( ).
x1 , . . . , xn , u1 , . . . , um . ,
(2.1) ,

dxi
= Fi (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn , u1 , u2 , . . . , um ), i = 1, 2, . . . , m
dt

(2.2)

, , ,
( ) . , (2.1) x(0) = x
F(x, u) ,
(2.1)
t = 0,
, .
, (2.1)
.
A. . (, ,
. .). , ()

J
+ 
+ mgl sin = u,

(2.3)

= (t) ( ); u = u(t) ( ); J, m, l, g,  ( ,
, , , ).
(2.3) (2.1), x = (,
)T .
X , X T ( ,
X -, X T -); In n n ;
 , ;
.

21

B. . ,
, u(t) = p p0 , p0 p. , ,
. (2.3)
J
+ 
+ mg(l0 + u(t)) sin = 0,

(2.4)

l0 .

.
, ,
(2.1).
, , .
, ,

( )
.
, (time-varying) :
= F(x, u, t).
x

(2.5)

, , (2.1),
:
= f(x) + g(x)u.
x

(2.6)

( ). l y1 , . . . , yn , . , l- -
y = h(x).
22

(2.7)

, , y = x. y = h(x, u) , .
. , (2.3) H = 0.5J(
)2+
mgl(1 cos ). , h(x),
. , , ,
. . y = x.
, (2.7) ,
. , ,
, , , . .
, .
,

( ). , , ,
.
, .

xk+1 = Fk (xk , uk ), yk = h(xk ),

(2.8)

xk Rn , uk Rm , yk Rl , ,
k- , k = 0, 1, 2, . . . , .
23

Fk . , ,
tk . xk = x(tk ), uk = u(tk ),
yk = y(tk ). , , [6, 7].

, , . .

.
2.2

.
().
, . x(t) y(t) x
(, y ).

lim x(t) = x

(2.9)

lim y(t) = y .

(2.10)

(2.9)
(2.10), ,
lim |x(t) x |

(2.11)

lim |y(t) y | ,

(2.12)

24

() .
lim M|x(t) x |
(2.13)
t

lim M|y(t) y | ,

(2.14)

M ().
(2.9)(2.14) , x .
. , x
. x .
. x(t)
x (t), . .
lim [x(t) x (t)] = 0,
(2.15)
t

y(t) y (t):
lim [y(t) y (t)] = 0.

(2.16)

y (t)
. x (t) ( y (t))
.
, , ,
. , , (2.15) (2.16), .

() , x (t)
T - (u(t) = 0) (2.1)
x (0) = x0 , . . x (t + T ) = x (t)
t 0.
25

(, , ) . ,

,
, ,
, . , , , , ,
.
, ,
, ,
.
, , , x (t)
.
G(x),
lim G(x(t)) = G

(2.17)


limtG(x(t)) G .

(2.18)

H(x).
.
,
. , , .
, ( ). ,
(). ,
( ) .
26

() XVII- . ,
. XX- .. [14, 15]. , [14, 15, 50, 53].
[136, 140, 187, 196], [10, 59].
[75, 102, 103] , . . 5.
, , .
, ,
.
,
.

.
, ,
. x1 Rn x2 Rn
,
x1 (t) = x2 (t), t 0.

(2.19)

(2.19)
(). , ,
,
.
, t , 27

. ( u = 0)
, , ,
, .
. , , ( )
:
lim [x1 (t) x2 (t)] = 0.

(2.20)

(2.20) x(t) = {x1 (t), x2 (t)}


. (2.15), (2.16), (2.17), (2.19) (2.20)
Q(x, t)
lim Q(x(t), t) = 0.

(2.21)

, (2.20) (2.21), Q(x) = |x1 x2 |2 .


, Q(x, t) =
[x x (t)]T [x x (t)], .
.
() .
, :
(, );
(, ;
, . .);
;
28

() (, , ,
. .).
1980- [86, 231],
,
. . , . . [192]
,
. (). , ,
. ,
. ,
, [116, 140].
, , () ,
. . ,
,
.
,
. ,

, [109, 143] .
,
,
. ,
, ,
:
, , . .
29

; ,
.
, ,
,
. , ,
.

u() , u() u(), 0
().
,
.
, .
,
x(t) (2.1)
, . . x(0) = x0 .
, ,
. . ,
, , .
,
,
[22].
[61].

30

2.3
,
( ) ,
, , , .
,
, .
,
. ,

.
,
. ,
,
= (2.3), . = ,
u(t) = 0. - =
.
, . ( ) : u = u(t), ,
(program control, open loop control, feedforward
control). ,
, :
u(t) = U(t, x0 ).
(2.22)
,
,
31

.
, u(t)
( ).
(state feedback):
u(t) = U(x(t))
(2.23)
(output feedback):
u(t) = U(y(t)).

(2.24)

:
, .

, , ,
(),
.
:
,
, ( ) ,
, ;

, :
( ) ,
( ).
2.4

. ,
32

, () , .
,
. ,
.
.


, .
[6, 69]
, :
[61, 79, 80].
2.4.1

, , ,
. , ,
xk+1 = F(xk , uk ) (. (2.8)), k = 0, 1, 2, . . .
tk ; xk Rn ( ), uk Rm (), tk .
(2.8) ,
Q = Q(x)
Q(xk+1 ) ,

k > k ,

(2.25)

> 0 .
(2.8)
(2.25). (, 33

Qk (u), ), :
Qk (u) = Q(Fk (xk , u)).

(2.26)

uk , (
) Qk :
uk+1 = uk k uQk (uk ),

(2.27)

u = { u 1 , . . . , um }T , k 0
. : k uk = uk+1 uk Qk (u).
,
. , , (2.25)
(2.8) (2.27) [78, 80]. Qk (u) u,
u = u Qk (u) < k :
Qk (uk ) k = 0. ,
.. 1966 ., . [78, 80]. ,
(2.27), ,
.
, (2.27) xk , .
(),
(2.8)
-:
yk+1 = (yk , . . . , ykn , uk , . . . , ukn+1 ).
34

(2.28)

2.4.2

, .
(2.5) , (2.21), Q(x, t)
.
=
Q
(x, u, t) Qt = Q(x(t), t) (2.5):
(x, u, t) =

T
Q(x, t)
+ [x Q(x, t)] F(x, u, t).
t

(x, u, t)
 T  T

F
u (x, u, t) =
=
xQ(x, t).
u
u
, u(t)
du
= u (x, u, t),
(2.29)
dt
= T > 0 , = diag {1 , . . . , m }, i > 0. (2.29) (), u(t) Qt .
(2.29)
. (2.21) u(t)
Q(x(t), t). Q(x(t), t)
u(t), ( , ). Q
<
Q,
0, , Q(x(t), t).
= (x, u, t) u, Q
(2.29).
35

,
, ,
.

= A(x, t) + B(x, t)u,
x

(2.30)

A(x, t) n-, B(x, t) n m-. (2.30)



= A(x, t) +
x

m


Bi (x, t)ui ,

(2.31)

i=1

ui u Rm ; Bi (x, t) Rn B(x, t).


:
1
T
Q(x, t) = [y y (t)] P[y y (t)],
2

(2.32)

y = G(x, t) Rl ; y (t) Rl ( ); G(x, t) -, P


- l l-.
Q(x(t), t)
T

(x, u, t) = [y y (t)] P[CA(x, t) + CB(x, t)u y (t)],

(2.33)

C = C(x, t) = G(x, t)/x,


,
T

u (x, u, t) = B(x, t) C P[y y (t)],

(2.34)

du
T T
= B(x, t) C P[y y (t)].
(2.35)
dt
( =
= diag {i }) ( = I) (i , ). (2.35) B(x, t) = const C(x, t) = const
36

.
. :
u(t) = u0 u (x(t), u(t), t),

(2.36)

u0 () ( u0 = 0).
:
u(t) = u0 (x(t), u(t), t),

(2.37)

> 0 ( ),
- (x, u, t)
T
(x, u, t) u (x, u, t) 0.
(2.38)
(2.37) .
u(t) = u0 sign u (x(t), u(t), t),

(2.39)

(sign) :
x = col (x1 , . . . , xm ) sign x = col (sign x1 , . . . , sign xm ).
. [61,
78, 80]. : (x, u, t) u
u ,
(x, u , t) 0 x ( ). .
, . 3.
V (x) , .
37


. ,
, , .. . , - ,
:
V (x) = Q(x). - V (x, u) = Q(x) + 0.5(u u )T 1 (u u ), u () . : V (u) = |u u |2 .
2.5 :

, ,
.
, , .
, , , , . .
. .
( ) , :
? [220, 221] (.
. 3.1) :


.

(. . 3.2). , ,
38


.
,

(/)2 .
[27, 140, 166, 192, 199, 219]. , ,
[192] ( ), :


.
, , , ( ),
.
.
. .
.
.
, ,
. , .
39

, , .
( )
, ,
. ,
.
, : , [7]. : ,
, . ,
.
: .
, .

40

,
,
. .

. ,
() .
3.1
3.1.1

.
,
. . () ,
. ,
.
,
. :
. . 41


.
, , ..
.
(.. ) .

( ) .
, ,
. :
i =
q

H(q, p, u)
,
pi

pi =

H(q, p, u)
, i = 1, . . . , n,
qi

(3.1)

n ; q = col(q1 , . . . , qn ), p = col(p1 , . . . , pn )
, x = col(q, p); H = H(q, p, u) ; u(t) Rm (
). , H(q, p, u) =
H(x, u) . (3.1) :

= p H(q, p, u),
q
(3.2)
p = q H(q, p, u).
H
() , ..

lim H0 (q(t), p(t)) = H ,


(3.3)
t

H0 (q, p) = H(q, p, 0) ,

q = p H0 (q, p),
(3.4)
p = q H0 (q, p).
42


1
Q(x) = (H0 (q, p) H )2 ,
2
x = col(q, p). (3.3)
lim Q(x(t)) = 0.

(3.5)

(3.6)

,
:
H(q, p, u) = H0 (q, p) + H1 (q, p)T u,
H0 (q, p) ; H1 (q, p) m-
.
3.1.
p2
H0 (q, p) =
+ mgl(1 cos q),
(3.7)
2J
q(t) R1 ; p ; J
, m , l ; g
. , ,
:

q = J 1 p,
(3.8)
p = sin q + u(t),
u(t) . (3.8) , p = J
q,
H1 (q, p) = q. (3.3)

H = 0,


H
q = arccos 1
mgl
0 < H < 2mgl
H > 2mgl. H = 2mgl . ,
,
. 
43

3.1.2
(.
. 2.4.2).
, f(q, p) g(q, p)

n 

f g
f g
{f, g} =

.
q
p
p
q
i
i
i
i
i=1
f, g - l, m, ,

l m:
 T
 T 
n 

f g
f g
.

{f, g} =
q
p
p
q
i
i
i
i
i=1
, f , g m- -,
{f, g} m- - ().



H
H
0
0
= (H0 H )
Q
(3.9)
q +
p = (H0 H ){H0 , H1 }u,
q
p
= (H H ){H0 , H1 }T .
u: uQ
, :
u = (H0 H ){H0 , H1 }T ,


u = sign (H0 H ){H0 , H1 }T ,

(3.10)
(3.11)

> 0 .
,


u = (H0 H ){H0 , H1 }T
(3.12)

44

- Rm , (z)T z > 0 z Rm , z = 0 (
).
3.1. (z) ( ,
(3.11), , , ..
.
,
(. [6]). ,

. 
3.1 ().
(3.10), (3.11) (3.8) :
= (H0 H )
u
q,


q .
u = sign (H0 H )
3.1.3

(3.13)
(3.14)


. (3.3).
3.1 [61, 125, 140].
H0 ,H1 0 = {x : Q(x) Q0 }
Q0 > 0, (z) (3.12)
(z)T z > 0 z Rm , z = 0.
(3.12) (3.2)
x(0) 0 u(t) 0 t , , : x(t)
(3.3), {H0 , H1 }(x(t)) 0
t .
45

.
A1. c = H > 0 ,

D,c = {x : |{H0 (x), H1 (x)}| , |H0 (x) c| } 0
.
A2. M D0
(. . (3.4), D0 ), D0 = {x : {H0 (x), H1 (x)} = 0} 0

.
(3.2), (3.12)
(3.3), D0 ,
(3.4). , , (3.2), (3.12) ,
.
3.1. D0 A2 , . .
{H0 , H1 }(x) = 0 x 0 , x(0) 0 .
[61], Q(x).
3.1
[61, 140]. .
3.1. Qt = (H0 (p(t), q(t)) H )2 /2 (3.2), (3.12)

t = (z(t))T z(t),
Q
(3.15)
t 0
z(t) = [H0 (x(t)), H1 (x(t))]T (H0 (x(t)) H ). , Q
Qt , .. Qt Q0 . ,
0 . (3.2), (3.12) , x(t)
t 0. ,
limt Qt = Q limt H0 (x(t)) = H . H = H ,
. , H = H . ,
46

t , Q
t x(t) 0 .
z(t), (z(t)), Q
.
3.1 ( ) [140]. = f(x, t), x Rn , t 0 x
V (x, t) w(x, t) , V (x, t)
w(x, t) 0 t t0 , x Rn , V (x, t) = V
f(x, t).
x
, V (x, t)
f(x, t), w(x, t) x
w/t.
Vt =V (x(t), t) [t0 , )
lim w(x(t), t) = 0.

(3.16)

, , V (x, t) w1 (|x|)
w1 (r) , w1 (r) r , x(t)
.
t 0.
, , Q
,
u(t) 0 z(t) 0 t . , ,
H = H , [H0 , H1 ](x(t)) 0.
.
> 0 A1 c = H . A1, t > 0 x(t) D,H .
x(t) x(t)
[H0 , H1 ] = 0, .. x(t) D0 = {x : [H0 , H1 ] = 0} 0 .
- A2, ,
limt x(t) = x D0 x (3.2), (3.12). A , x , Ms , Mu , M0 , x .
[29] , x(t) x x(0) Ms M0 ,
|x(0) x | . x , .. Mu . dim(Ms M0 ) < 2n.
, ,
47

x(0) , x(t) x , 2n.


,
R2n .
3.2. H(q, p, u) = H0 (q, p) + H1 (q, p)T u
1
H0 (q, p) = pT A(q)1 p + (q),
2

H1 (q, p) = q,

(3.17)

q, p n- ; A(q)
; (q) 0
.
p = A(q)
q :
1 T
d
q) q
(A(q)
(A(q)) q + q (q) = u.
dt
2 q

(3.18)


1 T
A(q)
H0 (q, q) = q
q + (q).
2

(3.19)

(0, q), q () (q) (.. (


q) = 0). , (q) . 3.1 ,
0 = {(q, p) : H0 H0 (q, p) H }
( H0 H )
0 = {(q, p) : H H0 (q, p) H0 }
( H0 H ) (q),
(3.3). , A(q) , . . pT A(q)p |p|2
> 0 p Rn , , ,
48


S = {(q, p) : H0 (q, p) = H }. 
3.1 (). (3.8) 3.2 , H0 H , H , ((2k + 1), 0),
k = 1, 2, . . . , (3.3) . 

.
3.2 [61, 140].
, , :

d T
T


=
+
dij (q)
qi +
bij uj ,
dt
qi qi
qi
n

j=1

i = 1, . . . , n,

(3.20)

j=1

i ; dij = dji ;
qi ; q
T = 21 qT A(q)
q ; = (q) . A(q) , det B = 0, B = {bij }, (q), D(q) =
{dij (q)}, A1 (q) , H0 < H
= {(q, q) : H0 H H }, H0 > H
= {(q, q) : H H H0 }, H0 = H(q(0), q(0)). , ,

.

u = (q, q)(H H )BT q

(3.21)


lim H(q(t), q(t)) = H

(3.22)

(3.20), (3.21) 0 < (q, q) , > 0


.
49


() , H = inf (q).
(q) 0, (0) = 0, .
3.2 ( ). (q)
, , q = q = 0.
> 0.
u = BT q
3.3. [220] [222]

. ,
(m < n), ,  (z) .


, [222], u = sign (H H )BT q
(3.22) .
3.2
, . : ? ,
. .
= F(x, u, t) 3.1 [125]. x

lim Qt = g,

g G R1 ,

(3.23)

> 0 g G
u(t) = Ug, {x(s), 0 s t} ,

(3.24)

, |u(t)| < (3.23) .


(3.24)
50

G. 
3.1 , , A1, A2, (3.3) ,
(q)
, . . H > sup q (q),
(q), 0 .
, 0
. ,
, .
A1, A2 3.1 , , , 3.1
:
,

.
3.3
, . ( ) [61, 135].
k Gi (q, p), i = 1, . . . , k, . .
{H0 , Gi } 0, i = 1, . . . , k,
lim Gi (p(t), q(t)) = Gi ,

i = 1, . . . , k,

(3.25)

Gi .
Q(q, p) =

1
(G(q, p) G )T R (G(q, p) G ) ,
2
51

(3.26)

G(q, p) = col {G1 (q, p), . . . , Gk (q, p)}; G = col {G1 , . . . , Gk }, R = RT > 0 k k . ,
(3.25), (3.26), :

u = H, Q = H, G R (G(q, p) G ) .
(3.27)
H - , Hj , j = 1, . . . , m, . .
{H, Q} - {Hj , Q}, {H, G}
- m k
{Hj , Gi }.
(3.27) V (q, p) H(q, p): V = {H,V }.




u = H, Q ,
(3.28)
(y) - (z)T z > 0 z = 0.
(3.27)
(3.28) , Hi , Gi ,
s

S(q, p) = span adH0 H, G , s = 0, 1, . . . ,


adsH :
ad0H G = G,

ad1H G = {H, G},

s
ads+1
H G = {H, adH G} .


q = p H0 (q, p) +

m


p Hj uj ,

j=1

p = q H0 (q, p)

m

j=1

52

(3.29)
q Hj uj .

3.3 [135, 221]. Hj ,


Hj


0 = (q, p) : Q(q, p) Q0
Q0 > 0. Gi , i = 1, . . . , k,
(3.4). , > 0 ,


D = 0 {(q, p) : det AT A } ,
A = {H, G} , ( ):
dim S(q, p) = k
(3.30)
(q, p) 0 , G(q, p) = G .
(3.25) (3.29), (3.28), 0 .
3.4. ,
= {(q, p) : Gi (q, p) = Gi , i = 1, . . . , k}
, (3.30) . k = 1 G1 = H0 ,
, {H0 , H1 } = 0 (q, p) 0 ,
H0 (q, p) = H . 
(3.30) ,
.
3.5. (3.30)
, , , .1, (3.25)
,
0 . 
3.6. 0 (, Q : Q(q, p)
53

|p| + |q| ), D . 
,
3.3 :

,
.

54

.
.
. - .
4.1

,
, (, , ).
(3.1), ,
i =
q

H(q, p, u)
,
pi

pi =

H(q, p, u)
Ri (q, p), i = 1, . . . , n, (4.1)
qi

q = col(q1 , . . . , qn ), p = col(p1 , . . . , pn )
,
x = col(q, p); H = H(q, p, u)
; u(t) Rm ( );
R(q, p) = col(R1 (q, p), . . . , Rn (q, p)) ,
T

R(q, p)

H0 (q, p)
0,
p

(4.2)

H0 (q, p) = H(q, p, 0) .
(4.2) :
0 0.
H
, ,
, .
55


. . ( ),
.
,

.
4.1.1


,
= F(x, u), y = h(x),
x

(4.3)

x, u, y , , .
, () u(t), 0 t <
U. 1972 . . [233],
.
4.1. w(x, u)
, t 0,
x(0) = x0 u() U
t
|w (x(s), u(s)) |ds < +, x(t) (4.3). 0

(4.3) w(x, u),


V (x) ,
t 0 x(t) (4.3)
u() U
t
V (x(t)) V (x(0)) +

w(x(s), u(s))ds.
0

56

(4.4)

w (4.3) (supply
rate function), V
(storage function), (4.4)
(dissipation inequality). 
.
(4.3)
) , (dim U =
dim Y = m)
T
T
w(x, u) = y u = h(x) u;
) , dim U = dim Y = m
w(x, u) = yT u (x),
(x) > 0 x = 0. (,
).
V (x) ,
, , (x) . ,
(4.4) . , ,
t
T
V (x(t)) = V (x(0)) + (y(s) u(s) (x(s)))ds,
(4.5)
0

(x) 0 (dissipation
rate).
,
, . , H(q, p, u) = H0 (q, p) + H1 (q, p)u
: V (x) = H0 (q, p).
:
0 = {H0 , H1 }u R(q, p)T H0 .
H
p
T

(x) = R(q, p) (H0 /p) 0, , (4.5) y = {H0 , H1 }, , 57

, , y = {H0 , H1 },
H1 ( u = 0) (4.3). , (3.18) , .
[189, 190, 191, 217].
. . , , x =
0 (4.3) u = 0 (. . F(0, 0) = 0), V (x) (V (x) > 0
x = 0 ), (u = 0) ,
. , ,
V (x). (4.4) (4.5)
u = 0,
. ,
().
4.1.2


.
, .
V (x),
, . . .
V (x(t)) . ,
V (x) .
()
58

.
V (x),
, .. t . , t
(.. .4.1,
u = sign
), .
.
4.2. u(t), 0 t < ,
x(t) .
(4.3)
V (x) V+ (), V (),
0 < :
V+ () = lim sup V (x(t)),

(4.6)

V () = lim sup V (x(t)).

(4.7)

|u()|
x(0)=0

|u()|
x(0)=0


+
y (),

y () y = h(x). ,
, u = col{u1 , . . . , um } = {1 , . . . , m }

. 4.1.

J
+ 
+ mgl sin = u u = sign
.

59

. m l
+
y (), y () l m-,
m . i j . , x(t)
,
.
,
.
, (4.28)
, () ,
.

.
4.1. (4.3) ,
V (x) (x)
0 |y|2 V (x) 1 |y|2 + d,
(4.8)
0 |y|2 (x) 1 |y|2

(4.9)

0 , 1 , 0 , 1 , d.

 2 

= x : h(x) = 0, V (x) < 0


1
= F(x, 0).
x
V+ (), V ()
V (x)
 2
 2

0
V () V+ () m1
+ d,
(4.10)
1
0

+
y (), y () y

+
1/2
0 y () y () (m1 )
+ d.
(4.11)
1
0
60


u(t) = sign y(t).

(4.12)

4.1.
(4.5) t (4.9),
yT u 0 |y|2
yT u 1 |y|2 V

(4.13)

(4.13) u(t) =
sign y(t). |y| yT sign y m|y|
(4.8),

 




V
V d
|y|
m 0
V
.
(4.14)
|y| 1
0
1
, x(t)
, , .
Vt = V (x(t)), ,
x(t)

 2 
 2  

V (x) d

V (x) < 0
>m
,
(4.15)
1
1
0
, h(x(t)) t .
, x x(t), h(x ) = 0.
x

,




2
+ = x : h(x) = 0, V (x) > m1 0 +d , (4.8) , V (x) d y = 0.
x(t)

 2 
 2  

V (x) d

V (x) > 0
<m
,
,
(4.16)
1
1
0
. . t 0
 2
 2

Vt m1
+ d.
(4.17)
0
1
0
61

,
(4.14) V u = sign y,
|ui (t)|, i = 1, ..., m, t 0, |ui (t)| t 0.
, (4.14)
t (4.17) .
t, (4.10), (4.11).
4.1. (4.9)
0 |y| (x) 1 |y|,

(4.18)

, :
> 1 , < 0
(. . ). 
4.2. (4.12), ,
,
: ,
. (4.12) .
, (4.6),(4.7)
> 0 [84]. 

, . V (x)
. H(x) =
1 T
A(q)
q + (q), q , y = q
q
2
), x = (q, q), A(q) , (q) . ,
, y = q. H(x) = 21 pT A1 (q)p + (q), q , p , x = col(q, p),
, , y = A(q)p, .. . 62

(4.8) A(q) ( ),
. (4.9)
, , .
(3.18). E + (), E () :
1

E () =
(),
(4.19)

(4.20)
+ () = lim sup H(q(t), q(t)),
t

|u()|
x(0)=0

() = lim sup H(q(t), q(t)).


t

(4.21)

|u()|
x(0)=0

4.1.
4.2 [130].
0 < 0 i (A(q)) 1 ,
q|2 R(
q)T q 1 |
q|2 ,
0 |
0 (q) d,
i (A(q)) A(q).

 2
 2
0

() + () m1
+ d.
2 1
0

(4.22)

R(
q) = 
q  0,
E ()

C
.


(4.23)

4.3. (4.22) (4.23)



:
63

,

(/)2 .
n = 1, 0 = 1 ,
0 = 1 .
4.1. 3.1,
. 4.2
:
 2
 2

0.5
H
+ 220 .
(4.24)


, (4.24),
u = sign(
).

(4.25)

( ).
,

 2
8
H 2
,

(4.24), 0.5 < 8/2 < 1. 
.
, (4.8) 4.1 .
, , ,
(, , . ).

64

4.2


.
, . ,
.
, , .

, ,
. . -,
,
,
, 1638 ., [23]:
... , , , ,
, ,
.
, , .
. .
. .

+  () = u,

(4.26)

= (t) ; u = u(t) ; () 0 .
65

(4.26) x = col{,
},
1 2
H(,
) = 2
+ (). ( u = 0)
{(,
) : H(,
) = H }. H : , ,
(., ., [46]
() = 20 (1 cos ) ).
: (4.26)
u(t)?
,
() = 21 20 2 , . . ,

+ 20 = u,

(4.27)


u(t) = sin t

(4.28)

= 0
t
, (t) = 2
cos t.
0
.
.
, [35, 46, 62, 64]. , ,
[43, 105].
, ,
.
, . :
, . 66

, u(t) (t), . . .
, ,
. (4.26) ( ) , [4, 81, 124],
(3.13), (3.14), . . , .
(4.26) ()
, . . (4.26)

+ 
+  () = u,

(4.29)

 > 0 . (4.29) ( () = 21 20 2 )
, (4.28) 2 = 20 2 /4.  > 0
(4.28), (4.29)
A=

(1 + O(2 ))
0



H=

1 2 20 2

+
2
2

1
=
2

 2


1 + O(2 ) .


(4.30)

(4.29) (3.13)
(3.14) .
4.2 , (3.14), (4.29) ,
1
H=
2

 2

,


(4.31)

(3.14) , H H.
(4.31)  (4.30), , (3.13) (3.14) (4.29) , (
) ,
67

. (feedback resonance, f-resonance).


, . ( ) . [12], 1937 .,
, , . . . [12]
, .
, ..
, , -, .
,
(
) [1, 41, 184].
, [82, 126, 127, 128]
. (3.13), (3.14), (4.12), ,
.
,
. , , : ... .
. .
4.3

() () .
68

. ,
- ,
[128, 129].
, . ,
, (4.28) ,

() ,
. E ()
.
, (4.12) , -. , [84],
(4.12) E() .

( ) .
,

(t) + 
(t) + 20 sin (t) = u(t)
(4.32)
- (-)
u = sign

(4.33)
. 4.2.
0 = 10.0 c2 ,  = 0.1 c1 , (0) = 0,

(0) = 1010 c1
. , 4.1 ,
20
E() 2 9.0 0, .
4.2. . 4.3

[75]. , . E()
, 69

, . . E() .

(t) . 4.4.

.
:

1 + 1
1 + 21 sin 1 + k(1 2 ) = u(t),
2 + 22 sin 2 + k(2 1 ) = 0,

2 + 2

(4.34)

k > 0 .
:
H=



k 2
1 2

1 +
1 + 22 .
22 + 21 (1 cos 1 ) + 22 (1 cos 2 ) +
2
2

, (4.33):
u = sign
1.

(4.35)

k = 0 2 (0) =
2 (0) = 0 E() , (.
4.2). k
(4.34) , E().
k = 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 5.0 . 4.5,
4.7, 4.9, 4.11. . 4.6, 4.8, 4.10, 4.12
1 (t),
2 (t). 1 (0) = 2 (0) = 0,
10
1

1 (0) = 10
c ,
2 (0) = 0 c1 ,
1 = 2 = 0.1 c1 , 21 = 22 = 10 c2 . E()
500 . 500
0.05 .
, k E() ,
. E()
( )
70

. E() , .
.
, () , -
, .

,
[75].

71

. 4.2. (4.32)

 = 0.1 c1 , 20 = 10

().

. 4.3. ().

. 4.4. (4.32), (4.33)

= 1.25.

72

. 4.5.

(4.34) k = 0.25.

. 4.6. (4.34), (4.35)

k = 0.25, = 1.25.

. 4.7. (4.34)

k = 0.5.

73

. 4.8. (4.34), (4.35)

k = 0.5, = 1.25.

. 4.9. (4.34)

k = 1.0.

. 4.10. (4.34), (4.35)

k = 1.0, = 1.25.

74

. 4.11. (4.34)

k = 5.0.

. 4.12. (4.34), (4.35)

k = 5.0, = 1.25.

75

5
[14, 15, 70], [14, 15],
[50, 53] . ,
.
[59, 150], [10]. ,
,
. 1990-
, ,
[6, 140, 196].


(. [32, 156, 158]). ,
, .. [70, 96, 208].
,
, .
, .
5.1
2,

. ,
,
76

.
.
(. ). .
. .
.


, : ,
, , , [75].

. , ,
, .

.
[14] (
) [30] (
n m, m
). [14] ,
. ,
. 77

: () [11, 141, 196];


[212]; [211]
. .
,
, [103] [75, 104, 102].
, [108, 111]. [164] ,

. ,
[75, 102], ,
.
5.1.1

k (),
t x(i) (t), i = 1, 2, . . . , k, t
0 t < . , - x(i) (t)
X .
, Ct :
X C, C Ct . Ct
. , Ct . Ct
, , , ,
, , .
,
,
- Fi : C Rm , i = 1, . . . , k,
.
5.1. , x(i) (t), i = 1, 2, . . . , k,
Ct Fi ,
78

(
` ) i , i = 1, . . . , k ,
t 0






F1 Ct+1 [x1 ] = F2 Ct+2 [x2 ] = . . . = Fk Ct+k [xk ] .
(5.1)
(-)
, (5.1) , :



Fi (Ct+ [xi ]) Fj Ct+ [xj ] 
i, j, t 0,
(5.2)
i
j
, (5.1) :




lim Fi (Ct+i [xi ]) Fj Ct+j [xj ]  = 0,
(5.3)
t

| | Rm . 
t
0 s t,
t 0
Qs t < ,

(5.4)

Qs ( ), .
t
Qs t = 1t 0 Qs ds,
Qs :
k



 2

Qt =
Fi (Ct+i [xi ]) Fj Ct+j [xj ]  .

(5.5)

i,j=1

. :
, . , , , . [104, 140] .
79

5.1. (5.1)
k 1




Fi Ct+i [x(i) (t)] Fk Ct+k [x(k) (t)] = 0, i = 1, 2, . . . , k 1. (5.6)
5.2.
, , (5.1)





n1 F1 Ct+1 [x(1) (t)] = . . . = nk Fk Ct+k [x(k) (t)] ,
(5.7)
(5.6)
Ct [x(i) (t + i )] = nk /niCt [x(k) (t + k )] (i = 1, 2, . . . , k 1),

(5.8)

ni .
5.1.2
.
.
5.1. () .
, i , ( ) . Ct
0 s t
>t ,
Ct = t =< x
t = ni ,
ni ( ); .
Fi (t ) = t /ni . ni = 1, i = 1, . . . , k
() .

,
. - ,
80

q = [tq , tq+1 ), q = 1, 2, . . .,
yi () q i (t), - .
, . i (), i () i , i = 1, . . . , k. C J :
C (yi ()) = i ()Si (i ()),

(5.9)

Si yi (t),
.
, C C
. 
5.2. .
x(i) (t) [75, 103].
Ct = ti (t) i- 0 s t.
i
i- .

x(i) (t)
x(i) (t).
. 
5.3. . [50,
53]. , . 1990-
,
,
[211].
81

( ).
t x(t),
ttn
0 2 Ct [x] = t = 2 tn+1
+ 2n, tn t < tn+1
tn
tn n
[211].
k = 2, F1 (t ) = F2 (t ) = t ,
. F1 (t ) = t ,
F2 (t ) = t +, () .
,
Ct = t (t), t (t) ,
t [103].
, -
. ,
,
,
(. ). 
5.4. . 1980-

[11, 141].
. . [196]. , ,
Ct (xi ) = xi (t), xi (t)
i- t,
: Fi (x) = x, i = 1, . . . , k. 
5.5. () .
, . ,

yi = h(xi ) .
82

[212] . ,

Ct (xi ) = xi (t), Fi (x) = h(x), i = 1, . . . , k. 
5.6. .
, {tq }, q = 1, 2, . . . .
C[yi ()] 1 yi = h(xi ) tq

C[yi ()] = {yi (t1 ), yi (t2 ), . . .}.
,
Cq [yi ] = tq , tq , yi (t) ,
. tq q- .
(. 5.2) ,
, .
, ,
. ,
t 0. ,
, (
5.3) . 
.

, . ,
, ,
() ,
1

yi = xi .

83

:
Ct [x] =

x(t)
.
max |x(s)|

0st

T , t
1
x(s)ds.
: Ct [x] = T
tT

, ,
. t
1
, Ct [x] = x(t) T
x(s)ds
tT

.
. ,
. , , , xi
Xi (, x1 (t) R3
, x2 (t) R2

). Fi : Xi X ,
. ,









F1 Ct+1 [F1 (x1 )] = F2 Ct+2 [F2 (x2 )] = . . . = Fk Ct+k [Fk (xk )] .
(5.10)
, (k = 2) F, 

[108]: F = (F1 , F2 ). ,
5.5: Ct (xi ) = xi (t),
, [108],
[108]. , [108] , (. 5.5), ,
, , 5.1.
,
i , i = 1, . . . , k ,
84

( ).
yi () () , :
(i ) y(t) = y(ti (t)),
ti : T T , i = 1, . . . , k ()
,


lim ti (t) t = i .
(5.11)
t

,
[11] (5.11)
 

lim ti (t)/t = 1, t
.
. , t (t), .
: .
,

,
, -. , [172] , .
, (),
. , .
, , -

85


x1 x2 
(x1 , x2 ) =     .
x12 x22
5.1.3
,
, ,
[37]. 1

.
k i (i = 1, . . . , k),
:
i = {T , Ui , Xi , Yi , i , hi }, i = 1, . . . , k,
T ; Ui , Xi , Yi
, ; i : T Xi Ui Xi
; hi : T Xi Ui Yi .
, Ui ,
. . .
, l gj : Y1 Y2 . . . Yk T R1 ,
j = 1,. . . ,l. Yi T
Yi , . . Yi = {y : T Yi }.
, T T = R1 ( ), T = 1, 2, . . . ( ).
T , . . : Yi Yi
( y)(t) = y(t + ) y Yi t T . yi () i : yi (t) = h(xi (t), t),
1


[103]. [101]
( [15] ).

86

t T , i = 1, . . . , k. . x(1) (t), . . . , x(k) (t) 1 , . . . , k


x(1) (0), . . . , x(k) (0) t T .
5.2. x(1) (t), . . . , x(k) (t)
1 , . . . , k g1 , . . . , gl ,
gj (1 y1 (), . . . , k yk (), t) 0,

j = 1, . . . , l,

(5.12)

t T 1 , . . . , k T .
, 1 , . . . , k g1 , . . . , gl , > 0 1 , . . . , k T ,
|gj (1 y1 (), . . . , k yk (), t)| , j = 1, . . . , l,

(5.13)

t T .
, 1 , . . . , k
g1 , . . . , gl ,
1 , . . . , k T


lim gj 1 y1 (), . . . , k yk (), t = 0, j = 1, . . . , l.
(5.14)
t


5.1 , , . , ( ) Ct ,
5.2,
. . 5.1 () ,
, Yi C, . . Yi = Y = C,
(. . ).
{gij }, i, j = 1, . . . , k, , :
gij (xi (), xj (), t) = dist(Ct+i [xi ], Ct+j [xj ]),
87

dist ( ) C. Fi , Ct () yi ,
:
gij (yi (), yj (), t) = dist(Fi (Ct+i [yi ]), Fj (Ct+j [yj ])).
, , .
.
i , , . ,
.
5.3. , . , G :
G(y1 (), . . . , yk (), t) =

l


gj2 (y1 (), . . . , yk (), t).

(5.15)

j=1

5.4. , (5.12) (5.14)


( ), . , (5.12) (5.14)
(). ,
.
(5.11)
lim |ti (t) t| i ,

, ,
(.
.5.1.2). 
88


, . Ui , Xi , Yi i . :
i :

dxi
= Fi (xi , t),
dt

(5.16)

Fi (i = 1, . . . , k) . (5.16)
(, ).
. .

dxi
i :
(5.17)
= Fi (xi , ui , t)
dt
.
:
Ui :

ui = Ui (y1 , . . . , yl , t).

(5.18)

. , [14],
. .

dxi

= Fi (xi , t) + Fi (x0 , x1 , . . . , xk , t), i = 1, . . . , k,

dt
(5.19)

dx

0 = F0 (x0 , x1 , . . . , xk , t),
dt
F0 ; Fi
, .
89

, , , . . (5.12) (5.19) - ,
. . . (5.19)
g1 , . . . , gl C1 , . . . , Ck .
.
, 1 , . . . , k , , (5.19)

dxi

= Fi (xi , t) + Fi (x0 , x1 , . . . , xk , t), i = 1, . . . , k,

dt
(5.20)

dx

0 = F0 (x0 , x1 , . . . , xk , t),
dt
.
(5.20),
Fi [14, 15].

: ,
. . , ,
(5.13) (5.14)?

,
. , i
(i = 0, . . . , k) , , . .

dxi = Fi (xi , t) + Fi (x0 , x1 , . . . , xk , u, t), i = 1, . . . , k,


dt
(5.21)
dx0 = F0 (x0 , x1 , . . . , xk , u, t),
dt
u = u(t) Rm ( ).
gj , j = 1, . . . , l ( gj , j = 1, . . . , l)
90

u(t) , ,
x0 , x1 , . . . , xn , , (5.12) ( (5.13), (5.14)) .
C1 , . . . , Ck . ,
(5.12), (5.13), (5.14) .
5.5. , , (5.12)
.

(5.14). 
-
, . u = u(t)
, (open loop, feedforward)
. [95].
, ,
(phase locking). [14]
, . . [46, 50].
, () .
(feedback
synchronization).
, :
u(t) = U(x0 , x1 , . . . , xk , t)
(5.22)
U : Rn0 Rn1 , . . . , Rnk R Rm .
91


:
dw
= W (x0 , x1 , . . . , xk , w, t),
dt
u(t) = U(x0 , x1 , . . . , xk , w, t),

(5.23)
(5.24)

w R ; W : Rn0 Rn1 . . . Rnk R R R ; U : Rn0 Rn1


. . . Rnk R R Rm .
0 , 1 , . . . , k yi (i = 1, . . . , r)
. , i ,


u(t) = U(y1 , . . . , yr , t)
(5.25)
:
dw
= W (y1 , . . . , yr , w, t),
dt
u(t) = U(y1 , . . . , yr , w, t),

(5.26)
(5.27)

w R ; yi Rpi ; W : Rp1 . . . Rpi R R R ; U : Rp1


. . . Rpi R R Rm , (5.14)
(5.21), (5.25) (5.21), (5.26), (5.27).

. .
5.2

. ,



lim x1 (t) x2 (t) = 0,
(5.28)
t

92

x1 , x2 .
. (5.28) . , [31], , , . .
.
:
1 = F(x1 , t), x
2 = F(x2 , t).
x

(5.29)

x1 (t), x2 (t) , = F(x, t)


x
.
= F(x, t)
x
(5.29). ( , ) [31]
T

F(x,t)
F(x,t)
x +
. x

. , , (
).
.
. , :
1 = Ax1 + f(t) + Bu1 ,
x
(5.30)
2 = Ax2 + f(t) + Bu2 ,
x

(5.31)

u1 , u2 , f(t)
( ), A, B n n, n m, .
e = x1 x2 :
e = Ae + B(u1 u2 )
93

(5.32)

(5.30) (5.31)
( ) (5.32). , u = u1 u2 , . .
u1 = Ke, u2 = 0.
(5.31)
,
(5.30). (systems
with reference models) (
master-slave drive-response). K ,
A + BK (), . .
det(I A BK) . , A, B , 2
K
A+ BK . ,
A , . . ,
, ,
(
).
u1 = u2 = u/2,
. , ,
. 3 , , .
, 2

A, B
rank{B, AB, . . . , An1 B} = n ( ).
3
, :
() [60], (u1 , u2 ) :
() (x1 + x2 )/2.

94

x1 , x2
y1 = Cx1 , y2 = Cx2 , C l n. .


W () = C(I A)1 B. l = m = 1,
. W () = b()/a(),
b(), a() n1 , n, ,
n1 < n, a() A.
n a(p)y = b(p)u, p = d/dt . , ,
an n : an = 1.
u = Ky 1940-
.. : K ,
b() ( ),
d = nn1 ( ), , d = 2 n1 : an1 > 0. K
,
b() : 4 b0 K < 0.
, d 3 d = 2, an1 0, (
, )
.
. B . ,
, () , (),
. 4

b() .

95

, ,
1 = Ax1 + f(t), y1 = Cx1 ,
x

(5.33)

2 = Ax2 + u(t).
x

(5.34)


u = U(y1 , x2 , t), (5.28), x1 (5.33) x2 .

,
2 = Ax2 + K(y1 Cx2 ) + f(t),
x
(5.35)
K , . e(t) = x1 (t)x2 (t) e = (AKC)e,
AKC K

5
A, C.
,
,
. , , , , .. ,
, , ,

- , ( t )
R R > 0, , . . , . ,
, .
,
5

A, C
T
T
rank{C, A C, . . . , (A )n1C} = n.

96

,
, .
(, ), ( )
.
. ,
.
. , , :
1 = f1 (x1 ) + g1 (x1 )u1 ,
x
2 = f2 (x2 ) + g2 (x2 )u2 .
x

(5.36)

.
:
ui = Ui (x1 , x2 ),

i = 1, 2,

(5.37)

, (5.28). , (5.36) , . . m = n, g1 (x1 ) = g2 (x2 ) = In , In n n-. , , , u1 = 0, u2 = K(x1 x2 ),


K > 0 ,

e = f(x1 (t)) f(x1 (t) e) Ke,


(5.38)
x1 (t) , (5.36) u1 = 0.
f
(x) , A(x) =
x
(5.36), K > 0
A(x) + AT (x) 2KIn x .
, . . , , t . e(t) 0 ,
97

. , .
, , . :
|f(x1 ) f(x2 )| L|x1 x2 | L > 0.

, (high-gain observer)
2 = f2 (x2 ) + Kg2 (x2 )(y1 Cx2 ),
x

(5.39)

y1 = Cx1 .
L [176].
1990 . .
. [196]. , ,
y1 z1
1 = Fy (y1 , z1 ),
y

(5.40)

1 = Fz (y1 , z1 )
z

(5.41)

(5.41) z1 . y1 , z2
2 = Fz (y1 , z2 ).
z

(5.42)

, z1 (t)z2 (t) 0 t , , (5.40), (5.41)


(y1 , z2 ).
(.):
T

Fz (y, z)
Fz (y, z)
,
+
z
z
98

y, z. ,
, [196].
[140].
,
,
y2 = Fy (y2 , z2 ) + K(y1 y2 ),

(5.43)

2 = Fz (y2 , z2 ).
z

(5.44)

, (5.43)

y2 = Fy (y2 , z2 ) + (y1 y2 ),

(5.45)

= 1/K , , (5.43), (5.44)


-. () , = 0 y1 = y2 , z2 = Fz (y1 , z2 ) . .
(5.42). (5.43)
K > 0, y2 (t) y1 (t) K > 0 t > 0,
. . (5.43), (5.44)
(5.42).
5.7.
. . , . . [117] ,

= (v u),
u
(5.46)
v = ru v 20uw,

= 5uv bw
w
= 16, r = 45.6, b = 4.0
.
99

s = (vs us ),
u
(5.47)
vs = ru vs 20uws ,

s = 5uvs bws .
w
(5.47) (5.46), ,
(5.47) us ,
u,
. (5.46), (5.47)
y = u, z = (v, w).
V = V (e2 , e3 ) = 0.5e22 + 4e32
[117] , (5.46)
(5.47) , . . .


e2 = e2 20ue3 ,
(5.48)
e3 = 5ue2 be3 ,
V (5.48). ,
V = e2 (e2 20ue3 ) + 4e3 (5ue2 be3 ) == e22 4be32 .

(5.49)

, V kV , k = min{2, 2b} > 0 u = u(t) e2 (t), e3 (t)


. e1 = (e2 e1 ), > 0, e1 . . (5.47)
(5.46).
b
(5.46) , b = 4.4, , b = 4.0
. b (5.46) b = 4.4
(5.47)
e = u us , . 
100

.
, . . 2.4.2.
(5.36).
1
Q(x) = |x1 x2 |2
(5.50)
2
:
T

Q(x)
= (x1 x2 ) (f1 + g1 u1 f2 g2 u2 ).

Q
T
= (x1 x2 ) g1 ,
u1

Q
T
= (x1 x2 ) g2 ,
u2
(5.50):
T

u1 = (x1 x2 ) g1 (x1 ),
T
u2 = (x2 x1 ) g2 (x2 ).

(5.51)

[124], (5.51)
. , (5.38) ,
g1 (x1 ) = In , g2 (x2 ) = 0, = K,
(5.39) , g1 (x1 ) = 0, g2 (x2 ) = g2C,
= K, (5.42) , y1
(z2 )) ,
(5.42) (Fz (y1 , z2 ) = f(z2 ) + y1 g
g1 (x1 ) = 0, g2 (x2 ) = gC, = 1.
, (5.51) ,
[61, 80, 140].
5.3
5.3.1

, 101

. . [6, 124,
136],
. N ,
i = Fi (x1 , . . . , xN , u, , t)
x

i = 1, . . . , N,

(5.52)

RM . Q(x1 , . . . , xN , t), .
. ,
(5.5), (5.15) (5.50).
,

u = U(x1 , . . . , xN , t, ),
RM
= (x1 , . . . , xN , t, ),
,
lim Q(x1 (t), . . . , xN (t), t) = 0

(5.53)

, .
, Fi (5.52) , , .
5.3.2
: N = 2,
xi Rn u R1
:
lim |x1 (t) x2 (t)| = 0.

102

(5.54)

,
:
e = Ae + B

N


i i (x1 , x2 , t) + Bu,

(5.55)

i=1

A n n-; B n- ; i , , i
. , :
, ,
B (,
).
(5.55)
, (5.52), ,
. ( ), , ,
.
, i (x1 , x2 , t), yi = Cxi , i = 1, 2. ,
.
u = 0 (y1 y2 ) +

N


i i (x1 , x2 , t),

(5.56)

i=1

0 , i . ,
, i , i = 1, . . . , N, . ,
i = i ,

i = 1, . . . , N,

(5.57)


i u (5.55)
103

,
e = [A 0 BC] e.

(5.58)

, 0 , (5.58)
, (5.56), (5.57) .
, .
. ,
T
e , Q(e) = e Pe,
T
e = x1 x2 , P = P > 0 . (5.55), ,


N
!
T
T
= e Pe = e P Ae + B i i + Bu =
Q
i=1

N
"
#
!
T

= e P A 0 BC e + e PB (i i )i ,
T

i=1

Q
Q
T
T
= e PB(y1 y2 ),
= e PBi .
0
i
, . , i (x1 , x2 , t) . T
e PB, . , ,
T
T
T T
: e PB = (y1 y2 ) g = e C g
T
g, PB = C g.
, ,

= (y y ) (x , x , t),
i
i 1
2
i 1 2

i = 1, . . . , N,

= (y y )2 ,
0
0 1
2
104

(5.59)
(5.60)

i , i = 1, . . . , N - ,
, g.
, l- , g Rl
= gT (y y ) (x , x , t),
i
i
1
2
i 1 2

i = 1, . . . , N,

= [gT (y y )](y y ),
0
0
1
2
1
2

(5.61)
(5.62)

i > 0, i = 1, . . . , N.
5.3.3
.
Bu,
y = Cx

= Ax+
5.3 [80]. x
1 B,

u, y Rl C
W () = C(I
A)
- () = det(I
detW () . --A)
B
= lim W ()
- C
. 
, l = 1 n- -,
n 1 ,
d = 1 .
5.1 ( ) [61, 78, 80]. B,
C,
g n n, n m, l n, m l
A,
= m. rank(B)
n n- P = PT > 0 l m- ,
T
+ B
=C
T gT , A = A
GC

PA + A P < 0, P B

y = GCx

= Ax+
, x
Bu,
--.
[61], -- ,
u = 0Gy + u
, , , u
= Gy,
y
105

:
T
V (x) = x Px. , -- .
5.4. - f : [0, ) Rm
() [0, ) ,
[0, ) > 0, T > 0 ,
t+T
f(s)f(s)T ds Im
t

t 0. .
- ,
t m- .
5.2 ( ) [61, 78]. - f, : [0, ) Rm . , (t)
-, d(t)/dt 0 t f . , (t)T f(t) 0 t ,
(t) 0.
.
5.1 [136]. , (5.56) e(t),
i (t)
W () = gC(I A)1 B --. (5.55), (5.56),(5.59), (5.60) (5.54). , , - (1 (x1 , x2 , t), . . . , N (x1 , x2 , t)), :


lim (t) = 0.
(5.63)
t

5.1.
106


 1
1 T

V (x, 0 , ) =
|i i |2 + |0 0 |2 /(20 ),(5.64)
e Pe +
2
2i
i=0
N

P = PT > 0 0 . V , V < 0 e = 0
, :

= eT PBgCe,
0
0
(5.65)
= eT PB (x , x , t),
i
i
i 1 2
P PA +A P < 0,
A = A + B0C. , , T
PB = C g, 5.1, , V < 0
e = 0 ,
= Ax + Bu, y = gCx (5.59), (5.60) x
-, , , . V (t) = V (x(t), 0 (t), (t)) . ,
e(t), i (t) ( i (x1 , x2 , t), i = 1, . . . , N ). (5.65) , V = eT (PA +AT P)e |e(t)|2
> 0.
. 3.1, V (5.64).
V (t)
. , e(t) 0
t .
(5.63) , (5.54) (5.59)
, (t) 0 t . (5.55),
, 0 e, , d , y
, e (t) . [61]
, e (t) 0 t . (5.59) ,
(t)T d (t) 0 t . , (5.63)
5.2.
5.6. 5.1
(5.64)
107


0,
V (x, 0 , , t) > 0 e =
0.
V (x, 0 , , t) < 0 e =

(5.66)

, ,
(5.64) (5.66). 
5.3.4

[6, 137], ()
d = Axd + 0 (yd ) + B
x

N


i i (yd ),

yd = Cxd ,

(5.67)

i=1

xd Rn ; yd Rl ( ); = col (1 , . . . , N )
. , i (), i = 0, 1, . . . , N,
A, C B .
() yd (t), (t)
w(t) x
, :
lim (
x(t) xd (t)) = 0,

(5.68)



lim (t) = 0.

(5.69)


= A
x
x + 0 (yd ) + B

N
$

%
i i (yd ) + 0G(yd y) ,

i=1

y = Cx,

(5.70)
108

= (y , y), i = 0, 1, . . . , N,
(5.71)
i
i d
x Rn , yd Rl , i R, G Rl
. (5.71) .
, , (5.55),

, i = i (yd ), u = 0 (yd C
e = xd x
x) +

N


i i (yd ).

i=1

, , :
= (y y ) (y ),
i
i
d
i d

i = 1, . . . , N,

= (y y )2 ,
0
0
d

(5.72)
(5.73)

i > 0.
5.1 ,
:
5.2 [6, 137]. , (5.67)
W () = C(I A)1 B --. (5.70), (5.72),(5.73),
(5.68). , ,
- (1 (yd (t)), . . . , N (yd (t))), (5.69): .
[6, 137] . i , i = 1, . . . , N.
, 5.7
:
,
(, ).
[7, 137].
109

, ,

, , d = 1. [138]
,
d = 1 .
5.4

(, ).
(., ., [46]).




&

1 (t) + 
1 + 20  (1 (t)) = k
(t)

(t)
+ u(t),
2
1


(5.74)
2 + 20  (2 (t)) = k 1 (t) 2 (t) ,

2 (t)) + 
i (t) (i = 1, 2) i- (, ); u(t)
(, ,
; 0
;  (); k (, ).
x(t) = col {1 ,
1 , 2 , 2 }
4
R . (5.74) H(x)

 
2


 2
22 + (1 ) (2 ) + 0.5 k 2 1 .
(5.75)
H(x) = 0.5
1 +


. ,
110

. .


Q (
1 ,
2 ) = 0.5 2 ,
QH (x) = 0.5(H(x) H )2 ,

(5.76)

=
1 +
2 ; H(x(t)) , H
.
Q
( 1 (0), 2 (0) Q (
1 ,
2 ) 0 2 ). QH
,
1
.

Q(x) Q QH ,
Q(x) = Q (
1 ,
2 ) + (1 )QH (x),

(5.77)

(0 1) .
,
:


u(t) = (t) + (1 )H (t)
1 (t),
(5.78)
(t) =
1 (t) +
2 (t), H (t) = Ht H , > 0
. [6, 140, 220] , ,
,
 = 0 (
).

(5.74), (5.78) .
(5.78).
(5.78)
.
111

: k = 5, 0 = 0.4, = 0.8, = 0.7,


H = 4.0. , 2 (0) = 0.05.
 = 0. . 5.1
5.4 ,

. Ht , Q 20
. Ht
Q , .
.

,
. . 5.5,  = 0.05 , H = 4.0
u = limt |u(t)| 0.5.
(4.24) , . . .

112

. 5.1. .

. 5.2. u(t).

. 5.3. Q (
1 (t),
2 (t)).

113

. 5.4. Ht .

. 5.5. .

114

, , .
, , .
.
, , -, 1975 .
. . [175]
.
, ,
: , . .
.
, ,
.
,
.
, , ,
,

, ,
. , .
1990 .
. [192]
. , ,
, , . . .
115

[119] : ,
, , ( ). ( ,
) , ( ,
)
.
.
6.1


. ,
. : ,
,
,
.
XX ,
:
.
. [180], 1963 ., ,
,
,
( ):

= (y x),
x
= rx y xz,
y
(6.1)

= bz + xy.
z
116

(6.1) (, = 10, r = 97, b = 8/3 )


. ( ) (),
. , . . [215],
1971 ., , . . [175],
.
19601970- : .. , .. , .., .., .. , .. , .. .
, ,
, , ..
, . ,
, . ,
. . ,
, .
, , , . , - .
. , .
.
117


= F(x),
x

(6.2)

x = x(t) Rn , 0 t < .
6.1. Rn (6.2), , : )
0 , x(t) (6.2),
0 , t 0 t ; )
.

6.2. , , ,
. 
6.3. ,
. 
,
:
xk+1 = F(xk ), k = 0, 1, 2, ...
(6.3)
.
, : ( ), , .., . .. [51]
,
,
.
, .
.

, , :
118

.

. ,
, :
. .
6.4. x : R1 Rn (recurrent),  > 0 T > 0,
t 0 T (t, ), 0 < T (t, ) < T ,
|x(t + T (t, )) x(t)| < .
.
. 1927 . : , ; .
. .
(6.2) y(t) = h(x(t)). "
(delayed coordinates) - X(t) = y(t),
#T
y(t), . . . , y(t(N 1)) RN . = F(X(t)).

(6.2) X

[29, 62, 64] , N > 2n, n
(6.2),
,
, .
(Poincare map), , (t)
, T - x
119

(t + T ) = x(t)
(6.2), x0 (. . x
t t0 x(t0 ) = x0 ). S , s(x) = 0, s : Rn R1
. ,
S x0 , . . s(x0 ) = 0, s(x0 )T F(x0 ) = 0.
, , x S =
{x : s(x) = 0} x0 s(x) = 0 . = (x)
x() S .
, ,
.
6.2

, , . .
,
u(t). , , , ()
. ,
- .
, , ,
(
).

(. [38, 226] [14, 15, 95]). , ,
,
(, ) .
120

, . . ,
.1
1980- [33]
,
[2, 3].
. [177, 200],

c + b3 = a
+ d cos(t).
(6.4)
(6.4) , .
,

.
,
. , b,
b(1 + cos t) .
,
, . ,
, . [114, 115]. [2, 3],
[54].
. .
1

, ,
.

121

:
x Rn , u Rm .

= f(x) + Bu,
x

(6.5)

, m = n det B = 0. x (t) ,
: [154]



(t) f x (t) ,
u (t) = B1 x
(6.6)
( ) x (t) .


 e = x x (t)
e = f e + x (t) f x (t) . , A(t) = f(x (t))/x
, > 0 t 0 A(t) + A(t)T In , (6.5), (6.6) x (t). [140]. m < n B ,
(t) f(x (t)) : - x
,
B.
u (t) = B+ (
x (t) f(x (t)), B+ B .

(. . ) , , ,
. , (6.6)
(. .6.5).
, ,
( ).
.
- .
122

6.3


(OGY-)

, . , .
. [192]. : ,
;

,
.
[192] ,
OGY- , (
)
.

, (. ., [107]) .

= F(x, u),
x

(6.7)

x Rn , u R1 . u , , ,
,
. () x (t) (6.7)
u(t) 0. , , .
( )
S = {x : s(x) = 0},
(6.8)
x0 = x (0) x (t) x  P(x, u),
P(x, u) S
(6.7), x u. x  P(x, u) 123

. x (t)
, ,
x0 . ( [140]).
,
xk+1 = P(xk , uk ),
(6.9)
xk = x(tk ), tk k- S,
uk u(t) tk tk+1 .

(6.7)
k+1 = A
xk + Buk ,
x

(6.10)

k = xk x0 . x
,
uk = Cxk .


xk  ,
C
xk , 
uk =
(6.11)
0,
,
> 0 .

. , , (6.11), C
xk .
. , , , .
OGY-,
: .
,
x " ,
#T
X(t) = y(t), y(t ), . . . , y(t (N 1)) Rn ,
124

y = h(x) (, ), > 0 .

|yk,i y | , i = 1, . . . , N 1,
U(yk , yk,1 , . . . , yk,N1 ),
uk =
0,
,
(6.12)
yk,i = y(tk i).
. [155] (6.12), (occasional proportional feedback, OPF-).
OPF- . (
) y(t), . . = 0.
(6.8), s(x) = h/xF(x, 0), y
yk k- ,
OPF-

K
yk , |
yk | ,
(6.13)
uk =
0,
,
yk = yk y y = h(x0 ) (
) .
,
(6.12) (6.13). :
yk + a1 yk,1 + + aN1 yk,N1 = b1 uk + + bN1 ukN1 .

(6.14)

, , [192]
(6.10).
[192] ,
(6.10) .
, , .
125

[6, 27, 131, 132, 140] OGY- , yk,i = yki , i =


1, . . . , n.
, yk,i
=
y = h(x0 ). -
(6.14), , (6.10).
.. , . , (inner deadzone).
(6.12)
:

1, |yk+1 y | > y
k+1 =
|yki y(tki )| < , i = 0, . . . , N 1,

0, ;

k sign b0 (yk+1 y )wk /wk  ,


k+1 =
k+1 = 1,

;
k

uk+1
= Tk+1 wk+1

k+1

 (u u)/w 2 ,
k
k+1
k+1
k+1 =


2

(u
+
u)/w

k ,

k+1
k+1

k ,

|uk+1
| u k+1 = 1,

uk+1
> u k+1 = 1,

uk+1
< u k+1 = 1,
k+1 = 0.
(6.15)
>0 , u ;
x(t), (6.14).
,
OGY-, ,
, .

126

6.4


( )

(time-delayed feedback), . [206].


- (2.1) :


u(t) = K x(t) x(t ) ,
(6.16)
K , . (t)
x
(2.1) u = 0 x(t) (2.1),
(6.16) = {
x(t)},
t 0. , , , x(t)
.
, x(0)
(6.16) (2.1) T . T .
.
,
M



u(t) = K
rk y(t k) y(t (k + 1)) ,

(6.17)

k=0

y(t) = h(x(t)) R1 ; rk , k = 1, . . . , M
. rk = r k , |r| < 1 M
(6.17)


u(t) = K y(t) y(t ) + Kru(t ).
(6.18)
(6.16) (6.18), .
127

., . . [93, 94] T -



u(t) = G(p) y(t) y(t ) ,
(6.19)
G(p) (p = d/dt) . (., ., [50])
, , ,
, G(p) . [94] , .
[229] (6.16) ( ). ,
[163, 183] .
(t)
- ( ). , () () i , i = 1, 2, . . . , n
- i i = 1 ln |i |. , (), ,
. K, (. [8]). , [163]
K, , K max i ,
() max i .
(6.18) |r| > 1, , . [207] ,
(t) , ,
128

.
, , ,
(6.16), .
(6.16) , . , T -
T - ,
= T .
x(0) , x(t) x(s) s < t, . .
|x(t) x(s)| < . = t s
, x(t) , . ,
, .

, (
) .
.
6.5

. . , [161],
(open-plus-closed-loop, OPCL) (t) = f(x(t)) + Bu m = n, det B = 0, . . x
.





1
(t) f x (t) K x x (t) ,
u(t) = B
(6.20)
x
K
129

x (t). m = n,
det B = 0 . , (6.5), (6.20) x (t) , K
K = In , > sup A(t), A(t) = f (x (t)) /x.
t

, - x (t) , , x (t).


.
(feedback linearization) ( ., ., [61]). [87, 90] .
,
x Rn ,

= f(x) + g(x)u,
x

u Rm .

(6.21)

(6.21) Rn ,
z = (x), x ,
u = (x) + (x)v,

x ,

(6.22)

v Rm , ,
, . .
= Az + Bv
z

(6.23)

A, B.

(m = 1). , (6.21) x0 Rn
,
h(x) , x0
n y = h(x). ,
r,
y = h(x)
(6.21) , r-
. :
Lg Lkf h(x0 ) = 0,

k = 0, 1, . . . , r 2,
130

Lg Lr1
f h(x0 ) = 0,

(6.24)

L (x) - (x)
n
!
i (x).
: L (x) =
i=1 xi
,

( ) :


n1
z = (x) = col h(x), Lf h(x), . . . , Lf h(x) ,
%
$
1
(6.25)
n
h(x)
+
v
.
u=

L
f
Lg Ln1
h(x)
f
6.1. :

1 = (x2 x1 ),
x
(6.26)
2 = rx1 x2 x1 x3 ,
x

3 = x3 + x1 x2 + u.
x
1 = (x2 x1 ), L2f y = Lf (Lf y) =
y = x1 . Lf y = y = x
1 ) = ((r + 1) x1 2x2 + x1 x3 ). ,
1 = (
x
x2 x
r = 3 , x1 = 0.

x1 = z1 ,
1
x2 = z2 + z1 ,


1 1
2
z3 (r 1)z1 z2 ,
x3 =
z1

. . x1 = 0. ,
(6.26)

x1 < 0 , x1 > 0 .
,
. ,
. ,

131

. ,
. , () ,
.
[55, 237] (x, u) (. . )
. [55]
[56].

(), . .5.2. .
[185]. [176]

, .
, - ,
x1 x2 , x2 . . ,
, , .
. ,
.
Q(x(t), t). Q(x(t), t)
x(t) x (t) , , Q(x, t) = |x x (t)|2 .
- 132

x(t) h(x) = 0, , Q(x) = |h(x)|2 . Q(x)


( )
u, Q(x)
Q(x)
= Q/xF(x, u),
. . , . (. .2.4.2),

[124, 139].
, , : (feedback linearization );
(centre manifold); (backstepping) (iterative design); (); ; H - .., . [8]. ,
- h(x) = 0 ,
Q(x) = |h(x)|.
, : ( , ) (
, . .).
.

y = h(x)
= f(x) + g(x)u. (
x
) Q(x) =

|h(x)|2 Q
hT h/x(f + gu) < 0,
Q(x) (. . Q):
u = gT (h)h.
133

(6.27)

, , > 0 .
() ,
- . , + y,
(x) = y
> 0,
:
f T (h) + h
u=
(6.28)
gT (h)
= 2Q, . . = 0, Q
Q(x).
. , ,
(6.27), (6.28) (
(6.28) ), . [44]
[42], (
) .
, , , , ,
. , , . ,
. ,
, .
(,
,
).

134

7
7.1

-
(distributed, spatio-temporal) ,
(lumped) . , (). , ,
, (, ), ( ).
, ,
, ,
(array) (lattice).
-
x
= x + F(x, u),
t

(7.1)

x = x(r, t) r D Rn
t (, ), n 2
!
; =
, i=1 ri
. : x(a, t) = x(b, t)
1

 ,
 R
 = [a, b]
 D
x 
x 
=
= 0. (7.1)
r r=a
r r=b
D -
135

ri ,
i = 1, 2, . . . , N, xi (t). xi (t) F(xi , ui ) .
, : r [a, b],
,
i = (xi1 2xi + xi+1 ) + F(xi , ui ),
x

i = 1, 2, . . . , N 1.

(7.2)

,
x0 (t) = xN (t), x0 (t) = x1 (t), xN1 (t) = xN (t). : xi (t) = 0 i 0
i N.
,
(coupled maps), (cellular
automata):
"
#


xi (n+1) = xi (n)+ xi1 (n)2xi (n)+xi+1 (n) +hF xi (n), ui (n) ,
i = 1, . . . ,N 1, n = 0, 1, 2, . . .
(7.3)
(7.1), (7.3)
, () . ( ) ,
(7.2), (7.3) , . . F(x, u)
F(x), ,
0 = (x1 x0 ) + F0 (x, u)
x

(7.4)

( ).
- , (
- )

i = Fi (xi , xi1 , xi+1 , u),


i = 1, 2, . . . , N 1,
x
(7.5)
0 = F0 (x0 , x1 , u),
x

N = FN (xN , xN1 , u).


x
, , . , .
136

.

:
() - ( );
- ( );
( );

( , , );
.

1960- (. .
[17, 18]). , ,
1990-
.
, : OGY, . .
[151]. ( , ) .
, [194]
N = 100 ,
F(x, u) = 1 x2 + u, ,
u 0 . ,

ui (n) = xi (n)


N
1 
xj (n 1) ,
N +1

i = 1, 2, . . . , N 1

(7.6)

j=0


- xi x , i = 0, 1, 2, . . . , N.
, ,
137

.
ui (n) = [xi (n) x ] ,

(7.7)

,
:
N
#
"
xj (n) xj (n 1)
ui (n) =
N +1

(7.8)

j=0


N
1 
xj (n) x .
ui (n) =
N+1

(7.9)

j=0

[142].
[167] (pinning control) ,
p- , . (), ,
(7.7)
= 1 .

[223] , .

= A + (1 + i1 ) A (1 + i2 )|A|
A
r 2
2

(7.10)

[182] (SwiftHohenberg), [100].


, [106, 234].
, , ., , ,
138

, ..
[106]
, .
[234].
[218]

2 4
(7.11)
+
+ 2 + 4 =u
t
r
r
r

u = t (t ),
t
.
(local injections)
[152] (xi (t) 0)
-

i = f(xi ) + (xi1 2xi + xi+1 ) + (xi1 xi+1 ) + ui ,


(7.12)
x
2
2
, .
l- .
.
[146]
: f(x) = ax(1 x) (7.12) . [56] . [232]
.
- [96, 97, 98, 201].
139

, . , , .
,
k, .

, .
7.2

x
2 x
x
. xt =
,
, xtt = 2 , xri =
t
t
ri
2x
2x
xr r =
xri t =
, ri t i i
ri2
-
Jxtt = kx E sin x xt ,

(7.13)

x = x(r, t) ; r X Rn , X;
n
!
: x = xri ri ; J, k, ; E = E(t) i=1

(,
). , E = E0 + u(t), E0
, u(t) . (7.13) (, , ..),
r. x(r, t) . ,
.


  2


1
x
H=
+ k |r x|2 + 2E0 1 cos x dr
J
(7.14)
2
t
X

140

H , . .
lim H(t) = H .

(7.15)

= 0
(7.13), u(t) = u

dH
= Jxt xtt kxxt + E0 sin x xt dr =
dt
X


(7.16)


= xt E sin x + E0 sin x dr = u(t) xt sin x dr.
X

,

u(t) = xt sin x dr,

(7.17)

> 0, H(t) .
2
1
V (t) = H(t) H , ,
2




dV
V =
xt sin x dr,
(7.18)
= u(t) H(t) H
dt
X

, V 0


u(t) = H(t) H


xt sin x dr,

(7.19)

. . (7.19) .
-, -
 

k
j = 2 xj+1 2xj +xj1 E0 +u(t) sin xj
xj , j = 1, 2, . . . ,N, (7.20)
Jx
h



Jxtt = kxrr E0 + u(t) sin x xt
141

(7.21)

"
#
X = a, b , xj = x(jh/b a).
(7.20) -, (., ., [46]), 1939 ,
.

(7.21) x(a, t) = x(b, t) = 0. (7.20)
x0 (t) xN+1 (t) 0,
(7.22)


xr r=a = xr r=b = 0,
x0 = x1 ,

xN = xN+1 .

(7.23)

. 3. ,
N


j sin xj ,
u(t) = H(t) H
x

(7.24)

j=1

> 0. 3.1 , (7.15)


(7.20), (7.24)  = 0 ,
H(0) H ,
sin xj = 0, j = 1, . . . , N.
, N = 2
(7.23)

 

2k 

J x
1 = 2 x2 x1 E0 + u(t) sin x1
x1 ,
h
(7.25)

 

2k

J x
2 = 2 x1 x2 E0 + u(t) sin x2
x2 .
h

, . 5.4.
(7.19)




u(t) = H(t) H x2 x1 ) sin x1 sin x2 ,
(7.26)
142

H(t) (7.14)
 k
2


J 2
2
2 + x1 x2 + E0 2 cos x1 cos x2 .
+x
H= x
2 1
2

(7.27)


. , : ,
, . . ) ):

. 7.1. () () .

, x(r, t)
(7.13),
) ) , () E. , E ,
, E0 .
, (7.19),
. , H = E0 (b a) , , H
)  > 0
, (7.19) , . .
,
), . . .

143

7.3
. , [75], N
.
(.,
., [46, 160]).



2

(t)
+

sin

(t)
=
k

(t)

(t)
+ u(t),

1
1
2
1
0

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

i (t) + 20 sin i (t) = k i+1 (t) 2i (t) + i+1 (t) ,


(7.28)
(i
=
2,
3,
.
.
.
,
N

1),

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

N (t) + 20 sin 2 (t) = k N1 (t) N (t) ,


i (t) (i = 1, 2, . . . , N) ; u(t) ,
( ); , k
: 0 , k (, ).
x(t) R2N x(t) =
= col {1 ,
1 , 2 , 2 , . . . , N , N }. (7.28)
H(x)
H(x) =

N


Hi (x),

i=1

2

Hi (x) = 0.5
2i +20 (1cos i ) + 0.5 k i+1 i
(i = 1, 2, . . . , N 1),

HN (x) = 0.5
21 +20 (1cos N ).

(7.29)


,
. ,
. ,
, ,
.
144


.
,
, (7.28), :



2

(t)+
sin

(t)
=
k

(t)2
(t)+
(t)
+u(t),

1
1
2
1
N
0

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 

i (t)+20 sin i (t) = k i+1 (t)2i (t)+i+1 (t)


(7.30)
(i = 2, 3, . . . , N 1),

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .

N (t)+20 sin N (t) = k N1 (t)2N (t) +1 (t)).


:
H(x) =

N


Hi (x),

i=1

2

2
2

i +0 (1cos i ) + 0.5 k i+1 i


Hi (x) = 0.5
(i = 1, 2, . . . , N 1),
2


H (x) = 0.5
2
2

+
(1cos

)
+
0.5
k

N
N
1
N .
1
0

(7.31)

(7.30)
( , ).
, ,
.
.
, .
.

Q (
1 ,
2 ) = 0.5 2 ,
QH (x) = 0.5(H(x) H )2 ,
145

(7.32)

=
1 +
2 ; H(x(t)) ; H .
Q
(
1 (0), 2 (0)
Q (
1 ,
2 ) 0 ,
1
2 ). QH .
Q(x)
Q QH ,
Q(x) = Q (
1 ,
2 ) + (1 )QH (x),

(7.33)

(0 1) .

Q(x) ,





u(t) = (t) + 1 H (t)
1 (t) ,
(t) =
1 (t) +
2 (t),
(7.34)

H (t) = Ht H .
, ,
.
. (7.34).
N = 50 .
(7.28)
(7.34) = 0.8
. . 7.2 7.4 = 0,

.
, ,
Ht H (H = 4), () (.
146

. 7.2. 1 , 2 . N = 50, = 0.

. 7.3. Q Ht . N = 50, = 0.

147

. 7.3). ,
.
.
7.4. , : t 30 ,
.
. = 1 . 7.5, 7.6.
, . 0 < < 1
. 7.2 7.4).
Q -, , , . . u(t) 0
, , .
. 7.7, 50 ,
(i+1 (0) = i (0), i =
= 1, 2, . . . , N 1).
, ,
( ).
(7.28): ,
, , .
.
. 7.8, , . 7.7, (7.30).
. 7.9, 7.10 (7.34) (7.30). = 0.8, = 0.7.
, .

148

. 7.4. . N = 50, = 0.

. 7.5. . N = 50, = 1.

149

. 7.6. Q . N = 50, = 1.

. 7.7. . N = 50, u(t) 0.

. 7.8. . N = 50.

150

. 7.9. .

. 7.10.
.

151


. ,
. ,


. [80, 134].
8.1 .

,

= f(x, u, t),
x

(8.1)

x Rn , u () , t 0. ( ) () u(t),

, .
. .
(, [47, 49]),
. {x(t), u(t)}
. .
, : ,
152


. , ( , .), , [13], [58]
.
( ) ,
,
. . [67], ,
. [80],
, .
: ,
Qt .

: ) ,

t;
= uQ
u
(8.2)
B) ,
t .
u = uQ
(8.3)
t Q
(8.1). ( ) ,
(8.1)
= u.
x
(8.4)
(8.4) , .
153

() Q(x). Q(x)

Q(x(t)). (8.2) (8.3).
(8.2) , t (t), . .
. , (8.3) , , .
.
8.2 -
8.1.
. . , . . x = col{x1 , x2 , x3 }.
Q(x) -
. :
= [xQ(x)]T u,
Q

= xQ(x).
uQ

- = m 1 I3 , m > 0 , I3 3 3 =
, : u
1
m xQ(x),
m
x = xQ(x).
(8.5)
m . 
. ,
Q(x), .
154

,
( ) . , 2- .
, . , x X , f(x, u, t) , DF X (
(8.1) ).
8.2. . x = x(r), r = col (r1 , r2 , r3 )
, R3 .
:

1
Qt (x) =
|r x(r, t)|2 dr,
(8.6)
2

r x(r, t) x = x(r).
,
(8.6).



T
t = (r x(r, t)) r u(r, t) dr = x(r, t)u(r, t) dr,
(8.7)
Q

3
!
i=1

2
ri2

. , -

, 1 , , t = x(r, t).
: uQ
, -
1

, - , , L2 (),
, , .

155

(8.2)
2
x(r, t) = x(r, t),
t2

(8.8)

.
(8.3),
x
(t) = x(r, t),
t

(8.9)

, . 
8.3. . :
x = col (v(, t), p(, t)), v(r, t) R3
, p(r, t) .


Qt = p(r, t) dr + 0 |r v(r, t)|2 dr,
(8.10)

0 > 0 . t = r p
(8.10) (8.4) uQ
0 v. ,
:

v
(r, t) = r p(r, t) + 0 v(r, t),
t

(8.11)

= 0 1 , = 1 . 
, [80].
, . , ,
156

, , ,
, , , .
, : ,
. ,
. -
: , ,
.
,
,
.
8.3
-
. , , ( )
[48, 65, 188]. , 1 , 2 , . . . , n . xi = i i 1 , 2 , . . . , n .
x1 , x2 , . . . , xn
i = ui (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ),
x

i = 1, 2, . . . , n.

(8.12)

(8.12) :
i =
x

n


ik xk ,

i = 1, 2, . . . , n.

(8.13)

k=1

[24, 65, 188] , ik


( )
ik = ki ,

i, k = 1, 2, . . . , n.
157

(8.14)

.
(., ., [48]) . , ,
-

.
.
, (8.13) (8.14)
:
ui
uk
(x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) =
(x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ).
xk
xi

(8.15)


(8.15) , (8.12).
8.1. ,
Q(x) , (8.12)
Q(x).
x1 , x2 , . . . , xn (8.15), . .
.
8.1. .
(8.12) Q(x),

Q
ui =
,
ui

i = 1, 2, . . . , n.

= (xQ)T u)
, ui = (Q/xi ) ( Q
2Q
uk
ui
=
=
,
xk
xi xk
xi
(8.15).
, (8.14) (8.15)
. , , 158

(8.15) , . . .
8.1. (8.12),
. , , ,
. ,
,
[80].
8.4

. [213, 214],
. [213, 214] ,

.
, , .
, () .

, , .
. [121]:
... , , , , , .
. . , , 159

, . ,
XVII
. XX XXI ,
, , !

: , , . . :
... , , , , - ,
, ,
: ?
, .
, ,
. , , c ,
[73, 80].

160

9
9.1

1940- , .. , ,
, , [38] (. [14, 15]). ..
, . ..
[14, 15]. : [95, 181].
(. 9.1)
J
+ 
+ mgl sin = mlu sin ,

(9.1)

= (t)
; u = u(t) , ; J = ml 2
;  0 . ..
A, u(t)
u(t) = A2 sin t,

(9.2)

, . ( , .. ) [15, 226] , , ..
(9.1) [15,
 38, 51] (,
2
A > J0 , 0 =
(2g/l)
).
,
. ,
161

. , , .

. 9.1. .

. 9.2. (9.1)

(9.2) J = 1,  = 0.025, m = 1, l = 1, = 0.1.

:
u(t), ?
,
,
. ,
162

,
,
.
:
lim H(t) = H ,

(9.3)

J
H = (
(9.4)
)2 + mgl(1 cos )
2
. (9.3) . , ,
. , , . .
, , ( )
.
?
, Q = (H H )2 /2
H . Q (9.1) u, ( )
, :
u = (H H )
sin ,

(9.5)

u = sign [(H H )
sin ] .

(9.6)

(9.6)
: H = 2mgl.
4.2 (. 4.1) , (9.1),
(9.6) ,
1
H=
2

 2

163

(9.7)

, , H = 2mgl > 20


(. 9.2). ,  = 0 H = H
. 
.
, .
[83, 221, 222] ,  = 0, (9.6) H = 2mgl
H((t),
(t)) H ((t),
(t)) (, 0) t
. > 0
.
. u(t) ,
, u(t) 0 t .
, . ,

,
.
, [83], , .

1
Q1 = Q + zT Pz,
(9.8)
2
z = col(, ), P = P T 0
, ,
. = u , . . x = col(q, q, ).

 
 

1 = Q
+ zT P
Q
+ zT P
u,
(9.9)
1
0
1 = (H0 H )
q sin q + p22 + p12 , p11 , p22
uQ
164

10
8
6
4
2
0

5
H

2.5

H0

0
-2.5
t, c
0

-5

t, c
0

0.5
q

-1

-0.25

-2

t, c -0.5

0.25

t, c
0

. 9.3. (9.10) = 2 = 0.

P.
u = (H0 H )
q sin q ,

(9.10)

> 0, > 0, > 0 .


. 3 , .
, [61, 82],
, (t) const
= 0. (9.10) m = 1, l = 1, = 0.7, = 2, = 0
. 9.3.
> 0, > 0
(t) 0, . .,
. . 9.4, = 2, , .

165

10
8
6
4
2
0

5
H

2.5

H0

0
-2.5
t, c
0

-5

t, c
0

0.5
q

-1

-0.25

-2

t, c -0.5

0.25

t, c
0

. 9.4. (9.10) = 2 = 2.

,
. - , ,
(t). ,
, , ,

+ u = v,
J
+ mgl sin = mlu sin , T u

(9.11)

v = v(t) . , v(t)
(9.11) .
[6, 61, 75].

166

9.2
( )
[35, 230]. ( , ), . . , . [35, 230]. ,
, .
,

+ 
+  () = u,

(9.12)

 > 0 . , [227]

u(t) = sin t,

(9.13)

(9.12) : () = 2 /23 /3 ( ), () = 2 /2 4 /4 ( , ).
, ,
(9.12), (9.13)  = 0.25 , > 0.212, 1.07,
< 0.212 (. 9.5 , = 0.211, = 1.08).
. 4, . , H
(4.31) , (4.25), .
167

, , H = 0.25, = 0.1767,
83% , [227]. (4.25) H , , 0.25, (4.25)
:
u(t) = sign
.
(9.14)
, (9.14) (4.25)
(), , ,
,
(9.12).
, (9.14) (., ., . 9.5
= 0.125. , -, ,

,

, ,
(
[61, 68]).
(4.31). ,
, 4.1,
. . 9.6
, .
9.3

1950-
. -

. ? ,
, . ,
168

. 9.5.

( ;
).

169

. 9.6.

.
,
( ; , ;
, 4.1).
: () ().

170

,
, , , .
, , MOCVD- [45, 170].
, [28], , .
(. .6).
9.3.1

A+B C. ,
A B A B ,
C
Ce ,
[170]. C A
B, C .
, B
, A. A C ,
, (C-Ce ) , N , (N, C)
C . , [170],
:

dA/dt = J0 (A, C),


dC/dt = (A, C) (N, C),

dN/dt = (C Ce ),

(9.15)

t , J0
A.
C, .. (N, C) = NC, .
C Ce [170]; ,
171

. 9.7. z

(J = 0.7).

, (0) = 0, = 0 (C Ce ), 0
. , [170],
:
= k0 AC 2 , k0 . , , C
A B. (9.15)

dA/dt = J0 kAC 2 ,
dC/dt = kAC 2 NC,
(9.16)

dN/dt = 0 (C Ce ).
, - , : , ( , MOCVD-[25]), . . : x = Ak2/3 01/3 1/3 , y = Ck2/3 01/3 1/3 , z =
Nk1/3 02/3 1/3 , = tk1/3 02/3 2/3 : J = kJ0 /0 ,
y0 = Ce k2/3 01/3 1/3 . (9.16) ,
172

. 9.8. z

(J = 0.9).

[171]:

dx/d = J xy2 ,
dy/d = xy2 yz,

dz/d = y y0
(z 0).

(9.17)


, J = y03 1 , .
y0 , 5/4; J1 (5/4)3 1 0.95. , (9.17), J1 0.888 ( 0.0002), .. J, J1 , (.9.7), J1 <J<J2 1.049
, (.9.8). , , J>J2
(.9.9).
c ,
173

. 9.9. z

(J = 1.2).

. , :
J, zmax z ? [28]
[6, 27, 140].
9.3.2
(9.17)
z()
J() = J0 + u(), J0 A, u() .
, u(), z(),
|zk z | ,

> 0,

(9.18)

zk =z(k ), k z() k-
, - . u() k
zk , uk = u(k )
174

. 9.10. z

z = 0.9.

, .
(9.17) , z()

zk+1 + a1 zk + a2 zk1 + a3 zk2 = b1 uk + b2 uk1 + b3 uk2 + k

(9.19)

zk
uk . (9.19) a1 , a2 , a3 , b1 , b2 , b3 , k ( ).

,
1k ,
uk , , a
a2k ,
a3k , b1k ,b2k ,b3k
(9.19).
1k zk + a
2k zk1 + a
3k zk2 b2k uk1 b3k uk2 ]/b1k
uk = [z + a

(9.20)

, (9.18)
,
.
175

. 9.11. u

z = 0.9.

. 9.12.

z = 0.9.

176

. 9.13. z

z = 1.5.

[78, 80]
i,k+1 = a
i,k k zki+1 ,
a
i = 1, 2, 3,
= bi,k k uki ,
i = 1, 2, 3,
bi,k+1 &
|zk+1 z | > ,
zk+1 z ,
k =
0,
|zk+1 z | ,

(9.21)

> 0 . [6, 27,


140], ,
(9.18) , .. (9.18)
k > k k . . ,
(9.17) , .. , .

9.3.3
(9.20),
(9.21) . .9.10
9.11 z() u(),
177

. 9.14. u

z = 1.5.

(9.18) z = 0.9;
.9.12. : J0 = 0.9, x(0) = 0, y(0) = 2.6, z(0) = 0, y0 = 5/4. ,
u() 0.06 ( J() 0.96),

, u 0.06 ( J0.96). . 9.139.15 ,
z = 1.5. ,
z() , t
u() 0.06 ( J() 0.96). .9.16
(9.19).
[27, 140] , (9.19)
.
. , (9.17)
(9.19). ,
178

. 9.15. z = 1.5.

. 9.16.

179

, [27, 140].
, , ,
, ,
. -, ,
, , - MOCVD, . ,
[46]. , ,
,
. [26].
9.4
9.4.1

,
. . XX

( 19601970- [39, 63]), [34, 80], [66]
[57] .
,
. , ,
, . , .
180



. ()
108 = 10 . 1 , 102 103 /,
10
100 (1 =1015 ). -
- . , .
, , -
- ,
. ,
, , . ,
( )

.
.
1980- , , ,
,
.
, 1999 .
. [236].
, .

. . . [216]
181


, ( - pumpdump scheme). . . [228] - . , .. [168].
. [118, 162, 197, 209]

. [162]
( ), [89, 92, 195]. , [173, 204], [76].
[144, 145, 178, 235].
, . [144]
(HF)
( ).
[145] () , . [178]

.
,
.
-
.
,
,
.
, , 182

(. 4.1),
.
.

, .
[197, 209, 235] , . ,

. , ,
.
,
. :
,
. , ,
, .
[88, 122, 133],
. ,
.
.

183

9.4.2

, ( ).
,
, .. .
,
(. . 3)
( ) T1 , .
,
, x0 (
). T1 ,

x0 ,
. , ,
, , , .
, [88].

(3.1). (3.1)
r(t),
p2
H=
+ (r) (r) u,
2m

(9.22)

m , (r) , (r) , u = u(t)


.
2



(r) = D 1 e (ra) D = D e 2(ra) 2e (ra) ,
184

(9.23)

D - , a - . [147, 235]


4
4
(r) = Are r  (r) = A 1 4r 4 e r ,
(9.24)
A, - . a4 ,
: (r) = Ar,  (r) = A .



mr = 2D e 2(ra) e (ra) + Au(t) .
(9.25)
, ,

, ..
.
,
= limr (r),
. ,
(9.27) = 0.
Q(q, p) = 0.5(H0 (q, p) H )2 ,
p2
H0 (q, p) =
+ (r)
2m
, H ,
. , ,

u = E (H0 (q, p) H ) r ,

(9.26)

u = E sign (H0 (q, p) H ) sign r ,

(9.27)

E > 0; sign(H) = 1 H > 0, sign(H) = 1 H < 0


sign(0) = 0.
(9.27), ,
H :
u = E sign r .
185

(9.28)

(9.28) H
,
, .
9.4.3

(9.25), (9.28) , (HF) [147, 235]: m = 1732, D = 0.2101,


= 1.22, a = 1.75, A = 0.4541, = 0.0064, E = 0.1. (..).
r = a, r = 0 ( ).
: E = 0.005 ..
u(t), 0 t T1 .
u(t) , N = 1000 . ,
.
H0 = 0.8689D.
T2 , ,
. T2 = 200 T0 , T0
.

( ).
H = 0.1185D.
H H = 0, .
, , ,
.
186


t2
)
u(t) = E cos(0 + 0 t
2

(9.29)

. 9.17, a
.
( ) = 0.010 /T0 .
. 9.17,
. , .
,
.
,
(9.28).
9.4.4


.
(9.25) - (, ) ,

h2 2
ih
+ (r) + Aru(t),
(9.30)
=
t
2M r 2
= (t, r) , ; (r) (9.23).
( ) , H .
, .
187

.
(9.30) - .
[77].
, .

, , H
HF, .
- . 9.18. , 14% 5 ,

(10 12%).
9.5

( ). - (,

[52].
, , [52]).
, ,

(). , . , , () .
188

()

()
. 9.17.

) , ) ,
.
, T0 .

()

()
. 9.18. -

E = 0.005 ..: a) , ) , . , T0 .

189


(), .
, , .
(4.30), .
, , , ..
. ,
(4.25) , ,
(4.31), (4.30). ,
, ,
. , . ,
,
. , ,
,
.
(9.14), , ..
.
,
,
, . ,
.
, ,
, . -
,
[82].
190

10 .
. ,
. : ;
. ( )
( ),
, . , .
,
,

.

. : .
. ( ) ( ).
-
.
- -

. ,
[99, 85], [66], [101],
[113] . (, ),
[224, 225], 191

(,
, , ),
. , XX- XXI-: . ,
.
. , .
- 2003 .
2003 (Physcon
2003), 250 32
. , [202]
[205] 1500 .
, .

192


1. .. , // . . . 1993. .
110118.
2. .., .. //
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3. .., ..
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5. .., .., .. //
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9. .., .. : . II. // . 2004.
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4, . 311.
11. .., .., ..
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.: , 1959.
13. ., C. . .: , 1965.

193

14. .. . .: ,
1971. 894 .
15. .. . .: , 1994.
16. . . .: , 1960.
17. .. . .: , 1965.
18. ..
. .: , 1975.
19. .., .. . .: , 1984, 256. (English
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31. .. .
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32. .., .., ..
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33. .., .., .., ..
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34. .., .., .. . .: , 1981.
35. .., .. :
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36. .. . 2- . .: .. 1999.
37. . ., .
. .: , 1971.
38. .. // . 1951. .21. N 5.
39. .. . .: . 1976. (4- . 1985. 448c.)
40. . . 2. : , 1999.
41. ..
//
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42. .. . .:
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. 2003. 2.
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56. .., ..
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196

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67. . //
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68. .., .., .
// . 2000.
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69. .. :
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70. .., .., . . . .: , 2003.
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74. .. :
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75. / .
.. , .. . .: , 2001. 278 .
76. / . ..
, ... -: , 2003. 410 .
77. . . . I,II. .: , 1974.
78. .., .., ..
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. 1999. 2, . 1924.

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