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080100

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2010

330.115(075.8)
65673

30

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-, 2010. 239 . ( ).
ISBN 978-5-16-003954-1
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65673

ISBN 978-5-16-003954-1

.., 2010

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1.1.

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. 1.1.2.3.
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1.1.3.

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Mathcad [1.8].

15

, t.
.
1.2.1.

[1.9], : Y(t) ;
C(t) ; I(t) .
C(t) I(t), ..
Y(t) = C(t) + I(t).

(1.2.1.1)

, dY(t)/dt
:
dY (t ) 1
= I (t ).
dt
B

(1.2.1.2)

1/B ,
B . C(t)
, .. . (1.2.1.1)
(1.2.1.2), :
dY (t ) 1
= [Y (t ) C (t )]
dt
B

dY (t ) 1
1
Y (t ) = C (t ).
dt
B
B

(1.2.1.3)

. .
1. C(t) = 0. ,
.
(1.2.1.3) :
dY (t ) 1
Y (t ) = 0,
dt
B


16

(1.2.1.4)

1
( )t
B
Y (t ) = Y (0)e
.

(1.2.1.5)

(1.2.1.5)
t, :
t Y(t) .
2. C(t) = 1 .
(1.2.1.3)
(1.2.1.4) (1.2.1.3).
: (1.2.1.3)
Y(t) = Y1; Y1
(1.2.1.3) , Y1 = C1.

Y (t ) = Y (0)e

1
( )t
B

+ C1 ..

(1.2.1.6)

t .
3. C(t) r.
C(t) = C(0)ert. , C(t) t . (1.2.1.3)
dY (t ) 1
1
Y (t ) = C (0)e rt .
dt
B
B

(1.2.1.7)

C (0) B C (0) rt

Y (t ) = Y (0)
e +
e .

1 Br
1 Br

(1.2.1.8)

(1.2.1.3),
.
[1.9], .
1.2.2.

[1.10]. t p(t), d(t),


s(t). :
17

1. d(t) p(t) :
d[p(t)]= a - bp(t),

(1.2.2.1)

a > 0, b > 0. , d(t)


p(t); p(t) = 0 () a.
2. s(t) p(t) :
s[p(t)] = + p(t),

(1.2.2.2)

>0, > 0. ,
, p(t) = 0 .
3. p(t) = 0 ,
.. a > .
4. p(t) d(t) s(t):
p(t) = [d(t) - s(t)]t.

(1.2.2.3)

, > 0, ..
t
t.
, ,
.
,
, . .
, .
(1.2.2.3) t t0.

dp(t )
= [d (t ) s(t )].
dt

(1.2.2.4)

(1.2.2.1) (1.2.2.2),
d(t) / dt = [( - b(t)) - ( + p(t))],
:
dp(t )
= [(b + ) p(t ) a + ].
dt


18

(1.2.2.5)

p(0) =p0.

(1.2.2.6)

(1.2.2.5) (1.2.2.6) , . . ,
, .
.
, (1.2.2.5), (1.2.2.6). (1.2.2.5)
d(t) / dt = -(b + )p(t).
:
p(t)=Ce-(b+)t.

(1.2.2.7)

(1.2.2.5)
. (1.2.2.7) C = C(t). (1.2.2.7) (1.2.2.5):
dC (t ) r (b+)t
e
C (t ) (b + )e (b+)t =
dt
= (b + )C (t )e (b+)t a + .

(1.2.2.8)


dC (t )
= ( a + )e (b +)t
dt
.
,
a (b+)t
C (t ) =
e
+ C1.
b+
C(t) (1.2.2.7),
p(t) = [(a - )/(b + )] + C1e(b+)t.
a
(1.2.2.6), C1: C1 = p0
. b+
:
p(t ) = p0 e (b +)t +

a
(1 e (b +)t ).
b+

(1.2.2.9)

, t p(t) (a - )/(b + ). .
:
19

pe = (a - )/(b + ).

(1.2.2.10)

(1.2.2.9)
p0 pe.
.
, .. , dp(t) / dt = 0. (1.2.2.5) 0 = -[(b + )pe - a + ],
, (1.2.2.10).
pe (1.2.2.5).
, t
.
, . ,
(1.2.2.1) (1.2.2.2) , t: d(p) = s(p),
p: a - bp = + p. = (a - ):
:(b + ) . d s p
,
(1.2.2.1), (1.2.2.2), d = a - bp, s = + p . 1.2.2.1.

. 1.2.2.2.
(1.2.2.9)
.
, , , -

. 1.2.2.1. .

20

. 1.2.2.2. .

.
, . 1.2.2.3.
t0 p0
pe. ,
,
p1 > pe, p0. p1 ,
p2 < pe, . () ,

. 1.2.2.3.

21

(. 1.2.2.4). , ;
, .

. 1.2.2.4.

, ,
, pe
(. 1.2.2.5 1.2.2.6).
. 1.2.2.3 1.2.2.5
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(. 1.2.2.7 1.2.2.8).
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. 1.2.2.5.

22

. 1.2.2.6.

. 1.2.2.7.

. 1.2.2.8.
23

.
, . . 1.2.2.4, 1.2.2.6 1.2.2.8 ,
.
(. 1.2.2.9).

. 1.2.2.9.

1.2.3.

.. [1.11] :
m

d 2W

+b

dW
cW = f ,
dt

(1.2.3.1)
dt
W ; t
; f , , , , ( ).
m > 0 ;
b > 0 ,
f; c > 0 .
, , d2W/dt2 = dW/dt = 0.
,
24

c W.
m b .
, (1.2.3.1)
m
c , , b f.

d 2W
dt

+b

dW
+ cW = f .
dt

(1.2.3.2)

(1.2.3.1) cW. f(t) (1.2.3.2)


. , f(t) = sin(t)
(1.2.3.2) ,
-
, c
m .
cW
. (1.2.3.1) . , , .

.
1.2.4.
[1.10]
, t: Y(t) ; L(t) ; K(t)
; I(t) ; C(t)
. , .
Y(t) K(t) L(t): Y = F(K(t),L(t)).
F . , , Y(t) = C(t) + I(t), ..
.
, , .. I(t) = Y(t), C(t) = (1 - )Y(t).
, 0 < < 1.
25

, .
, 0 < < 1. K
:
K = K(t + t) - K(t) = Yt - Kt.
t t0, :
dK/dt = Y - K.

(1.2.4.1)

,
, .. L = LL (
). :
dL/dt = L.

(1.2.4.2)


t = 0, L(0) = L0
L = L0et.

(1.2.4.3)

, t L(t) . ,
.
(1.2.4.2).
, , , , , , ,
. ,
(1.2.4.2),
,
.
:

C (t ) = (1 )Y (t )

Y (t ) = F ( K (t ), L(t ))

t
L = L0 e
dK (t )

= Y (t ) K (t )
dt

K (0) = K
0

26

(1.2.4.4)

F(K, L)
. -, .. F(K, L)=
= F(K, L).
y = Y/L k = K/L.
F(K,L),
y = F(K,L)/L = F(K/L,1) = F(k,1). F(k,1)
k. F(k,1) = f(k). y = f(k). :
dk/dt = d(K/L)/dt = [(dK/dt)L - K(dL/dt)]/L2 =
= (dK/dt)L - K(dL/dt)/L2 = (Y K)/L - K/L = y - ( + )k.
,
dk/dt = f(k) - ( + )k,
k(0) = k0 = K0/L0.

(1.2.4.5)

, f(k).
, .. , k
k0. k , dk/dt = 0. (1.2.4.5)
f(k) - ( + )k = 0.

(1.2.4.6)


. f(k) = F(k,1), df/dk > 0, df/dk 0 k . ,
f(k)
k . (1.2.4.6)
(df(0)/dk) > ( + )
. 1.2.4.1.
. L(t) (. (1.2.4.3)),
K(t) = k0L(t) = k0L0et. Y(t) = f(k0)L(t) =
= f(k0)L0et. C(t) =
= (1 - )Y(t) = (1 - )f(k0)L0et. I(t) = f(k0)L0et.
:
, . ,
. , .
27

. 1.2.4.1.

1.2.5.

, t x(t) y(t)
. .. [1.12]
:
dx(t )
2
2
2
dt = a1 y + a2 xy + a3 y + a4 xy a5 x a6 x

dy(t ) = b x b y.

1
2
dt

(1.2.5.1)

:
1 , ,
. 1
. 2xy ,
,
2.
3y2 , , 3.
4xy2 , , . 4.
-a5x -a6x2 ( , ..).
x2 . ,
28

(1.2.5.1), : b1x ; - b2y ,


, -
.
,
, a2xy ,
,
a2.
, a2xy, , , a2xy2,
a2.
(1.2.5.1) . ;

. .
.
1.2.6.

.. [1.13]
:
dp(t )
= f ( p, ,),
dt
f (0, 0, 0) = 0.

(1.2.6.1)

*)

p = ln(P/P , P ,
P* . p > 0
, p < 0
. dp(t)/dt > 0
, dp(t)/dt < 0 ; ,
; ,
. ,
p ,
, ,
.. . (1.2.6.1)
.
(1.2.6.1), dp(t)/dt =
= + p - p3.
29

1.2.7.

1968 . ,
- ,

.

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[1.14] [1.15].
60- 70- . XX . .
[1.16],
1971 .
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() . . 30

1972 . .
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DYNAMO.

[1.17].
31


dy
= y+ y,
dt

y+ y, , y;
y ,
, y.
,
, Fj = gj(yi1, , yim) . ,
. , ,
y = g(y1, y2,, yn)=f(F1,F2,,Fk)=f1(F1)f2(F2)fk(Fk),
m=m(j)<n, k= k(j)<n ( ). ,
, , ,
.
, : , . , , , . ,
,
.
. .
1. .
, : 1) ; 2)
; 3) ; 4)
; 5) .
:
P;
K;
(..
) X;
( ) Z;
()
R.
32

,
, :
PP (, 1970 .);
KP;
C;
( ) F;
XP;
ZS;
RR.

Q, . PP, C, F,
ZS: Q = QC QF QP QZ.
.
, 0 1. , . , 1970 .;
1970 .; , 1970 .
2. . , :
dP
= P (B D ),
dt

(1.2.7.1)

dK
K
= K+
,
dt
TK

(1.2.7.2)

dX
X
= X+
,
dt
TX

(1.2.7.3)

dZ
Z
= Z+
,
TZ
dt

(1.2.7.4)

dR
= R ,
dt

(1.2.7.5)
33

B = B(C, F, PP, ZS) = cBBC(C)BF(F)BP(PP)BZ(ZS) ; D = D(C, F, PP, ZS) = cDDC(C)DF(F)DP(PP)DZ(ZS)


; K+=K+(P, C) = PKC(C)
; X+=X+(F, Q) = XF(F)XQ(Q)/TX
; Z+ = Z+(P, KP) = PZK(KP)
; TZ = TZ(ZS)
; R-=R-(P, C) =
= PRC(C) .
:
PP = P/PN ;
KP = K/P ;
ZS = Z/ZN ;
RR = R/R0 ;
XP = KP X/XN
;
QCF = QC/QF ;
F = FXFPFZ ;
C = KP [(1 X)/(1 X0)] ER ;
(BC, BF, KC
..)
,
. . . 1.2.7.1 1.2.7.2 BC
ER,
, () R.
:
cB = 0,04 ;
cD = 0,028 ;
cK = 0,05 ;
TK = 40 ;
TX = 15 ;
tN = 1970 ;
PN = 3,6109 1970.;
XN = 0,3 ;
34

.1.2.7.1.

. 1.2.7.2.

ZN = 3,6 109 ,
PN.
:
t0 = 1900, P0 = 1,65 109, K0 = 0,4 109, X0 = 0,2, Z0 = 0,2 109,
R0 = 9 1011. ,
, 1970.,
250 . . .

1900 2100 . 1900 1970.
.
( ) ( ). 1970.
. ( , cB, cD, cK),
35

,
1900 1970 . . . 1.2.7.3.
, 2025 . , 75
, .. 2 . 2100 .
(.. R0), 2050 . ZN, , .
, , ,
. ,
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, , ,
, .., -

. 1.2.7.3. .
36

, , .
.1.2.7.4 ,
1970 . 4 , .. (1.2.7.5)

dR/dt = -0,25R.
,
. , .
-
, , ,
.
.
2060 . 40 . 2030 .,
20 1/6 .
. .

,
. -
.

.1.2.7.4. 1970 .
4
37

XXI . , 70- . XX .,
. , 2000 . 6 , -2 5 .
,
.
,
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[1.16].
( 1970
2100 .). .
.1.2.7.5 , 1970.:

1970 .;
;
40%;
20%;

.1.2.7.5. .
38

30%.
XXI .,
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39

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.. .

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1.2.8.

- (1.2.3.1) . , (1.2.3.2)
.
,
. (1.2.3.1) . , c
.

:
m( x,t )

d2x

dx
+ B + C ( x ) = F (t ).
dt
dt
2

(1.2.8.1)

[1.11] :
x(t) ; t ;
F(t) , , , , ( 40

); m(x,t) ;
B(dx/dt) ,
F(t); C(x) . , , d2x/dt2 = dx/dt = 0.
C(x) = F(t), .. C(x)
C(x) < 0 C(x) > 0.
m(x,t), B(dx/dt) C(x)

.
.
x(t) F(t), d2x(t)/dt2,
m(x,t)= F(t) / (d2x(t)/dt2).
B(dx/dt) . x(t)
dx(t)/dt,
B(dx/dt)= F(t) t. ,
,
.. B(dx/dt) = b(x,t) dx/dt , b(x,t) =F(t)/(dx/dt).
m(x,t) = const, B(dx/dt) = bdx/dt (b = const),
C(x) = -cx (c = const), F(t) = f c
(1.2.3.1).
, , m = const,
B(dx/dt) = bdx/dt ( b = const), C(x) = cx + x3;

d2x
dt

+b

dx
+ cx + x 3 = F (t ).
dt

(1.2.8.2)

F(t) = Wsin (t)


:
m

d2x
dt

+b

dx
+ cx + x 3 = W sin(t ).
dt

(1.2.8.3)

c > 0
[1.20], < 0 [1.21].
(1.2.8.3) m 41

cx + x3 Wsin(t)
bdx/dt, . x(t)
. (1.2.8.1) (1.2.8.2) .
F(t) = Wsin(t), (1.2.8.3).
, (1.2.8.3). (1.2.8.1) , ,
(1.2.8.3) :
m

d2x
dt 2

+ C ( x ) = 0.

(1.2.8.4)

C(x). . ,
. E

2

E kin =

m dx

2 dt

(1.2.8.5)


Epot = C(x)dx:

(1.2.8.6)

E = Ekin + Epot.

(1.2.8.7)

.
. (1.2.8.6) ,

C(x) = -dEpot/dx.

(1.2.8.8)

(x) ,
C(x) = d(x)/dx.

(1.2.8.9)


.
42

: .


m
.
(W) .
1.2.9.

(. 1.2.9.1). .
,


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1.2.9.1






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47

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d2x(t)/dt2 + 20sin(x(t)) = 0.
: x(t) (
(t)), 0 (!)
.
x(t) sin(x(t)).
, .
.
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).
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.

. ,

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49


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).
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,
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.. ..
[1.19].
, , , , , , .
1.2.10.

2008 .,
, ,

.

[1.51].
. (,
,
), (
, , ..).
,

,
, .

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51

1)
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;
2)
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frictionless market). , frictionless , . , , ,
, .
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, 52

, .
, .

.
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6 .
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7 :
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,
;
3) ;
4)
, .
. 1.2.10.1 ,
.

. 1.2.10.1.
53

, , . , ,
. ,
. .
, . (, ,
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. ,
.
.
,
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,

(
)
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.
Microsoft
, IKEA,
, .
54

. ,
: ? , (),
.

. , , , ?

(luxury)-?
. ,
(, ),
. ,
,
. .
XVII .
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. 1929 .
, .
2008 .
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. ,

.

-. (. 1.2.10.1).
. 1.2.10.1, ,

, , .
55

1.2.10.1

()

- - -
. - .

- -


.
.
.


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. (1970)
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.
(),
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) .
, ,
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1.3.
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, .
1.3.1.

, , .
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,
, , . , . , ,

.
,
,
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, .


, ,

.
, , . , , .
, .
.

.
: n,
59

,
(1.3.1.1), n , t0.
t , ,
t (
), ( ). ,
fk([t],x1,,xn)
.
dxk (t )
= fk ([t ], x1,..., xn ),
dt
xk (t0 ) = k ,

(1.3.1.1)
k = 1,..., n.
(1.3.1.1). (1.3.1.1) . , t = t0 .
, , , .
.
.
.
, , (
, , .).

. .
,
,
. ,
. . (, ),
.
.
. , 60

,
. ,
,
.

dxk (t )
= fk ([t ], x1,..., xn ),
dt

k = 1,..., n,

(1.3.1.2)

.
(
). ,
. . , , ,
.. . , .

. . .
,
, ,
.
. , . , .
y(t) = kt + sin(t) , kt
, sin(t) () , .
f(t) = y(t) - kt.
, f(t) = sin(t) .
61

.
. 1.3.1.1.

. 1.3.1.1.

1.3.2.

.
.
. ,
. ,
,
. ,
d 2 x(t )

dx(t )
) = W (t ),
(1.3.2.1)
dt
dt
x(t) ; t ;
0 ; W(t) , T,
.. W(t) = W(t + T); D(x(t), dx(t)/dt) , . ,
2

62

+ 20 sin( x(t )) + D( x(t ),

x(t) sin(x(t)). , , , . x(t)


,
. , ,

x(t); , 0 ,
x(t),
. ,
, .
- - .
(1.3.2.1) ,
D(x(t), dx(t)/dt) , sin(x(t)). D(x(t), dx(t)/dt) D(x(t), dx(t)/dt) = b(dx(t)/dt), , , b
. ,

.
W(t)
Wsin(t) ( , T = 2/). ,
; ,
.
, sin(x(t)), .
, (1.3.2.1) ,
.
. , , .
, , . , , - ,
, .
63

, .

sin( x(t )) x(t )

x 3 (t ) x 5 (t ) x 7 (t )
+

+ ...
3!
5!
7!

(1.3.2.2)

:
sin( x(t )) x(t )

x 3 (t )
;
3!

(1.3.2.3)


d 2 x(t )
1
dx(t )
+ 20 ( x(t ) x 3 (t )) + b
= W sin(t ).
2
6
dt
dt

(1.3.2.4)

1 ,
, , ,
(, ) .

.
,
sin(x(t)) ,
, :
d 2 x(t )
dx(t )
+ 20 x(t ) + b
= W sin(t ).
2
dt
dt

(1.3.2.5)

,
-
. , ,
,
, sin(x) x .
, ,
: (1.3.2.1), (1.3.2.4) (1.3.2.5).
64

, . , . ,
.

.
.
, .
, . , .
, , ,
.

.. 30- . XX . ,
, , , , , [1.22].
. , , , - ,
. ,
. ,
. ,
.
,
- .
.
,
. , ,
. . .

65

. . , , .
. ,
()
.

.
.
.
t .
t , t.

() .
.
( , ). ( , t).
;
.
,
( )
( ) .
, ( )
.
, , t.
.
, ;
. ,
.
,
.
66

, .
, , , ().

. 1.3.2.1.

. 1.3.2.1.

1.3.3.

, , .
,
. (vibration, oscillation),

.
67

,
,
. , .
, , , , , . ,
, , ,
,
.
(Forced vibration) ,
, , , . ,

. , .
, , ,
.
(1.2.3.1),
f .
(1.3.2.1) (1.3.2.4) (1.3.2.5). (1.2.8.3) , . .
(Self-excited vibration) ( ,
), .
( ),
(
).
( ),
( ), , (
),
68

. , . , , ,
.
. ,
m

d 2 x(t )
dt

+b

dx(t )
+ cx + x 3 = 0,
dt

(1.2.8.3) W = 0, b < 0
( b < 0 ).
b > 0 ( b > 0
). b = 0 , , , .
(Parametric vibration) ,
. , ,
,
.
. , , , g (t).

d 2 x(t )
dt 2

+ 20 (1 +

1 d 2 (t )
)sin( x(t )) = 0.
g dt 2


(1.2.8.3) ,
(W = 0), t.

m

d2x
dx
+ b + c sin(t ) x + x 3 = 0.
2
dt
dt

, .
69

(Harmonic vibration) ,
() , .
(Harmonic)
, ( ).
, ( ).
x(t) T,
(,
),
:

1
x(t ) = a0 + ak cos(kt ) + bk sin(kt ).
2
k =1
k =1

,
= 2/T. a0, a1, a2,, b1, b2, . a0/2
. a1, b1
. . k > 1
k. ;
k . , .
T x(t).
:
T

ak =

2
x(t )cos(kt )dt (k = 0, 1,...);
T 0

bk =

2
x(t )s ib(kt )dt (k = 1, 2,...).
T 0

(Amplitude)
, 70

, .
Ak = ak2 + bk2 .

(Phase) , .
.
tg ( k ) =

bk
.
ak

(Frequency spectrum) ,
.
,
.

.
(Decaying vibration) .
(Increasing vibration) .
- (Amplitude frequency
characteristic) .
(Free vibration) ,
,
.
(Natural frequency) .
.
(Natural frequency spectrum) .
(Resonance)

.
(Resonance frequency) , - .
71

(Antiresonance frequency) , - .
(Dynamic stiffness) .
(Critical damping
coefficient) (),

.
(Almost-periodic vibration,
quasiperiodic vibration) , , .
(Random vibration) ,
. ,
.
(Synchronous vibration)
.
(In-phase vibration) .
(Beat) , .
() (Superharmonic vibration) ,
.
(Subharmonic vibration)
,
.
() (Combined
vibration) ,
.
(
) .

() .
. ,
, , ..

1.4.

1.4.1. ,

-
. . .

, .
, , - , -
[1.46]. ( , , , )
. , ,
, , , - .
- .
, XVIIXVIII .,
. .
, , ,
,
, , .

, ,
,
, .
73

, .
,
( , , ,
),
, . .
, [1.11.3, 1.23,
1.24] , .. ,
. ( , -, ..) .
,

, , ,
- .
.
.
.
,
() , (
).
.

, , ,
,
. , ,

(, ) 74

. - ,
. ( ,
, , ) ,
. , ,
.


.
, .
XX . , (complexity sciences).
, ,
, , , , .

[1.25], [1.26], . .
, ,
[1.27] - .
, ,
.
, , , , .
[1.474.49], - .

, , - . (
75

)
.
,
,
,
, . ,
, . , , ,
.
. ,
. , ..
, .
,
. ,
, .
.
.
- . -
.
- , .

, 2006 . ,
300 .
,
. 45- .
, 76

.
,
, . 20 ,
, : .
, , ,
. ,
,
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10 30 . ,
. ,
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.
,
. .
. . [1.141.16], . ,
,
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,
.

.
,
77

. ,
-
. : , .

, -
. - .
, , - .
. , . , , .
[1.28] :
(,
). . , . ,
.
[1.28] 19 1987 ., - (),
. , 1987 .
. ,
.
.
: ,
, .
, .

78

, . .
. ,
.
. [1.52] , , , , .
[1.28] .
,
. , ,
, , . , ,
,
. , ;
; . .
- .
, , . ,
- .

( ).
.
[1.27] , , . ,
. ,
.
. ,
79

.
,
(1899) (1950),
( ,
) (
, ).

.
[1.291.36], .
[1.29] ,
. [1.37]
, .
.. [1.3], -,
, , , .

, ,
.
:
, .
1.4.2.

,
, :
dx
dt = y

dy = f ( x, y).
0

dt

80

(1.4.2.1)

,
d2x
dt 2

= f0 ( x, y).

(1.4.2.2)

, , t.
xOy, . ,
.

dy f0 ( x, y)
=
.
dx
y

(1.4.2.3)

y 0
f0(x,0) = 0.

(1.4.2.4)

x = xs. (xs,0) (1.4.2.2) (1.4.2.1).


.
.
. (1.4.2.4).
.
, , .
, , ,
(), (
). , , ( ).

81

.
(1.4.2.3) :

dy cx + dy + f1 ( x, y )
.
=
dx ax + by + f2 ( x, y)

(1.4.2.5)

, (1.4.2.5),
x 0 y 0 f1(x, y) f2(x, y)
x2 + y2, a, b, c, d ,
= ad - bc 0 x = y = 0 ,

dy cx + dy
=
.
dx ax + by

(1.4.2.6)

(1.4.2.1)

dx
dt = ax + by

dy = cx + dy.
dt

(1.4.2.7)

, , ( , , )
, . (1.4.2.1)
(1.4.2.7) ,
,
, .
= = 0
, ,
= = 0, dx/dt = dy/dt = 0. (1.4.2.6)
.
, ,
dy 0
,
= . dx 0
(1.4.2.6) .

82

(1.4.2.7) , , , , x, y :
= 11 x + 12 y

= 21 x + 22 y.

(1.4.2.8)

,

a
c
= 0.
b
d

(1.4.2.9)

(1.4.2.7).
.
(1.4.2.9) ,
, (1.4.2.7)

d
dt = 1

d = .
2
dt

(1.4.2.10)

(1.4.2.9) ,

d
dt =

d = + .
dt

(1.4.2.11)

, , , .
.
1- . (1.4.2.9)
. 1 2 ,
83

d
d
= 1,
= 2 .
dt
dt

(1.4.2.12)

: 1 = -12, 2 = -22.
(1.4.2.12)
= e 1 t , = e 2t ,
2

, , < 0.
t , 0, 0. 12<22,
d 2 22 (12 22 )t
e
=
=
.
d 1 12

d
0 t .
d

( 3 5 . 1.4.2.1),
.
1 2: 1 2 , ( 3
. 1.4.2.1). 1 2 ,
( 5 . 1.4.2.1).
, 3 . 1.4.2.1, , 5 . 1.4.2.1.
= = 0,
.
.
12 > 22 , ,
.
, .
(1.4.2.12)
, a = d, b = c = 0.
(1.4.2.9)
a
0
= 0.
0
a

84

1 = 2 = a.
(1.4.2.7)
dx
dt = ax

dy = ay.
dt

: ln(y) = ln(x) + ln(a), y = ax. , ( 7


. 1.4.2.1) ( 8 . 1.4.2.1)
,
.
(1.4.2.9) , 1 = 2 = ,
(1.4.2.7)
(1.4.2.11).
2t
2t
2
1 = - . = e , = (t + )e .

= (t + ) .

(1.4.2.13)

t ,
d
, 0, t
.
d
(1.4.2.13) ,
t= -/. , 2
d
.

= 0 t =
d
2
9 10
. 1.4.2.1. .
2- . (1.4.2.9) , . ,

d
dt = 1

d = .
2
dt

85

1 = -, 2 = , (, > 0). = e t , = e t . -

= e( )t .
( 6
. 1.4.2.1).
. . .
3- .
.

d
dt =

d = .
dt

(1.4.2.14)

.
: = + i, = u + iv; = i, = u iv; i
. (1.4.2.14)
du dv
+ i = ( + i)(u + iv);
dt
dt
du dv
i = ( i)(u iv).
dt
dt


du
dt = u v

dv = v + u.
dt

(1.4.2.15)

(u,v) : u = r cos,
v = r sin. (1.4.2.15)
dr
d
cos r sin
= r cos r sin ;
dt
dt
dr
d
sin + r cos
= r sin + r cos .
dt
dt
86

dr
d

= r ,
= .
dt
dt

dr
= r.
d

+ ln C, r = Ce .

,
, . < 0 ( ),
r , 2 . 1.4.2.1.
. > 0, r .
( 4 . 1.4.2.1). , .
4- . ( = 0). = 0, 0.

:

, ln r =

dr
dt = 0

d = .
dt

r = const = r0, = t + 0.
,
. .
, ,
( 1 . 1.4.2.1).

.
:
m

d2x
+ c1 x = 0.
dt 2

(1.4.2.16)

87

1.4.2.1

88

. 1.4.2.1



,
.

(

)



a = d,
b=c=0



a = d,
b=c=0

89

. 1.4.2.1

/
9

10

(1.4.2.2)
c
f0 ( x, y) = 1 x. m
(1.3.2.5) .

dx
dt = y

dy = c1 x.
dt
m

(1.4.2.17)


c
(1.4.2.4) : 1 x = 0,
m
: x = 0, y = 0.
(1.4.2.16) x(t) = Cekt. (1.4.2.16),
,
:
90

mk2 + c1 = 0.
(1.4.2.9).
a = 0, b = 1, c = -c1/m, d = 0.
(1.4.2.9), .
c
m > 0, c1 > 0 k = i 1 (i m
). (1.4.2.16)

x(t) = C1cos(kt) + C2sin(kt)

(1.4.2.18)

x(t) = Asin(kt + ),

(1.4.2.19)

c1
; = Asin; C2 = Acos. A m 1
, , k
. T = 2/k. .
A ( 1 2) dx
= x1 . : C 1 = x 0 , C 2 = x 1 /k,
x(0) = x0 ,
dt t = 0

k =

x12

kx0
. k T x1
k
. , (1.4.2.16) (1.4.2.18) (1.4.2.19).
.
cx
dy
(1.4.2.3) ,
= 1 . ,
dx
my

A = x02 +

y2 +

, = arctg

c1 2
x = 2C3 ,
m

(1.4.2.20)

C3 ( 2 ).
(1.4.2.20)
( 1 . 1.4.2.1), (0,0)
(. 1.4.2.1).
, c1 (1.4.2.16) : c1 < 0. - , m > 0.
91

. 1.4.2.1. ,
(1.4.2.16) m = 1, c1 = 1.

.
(1.2.3.1).
(1.4.2.16)
x(t ) = C4 e k1t + C5 e k1t ,

k1 =

(1.4.2.21)

c
.
m

(1.4.2.21) , t . (1.4.2.20)
, , c1 < 0.
( 6 . 1.4.2.1),
.
, b. .

92

d 2 x(t )
dt

+b

dx(t )
+ c1 x(t ) = 0.
dt

(1.4.2.22)

, m > 0, c1 > 0, b > 0.


m. :
d 2 x(t )
dt

+ 2n

dx(t )
+ k 2 x(t ) = 0.
dt

(1.4.2.23)

dx
dt = y

dy = k 2 x 2ny.
dt

f0(x, y) = -k2x - 2ny. (1.4.2.4). ,


: (0, 0).
(1.4.2.23) x(t) = Cezt. , (1.4.2.23),

z2 + 2nz + k2 = 0.

(1.4.2.24)

: z1,2 = n n2 k 2 . :
1) n < k. , . (1.4.2.13) :
z1 = -n + ik1, z2 = -n - ik1, k1 = k 2 n2 , i = 1.
(1.4.2.23)
x(t) = ent[C6cos(k1t) + C7sin(k1t)].

(1.4.2.25)

C 6 , C 7
dx
x(0) = x0 ,
= x1, :
dt t =0
x(t ) = e nt ( x0 cos(k1t ) +

x1 + nx0
sin(k1t ).
k1

(1.4.2.26)
93

C6, C7 A1, : C6 = A1sin, C7 = A1cos.


(1.4.2.26) :
x(t) = A1entsin(k1t + ).

(1.4.2.27)

,
, .
. , x(t)
, .. .
, (1.4.2.27) . k1 k
b = 0.
(0, 0).
(1.4.2.3)

dy
x
= k 2 2n.
dx
y

(1.4.2.28)

( 2
. 1.4.2.1), (0, 0)
(. 1.4.2.2).
2) n > k. , .
(1.4.2.24) :
z1 = n + k2 < 0, z2 = -n - k2 < 0, k2 = n2 k 2 .
(1.4.2.23)
x(t ) = e nt (C8 e k2t + C9 e k2t ).

(1.4.2.29)


x(t ) = e nt [(C10 ch(k2t ) + C11sh(k2t )].

(1.4.2.30)


: 2C8 = C10 + C11, C9 = C10 - C11.
C 10 , C 11
dx
x(0) = x0 ,
= x1, :
dt t = 0
94

. 1.4.2.2. ,
1.4.2.23 n = 0,05; k = 1.

x(t ) = e nt [ x0 ch(k2t ) +

x1 + nx0
sh(k2t )].
k2

(1.4.2.31)

,
, , . ,
, .
.
(0, 0).
(1.4.2.3)
(1.4.2.28). ( 3 . 1.4.2.1), (0, 0)
(. 1.4.2.3).
3) n = k.
. (1.4.2.23)

x(t ) = e nt (C12t + C13 ).

(1.4.2.32)

95

. 1.4.2.3. ,
1.4.2.23 n = 1,1; k = 1.

.
.
, b (b < 0)
( 4 . 1.4.2.1), b ( 5 . 1.4.2.1) (. 1.4.2.4).

, . , .
. , ,
, , .
, .
96

. 1.4.2.4. ,
1.4.2.23 n = 0,05; k = 1.

.
(y > 0)
x, .. , (y < 0)
x, .. ; ,
. = t ( ) . , ;
x
;
, x,
, y;
- x , ;

97

, x, , y, ;

.
(..
, ) .
, , ,
; .
; ,
, .
,
, ,
.
. .
,
, . ,
, .
,
.
. 1.4.2.2 .
1.4.2.2

d 2 x(t)
dt

98

+ k 2 x(t) + x 3(t) = 0



()

. 1.4.2.2

d 2 x(t)
dt

d 2 x(t)
dt 2

d 2 x(t)
dt

+ k 2 x(t) x 3(t) = 0

k 2 x(t) + x 3(t) = 0

k 2 x(t) x 3(t) = 0

d 2 x(t)
dx(t)
+ 2n
+
dt
dt 2
+ k 2 x(t) + x 3(t) = 0 (n < k )


(

)


(

)


()


( )

99

. 1.4.2.2

d 2 x(t)
dx(t)
+ 2n
+
dt
dt 2
+ k 2 x(t) x 3(t) = 0 (n < k )


(
)

d 2 x(t)
dx(t)
+ 2n
+
dt
dt 2
+ k 2 x(t) x 3(t) = 0 (n > k )


(
)

d 2 x(t)
dx(t)
+ 2n

2
dt
dt
k 2 x(t) + x 3(t) = 0 (n < k )

d 2 x(t)
= f0( x ),
dt 2
f0( x ) = k 2 x(t)

().

x < A,
f0( x ) > k 2 x(t)
x = A

100

. 1.4.2.2



(
).


( ).

(

d 2 x(t)
dx(t)
b1
+
dt
dt 2
3

dx(t)
+ b3
+ k 2 x(t) = 0
dt

d 2 x(t)
dx(t)
+ b1

2
dt
dt
3

dx(t)
b3
+ k 2 x(t) = 0
dt

d 2 x(t)
dx(t)
b1
+
dt
dt 2
3

dx(t)
dx(t)
+ b3
b5
+
dt
dt
+ k 2 x(t) = 0

d 2 x(t)
dx(t)
+ b1

dt
dt 2
3

dx(t)
dx(t)
b3
+ b5
+
dt
dt
+ k 2 x(t) = 0


(
).

.

( ).

101

. 1.4.2.2

d 2 x(t)
dx(t)
b0(1 x 2(t))
+
dt
dt 2
+ k 2 x(t) = 0


(
).

--

1.4.3. .

,
.
.

() .
.
g (. 1.4.3.1).
( 2, 5), ( 1), ( 4). m
.
, -

. 1.4.3.1.
102

.
2 5
.
4 . 3 . 1
.

.
,
.

, .
h 6, 5 6 7, h. ,

, . , ,
6 5 7 ,
.
,
(1.4.2.2). ,
. 1.4.3.1 (1.4.2.2):
x

= f0 ( x )dx.
0

,
. , . ,
, .
,
, .
.. [1.38] (. 1.4.3.2). ,
103


. 1.4.3.2.
,
. ,
, .. , , , .
:
1)
. ;
2) ;
3) , , . ;
4)
, , ; ,
,
;
5) , ,
.
,

, ;

. 1.4.3.2.
104

6) ,
,
,
.
.
(. 1.4.3.3) , , . 1.4.3.1 1.4.3.3 . , .
, , .
.
x ,
, .
x . : 1 < 2 < 3 < 4. , , x,
d(x)/dx = 0. 3,
45, 7, 10, 14. (x)
.

. 1.4.3.3. ,
105

x = 0 x = xi
(1.4.2.3) = x - xi dy f0 ( + xi )
.
=

d
y
.
3, 7 14 .
, ,
.
14 3. 3 7 2. 45, 2, .
10 .
, , .
,
3 . 2, 10, 18 . , .
( 3 7) 2, 4;
45, 5, 9.
4 , 1, 19. ,
1, 3, 7, 14.
(
)
. . , , , ,
.
, .

. , , . -
, 106

.
( ),
, .
.
. .
.
, . 1.4.3.4 [1.39].
(x) :
1) 1, (x) = x2;
2) 2, (x) = x3;
3) 3, (x) = x4.
x = 0 ,
d(x)/dx = 0 . ( = x - xi x = 0
.)
,
.

. . 1 (x) = x2 - x, 2 (x) = x3 - x,
3 (x) = x4 - x2. 0 < << 1
.

. 1.4.3.4.
107

1
. -

,
/2.
2 . , (x),
( ), (x).
3 :
, .
, , .
. n
dxi (t )
= X i (t, x1,..., xn ) (i = 1,..., n).
dt

(1.4.3.1)

, t = t0 ,
xi(t0) = xi0,

(1.4.3.2)

.
xi(t) = i(t), i(t0) = xi0 = i0.

(1.4.3.2)

, , ,
.

i(t) =xi(t) - i(t).

(1.4.3.4)

(1.4.3.1) :
d i (t )
= X i (t, x1 + 1,..., xn + n ) X i (t, x1,..., xn ), (i = 1,..., n). (1.4.3.5)
dt

, i(t) .
108

,

(), , n

i20 () t t0 , n

i2 .
i =1

i =1

i2 0 t , i =1

.
. .
, . ,
, .
, , . -
,
() .
, ,
.
,
, ,
( ) .

.
,
:
.
.

.
109


. ,
,
.

. .
,

(),
, t = t0 - , -
t > t0. , , t ,
.
(,
).
[1.40],
.
, .
,
, .
, ,
( ).

. ,
. ,
[1.41]. , .
.

110


i:
d i (t )
= pi1 i + ... + pin n + i (i = 1,..., n),
dt

(1.4.3.6)

i i(t) .

d i (t )
= pi1 i + ... + pin n (i = 1,..., n).
dt

(1.4.3.7)

xi = const , pik i .
(1.4.3.7)
pik ik = 0 (i, k = 1,..., n),

(1.4.3.8)

ik (ik = 1, i = k ik = 0, i k).
:
1)
,

i;
2)
,

.
, , ,

i.
, . ,
, .
(pik i t)
. 111


.
f(t) ,
{ f (t )} = lim

ln f (t )

(1.4.3.9)

(1.4.3.7) , 1 + 2 = 0,
n

1 + 2 e

pkk dt

k =1

pkk dt

k =1
.
:
1) ,
;
2)
, .
t.

pik(t + T) = pik(t),

(1.4.3.10)

T .
.
. , ,
(1.4.3.7)
: [1.40] (1.4.3.7) T- t = 0
[1.40]:
M(t) = (t)et,

(1.4.3.11)

(t) - T- ,
(0) = E (E ), .
112

j det( - E) = 0, .. ,
. , T, .. M(T),
, j

|M(T) - E| = 0,

(1.4.3.12)

j .
,
i(t + T) = i(t).

(1.4.3.13)

:
1) (1.4.3.12)
() ,
i;
2) (1.4.3.12)
() ,
,
i.
(1.4.3.13):

, .
,
.
(1.4.3.12) .
(1.4.3.7)
,
. (1.4.3.12) ,
(1.4.3.7).
.
. , .
113

.

, .. .
, .


.
.
.
, , . (, ,
), . ,

, .
, ,
, , ,
. , .
. .
1.4.4.

. , . ,
,
,
.
114


:

(
). , ()
(), .
;
;
, .. ;

() ;
- ;
;
;
;
;
;
,
;

() ;
, () ;
.
, , ;
;
;
.
.
115

1. .
. , .
,
.
2.
, . 1.4.2.2.
3. , .. . ,
, .
,
; .
. ,
.
4.
() .
. ()
.
(1.2.8.3),
.
, .
5. - .
,

. (1.2.8.3)
,

[1.20].
6. .
,
.
.
116

7. .

, .
,
. . 1.4.2.2.

, , ,
,
,
, , .
.
,
, ( ) .
, , . 1.4.2.2.
8. .
.
, ,
.
. ,
. , .
9.
-. . ( ). ,
.
, . ( ) . : ) ,
117

; ) , (
) . .
-,
VII . , , ,
, . XIX .
,
,
,
..
. XX . .
, .
, .
. -,
, () , , .
, ,
. , -,
.

. , , ,
, . ,
, . , .
, .

.
XX .
.
, .
118

, , - . , , ,
. , , .
- , .
()
().
, . , - .
,
. , , ,
().
, .
,
,
,

.
,
.
,
.

. .
, .. .
119

, ..
,
[1.42].
, .
10. .
. ,
,
,
.
, .


.
d 2 x(t )
dx(t )
+ 20 (1 + P sin(t )) x(t ) + b
+ x 3 (t ) = W sin(t ). (1.4.4.1)
2
dt
dt

, . ,
.


= 20.
: 0 = 1;
P = W = 0.4; b = 0.03; = 1. 1,8 < < 2,3. = 1.8
:
, .
, , , ;
= 2.3 :
, . 1,8 < < 2,3
. , = 1,8, ,
= 2,3, 120

. . 1.4.4.1 , ,
1,9 2,3.
. , , . , , ,
,
,
.

, , . 1.4.4.2. (1.4.4.1): 0 = 1; P = 0,4; W = 1; b = 0,1; = 0,352.

. 1.4.4.1. 2T- (1.4.4.1) 0 = 1;


P = W = 0,4; b = 0,03; = 1; = 1,9; 2,0; 2,1; 2,2; 2,3.
(x, dx/dt, t) = 1,9
121

. 1.4.4.2. 2T- (1.4.4.1) 0 = 1;


P = 0,4; W = 1; b = 0,1; = 0,352; = 2,0, 2,1,, 2,9.
(x, dx/dt, t) = 2,0

,
, .
, ,
W, ,
. 1.4.4.3. W. ,
, P = 0,4 P = 1.
W .

(. 1.4.4.4).

( , )

, . , , .
122

. 1.4.4.3. 2T- (1.4.4.1) 0 = 1;


P = 0,4; = 2,0; b = 0,1; = 0,352; W = 1,0; 1,1; 1,2; 1,3.
(x, dx/dt, t) W = 1,3


,
.

d 2 x(t )
dt 2

dx(t ) d 2 x(t )
+ 30 x 3 = W sin 3t
+ x 0, 2
+
2
dt
dt

(1.4.4.2)


W.
. 1.4.4.5

(W = 0). , .
W >> 1
. W
W = 0,9
(. 1.4.4.6).

123

. 1.4.4.4. 2T- (1.4.4.1)


0 = 1; P = 0,4; = 2,0; b = 0,1; = 0,352; W = 1,3

2T- ,
. W = 0,9 (.
1.4.4.7).

. 1.4.4.5. (1.4.4.2) W = 0
124

. 1.4.4.6. , , (1.4.4.2).
W = 1, W = 0,9

. 1.4.4.7. 2T- (1.4.4.2). W = 0,9;


W = 1,0

, W = 1
. 125

. , . 1.4.4.7 .
2T- W, . . 1.4.4.8 1.4.4.10.

. 1.4.4.8. 2T- (1.4.4.2) W = 0,7

. 1.4.4.9. 2T- (1.4.4.2) W = 0,6

126

. 1.4.4.9. ()

. 1.4.4.10. 2T- (1.4.4.2) W = 0,5

.
. 1.4.4.11.

127

. 1.4.4.11. 2T- (1.4.4.2)


W = 0,7

W . . 1.4.4.12 , .

. 1.4.4.12. (1.4.4.2) W = 0,4

128

11. ,
.

,
. ,
, , . . ,

d 2 x1(t )
+ c1 x1(t ) c2 [ x2 (t ) x1(t )] = Q sin(t )
m1

dt 2

2
d x2 (t )
m

2 dt 2 + c2 [ x2 (t ) x1(t )] = 0.

(1.4.4.3)

(m1,c1) (m1,c1).
Qsint ,
(m1,c1).
(1.4.4.3)
[1.41].
.

x1 (t ) = A sin(t ), x2 (t ) = D sin(t ).

(1.4.4.4)

A D ,
,
, Qsint.
(1.4.4.4) (1.4.4.3), :
m1 ( 2 A sin(t ) + c1 A sin(t ) c2 [ D sin(t A sin(t )] = Q sin(t )

2

m2 ( D sin(t )) + c2 [ D sin(t ) A sin(t )] = 0.
(1.4.4.5)

t, sin(t).
A D:
129

A( 2 m1 + c1 c2 ) + D(c2 ) = Q

2
A( c2 ) + D( m2 + c2 ) = 0.

(1.4.4.6)

, :
A = Q(c2 - 2m2)/,
D = Qc2 /,
2m1)

(1.4.4.7)
2m2)+ c22.

(c2 = (c1 - c2 , , A = 0 c2 - 2m2=


= 0. , (m2,c2) , Qsin(t), (m1,c1).
.
, , .

, x1(t),
x2(t).
d 2 x1 (t )
dx (t )
+ c1 x1 (t ) c2 [ x2 (t ) x1 (t )] + b1 1
m1
2
dt
dt

dx2 (t ) dx1 (t )

] = Q sin(t )
b2 [
dt
dt

d 2 x2 (t )
dx (t ) dx (t )
+ c2 [ x2 (t ) x1 (t )] + b2 [ 2 1 ] = 0.
m2
2
dt
dt
dt

(1.4.4.8)


x1(t) = Asin(t) + Bcos(t),
x2(t) = Dsin(t) + Ecos(t).

(1.4.4.9)

(1.4.4.9) (1.4.4.8), . sin(t),


cos(t). A, B, D, E.
.
130

2 m1 + c1 + c2

(b1 + b2 )

c2

b2

(b1 + b2 )

c2

2 m1 + c1 + c2

b2

b2

2 m2 + c2

c2

b2

A Q

c2
B 0
= .
b2 D 0

2 m2 + c2 C 0

(1.4.4.10)
b2

, - . , (1.4.4.10) .

, , .

,
. , , ,
, . . , , N .
d 2 x j (t )
dt 2

+ j 2 (k 2 j 2 + D1 ) x j (t ) + x j (t )

j = 1, 2,..., N .

dx j (t )
j2 N 2 2
m xm (t ) + j
= Q j (t ),

4 m1
dt


(1.4.4.11)

,
(N = 2). ,

, Qj(t) , .. Q1(t)= Qsin(t),
Q2(t) = 0.
, .. ,
Q1(t)= Qsin(t). .
131

,
.

. . 1.4.4.13 2-
(1.4.4.11) , - {t, x1(t),dx1(t)/dt, x2(t), dx2(t)/dt}.
: k2 = 0,001; D1 = -0,011; 1 = 2 = 0,04; Q = 1, = 0,6. ,
x1(t), x2(t) , (0, 0) .
, ,
(0, 0) . .

. 1.4.4.13. 2- (1.4.4.11) ,
-
{t, x1(t),dx1(t)/dt, x2(t), dx2(t)/dt} k2 = 0,001, D1 = 0,011, 1 = 2 = 0,04,
Q = 1, = 0,6
132

. 1.4.4.13. ()

. 1.4.4.14 3- (1.4.4.11), : k 2 = 0,5; D 1 = 0,5; 1 = 2 = 0,1;


Q = 100; = 1.

. 1.4.4.14. 3- (1.4.4.11) k2 = 0,5;


D1 = 0,5; 1 = 2 = 0,1; Q = 100; = 1
133

. 1.4.4.14. ()

12. ()
.
( , ) , .
( ) 134

,
; ,
, . ,
.
. .

, .
, , .
13. , () . (. . 11).
14. [1.38, 4.43]
. , , .
, .
, , , , ,
. , .
.
15. , ,
. , , . ,
, . . 135


. , , , 1
2, ,
. , , , , .
16. . :
?
.
,
,
(, ), , .
-
(, ). ,
, ..
,
. , ,
, . . ?
,
. .
.
.

( , , .).
136

. ,

,
. .
17. .
: , . .
. ,
, ,
- .
: , . .

.
, . ,
, t . .
.
3.
. 1963 . [1.44]. ,
, . .

.
3 , .
,
, . ,
137

.
( ) , .
. . ,
. , .
. ,
,
.
,
,
, . ,
.

.
,
.
. ,

.
,
. P.J. Holmes [1.21]
d 2 x(t )
dt

10 x +

dx
+ 100 x 3 = W cos 3,76t
dt

(1.4.4.12)

1 < W < 2. . .
(. 1.4.4.15), -

138

3
2
4
( x ) = (10 x + 100 x )dx = 5 x + 25 x ( 0

).
(1.2.8.1). , . 1.4.4.15.
.
:
1 ( 1); 2 ( 2); , ( 3); , ( ).
,
, . W, ,
, .
. , .
.

. 1.4.4.15.
139

, .
,
.

[1.45]. . , T- .
( p) p = p1
, 2T-
, .
p p = p2
2T- 4T . p 8T, 16T, 32T- p, , .

[1.45]. , p,
2n, n
pn pn1
= = 4,66920...
pn+1 pn

(1.4.4.13)


.
, p,
, .
p, . ,

1/, .


(1.4.4.12) 0,8 < W < 1.
140


. W < 0,8 , (. 1.4.4.16). W ( W 0,854) 2T- (. 1.4.4.17).
.
W W 0,92 4T- (. 1.4.4.18).
W 0,9341, W 0,9371, W 0,9384,
8T (. 1.4.4.19), 16T (. 1.4.4.20), 32T .

. 1.4.4.16. T-
(1.4.4.12) W = 0,7

141

. 1.4.4.17. 2T-
(1.4.4.12) W = 0,886

. 1.4.4.18. 4T-
(1.4.4.12) W = 0,926

142

. 1.4.4.18. ()

. 1.4.4.19. 8T-
(1.4.4.12) W = 0,936

143

. 1.4.4.20. 16T-
(1.4.4.12) W = 0,9379

. 1,13< W <1.2
, 5
. ,
W.
1.4.4.211.4.4.22 [1.21],
5, , W.

144

. 1.4.4.21. 5T-
( W = 1,13) ( W = 1,12) (1.4.4.12)

. 1.4.4.22. 5T-
( W = 1,19, W = 1,20) ( W = 1,21)
(1.4.4.12). (x, dx/dt, t)
W = 1,2

145

. 1.4.4.22. ()

,
1,678< W <1,719 3- . , 1,6 < W < 1,704 W . 1.4.4.23, , 1,689 < W <
< 1,719 . 1.4.4.24.
, . , ,
1,689 < W < 1,704 .

. 1.4.4.23. 3T-
(1.4.4.12) W = 1,60; 1,62; 1,64; 1,66; 1,68; 1,7.
(x, dx/dt, t) W = 1,64
146

. 1.4.4.24. 3T-
(1.4.4.12) W = 1,705; 1,715.
(x, dx/dt, t) W = 1,715

. 1.4.4.25 3- (1.4.4.12),
.

. 1.4.4.25.
3T- (1.4.4.12) W = 1,70
147

. 1.4.4.25. ()

1.4.4.26 (1.4.4.12)
W = 1,5.

. 1.4.4.26. (1.4.4.12)
W=1,5

18. (
)
XX . 148

.
.

. ,
,
. , [1.26], [1.25].
.


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, 1980.
151

1.44. . //
/ . .. .. .
.: , 1981.
1.45. Feigenbaum M.J. Universal behaviour in nonlinear systems. Los
Alamos Sci., 1980, vol. 1.
1.46. .., .. . - , 2007.
1.47. .. : ,
, . .: - ,
2007.
1.48. .., .., ..
. .: , 2003.
1.49. .. - . .: , 1997.
1.50. Jean-Philippe Bouchaud. Economics needs a scientific revolution//
Nature. vol.455. (30October 2008).
1.51. . . , : .
. .: , 2000.

2.1.

2.1.1.

, .
.
. ,
, .
. (1.2.8.3) b = 0,
= 0:
d 2 x(t )
dt

+ 20 x(t ) = W sin(t ). 

(2.1.1.1)

,
t = 0 .
t = 0
x(t ) t = 0 = x0 ,

dx(t )
= x1 .
dt t = 0

(2.1.1.2)

0
153

x(t ) = C1 cos( 0 t ) + C2 sin( 0 t ) +

W
20

sin(t ).

(2.1.1.3)

C1, C2
:
C1 = 0; C2 =

x1
20

W
0 ( 20 2 )

(2.1.1.3)
x(t ) = x0 cos( 0 t ) +
+

W
20

x1
W
sin( 0 t ) +
sin( 0 t ) +
0
0 ( 20 2 )

sin(t ).

(2.1.1.4)


0, .
(2.1.1.4) , . .

0, . .
.
:
x (t ) =

W
20

sin(t ).

(2.1.1.5)

(2.1.1.1) .
: 1) ; 2)
; 3) .
:
1) ;
2) ;
3) < 0
, .. .
154

> 0,
(2.1.1.5)
:
x (t ) =

W
2

20

sin(t + );

4) = 0 (2.1.1.5) .

( (2.1.1.4)).
= 0

W
0 ( 20

sin( 0 t ) +

W
20

sin(t ) =

0
sin( 0 t ) + 0 sin( 0 t )
=W
= .

2
2
0 ( 0 )

= 0 0

, :
sin( 0 t ) + 0 t cos(t )
sin( 0 t ) + 0 sin(t )
=
W
= lim W

2
2

2 0
0 ( 0 )
0

= 0
=

W
2 20

sin( 0 t )

Wt
cos( 0 t ).
2 0

= 0 (2.1.1.4)
x(t ) = x0 cos( 0 t ) +

x1
W
Wt
sin( 0 t ) + 2 sin( 0 t )
cos( 0 t ).
0
2 0
2 0

,
. , t.
.
(. 2.1.1.1).
.
155

. 2.1.1.1.

. .
. . ,
, .

.
.

d 2 x(t )
dt

+ 20 x(t ) + b

dx(t )
= W sin(t ).
dt

(2.1.1.6)

(
) .
. b = 2n.
, (n < 0)
x(t ) = e nt (C6 cos(k1t ) + C7 sins(k1t )), k1 = 20 n2 .
156

.
(2.1.1.6)
x (t ) = A sin(t ).
A -
.
A , . , :
A( 20 2 ) = W cos , 2 An = W sin .

A=

W
( 20

2 2

) + 4n

, tg =

2n
20

(2.1.1.7)

(2.1.1.6):
x(t ) = e nt [C6 cos(k1t ) + C7 sin(k1t )] +

W
( 20

2 )2 + 4n2 2

sin(t ).

(2.1.1.2), :
x(t ) = e nt [ 0 cos(k1t ) +
cos(k1t ) +

1 + n 0
sin(k1t )] + Ae nt [sin()
k1

n sin() cos()
sin(k1t )] + A sin(t ).
k1

(2.1.1.8)

. ,
(. 2.1.1.2).

x(t ) =

W
( 20 2 ) + 4n2 2

sin(t ).

(2.1.1.9)


, n 0.
157

. 2.1.1.2.

:
1)
. ,
, ,
,
;
2)
. ,
, , , .
;
3) = 0. , , A (2.1.1.7) ,
2 = 20 2n2 , .. = 0;
4)

.
2n
tg = 2
. 0 2
, = 0, = /2.
A (2.1.1.7)
, ,
W .
158

, .
, A
Wsin(t)
W
A0 = 2 0
W. kd

kd =

20
A
=
.
A0
( 20 2 )2 + 4n2 2

(2.1.1.10)

. 2.1.1.3.
, (n/0 = 0),
/0 = 1.
. 2.1.1.3,
,
. ,
, , W
A = 2
.
0 2

. 2.1.1.3.

159

, .
,
.
, , . , ,

. ,
,
.
2.1.2.

, .

,
. ;
, .

.
[2.1].
,

;
.
, . . . 2.1.3.


0 < << 1.
, . , 160

, , , .

, . , , ,
-, , -,
, . , , , . , ,
, , , ,
. : 0 .
, , . ,
, ,
- ,
, ..,

,
. , , ,
,
( = 0)
. ,
.
. - , .. ,

dxk (t )
= fk ([t ], x1,, xn ),
dt
k = 1,, n,
161

= (t, 1, 2,
m), 1, 2, , m .
dxko (t )
= fko ([t ], x1o ,, xno ),
dt
k = 1,, n,

, .

dxk (t )
= fk0 ([t ], x1 ,, xn ) + k ([t ], x1 ,, xn ),
dt
k = 1,, n,
,

k ([t ], x1 ,, xn ) = fk ([t ], x1o ,, xno ) fk0 ([t ], x1 ,, xn ),


k = 1,, n.

. .

, .
, ,
,
.
.
.
, (1.3.2.4):

d 2 x(t )
dt

1
+ 20 [ x(t ) x 3 (t )] = W sin(t ).
6

(2.1.2.1)

, (1.3.2.4)
b = 0.
, , x3(t)<< x(t). , , 0
, ..
162

0 .

(2.1.2.2)

(2.1.2.2), .
0<<< 1 (2.1.2.1),
:
d 2 x(t )
dt

+ 20 x(t ) = W sin(t ) + x 3 (t ).

(2.1.2.3)

1/6 .
:
(2.1.2.3)
:
x(t) = x0(t) + mx1(t) + m2x2(t) + m3x3(t) + ...,

(2.1.2.4)

x0(t), x1(t), x2(t), x3(t), ... .


, , ,
x(t) x0(t), x1(t), x2(t), x3(t), ....
.
(2.1.2.4) (2.1.2.3) :
d 2 ( x0 (t ) + x1 (t ) + 2 x2 (t ) + 3 x3 (t ) + ...)
dt 2

+ 20 ( x0 (t ) + x1 (t ) + 2 x2 (t ) + 3 x3 (t ) + ...) =
= W sin(t ) + ( x0 (t ) + x1 (t ) + 2 x2 (t ) + 3 x3 (t ) + ...)3 .

(2.1.2.5)


.
(2.1.2.5),
, .
0 :
d 2 x0 (t )
dt 2

+ 20 x0 (t ) = W sin(t ).

(2.1.2.6)

, (2.1.2.3) = 0. . (2.1.2.6) .
163

. (2.1.2.2), ,
(2.1.2.6) ,
x0 (t ) =

W
20

sin(t ).

(2.1.2.7)

1 :
d 2 x1 (t )
dt 2

+ 20 x1 (t ) = x03 (t ).

(2.1.2.8)

x0(t)
(2.1.2.7).
x1(t) :
d 2 x1 (t )
dt 2

+ 20 x1 (t ) =

W
2
sin3 (t ).
2
0

(2.1.2.9)

sin3(t) (
, ):
d 2 x1 (t )
dt 2

+ 20 x1 (t ) =

W 1
2
[ sin(3t ) + 3 sin(t )].
2
0 4

(2.1.2.10)

(2.1.2.10) ,
, . (2.1.2.10)

x1(t) = B sin(3t) + C sin(t).


(2.1.2.11) (2.1.2.10):
d 2 (B sin(3t ) + C sin(t ))
dt 2
3

+ 20 [B sin(3t ) + C sin(t )] =

W 1
= 2
[ sin(3t ) + 3 sin(t )].
2
0 4

164

(2.1.2.11)


t,
.
3

sin(t): C
C=

3W 3
4( 20 2 )4

+ 20 C

3 W
, :
= 2
4 0 2

. B :
3

(9

+ 20 )B

W
= 2
.
4 0 2

(2.1.2.12)

, 0/3 B , .. . , (2.1.2.2)
0/3,

(2.1.2.13)

(2.1.2.12) B.

:
x(t ) x0 (t ) + x1 (t ) =

W
20

sin(t ) + [B sin(3t ) +

+ C sin(t )].

(2.1.2.14)

,
,
,
, .
(2.1.2.13).

.
2 :
d 2 x2 (t )
dt

+ 20 x2 (t ) = 3x1 (t ) x02 (t ).

(2.1.2.15)

x0(t), x1(t) (2.1.2.7), (2.1.2.11).


165

(2.1.2.15) , :
d 2 x2 (t )
dt 2

9
3

C
B
+

20 0 4
4

+ 20 x2 (t ) = sin(t )

W 3
3
B
C
+ sin(3t ) 2

+
0 0 2
4

W 3

B
.
+ sin(5t ) 2
0 0 4

2(t)

x2(t) = D sin(t) +E sin(3t) + F sin(5t).

(2.1.2.16)

(2.1.2.17)

(2.1.2.17) (2.1.2.16)
,

0/5 

(2.1.2.18)

D, E, F.

x(t ) x0 (t ) + x1 (t ) + 2 x2 (t ) =

W
20

sin(t ) + [B sin(3t ) +

+ C sin(t )] + 2 [D sin(t ) + E sin(3t ) + F sin(5t )].

(2.1.2.19)

, , , .
.
.
,
: , , . , . ,
166

- (2.1.2.1).
.
. (2.1.2.1). ,
, , .
(2.1.2.3) :

d 2 x(t )
dt

+ 20 x(t ) = W sin(t ) + x 3 (t ).

(2.1.2.20)

, ,
0 .
(2.1.2.21)
20 2 = .
. (2.1.2.20) (2.1.2.21):
d 2 x(t )
dt 2

+ 20 x(t ) = [W sin(t ) + x 3 (t ) x(t )].

(2.1.2.22)

(2.1.2.4). (2.1.2.4) (2.1.2.22)



.
0 :
d 2 x0 (t )
dt 2

+ 2 x0 (t ) = 0.

(2.1.2.23)



x0(t) = A cos(t) +B sin(t).

(2.1.2.24)

A B
, .
.
1 :
167

d 2 x1 (t )
2

+ 2 x1 (t ) = W sin(t ) + ( A cos(t ) + B sin(t ))

dt
( A cos(tt ) + B sin(t )).

(2.1.2.25)

(2.1.2.25) (
), :
d 2 x1 (t )
2

3
3

+ 2 x1 (t ) = W B + A 2 B + B 3 sin(t ) +

4
4

dt
1
3 3 3

+ A + A
A + AB 2 cos(t ) + A 2 B B 3 sin(3t ) +

4
4
4
4
3
1

+ A3 AB 2 cos(3t ).
4

(2.1.2.26)

, .
sin(t) cos(t). ,
. .
,
. , , (2.1.2.26) sin(t) cos(t).
A B:
3 2
3 3

W B + 4 A B + 4 B = 0

A + 3 A3 + 3 AB 2 = 0.

4
4

(2.1.2.27)

, A = 0 . (2.1.2.27) B:
3
W B + B 3 = 0.
4

(2.1.2.28)

B
.
168

.
(2.1.2.28) ,
-
(. 2.1.2.1).
, (2.1.2.1)
( W = 0).
- ,
.

= 2. , >1
- , .

.
- = 2. - .

.

. -
= 1.
-
. .

. 2.1.2.1. -
169

1 < < 2 , - .
, (
,
) :
,
.
. (2.1.2.26)
d 2 x1 (t )
dt

+ 2 x1 (t ) = B 3 sin(3t ).
4

(2.1.2.28)

, ,
x1 (t ) = D sin(3t ).

(2.1.2.29)
3

B
. D
(2.1.2.29) (2.1.2.28), D =
32
2
.
(2.1.2.28)

x1 (t ) = B1 sin(t ) + B2 cos(t ) + D sin(3t ).

(2.1.2.30)

, , B1 B2.
.
1, :
d 2 x2 (t )
dt

+ 2 x2 (t ) = 3x02 (t ) x1 (t ) x1 (t ).

(2.1.2.31)

0(t) 1(t), :
d 2 x2 (t )

+ 2 x2 (t ) = 3 (B sin(t ))2
dt 2
[B1 sin(t ) + B2 cos(t ) + D sin(3t )].

170

(2.1.2.32)

(2.1.2.32) , :
d 2 x2 (t )
2

3
9

+ 2 x2 (t ) = B1 B 2 D + B 2 B1 sin(t ) +

4
4

dt
3
3
3

+ B2 B2 B 2 cos(t ) + D + B 2 D B 2 B1 sin(3t )

4
4
4
3
3
B 2 B2 cos(3t ) B 2 D sin(5t ).
4
4



(2.1.2.33)

, , .
sin(t) cos(t). ,
,
sin(t) cos(t) (2.1.2.33). B1 B2:
3 2
9 2

B1 4 B D + 4 B B1 = 0

B + 3 B B 2 = 0.

2
2

(2.1.2.34)

B2 = 0.
9
, B 2 0 ( 4
, )
3 2
B D
.
B1 = 4
9 2
B
4

(2.1.2.35)

,
x(t ) x0 (t ) + x1 (t ) + 2 x2 (t ) = B sin(t ) +

+ ( B1 sin(t ) + D sin(3t )).

(2.1.2.37)

171

, .
.

(2.1.2.20),
. (2.1.2.22).

dx(t )
dt = y(t )

dy(t ) = 2 x(t ) + W sin(t ) + x 3 (t ) x(t ) .


dt

(2.1.2.38)

x(t)
y(t). A(t) B(t),

x(t ) = A(t )cos (t ) + B(t )sin(t )

y(t ) = A(t )sin(t ) + B(t )cos (t ).

(2.1.2.39)

(2.1.2.39) ,

, .
, .
(2.1.2.39)
dx(t )
= y(t ).
(2.1.2.38) , ..
dt
(2.1.2.39):
dA(t )
dB(t )
= cos(t ) A(t ) sin(t ) +
sin(t ) + B(t ) cos(t ) =
dt
dt
= A(t )sin(t ) + B(t )cos(t ).

:
dA(t )
dB(t )
cos(t ) +
sin(t ) = 0.
dt
dt

172

(2.1.2.40)

dy(t )
dt
(2.1.2.39) (2.1.2.38):

(2.1.2.39)

A(t ) 2 cos(t )

dA(t )
dB(t )
sin(t ) B(t ) 2 sin(t ) +
cos(t ) =
dt
dt

= 2 [ A(t )cos(t ) + B(t )sin(t )] + {W sin(t ) + [ A(t )cos(t ) +


+ B(t )sin(t )]3 [ A(t )cos(t ) + B(t )sin(t )]t }.


(2.1.2.41)

(2.1.2.41) (2.1.2.40),
A(t) B(t):
dB(t )
dA(t )
dt cos(t ) + dt sin(t ) = 0

dB(t )
dA(t )
sin(t ) +
cos(t ) = {W sin(t ) + [ A(t )cos(t ) +

dt
dt

+ B(t )sin(t )]3 [ A(t )cos(t ) + B(t )sin(t )]}.

(2.1.2.42)


dA(t)/dt dB(t)/dt, .
.

=

cos(t ) sin(t )
= ,
sin(t ) cos(t )

dA = sin(t ){W sin t + [ A(t )cos(t ) + B(t )sin(t )]3


dt

[ A(t ) cos(t ) + B(t )sin(t )},


dB = cos(t ){W sin t + [ A(t )cos(t ) + B(t )sin(t )]3
dt

[ A(t )cos(t ) + B(t )sin(t )}.

173

dA(t )
3
dt = sin(t ){W sin t + [ A(t )cos(t ) + B(t )sin(t )]

[ A(t )cos(t ) + B(t )sin(t )}

dB(t ) = cos(t ){W sin t + [ A(t )cos(t ) + B(t )sin(t )]3


dt

[ A(t )cos(t ) + B(t )sin(t )}


(2.1.2.43)

. .
dA(t)/dt dB(t)/dt .
.
,
(
) . , T- ,
T

A=

1
A)t )dt .
T 0

(2.1.2.44)

.
. 2.1.2.2. A(t) , , .
(2.1.2.43). ,

. 2.1.2.2.
174

. :

3 3 3 2
1
B
0 = 2 W + 8 B + 8 A B 2

0 = 3 A3 + 3 B 2 A 1 A .

8
2
8

(2.1.2.45)

(2.1.2.45) (2.1.2.27),
, , , .. . ,
,
. . 2.1.2.1.
.

d 2 x(t )
dt

+ 2

dx(t )
+ 20 x(t ) x 3 (t ) = 0.
dt

(2.1.2.46)

dx(t )
dt
, .
, (2.1.2.46),

dx(t )
dt = y(t )

dy(t ) = 2 x(t ) 2 dx(t ) + x 3 (t ).


0
dt
dt

(2.1.2.47)

x(t) y(t) F(t) (t), :


x(t ) = F (t )sin( 0 t + (t ))

y(t ) = 0 F (t )cos( 0 t + (t )).

(2.1.2.48)

, F(t) (t)
.
175

, :
dF (t )
d (t )
sin( 0 t + (t )) + F (t )cos( 0 t + (t ))( 0 +
)=
dt
dt
= 0 F (t ) cos( 0 t + (t ));
dF (t )
d (t )
0 cos( 0 t + (t )) 0 F (t )sin( 0 t + (t ))( 0 +
)=
dt
dt
= 20 F (t )sin( 0 t + (t )) 2 0 F (t )cos( 0 t + (t )) +
+ [F (t )sin( 0 t + (t ))]3 .

F(t) (t)
d (t )
dF (t )
dt sin( 0 t + (t )) + dt F (t )cos( 0 t + (t )) = 0

d (t )
dF (t )
0 cos( 0 t + (t ))
0 F (t )sin( 0 t + (t )) =

dt
dt
= 2 0 F (t )cos( 0 t + (t )) + [F (t )sin( 0 t + (t ))]3 .

(2.1.2.49)

dF (t ) cos( 0 t + (t ))
{2 0 F (t )cos( 0 t + (t )) +
dt =
0

+ [F (t )sin( t + (t ))]3 }
0

sin(

(
)
d
t
0 t + (t ))

{2 0 F (t )cos( 0 t + (t )) +
=
dt
0 F (t )

+ [F (t )sin( 0 t + (t ))]3 }.

. :
dF (t )
= F (t )

dt

d (t ) = 3 F 2 (t ).
dt
8 0
176

(2.1.2.50)


.
(2.1.2.50) :
F = F0 e t ,

(2.1.2.51)

F0 . , .
(2.1.2.50) (2.1.2.51)
:
(t ) =

3
F02 e 2t + 0 ,
16 0

(2.1.2.52)

0 .

x(t ) F0 e 2t sin( 0 t +

3
F02 e 2t + 0 ).
16 0

(2.1.2.53)

,
t = 0:
e 2t 1 2t + .

(2.1.2.54)

(2.1.2.53) :
x(t ) F0 e t sin( 0 t + (1 2t )) =
= F0 e t sin[( 0

3
3
F02 )].
F02 )t + (0
8 0
16 0

(2.1.2.55)

,
3
F02 ( t ) = 0
8 0
F0.
t, (2.1.2.54).
2.1.3.


.
177

,
.
dx
P (t )
=

,
dt
Q( x )
P(t)dt + Q(x)dx = 0,
P (t )dt + Q( x )dx = C, .
P(t)R(x)dt +
+S(t)Q(x)dx = 0 .
, dx/dt = (at + bx + c). z = at + bx + c
.
.
P (t, x )dt + S (t, x )dx = 0 , t =
ht, x = hx (h 0 ) . z x = tz

.
.
P(t,x)dt + Q(t,x)dx = 0 ,
t = ht, x = hx (h 0 , ) .
z x = tz .
, .
dx
At + Bx + C , A, B, C, a, b, c , =
at + bx + c
dt
A B
0, .
a b
A B
= 0, z = at + bx
= At + Bx + C, = at + bx + c.
a b
.
,
,
[2.2; 2.3].
, , . -
. , 178

,
.
, ;
,
. , . .
,
. .
, ,
. , . .
, , .
.
(, , )
.

. , ,

. ,


.
,
, .
,
,

. , ,
179

. .
. , .
( ) ,
, .
, , , ,
,
, , , , .
, .
, ,
.

,
.
: , ( )
, , .
, ,

, .
. .

,
. , ,
. , , ,
. 180


,
, .


.

. ,
.
,
,
, , , .

.
.


.
, . ,
,
.
2.1.4.


.
,
, : n

181

dxk (t )
= fk ([t ], x1,..., xn ),
dt
k = 1,..., n,

(2.1.4.1)

n t = t0:
xk (t0 ) = k ,
k = 1,..., n.

(2.1.4.2)

,
(2.1.4.1) t ,
. (2.1.4.1)
(2.1.4.2).
:
dxk (t )
= fk ([t ], x1,..., xn ),
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, (2.1.4.3)
t, T:
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k = 1,..., n.

(2.1.4.4)


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183


(2.1.4.1) (2.1.4.2)
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(2.1.4.6)

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i = 1, 2,...

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(2.1.4.10)


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(2.2.1.2)

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T

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(2.2.1.3)

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+ bn 2

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+ ...
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190

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191

. (2.1.2.20)

d 2 x(t )
dt

+ 20 x(t ) W sin(t ) x 3 (t ) = 0 .

(2.2.1.9)

(2.2.1.9)
x(t) = Bsin(t).

(2.2.1.10)


sin(t), B,
T = 2/.
(2.2.1.10) (2.2.1.9) :
N (t, B sin(t )) = 2 B sin(t ) + 20 B sin(t )
W sin(t ) (B sin(t ))3 .

(2.2.1.11)

(2.1.2.21)
20 2 = , :
N (t, B sin(t )) = B sin(t ) W sin(t ) (B sin(t ))3 . (2.2.1.12)

B :
T

B sin(t ) W sin(t ) (B sin(t ))

2 /

1
sin 2 (t )dt = ,
2

sin(t )dt = 0.

2 /

(2.2.1.13)

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192


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n z1, z2,, zn

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(2.2.1.15)

Fi .
(k + 1) z1(k+1), z2(k+1), , zn(k+1), , k- z1(k), z2(k), , zn(k)
z1(k+1),
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z
j
j =1
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i = 1, 2,..., n.
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2 (. 2.2.1.2). . , z(k) . 2.2.1.2.


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. 2.2.1.2.

3 (. 2.2.1.3). . ,
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. 2.2.1.3.
195

4 (. 2.2.1.4). . z(k+1)
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. 2.2.1.4.

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199

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(2.2.3.1)

, Xi , 1, 2,, n.

x1 = 1(t), x2 = 2(t), , xn = n(t)

(2.2.3.2)

. , Tn xi ,
i(0) = i(T). , T
, 0, , t i(t) =
= i(t + T). , i
t. , (2.2.3.2) (2.2.3.1).
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202

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(2.2.3.3)

T . Y1 = x1(0), Y2 = x2(0), , Yn = xn(0) (2.2.3.1) Tk = kT,


.
:
Xi(0) = Yi

(2.2.3.4)

t [0, Tk] . ,

xi(Tk) = Yi, i = 1, 2, , n,

(2.2.3.5)


(2.2.3.5)
.

F (Y1,Y2 ,...,Yn ) =

[Yi xi (Tk )] ,

(2.2.3.6)

i =1


(2.2.3.4) . ,
Y1,Y2 ,...,Yn , ,
203

F( Y1,Y2 ,...,Yn ) = 0.

(2.2.3.7)

, ,
Yi xi(Tk) = 0, i = 1, 2, , n.

(2.2.3.8)

Y1,
Y2, , Yn. (2.2.3.8) ,
xi(Tk) (2.2.3.1) .
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Yi xi (T ) = 0, i = 1, 2,..., n


xn (T ) = 0.

(2.2.3.9)


. Y1, Y2, , Yn-1 T
.
,
(2.2.3.8)
(2.2.3.9)
, , (2.2.3.6).

,
(2.2.3.6).

204

2.2.4.

,
dxi
= X i , i = 1, 2,..., n,
dt

(2.2.4.1)

. .
i(t), i =1,2, , n, kT- (2.2.4.1). , (2.2.4.1). i ,
xi(t)= i(t) + i(t).

(2.2.4.2)

(2.2.4.2) (2.2.4.1) :
n
d i
X i (1, 2 ,..., n ,t )
= j
, i = 1, 2,..., n.
dt
x j
j =1

(2.2.4.3)

kT- . (2.2.4.1) Xi.


(2.2.4.3) kT- t = 0
[2.14]:
M(t) = (t)et,

(2.2.4.4)

(t) - kT- ,
(0) = E (E ), .
j det( - E) = 0, ..
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205

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j =

1
1
ln j =
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kT

(2.2.4.5)

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ln j
kT

Re( j ) < 0, ln j < 1, j = 1, 2,..., n

(2.2.4.6)

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j =1
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j =1

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n
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211

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+ x(t ) +

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dt

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2

a2 (1 + a2 ) 2 + 2 = W 2 ,
8

(2.2.6.2)

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x = a cos(t + ).

(2.2.6.3)

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212

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213

2.2.6.1
W
(2.2.6.1) = 0,1
a

0,491
0,8847
0,944
0,997
1,046
1,091
1,133
1,173
1,2106
1,2467
1,2813
1,3145
1,3467
1,3777
1,4079
1,4373
1,4659
1,4938
1,5211
1,5479
1,5742
1,6

0,1
0,5
0,6
0,7
0,8
0,9
1
1,1
1,2
1,3
1,4
1,5
1,6
1,7
1,8
1,9
2
2,1
2,2
2,3
2,4
2,5

0,1
0,1
0,1
0,1
0,1
0,1
0,1
0,1
0,1
0,1
0,1
0,1
0,1
0,1
0,1
0,1
0,1
0,1
0,1
0,1
0,1
0,1

1,005763
1,056846
1,073475
1,090644
1,109358
1,128316
1,147853
1,168656
1,189545
1,211388
1,233801
1,256608
1,280181
1,303948
1,328373
1,353284
1,378521
1,404117
1,43013
1,456633
1,483529
1,510729

2.2.6.2
(2.2.6.1)
W = 0,5

214

0,8848
0,87057
0,84649
0,8123
0,76818
0,71547
0,65746
0,59885

0,5
0,5
0,5
0,5
0,5
0,5
0,5
0,5

0,1
0,2
0,3
0,4
0,5
0,6
0,7
0,8

1,056958
1,053948
1,049187
1,043191
1,036736
1,030763
1,026257
1,023751

. 2.2.6.2
a

0,54395
0,49505
0,45261
0,41608

0,5
0,5
0,5
0,5

0,9
1
1,1
1,2

1,023386
1,024932
1,028449
1,034558

2.2.6.3
W
(2.2.6.1) = 1
a

0,1
0,2
0,3
0,39889
0,49505
0,58652
0,67161
0,7495
0,82024
0,88442
0,94287
0,99645
1,0459
1,0919
1,1348
1,1752
1,2134
1,2498
1,2844
1,3175
1,3494
1,3801
1,4097
1,4384
1,4662
1,4933
1,5196
1,5453
1,5704

0,1
0,2
0,3
0,4
0,5
0,6
0,7
0,8
0,9
1
1,1
1,2
1,3
1,4
1,5
1,6
1,7
1,8
1,9
2
2,1
2,2
2,3
2,4
2,5
2,6
2,7
2,8
2,9

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1,00375
1,015
1,03375
1,023837
1,024932
1,029087
1,035899
1,04521
1,05672
1,07005
1,084896
1,101043
1,118266
1,136489
1,155259
1,174797
1,194924
1,215786
1,236882
1,258354
1,280422
1,302785
1,325376
1,34836
1,371543
1,39515
1,418833
1,442859
1,467112
215

. 2.2.6.3
a

1,5949
1,817
2,0111
2,188
2,3527
2,5077
2,654
2,791
2,9164
3,0205

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1,491486
1,745768
2,014332
2,29348
2,580253
2,871965
3,165349
3,454663
3,73032
3,962676

(2.2.6.1). = 0,2;
W = 50
.. [2.4]. . , ,
.
2.2.6.1 2.2.6.2 (2.2.6.1) = 2,.5.
. x = 0
(2.2.6.1) (. 2.2.6.2). ,
, . . 2.2.6.3 (2.2.6.1), .

.
(2.2.6.1) W . . 2.2.6.4 2.2.6.9 W, .
W = 80 .
W = 80
2, . 2.2.6.10. W (. 2.2.6.11 2.2.6.12), 4 (. 2.2.6.13). - 1 (. 2.2.6.14).
216

, 3 (. 2.2.6.15 2.2.6.18).

. 2.2.6.1. (2.2.6.1)
= 2,5, = 0,2; W = 50. ,
. (x, dx/dt, t)

217

. 2.2.6.2.
(2.2.6.1) = 2,5,
= 0,2; W = 50. (x, dx/dt, t)

. 2.2.6.3.
(2.2.6.1)
= 2,5, = 0,2; W = 50
218

. 2.2.6.3. ()

. 2.2.6.4. (2.2.6.1)
= 2,5, = 0,2; W = 55

219

. 2.2.6.5. (2.2.6.1)
= 2,5, = 0,2; W = 60

. 2.2.6.6. (2.2.6.1)
= 2,5, = 0,2; W = 65

220

. 2.2.6.6. ()

. 2.2.6.7. (2.2.6.1)
= 2,5, = 0,2; W = 70

221

. 2.2.6.8. (2.2.6.1)
= 2,5, = 0,2; W = 75

. 2.2.6.9.
(2.2.6.1) = 2,5, = 0,2; W = 80

222

. 2.2.6.9. ()

. 2.2.6.10. 2
(2.2.6.1) = 2,5, = 0,2; W = 80

223

. 2.2.6.11. 2
(2.2.6.1) = 2,5, = 0,2; W = 85

. 2.2.6.12. 2
(2.2.6.1) = 2,5, = 0,2; W = 90

224

. 2.2.6.12. ()

. 2.2.6.13. 4
(2.2.6.1) = 2,5, = 0,2; W = 90

225

. 2.2.6.14. 4
(2.2.6.1) = 2,5, = 0,2; W = 90

. 2.2.6.15. 3
(2.2.6.1) = 2,5, = 0,2; W = 99

226

. 2.2.6.15. ()

. 2.2.6.16. 3
(2.2.6.1) = 2,5, = 0,2; W = 99

227

. 2.2.6.17.
(2.2.6.1) = 2,5, = 0,2; W = 99

. 2.2.6.18. 3
(2.2.6.1) = 2,5, = 0,2; W = 99

228

. 2.2.6.18. ()

- , . [2.15],
[2.16].
,

, , .
.

2.3.

, ,
, , .
.
[2.4] ..
.. , ,
, , , .
,
. [2.4] (1984) , . .

.
, , ,
?

; ,

. ,
, ,

.
, , ,
, , .
230

. ,
.
. , ,
, ,
.
-,
.
, ,
.
, , , , .

,
. ,
:
,
;
, ,
.

.
, , , , . ,
1 ., 1 . .
, , .

.
1 ., 1 .
.
:

231


1
2

1,49
3,49
4,98


1,0
4,0
5,0


0
0
0

2,49
7,49
9,98

.
1 ., :

1
2

1
3
5


1
4
5


0
0
0

2
7
10

, . - . , .

, 1 . . .
. ,
1 ., (
4 ). . . , , ,
, . 1 .

- . . , , .
6 , , .
232



[2.17].
- .

.
, ,
,
(on-line- ). , .
, 1998 .
:

,
1 (
) . , , .

[2.18]:

233

,
, .
,
. ,
, .
. ,
( ,
, ,
, ..); 24 , ; ; , ( ,
). , . ,
, , .
,
, .
-
.
.
. ,
, , .. . ,
.
.
, ,
. ,


.

. , ,

.

234

,

.
,
,
: ,
(), ( ). (
.) : ,
( ).

.
.
-. -
, ,
.
, ,

.
2
2.1. . 6 . . 2. / . .. . .:
, 1979.
2.2. .., .. . .: , 1973.
2.3. .
. .: , 1961.
2.4. ..
. .: , 1984.
2.5. Urabe M. Galerkins procedure for non-linear periodic systems.- Arch.
Rational Mech. Anal., 1965, vol. 20.
2.6. Urabe M. Reiter A. Numerical computation on non-linear forced oscillation
by Galerkins procedure. J. Math. Anal., appl., 1966, 14.
2.7. ..
. .: , 1969.
235

2.8. ., ., . . .:
, 1985.
2.9. ., . . .: , 1983.
2.10. . 3 . . 1.
. .: , 1971.
2.11. .., .., . . . .:
, 1981. (1- . 1937 .).
2.12. .. . .: , 1972.
2.13. .. .
.: , 1967.
2.14. Holmes P.J. A nonlinear oscillator with a strange attractor. - Philosophical
Transaction of the Royal Society. London. vol. 292, . 419-448.
2.15. Feigenbaum M.J. Universal behaviour in nonlinear systems. Los Alamos
Sci., 1980. vol. 1.
2.16. .. . .:
, 1981.
2.17. .. . .: , 2007.
2.18. .. Mathcad 12. .: -,
2004.

......................................................................................................................3

1

1.1
.............................. 5
1.1.1. .................................................................................5
1.1.2. ..............................................8
1.1.3. ......................................................... 12
1.2
................................... 15
1.2.1. ..................................................................................... 16
1.2.2. ............................................................ 17
1.2.3. .................................................................... 24
1.2.4. ..................................................................................................... 25
1.2.5. ................................................................................. 28
1.2.6. ..................................... 29
1.2.7. ............................................................................................ 30
1.2.8. .................................... 40
1.2.9.

........................................................................................................... 43
1.2.10.
............................................................................................... 51
1.3
..................................... 59
1.3.1. ............................................................................. 59
1.3.2. ................................................................. 62
1.3.3. ............................................................................... 67

237

1.4

.................................................................................... 73
1.4.1. ,
-
. . . ................................... 73
1.4.2.
............................................................................................................ 80
1.4.3. .
......................................................................... 102
1.4.4. ....................................... 114
1 ............................................................................................... 149

2

2.1

.............153
2.1.1. ........................................................................ 153
2.1.2. .......................................... 160
2.1.3. ....................................... 177
2.1.4. ...................................................... 181
2.2

.....................................................................................188
2.2.1. ................................................................................................ 188
2.2.2. ................................... 197
2.2.3. - .............. 201
2.2.4. ..................................................... 205
2.2.5. ....................................................... 207
2.2.6. . ............................. 211
2.3

.....................230
2 ................................................................................................ 235

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