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Shri Ramcharitmanas (Devangar: , IAST: rrmacaritamnasa), also spelt Shri Ramcharitamanasa, is an epic poem in Awadhi, composed by the 16th-century

Indian poet, Goswami Tulsidas (c.15321623). Ramcharitmanas literally means the "lake of the deeds of Rama."[1] Tulsidas compared the seven Kndas (literally 'books', cognate with cantos) of the epic to seven steps leading into the holy waters of a Himalayan lake (Mnasa, as in Lake Mansarovar) which "which purifies the body and the soul at once."[2][3] The core of the work is a poetic retelling of the events of the Sanskrit epic Ramayana, centered on the narrative of Rama, the crown prince of Ayodhya. The poem is also called Tulsikrit Ramayan (literally, The Ramayan composed by Tulsi or, loosely, The Ramayan of Tulsidas).[4] Tulsidas (sometimes simply referred to as Tulsi) began writing the scripture in Vikram Samvat 1631 (1574 CE) in Avadhpuri, Ayodhya [during the reign of Akbar (1556-1605)].[5] The exact date is stated within the poem as being the ninth day of the month of Chaitra, which is the birthday of Ram, Ram Navami.[5] A large portion of the poem was composed at Varanasi, where the poet spent most of his later life. Today, it is considered one of the greatest works of Hindu literature. Its composition marks the first time the story of Ramayana was made available to the common man for song and performance.[citation needed] The text is associated with the beginning of the tradition of Ramlila, the dramatic enactment of the text. It was Tulsidas' aim to make the story of Ramlila accessible to the masses.[citation needed] Sanskrit was seen as a very complicated language to master, at his time, and so for this reason the Shr Rmcharitmnas was written in Avadhi,[6] which belongs to the Eastern Hindi language family.

Contents

1 Background 2 Structure o 2.1 Invocations at beginning of each episode o 2.2 Knd Endings 3 Narrative o 3.1 Bal Knd o 3.2 Ayodhya Knd o 3.3 Aranya Knd o 3.4 Kishkindha Knd o 3.5 Sunder Knd o 3.6 Lanka Knd o 3.7 Uttar Knd 4 Ramachandra's Incarnation o 4.1 Balance of Creation o 4.2 Jay and Vijay o 4.3 The curse of Nrad Muni o 4.4 Svayambhuva Manu and Shatarupa o 4.5 Tale of King Pratapbhanu 5 The Abrupt Ending

6 The Divinity of Ram in the Manas o 6.1 Ram's divine birth o 6.2 Deliverance of Ahalya 7 The Immolation of Sati and The Incarnation of Parvati o 7.1 Sati's doubts o 7.2 Daksha's sacrifice o 7.3 Parvati and Nrad's prophecy o 7.4 The wedding of Shiva and Parvati 8 English Translation 9 Notes and references 10 External links

Background
At the time of Mughal Empire in Medieval India, Rmcaritmnas (an epic poem) was written by Tulsidas [n 1][n 2] in 1574[n 3].A composition of Avadhi dialect,[16] the Rmcaritmnas belonged to the saguna form [17][18] of the Bhakti movement [19] (also called Bhakti kl or devotional period) [20] [n 4] in Hindi literature. Inspired [24][25][26][27][28] by the Valmiki Rmyana [n 5], the Rmcaritmnas of Tulsidas is a poem in vernacular Avadhi language [38][39] spoken throughout large parts of North India.[40] The masterpiece of vernacular renaissance challenged the dominance of high-class Brahmanical Sanskrit,[41][42][43] echoing the revolt of Buddha against Brahmanical elitism.[44]

Structure
The Ramcharitmanas consists of seven parts, of which the first two, titled Blk (Childhood Episode) and Ayodhyk (Ayodhya Episode), make up more than half of the work. The later parts are Arayak (Forest Episode), Kikindhk (Kishkindha Episode), Sundark (Pleasant Episode), Lakk (Lanka Episode) and Uttark (uttar=answer Episode),in this you find answers to many questions. The work is primarily composed in the Chaupai metre (four-line quatrains), separated by the Doha metre (two-line couplets), with occasional Soratha and various Chhand metres.[45] Morari Bapu talks about a tree as being a metaphor for the Ramcharitmanas.[46] Tulsidas writes, "Ramayan is the sublime shadow of the tree of Divinity. One who seeks it, or comes near it, leaves his miseries far and behind."[citation needed]

Invocations at beginning of each episode


Tuslidas began every chapter with an invocation because he believed that reading, and indeed the writing, of the story of Ram required the right frame of mind, and also the divine assistance of god.[citation needed] Typically the first three or four verses of each chapter are invocations.

The beginning of Blaka has invocations to deities such as Shiva, Parvati, Ganesh and Hanuman.[47] Ayodhya Knd begins with the following verse: May He in whose lap shines forth the Daughter of the mountain king, who carries the celestial stream on His head, on whose brow rests the crescent moon, whose throat holds poison and whose breast is support of a huge serpent, and who is adorned by the ashes on His body, may that chief of gods, the of all, the Destroyer of the universe, the omnipresent Shiv, the moon-like Shankar, ever protect me[48] The first Doha of Ayodhya Knd is the famous two line couplet: Cleansing the mirror of my mind with the dust from the lotus feet of the revered Guru, I sing Sri Ram's untarnished glory, that bestows the four rewards of human life. This is the same couplet that begins the great poem of Hanuman, the Hanuman Chalisa.[48][49] Aranya Knd's first shlok is: I reverence Bhagavan Shankar, the progeny of Brahma, the very root of the tree of piety, the beloved, devotee of King Shri Ram, the full moon that brings joy to the ocean of wisdom, the sun that opens the lotus of dispassion, the wind that disperses the clouds of ignorance, who dispels the thick darkness of sin and eradicates the threefold agony and who wipes off obloquy.[50] Kishkindha Knd commences with: Lovely as a jasmine and a blue lotus, of surpassing strength, repositories of wisdom, endowed with natural gracem excellent bowmen, hymned by the vedas, and lovers of the cow and Brahmans, who appeared in the form of mortal men through their own Maya as the two noble scions of Raghu, the armours of true religion, friendly to all and journeying in quest for Sita, may they both grant us Devotion.[51] Sundar Knd begins with: I adore the of the universe bearing the name of Ram, the chief of the Raghu's line and the crest-jewel of kings, the mine of compassion, the dispeller of all sins, appearing in human form through His Maya, the greatest of all gods, knowable through Vedanta, constantly worshipped by Brahma, Shambhu, and Shesh, the bestower of supreme peace in the form of final beatitude, placid, eternal, beyond the ordinary means of cognition, sinless and all-pervading.[52] Lanka Knd begins: I adore Shri Ram, the supreme deity, the object of worship even of Shiv, the Dispeller of the fear of rebirth, the lion to quell the mad elephant in the form of Death, the Master of Yogis, attainable through immediate knowledge the storehouse of good qualities, unconquerable, attributeless immutable, beyond the realm of Maya, the of celestials, intent on killing the evil-doers, the only protector of the Brahmanas, beautiful as a cloud laden with moisture, who has lotus like eyes and appeared in the form of an earthly king.[53] Finally Uttar Knd's first Shlok is: I unceasingly extol Shri Ram, the praiseworthy of Sita the chief of Raghu's line, possessed of a form greenish blue as the neck of a peacock and adorned with a print of the Brahman's lotus-foot, which testifies to His being the greatest of all gods-rich in splendour, clad in yellow robes, lotus-eyed, ever-propitious, holding a bow and arrow in His hands, mounted on the aerial car named Pushpak, accompanied by a host of monkeys and waited upon by His own brother Lakshman.[54]

Knd Endings
Goswami Tulsidas similarly ends every chapter in the same manner.[55] Every Knd is formally concluded by Goswami Tulsidas. The example below is an example of the ending of Kishkindha knd. Iti Srimad ramacharitamanase sakala kali kalusavi dhvamsane caturthah sopanah samaptah. Translation: Thus ends the fourth descent into the Manas lake of Sri Rama's exploits, that eradicates all the impurities of the kali age. All the other knds are concluded in the same way where the word caturthah is substituted, according to the knd being concluded.

Narrative
The poem revisits Ramayana of Valmiki, but is not a mere retelling of the Sanskrit epic. Where Valmiki has condensed the story, Tulsidas has expanded, and, conversely, wherever the elder poet has lingered longest, there his successor has condensed. The Rmcharitmnas is basically three separate conversations. These being between Shiv and Parvati, Bharadvaj Muni and Sage Yajnavalkya and finally Kakbhushundiji to Khagpati Garuda. It is also said that there is an underlying personal conversation between Goswami Tulsidas and Ram.[56]

Bal Knd
The Child Episode Prior to starting the actual story, Goswami Tulsidas begins with the invocation of various deities, guru, sadhus and saints. He pays particular homage to Valmiki for bringing the Ramayan to the devotees of Ram. The idea is that the Manas cannot be started without praising such entities. He thereafter begins a dramatis personae of sorts by introducing and praising the various characters of the epic beginning with the birthplace (janam bhumi) of Ram, the holy city of Ayodhya. He then greets Kaushalya, Dashrath and the other Queen mothers. He makes obeisances to the father of Sita, King Janak and his family. Finally he praises Bharat, Lakshman, Shatrughan and then sings the glories of Hanuman. He thereafter introduces the bear and monkey kings such as Sugreev and Jambavan and then finally introduces Sitaji and Ram. The Manas is finally underway. The story begins with the meeting of Muni Bharadvaj and Sant Yajnavalkya. Bharadvaj asks Yajnavalkya to speak in detail, the story of Ram. Yajnavalkya begins with how Shiv came about retelling Ram Katha to his consort Parvati. (The great story of Sati's self-immolation, the destruction of her father Daksh's sacrifice, the rebirth of Sati as Parvati and her marriage to Shiv). Shiv explains as many as five reasons as to why Ram incarnated on earth. Each of these is discussed in detail, with the primary message being that Ram incarnated on earth to protect the saints and His devotees. This is followed by the birth of Ravan and his brothers. After this point the narration passes between Shiv, Yajnavalkya, Kakbhushundiji and Tulsidasji.

The story now moves to the abode of Narayan where Brahma and the other demigods make an appeal for him to do something about the demons that are raging havoc on earth. Narayan shows great compassion to all and declares that he is soon to take birth in the Sun Dynasty. Meanwhile in Ayodhya, Dashrath is very uphappy as he is aging and has no heir to take over his throne. He visits the royal family's Guru, Vasistha and narrates his problem. Vasisthaji comforts Dashrath by telling his that not only will he have a son, but will have four sons. With Dashrath's consent, Guru Vasistha summons Rishi Shringi to perform the Putra-Kam yagna (sacrificial fire for the birth of sons). Tulsidas states that the birth of Ram and his brothers took place on the ninth day of the Chaitra month. It was the fortnight of the moon, known as the shukla period. Despite being the of all creation and Supreme Personality of Godhead, Ram slept in his mothers lap crying. The demigods looked on in awe as the played out childish exploits through His toddler and childhood. The story then moves on and Ram and His brothers are now grown boys. The sage Vishvamitra arrives at Dashrath's royal court where the King receives his eminent guest with great honour. Sage Vishvamitra lived in the forest and was performing great sacrifices. However, the demons Mareech and Subahu would always desecrate the ceremonies. He knew that Ram had taken birth on earth to protect his devotees and so he decided to visit Dashrath to ask him for favour. The sage asks the king to let his sons roam the forest with him. Reluctantly the king agrees. Ram knew the intention of Vishvamitra and gave his assurances to the sage. The vedic sacrifices were performed and Lakshman kills Subahu and Ram dispatches Mareech. Vishvamitra looks as Ram breaks the bow, winning the hand of Sita in marriage. The story then moves to the deliverance of Ahalya. Ram, Lakshman and Vishvamitra venture on a journey and reach the beautiful capital of the Videhas, Mithila. The king of Mithila, Janak, welcomes the great sage and asks him who he is accompanied by. Janak is overcome by great emotions he is able to sense the true nature of the brothers. The brothers then set out to discover the beautiful city and visits Janak's garden. This is an important section of the manas as it is the first meeting of Ram and Sita takes place. King Janak has arranged a swayamvar ceremony to select a husband for his daughter Sita. Sitaji has fallen for Ram and prays to Devi Gauri that she helps her attain Ram as her husband. King Janak sends a messenger to invite Ram, Laksman and Sage Vishvamitra to attend the swayamvar. Whomever could lift and tie the great bow of Shiv (Shiva Dhanush) would be married to Sita. Many princes try and fail to lift the mammoth bow, whereas Ram steps up and effortlessly lifts, strings and breaks the divine bow. Sitaji approaches Ram and places a wreath of victory around his neck. Janak dispatches messengers to Ayodhya from where a marriage procession, consisting of Ram's family, friends and well wishers depart for Mithila. After a great wedding, Ram and Sitaji return to Ayodhya where there is a great celebration and much rejoicing.