You are on page 1of 4

Nucleic acid as a distinctive class of macromolecules, were discovered in 1868 by Friederich Miescher.

He isolated a substance called"nuclein" from the nuclei of pure cells. Later nuclein was shown to be a mixture of basic proteins and phosphate containing organic acids polymerized into deoxyribonucleic acid. It is now known that a second kind of nucleic acid polymer called ribonucleic acid exists both in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm.

Both types of nucleic acid are linear, unbranched polymers of subunits termed nucleotides. Nucleic acid are of two types 1. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) 2. Ribonucleic aid (RNA) Nucleic acids allow organisms to transfer genetic information from one generation to the next. There are two types of nucleic acids: deoxyribonucleic acid, better known as DNA and ribonucleic acid, better known as RNA.

When a cell divides, its DNA is copied and passed from one cell generation to the next generation. DNA contains the "programmatic instructions" for cellular activities. When organisms produce offspring, these instructions, in the form of DNA, are passed down.

Definition of Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acids are the polynucleotides having high molecular weight. The monomeric unit of which is nucleotide. Types of Nucleic Acids:

1) Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) 2) Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

1) RNA: May be found in nucleus but mainly occurs in cytoplasm carry out protein synthesis work. 2) DNA: Occurs in nucleus as well as cell organells like chloroplast and mitochondria. Types of RNA: 1) Transfer RNA (t-RNA) 2) Messenger RNA (m-RNA) 3) Ribosomal RNA (r-RNA) Structure of Nucleic Acids: Nucleic acid components: Sugar - ribose or dexyribose

Base + sugar = Nucleoside - N - glycoside bond.

Nucleoside + phosphoric acid = Nucleotide - Ester bond. Nucleic Acids - condensation polymer of nucleotide (Nucleotide - nucleotide) phosphor diester bond. Watson -Crick double helical structure of DNA and forces responsible for stability of helix. Functions of Nucleic Acids: 1) Transmission of hereditary Characters (DNA) 2) Synthesis of Proteins (RNA) DNA: Store house of genetic information control protein synthesis in cell. Direct synthesis of RNA. RNA: Direct synthesis of specific proteins. m-RNA: To take genetic massage from RNA t- RNA: Transfer the activated amino acids to the site of protein synthesis. r-RNA: Function not clearly understood. Mostly present in ribosomes and responsible for stability of m-RNA.-