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Campos, David
De León, Claudia
Climatic Controls
The world's many
climates are
controlled by the
same factors
affecting weather,
a) intensity of
sunshine and its
variation with
b) distribution of
land and water
c) ocean currents

This map shows sea-

level temperatures Figure 18.1
Regions of Rising & Sinking Air

Global patterns
of temperature
are affected by
global cells of
rising and
sinking air,
which run
north to south.
Figure 18.2
Climate Classification

Ancient Greeks classified 3 climate regions as tropical,

polar, and temperate zones.

The Koppen classification system is now widely used,

based on temperature and precipitation, and
distinguishes 5 major climatic types as tropical moist,
dry, moist mid-latitude with mild winters, moist mid-
latitude with severe winters, and polar climates.

Thornthwaite's classification system considers

precipitation to evaporation ratios.
Koppen's Worldwide Distribution of Climatic Regions, II

Figure 18.5B
Humid Subtropical Climate

In this climate, annual precipitation

may range from 80 to 165 cm, and for
interior regions the summer brings
vast amounts of rain during

Figure 18.15
 Humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa
or Cwa) is a climate zone characterized by
hot, humid summers and cool winters.
This climate type covers a broad category
of climates, and the term "subtropical"
may be a misnomer for the winter climate.
 Significant amounts of  Humid subtropical
precipitation occur in all climates lie on the
seasons in most areas. southeast side of all
Winter rainfall (and continents except
sometimes snowfall) is Antarctica, roughly
associated with large between latitudes 25° and
storms that the westerlies 40° north and south. Two
steer from west to east. of the few exceptions
Most summer rainfall where this climate zone
occurs during reaches up to latitude
thunderstorms and an 46° north are in the Po
occasional tropical storm, Valley and the Toulouse
hurricane or cyclone. regions in Europe.