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Why TRIGON has no rails

Introduction............................................................................................................... 3 Background ............................................................................................................... 3 Tractor................................................................................................................... 3 RAST .................................................................................................................... 4 Secure on landing .............................................................................................. 4 Movement along the deck .................................................................................. 4 Good points ....................................................................................................... 5 Bad points ......................................................................................................... 5 TRIGON ............................................................................................................... 6 Secure on landing .............................................................................................. 6 Movement along the deck .................................................................................. 6 Good points ....................................................................................................... 6 Bad points ......................................................................................................... 7 Development ............................................................................................................. 8 MacTaggart Scott .................................................................................................. 8 TRIGON ............................................................................................................ 8 PRISM ............................................................................................................... 8 CLAMPDOWN. ................................................................................................. 8 HELIOS ............................................................................................................10 Indal .....................................................................................................................11 ASIST ...............................................................................................................11 TC-ASIST .........................................................................................................11 Copies ......................................................................................................................11 Issues raised .............................................................................................................12 Ship Motion..........................................................................................................12 Pilot control..........................................................................................................13 Straightening ........................................................................................................13 RAST ................................................................................................................13 ASIST ...............................................................................................................13 TC-ASIST .........................................................................................................14 FHS ..................................................................................................................14 SAMAHE ..........................................................................................................14 PRISM ..............................................................................................................14 TRIGON ...........................................................................................................14 Conclusion .......................................................................................................14 Steering ................................................................................................................15 RAST ................................................................................................................16 ASIST ...............................................................................................................17 TC-ASIST .........................................................................................................17 FHS ..................................................................................................................17 SAMAHE ..........................................................................................................17 PRISM ..............................................................................................................18 TRIGON ...........................................................................................................18 Conclusion .......................................................................................................18 Attachment access & men.....................................................................................19 RAST ................................................................................................................19 ASIST ...............................................................................................................19

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TC-ASIST .........................................................................................................19 FHS ..................................................................................................................19 SAMAHE ..........................................................................................................20 PRISM ..............................................................................................................21 TRIGON ...........................................................................................................21 Conclusion .......................................................................................................22 Security, complexity and single points of failure...................................................23 RAST ................................................................................................................23 ASIST ...............................................................................................................23 TC-ASIST .........................................................................................................24 FHS ..................................................................................................................24 SAMAHE ..........................................................................................................25 PRISM ..............................................................................................................25 TRIGON ...........................................................................................................25 Conclusion .......................................................................................................25 Summary of issues ...................................................................................................26 Ship Motion..........................................................................................................26 Pilot control..........................................................................................................26 Straightening ........................................................................................................26 Steering ................................................................................................................26 Security, complexity and single points of failure...................................................26 User friendly ........................................................................................................26 Future proof..........................................................................................................27 Versatile ...............................................................................................................27 Value for money...................................................................................................27 Drainage...............................................................................................................27 Mission capability ................................................................................................28 Manning ...............................................................................................................28 Stealth ..................................................................................................................28 Experience ...............................................................................................................29

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strictly called helicopter deck handling In this document helicopter handling will mean both secure on landing and movement along the deck. Secure on landing. the strengths and weaknesses of different concepts can be considered.Introduction This document explains why MacTaggart Scott do not normally supply rail based helicopter handling systems. RAST 3. Tractors are limited to large stable ships or small ships in calm weather. Movement along deck. strictly called helicopter handling 2. By looking at the background of early systems and identifying how they have developed. It has no function for secure on landing. Apart from the weight of the tractor it offers no security against sliding or tipping. a tractor 2. TRIGON Tractor A tractor offers a simple way to move the helicopter along the deck after it has landed. Background When helicopter handling first started on small ships there were three systems: 1. 3 . It must be understood that helicopter handling as two phases 1.

The probe is captured on landing by a bear trap device (also called RSD). except for the new LCS where TRIGON is being fitted. All USN ships use RAST. both of which are tail wheel helicopters. A probe in the tail landing gear drops into the track. The RSD is winched by under deck wires. Secure on landing With RAST the helicopter is winched down to the deck by a ship mounted cable. After secure on landing the helicopter tail gear is aligned to the track by tail guide winches. The helicopter is moved up and down the deck by the RSD pulling and pushing probe. Movement along the deck The RSD runs in a rail.RAST The Indal RAST was originally designed for Sea King and Seahawk. The cable runs through a probe underneath the helicopter. 4 . This process is called straightening.

6. and bending moments. To try and relieve this stress. This is a very expensive exercise as you need two pilots. RAST is only suitable for specially built variants of Sea King and Seahawk. 3.Good points 1. so pulling on the tail guide winches damages tail wheel tyres and fatigues the tail cone. RAST RSD is very complicated. 4. Bad points 1. 7. 5. Secure on landing. the jaws of the bear trap are released in the lateral direction whilst camped about the probe. Helicopters must have been originally designed to take high forces. and the helicopter is yo-yoed backwards and forwards whilst being straightened. RAST needs men on deck to connect tail guide winch cables. 2. The probe is not at the centre of rotation. where the probe fits in the fuselage. This photograph was taken during straightening and shows what happens when you have a single point failure. In service for many years with over 200 supplied. 5 . You need one pilot to fly the helicopter and one on the ship to control the winch. RAST needs men on deck to connect haul down cable.

In service for many years with over 200 supplied.TRIGON The MacTaggart Scott TRIGON system was originally designed for Wasp and Lynx. 6 . Secure on landing TRIGON systems have a landing grid on the ship and a decklock in the helicopter. Movement along the deck The helicopter is simply winched up and down the deck by the TRIGON winches. TRIGON is suitable for any type of helicopter. Straightening is achieved by steering the nose gear. Simple and in pilot’s control. This is a simple system where the landing and take off is totally in the control of the pilot. Good points 1. Secure on landing. 2. which are four wheel and nose wheel helicopters respectively. 3.

7 . TRIGON needs men on deck to connect cables. TRIGON is thought by some people to offer little security. 7. TRIGON is very simple. 6. 2. Simple to install Bad points 1. Helicopters do not need advance engineering to be suitable for TRIGON. 5. TRIGON has no single point of failure.4.

CLAMPDOWN.Development MacTaggart Scott TRIGON MacTaggart Scott has not developed the TRIGON concept. called PRISM. Equipment is of course continuously updated to gain the benefits of technology. and also independently AgustaWestland. Around 1982/3 MacTaggart Scott investigated some alternative concepts. A decklock is ball jointed at the airframe. Like a bicycle – why reinvent it. This was rejected due to the inflexibility in 8 . MacTaggart Scott the only company to handle such a large helicopter with a traversing system. PRISM MacTaggart Scott has built a rail system. but the basic concept never changes. MacTaggart Scott is the only company to use a section of moving flight deck for stress free straightening to the deck rails. MacTaggart Scott was the first company to use axle extensions. This is a specialised 3 rail system connecting to the helicopter through axle extensions. considered a rigidly mounted decklock which could both secure on landing and be used as a towing probe. since copied by Indal. Rails were required to meet classified Royal Navy requirements. Other ideas Some potential customers think TRIGON is less secure. for the 16 tonne Merlin helicopter on the Type23 frigate. MacTaggart Scott.

or into.engaging the grid. MacTaggart suggested using a block on the cargo hook to which was connected a cable coming up from a shoe in the deck rail. FHS have used this idea in a modified form by having the decklock engaged in a separate moving grid. loads in the airframe and the difficulty in designing a smooth sided decklock. The concept was to be used with TRIGON. and it would allow for sideways misalignment. This was abandoned because the decklock would need to be rigid. was to tow the helicopter through a moving grid with the decklock engaged. MacTaggart Scott showed the concept to Aerospatiale as we wished to know if it could be used with the Super Puma (Cougar). also reconsidered and rejected later by IBM ASIC. SAMAHE no longer uses the clampdown for Lynx and Dauphin/Cougar although it is retained for the Indian Sea King and will be used with NH90. So SAMAHE is a copy of an idea rejected by MacTaggart Scott. the landing grid. The concept was dropped because of the difficulty of getting under the helicopter to make the connection and the fact that the rail could not pass through. called a clampdown force on the helicopter. The next idea. Aerospatiale passed the MacTaggart Scott concept to Sofma (now DCN). The final idea was the equivalent of a travelling decklock. The concept was also dropped because mathematical modelling showed no cost benefit. 9 . A force on the cable in the rail would apply a down force. who then developed it into the SAMAHE system. The benefit was that the helicopter would drag the shoe along with it.

This was first considered by MacTaggart Scott privately and then again later as part of a Pathfinder project funded by DERA (UK defence Research Association). The HELIOS concept is the basis of the German FHS system and the Indal TC-Asist.HELIOS MacTaggart Scott considered handling the helicopter through main wheel spurs. It was found that very high twisting loads can be generated during straightening and so the idea was dropped. 10 .

using only the main wheels produces high twisting load in the main landing gears. The nose gear has to be manually lifted clear of the deck to position the device.Indal Indal were forced to develop the RAST system because it could not operate with other popular helicopters like Lynx. 11 . and it is expensive and heavy. ASIST The first development led to the ASIST system where the RSD tracks the helicopter’s probe as the helicopter makes its landing. A secondary device has to be fitted by hand below the nose wheels to steer the helicopter. Indal has proposed the twin claw ASIST. This system uses axle extensions as pioneered by MacTaggart Scott. However. TC-ASIST For customers who want to use a decklock. NH90 and AB212.

made a copy of the TRIGON system (called Hercules) for the German F123 frigates. the geometry of the handling system and a model of the sea. The exact results are confidential to each customer as this is a measure of the ship’s operational capability. the German shipbuilder. roll or pitch which is most important here. Ship Motion The helicopter must be secure against sliding and toppling. only fitted to the German F124 Frigate is a very poor system. the helicopter characteristics. MacTaggart Scott has undertaken many such seakeeping studies in accordance with STANAG 4194 [1]. NATO. December 2000 12 . • Larsen and Toubro (through Haean) have made a copy of the TRIGON system for the KCG. Common Procedures for Seakeeping in the Ship Design Process. However. FHS also copied the MacTaggart Scott concept of a travelling grid. it is ship acceleration.Copies Imitation is the sincerest form of flattery • We have seen that SAMAHE is based on MacTaggart Scott’s CLAMPDOWN concept. But it is not Sea State. • We have seen that the FHS system is based on MacTaggart Scott’s HELIOS concept. Blohm und Voss. The FHS system. it can be stated that every 1 STANAG 4154 (Edition 3). It does not work (as of summer 2009) Issues raised So far we have come across some rather important issues. • • We have seen that Indal copied MacTaggart Scott’s use of axle extensions. Definitive limitations can only be stated after a seakeeping study which combines the ship characteristics. This was a very poor system and is no longer manufactured.

straightening will involve rotation and/or translation. The pilot knows if the decklock fails to engage. ASIST By a combination of towing forward and backwards at the probe. This process is called straightening. and free castor of the nose/tail gear the helicopter is aligned with the rail. and so he can take off. range of wave encounter angles and ship speeds. The pilot can choose the moment of landing and take off. The worst condition is usually low ship speed in quartering seas. 13 . A second problem is that of necessity the active capture devices are of necessity complicated electro-mechanical devices which are unreliable. Pilot control When a helicopter has decklock the pilot has full control of security on landing. the main landing gear is influenced to crab port / starboard.frigate and TRIGON system combination analysed theoretically by MacTaggart Scott shows that in general 1. then the helicopter has to be lined up with the rail. must also state the ship type. This is first problem. or in terms of angular displacements. Because the helicopter will never land repeatedly in the same location. 2. To reduce stress the RSD jaws are laterally released as a pair. RAST The helicopter is rotated by tail guide winches to get the tail landing gear over the rail. apply negative thrust or execute any planned emergency procedure. As the helicopter is yoyoed backward and forward. When the security is provided by an active device on the ship. like RAST or ASIST. This makes the operation as safe as possible. Any helicopter can be safely handled in head or following seas in North Atlantic Sea State 6 at 10 knots and above ship speeds. Straightening When a system uses a rail. Any helicopter can be handled at any wave encounter angle in North Atlantic Sea State 5 at 10 knots and above 3. and port / starboard motion of the capture device. Any claims of handling system capability in terms of particular Sea States. This is like an XY plotter. then the pilot requires a feedback to tell him he is secure.

Note that helicopters like Lynx and NH90. will require manual steering from the pilot during this process. which have no trailing castor. The nose gear is aligned with the centre rail by rotation about the decklock using slewing winches. ASIST. Note that helicopters like Dauphin/Cougar. which have no trailing castor. TRIGON The helicopter is straightened as it is pulled forward by steering. 14 . FHS The helicopter is manipulated into alignment by the differential motion of two telescopic rams. will require manual steering from the pilot during this process and are therefore unsuitable. the helicopter is rotated in to position using winches. To reduce stress the helicopter is yo-yoed. the carrier beam is rotated to rotate the whole aircraft into alignment. Conclusion RAST causes stress as the helicopter is not rotated about its centre of rotation. TC-ASIST The helicopter is manipulated into alignment by the linear motion of two main landing gear axle extensions with their carrier beam. These plates slide over the flight deck to rotate the main landing gears into alignment about the nose landing gear. Note that helicopters like Lynx. which have a trailing castor NLG. will require manual steering from the pilot during this process and are therefore unsuitable. For no decklock helicopters like Seahawk. SAMAHE For helicopters with a decklock. Once the centre of the MLG is over the track centre. PRISM Only used for Merlin. one attached to each main landing gear axle extension. the helicopter is rotated about the decklock by the pilot using tail rotor thrust. The helicopter is rotated until the nose wheels are over the rail. A nose gear shuttle is attached and the Merlin pulled forward a short distance to a set position where the main landing gear is over arcuate plates. TC-ASIST and FHS may require pilot co-operation in steering.

then the tractrix is defined in Cartesian coordinates by x = − ∫ y −1 a 2 − y 2 dy = − a 2 − y 2 + a. 15 . 1965. Euler solved the case for purely circular motion of the ‘nose wheel’ 100 years later. SAMAHE does not get the main landing gear centre aligned with the rail. W. or that all the wheels are lined up with each other for a straight motion. TRIGON requires no straightening. Newton's 2nd Epistle to Oldenburg 1676. The tractrix was discovered by Sir Isaac Newton and is said to be the first known use of logarithms in calculus and the first curve determined by integration. The tractrix is an exponential curve to which the axis of the main wheels is always normal and the direction of travel tangent. G. This is not always exactly as good as it sounds. then the helicopter should not require to be steered as it is attached to the rail.TC-ASIST and FHS have high twisting loads in the main landing gears. Newton’s solution is for the ‘nose wheel’ moving in a straight line. with no slide slip or tyre scrub. There is no general solution for other motions of the ‘nose wheel’ because of elliptic integrals. If the distance between nose and main wheel centres is a. ln y −1 a + a 2 − y 2 + c ( ) 2 Tractrix is derived from the Latin trahere meaning to pull. 72. Steering When a system uses a rail. That is to say that at any instant in the curved movement of the helicopter the centre of rotation for each wheel is at the same point in space. ref. PRISM aligns all landing gears in a stress free manner. To reduce fatigue loads on the airframe it is important that the helicopter wheels roll along a path of true rolling radius. Vol. Cady described a mechanical device for drawing the curve and gave this brief history in American Mathematical Monthly. then the main wheels will follow a path called a tractrix [2]. If all the wheels roll along a true path.

However. tail landing gear and probe will be different. On a curved track the instantaneous centres of rotation of the main landing gears. the main wheels will tend to align themselves. Conversely if the helicopter is pushed back. at the centre of the handle bars without jack-knifing. The effect of the tractrix is self evident in every day life. 16 .It is thus proved that whilst towing a helicopter forward. from the nose. Similarly. the main landing gear is influenced to crab port / starboard by applying a sideways force to the probe. but no torque. This results in tyre scrub and airframe fatigue. Consider the diagram above. from the nose. If the main wheels roll on some true path then the path of the RAST probe • is defined and hence the RAST track. it would be difficult to push a child's tricycle backwards in a straight line by applying a light force. the main wheels will tend to run off to port or starboard. the tail wheel and tail wheel probe will describe a different path to the main probe. In order to ensure stress free movement of the helicopter these effects must be considered in both directions. You cannot park a car alongside the kerb without some measure of over steer on 'the nose wheel' path to get the 'main wheels' where you want. RAST As the helicopter is pulled forward.

As with RAST on a curved track. The main wheels follow the tractrix. the nose gear can not be over steered to bring the main wheels into alignment. or if the probe is not perfectly aligned on a straight track. As the nose wheel has to be manually jacked clear of the deck you loose nose wheel friction and the helicopter is free to slide in a rotary fashion about the probe. If the mains wheels are substantially out of line then they must be aligned using a re-centring device. However. FHS In the FHS system all the helicopter wheels are off the deck and so steering presents no problems. and for a curved path the nose and main landing gears will have different centres of rotation. Because the nose wheels are attached to the rail. tail landing gear and probe will be different. This means that the main wheels may not be aligned when the helicopter is the hangar. if a nose landing gear device is not used then as described above the main landing gears will require perfect alignment for a straight rail.ASIST ASIST requires that an additional shoe is fitted to connect the nose landing gear to the rail after straightening. SAMAHE SAMAHE pulls the helicopter forward through the nose landing gear. the instantaneous centres of rotation of the main landing gears. TC-ASIST TC-ASIST is not in service and the detail is not yet clear. 17 .

FHS and TRIGON cause no stresses in steering. There are no external influences to stress the helicopter. Conclusion RAST. PRISM Only used for Merlin. The helicopter is never pushed. TC-ASIST and SAMAHE all cause stresses in the airframe by forcing the helicopter to roll along a single path. This is prevented by fitting a ‘MLG guiding device’ between the main wheels with a connection into the deck. This means the main wheels will run along the tractrix to either port or starboard of the required path. 18 . PRISM causes minor side loads when the ship is listed. ASIST. the reverse tractrix effect can be seen when the helicopter is pulled back and the ship is listed. This means there will be a continuous side force on the helicopter forcing to keep to the path. Steering is not an issue as PRISM only uses a straight track and spring compliance is built in to the attachments. Note that the helicopter is pulled forward and he helicopter is pulled back. Even so.The helicopter is pushed back to the flight deck through the nose landing gear. TRIGON The TRIGON deck man steers the helicopter naturally through the steering arm.

but then so was ASIST claimed to be. but as it is so unreliable in attaching itself men are required. Access is clear at the main landing gear. Access is moderately restricted under the nose fuselage. and to operate the tail guide winches. FHS FHS would appear to be theoretically a no men on deck system. men are required on deck to attach the initial haul down cable when the helicopter is in hover. Theoretically it should be a no men on deck system. However. Access is clear at the main landing gear and moderately restricted under the nose fuselage. RAST The RAST probe is automatically attached to the RSD. but the nose landing gear shoe has to be attached manually by lifting the nose landing gear.Attachment access & men The helicopter needs to be attached to the handling system. Access is clear. 19 . ASIST The ASIST probe is captured automatically. The shoe is carried on to the flight deck TC-ASIST TC-ASIST is not in service and the detail is not yet clear. This is either automatic or manual.

The tow bar must be held up manually during this process (approximately 25 kg). 20 . Access is very restricted. Fitting the ‘MLG guiding device’ between the main wheels for moving toward the landing spot is very awkward has men must crawl under the tail of the helicopter. Connection is difficult to fit as the carriage must be driven to an exact position relative to the tow bar. or something similar on a real helicopter. The nose towing bar is carried to the helicopter by hand. The underside of the helicopter requires a slotted hole for the spring loaded pin of the swivel arm. shown here on a yellow test rig. A man will have to crawl under the helicopter to make and check this connection.SAMAHE SAMAHE requires a man to attach the nose towing bar.

After removal it must be carried back to the hangar manually (approximately 28 kg). 21 . It is very important for owners to check that helicopter has the correct mating part. before the decklock is over the grid.Access is very restricted on Super Lynx because of the Doppler. PRISM Only used for Merlin. The Dauphin/Cougar system is similar. With this version of the design for Lynx there is no clampdown force. TRIGON TRIGON requires men to connect wires and steer. PRISM was designed to be a no man on deck system. but because of problems with the helicopter men are to attach the slewing cables and to lock the nose wheel shuttle. The ‘MLG guiding device’ must be manually removed at the end of the rail.

Access is clear at the main landing gear and moderately restricted under the nose fuselage. 22 . Conclusion Men on deck will always be required to fold blades. load stores and all the other tasks associated with shipbourne helicopters. Every workable system needs men on deck. Access for manned intervention is reasonably easy except for SAMAHE.

November 2005 23 . Because of the complexity of the ASIST RSD. complexity and single points of failure The helicopter requires to be secure against sling and toppling.2005. 3 ASNE Launch & Recovery of Manned and Unmanned Vehicles . complex. Systems with small. the Chilean Navy report a target of only 90% availability [3]. There have been many documented cases of loss of Seahawks were the RSD has failed. The complexity of the RAST RSD makes it unreliable. Highly complex systems are more likely to be unreliable and therefore increase the risk of an accident. RAST The RAST probe and the RAST RSD are both single points of failure. its associated control systems and sensors. or the pilot has been unaware that the jaws are open. ASIST The ASIST probe is a single point of failure. Annapolis. parts exposed to the marine environment are likely to corrode to failure.Security. Additional security is given when there are multiple failure points.

To date (summer 2009) the system on the Andrea Doria has not been brought into service. This has made the system very unreliable. The only single point of failure is the decklock on landing. but of necessity the cross beam will be complex. FHS The FHS system uses very complex engineering and sensors. 24 .TC-ASIST As the system is not yet in service no conclusions can be drawn.

TRIGON TRIGON is simple by design to make it highly reliable. Only used for Merlin. The first single point of failure is spring loaded pin at the end of the curved beam. Conclusion TRIGON is the only system which does not have a single point of failure. If the spring. SAMAHE SAMAHE is complex in that is difficult to attach. The only single point of failure for movement of the helicopter is a wire break. This will not prevent sliding or tipping. to the nose shuttle.The decklock is a single point of failure both on landing and during the movement to and from the hangar. The second single point of failure is the pin connecting the tow bar to the carriage. PRISM has undergone a full safety assessment by the Royal Navy. Because it has 5 cables it has multiple points of failure. If this fails the helicopter can roll backwards and be completely unrestrained. inside the rail. This is same risk for all rail handling systems as their various RSDs and carriages are moved by wires. or pin. PRISM 1. 25 . fails then the helicopter is only restrained at the nose.

Steering With TRIGON the helicopter moves with true rolling motion so no additional stresses are induced. The simple. TRIGON has multiple points of failure. As far as is known no system has ever suffered a wire break. User friendly No heavy parts to be carried out to the deck in heavy wether. Pilot control Use of TRIGON with a landing grid gives the pilot full control of launch and recovery.Summary of issues The following is a summary of the reasons MacTaggart Scott do not normally provide rail systems. design of TRIGON ensures high reliability. but if it happenened with TRIGON it would only be 1 of 5. but effective. 26 . Security. complexity and single points of failure TRIGON has multiple points of failure. Straightening Skilled manipulation and stress inducing straightening is not required with TRIGON. Ship Motion Extensive practical experience and dynamic simulations have shown TRIGON to perform adequately.

and in a worst case situation allow burning fuel in to the hangar. Versatile TRIGON can handle all types of helicopter without modification to the aircaft or TRIGON. TRIGON equipment can be mounted anywhere to suit the shipbuilder and the Navy. Rails are expensive to install in the ship.Future proof TRIGON will handle future helicopters and UAVs without expensive upgrading. 27 . Drainage Rails allow salt water to flow in to the hangar. You do not need to change the large and expensive moving carriage Tricycle Tail dragger Skid 4 wheel Value for money Capital cost of a rail system is more expensive.

etc. blackout or breakdown.Mission capability Warships are warships. designed to operate a fighting asset in a theatre of war. The worst possible situation is where a rail based carriage is stuck on the deck from ship damage. Finally. Stealth Deck rails can have a detrimental radar cross section unless their gap is manually filled in with sealing strips. 28 . or tow bar. Manning All systems require men on deck for blade fold and/or tail fold and/or blade props. could you line up and attach the SAMAHE arm. or possibly landing. TRIGON can not make such an obstruction. under the Lynx in this weather. Such an obstacle prevents a helicopter being moved by hand.

MacTaggart Scott is currently working on an electric drive version of TRIGON as many Navies have the aim of ‘the all electric ship’. MacTaggart Scott can also perform dynamic simulations of the ship/helicopter/handling system interface. Research and Development always continues with an aim to reduce costs or to embrace new technologies. From time to time MacTaggart Scott make presentations or give papers at international gatherings such as • • • • • American Society of Naval Engineers AGARD The Embarked Aviation Seminar The MECON conference The Royal Aeronautical Society It is with this wealth of experience. As well as the facility to land test systems. 29 . For instance. developing. building and testing different types of helicopter handling systems for many helicopter types. or in response to specific customer requests. together with the ability to understand all the issues associated with helicopter handling.Experience The engineers of MacTaggart Scott have many years of experience in designing. which leads MacTaggart Scott to still propose TRIGON as the most suitable system in the vast majority of cases.