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Robert Ward 2011

--Robert Ward

Director International Hydrographic Organization MONACO

Robert Ward 2011

What is a chart?

A chart is not a map

- it is an assumed model of the seafloor - relies on remotely sensed data - requires judgment to compile - is difficult to verify - may be incomplete

No chart is infallible

- only reflects what is known and reported

Chart reliability depends on: - age, accuracy and completeness of the source information
Robert Ward 2011

Chart reliability availability of data


Data density:

Robert Ward 2011

Chart reliability availability of data


depths less than 200m
% modern surveys 60 30 13 84 52 27 35 46 49 28 20 47 22 48 87 40 35 5 30 16 55 45 7 29 % needs resurvey % unsurveyed

USA

Canada

Mexico

Colombia

Brazil

Chile

Australia

Japan

UK

(IHO S-55 Status of Surveys and Charting 2011)


Robert Ward 2011

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Robert Ward 2011

chart reliability - ZOC

Robert Ward 2011

horizontal datums WGS 72 WGS 84


=

satellite or geocentric datum

European Datum Indian Datum

(Everest 1830)

North American datum

(NAD83)

Australian datum
(AGD84)

= local datums
Robert Ward 2011

Datums for ENCs

ENCs (and RNCs) all use satellite datum LAT is recommended for vertical datum

Robert Ward 2011