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Why TRIGON has no rails

Introduction............................................................................................................... 3 Background ............................................................................................................... 3 Tractor................................................................................................................... 3 RAST .................................................................................................................... 4 Secure on landing .............................................................................................. 4 Movement along the deck .................................................................................. 4 Good points ....................................................................................................... 5 Bad points ......................................................................................................... 5 TRIGON ............................................................................................................... 6 Secure on landing .............................................................................................. 6 Movement along the deck .................................................................................. 6 Good points ....................................................................................................... 6 Bad points ......................................................................................................... 7 Development ............................................................................................................. 8 MacTaggart Scott .................................................................................................. 8 TRIGON ............................................................................................................ 8 PRISM ............................................................................................................... 8 CLAMPDOWN. ................................................................................................. 8 HELIOS ............................................................................................................10 Indal .....................................................................................................................11 ASIST ...............................................................................................................11 TC-ASIST .........................................................................................................11 Copies ......................................................................................................................11 Issues raised .............................................................................................................12 Ship Motion..........................................................................................................12 Pilot control..........................................................................................................13 Straightening ........................................................................................................13 RAST ................................................................................................................13 ASIST ...............................................................................................................13 TC-ASIST .........................................................................................................14 FHS ..................................................................................................................14 SAMAHE ..........................................................................................................14 PRISM ..............................................................................................................14 TRIGON ...........................................................................................................14 Conclusion .......................................................................................................14 Steering ................................................................................................................15 RAST ................................................................................................................16 ASIST ...............................................................................................................17 TC-ASIST .........................................................................................................17 FHS ..................................................................................................................17 SAMAHE ..........................................................................................................17 PRISM ..............................................................................................................18 TRIGON ...........................................................................................................18 Conclusion .......................................................................................................18 Attachment access & men.....................................................................................19 RAST ................................................................................................................19 ASIST ...............................................................................................................19

TC-ASIST .........................................................................................................19 FHS ..................................................................................................................19 SAMAHE ..........................................................................................................20 PRISM ..............................................................................................................21 TRIGON ...........................................................................................................21 Conclusion .......................................................................................................22 Security, complexity and single points of failure...................................................23 RAST ................................................................................................................23 ASIST ...............................................................................................................23 TC-ASIST .........................................................................................................24 FHS ..................................................................................................................24 SAMAHE ..........................................................................................................25 PRISM ..............................................................................................................25 TRIGON ...........................................................................................................25 Conclusion .......................................................................................................25 Summary of issues ...................................................................................................26 Ship Motion..........................................................................................................26 Pilot control..........................................................................................................26 Straightening ........................................................................................................26 Steering ................................................................................................................26 Security, complexity and single points of failure...................................................26 User friendly ........................................................................................................26 Future proof..........................................................................................................27 Versatile ...............................................................................................................27 Value for money...................................................................................................27 Drainage...............................................................................................................27 Mission capability ................................................................................................28 Manning ...............................................................................................................28 Stealth ..................................................................................................................28 Experience ...............................................................................................................29

Introduction
This document explains why MacTaggart Scott do not normally supply rail based helicopter handling systems. By looking at the background of early systems and identifying how they have developed, the strengths and weaknesses of different concepts can be considered. It must be understood that helicopter handling as two phases 1. Secure on landing, strictly called helicopter handling 2. Movement along deck, strictly called helicopter deck handling In this document helicopter handling will mean both secure on landing and movement along the deck.

Background
When helicopter handling first started on small ships there were three systems: 1. a tractor 2. RAST 3. TRIGON

Tractor

A tractor offers a simple way to move the helicopter along the deck after it has landed. Apart from the weight of the tractor it offers no security against sliding or tipping. It has no function for secure on landing. Tractors are limited to large stable ships or small ships in calm weather.

RAST
The Indal RAST was originally designed for Sea King and Seahawk, both of which are tail wheel helicopters.

Secure on landing
With RAST the helicopter is winched down to the deck by a ship mounted cable. The cable runs through a probe underneath the helicopter. The probe is captured on landing by a bear trap device (also called RSD).

Movement along the deck


The RSD runs in a rail. After secure on landing the helicopter tail gear is aligned to the track by tail guide winches. A probe in the tail landing gear drops into the track. This process is called straightening. The helicopter is moved up and down the deck by the RSD pulling and pushing probe. The RSD is winched by under deck wires.

All USN ships use RAST, except for the new LCS where TRIGON is being fitted.

Good points
1. In service for many years with over 200 supplied.

Bad points
1. Secure on landing. This is a very expensive exercise as you need two pilots. You need one pilot to fly the helicopter and one on the ship to control the winch. 2. RAST is only suitable for specially built variants of Sea King and Seahawk. 3. Helicopters must have been originally designed to take high forces, and bending moments, where the probe fits in the fuselage. 4. RAST RSD is very complicated. 5. RAST needs men on deck to connect haul down cable. 6. RAST needs men on deck to connect tail guide winch cables.

7. The probe is not at the centre of rotation, so pulling on the tail guide winches damages tail wheel tyres and fatigues the tail cone. To try and relieve this stress, the jaws of the bear trap are released in the lateral direction whilst camped about the probe, and the helicopter is yo-yoed backwards and forwards whilst being straightened. This photograph was taken during

straightening and shows what happens when you have a single point failure.

TRIGON
The MacTaggart Scott TRIGON system was originally designed for Wasp and Lynx, which are four wheel and nose wheel helicopters respectively.

Secure on landing

TRIGON systems have a landing grid on the ship and a decklock in the helicopter. This is a simple system where the landing and take off is totally in the control of the pilot.

Movement along the deck

The helicopter is simply winched up and down the deck by the TRIGON winches. Straightening is achieved by steering the nose gear.

Good points
1. In service for many years with over 200 supplied. 2. Secure on landing. Simple and in pilots control. 3. TRIGON is suitable for any type of helicopter.

4. Helicopters do not need advance engineering to be suitable for TRIGON. 5. TRIGON is very simple. 6. TRIGON has no single point of failure. 7. Simple to install

Bad points
1. TRIGON needs men on deck to connect cables. 2. TRIGON is thought by some people to offer little security.

Development

MacTaggart Scott
TRIGON
MacTaggart Scott has not developed the TRIGON concept. Equipment is of course continuously updated to gain the benefits of technology, but the basic concept never changes. Like a bicycle why reinvent it.

PRISM
MacTaggart Scott has built a rail system, called PRISM, for the 16 tonne Merlin helicopter on the Type23 frigate. This is a specialised 3 rail system connecting to the helicopter through axle extensions. Rails were required to meet classified Royal Navy requirements.

MacTaggart Scott was the first company to use axle extensions, since copied by Indal. MacTaggart Scott is the only company to use a section of moving flight deck for stress free straightening to the deck rails. MacTaggart Scott the only company to handle such a large helicopter with a traversing system. Other ideas Some potential customers think TRIGON is less secure. Around 1982/3 MacTaggart Scott investigated some alternative concepts.

CLAMPDOWN.
A decklock is ball jointed at the airframe. MacTaggart Scott, and also independently AgustaWestland, considered a rigidly mounted decklock which could both secure on landing and be used as a towing probe. This was rejected due to the inflexibility in

engaging the grid, loads in the airframe and the difficulty in designing a smooth sided decklock. The next idea, also reconsidered and rejected later by IBM ASIC, was to tow the helicopter through a moving grid with the decklock engaged. This was abandoned because the decklock would need to be rigid. FHS have used this idea in a modified form by having the decklock engaged in a separate moving grid. The final idea was the equivalent of a travelling decklock. MacTaggart suggested using a block on the cargo hook to which was connected a cable coming up from a shoe in the deck rail. A force on the cable in the rail would apply a down force, called a clampdown force on the helicopter. The benefit was that the helicopter would drag the shoe along with it, and it would allow for sideways misalignment. The concept was to be used with TRIGON.

MacTaggart Scott showed the concept to Aerospatiale as we wished to know if it could be used with the Super Puma (Cougar). The concept was dropped because of the difficulty of getting under the helicopter to make the connection and the fact that the rail could not pass through, or into, the landing grid. The concept was also dropped because mathematical modelling showed no cost benefit. Aerospatiale passed the MacTaggart Scott concept to Sofma (now DCN), who then developed it into the SAMAHE system. So SAMAHE is a copy of an idea rejected by MacTaggart Scott. SAMAHE no longer uses the clampdown for Lynx and Dauphin/Cougar although it is retained for the Indian Sea King and will be used with NH90.

HELIOS
MacTaggart Scott considered handling the helicopter through main wheel spurs. This was first considered by MacTaggart Scott privately and then again later as part of a Pathfinder project funded by DERA (UK defence Research Association). It was found that very high twisting loads can be generated during straightening and so the idea was dropped. The HELIOS concept is the basis of the German FHS system and the Indal TC-Asist.

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Indal
Indal were forced to develop the RAST system because it could not operate with other popular helicopters like Lynx, NH90 and AB212, and it is expensive and heavy.

ASIST
The first development led to the ASIST system where the RSD tracks the helicopters

probe as the helicopter makes its landing.

A secondary device has to be fitted by hand below the nose wheels to steer the helicopter. The nose gear has to be manually lifted clear of the deck to position the device.

TC-ASIST
For customers who want to use a decklock, Indal has proposed the twin claw ASIST. This system uses axle extensions as pioneered by MacTaggart Scott. However, using only the main wheels produces high twisting load in the main landing gears.

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Copies
Imitation is the sincerest form of flattery

We have seen that SAMAHE is based on MacTaggart Scotts CLAMPDOWN concept.

We have seen that the FHS system is based on MacTaggart Scotts HELIOS concept. The FHS system, only fitted to the German F124 Frigate is a very poor system. FHS also copied the MacTaggart Scott concept of a travelling grid.

We have seen that Indal copied MacTaggart Scotts use of axle extensions. Blohm und Voss, the German shipbuilder, made a copy of the TRIGON system (called Hercules) for the German F123 frigates. This was a very poor system and is no longer manufactured.

Larsen and Toubro (through Haean) have made a copy of the TRIGON system for the KCG. It does not work (as of summer 2009)

Issues raised
So far we have come across some rather important issues.

Ship Motion
The helicopter must be secure against sliding and toppling. But it is not Sea State, roll or pitch which is most important here, it is ship acceleration. Definitive limitations can only be stated after a seakeeping study which combines the ship characteristics, the helicopter characteristics, the geometry of the handling system and a model of the sea. MacTaggart Scott has undertaken many such seakeeping studies in accordance with STANAG 4194 [1]. The exact results are confidential to each customer as this is a measure of the ships operational capability. However, it can be stated that every

STANAG 4154 (Edition 3), Common Procedures for Seakeeping in the Ship Design Process, NATO,

December 2000

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frigate and TRIGON system combination analysed theoretically by MacTaggart Scott shows that in general 1. Any helicopter can be safely handled in head or following seas in North Atlantic Sea State 6 at 10 knots and above ship speeds. 2. Any helicopter can be handled at any wave encounter angle in North Atlantic Sea State 5 at 10 knots and above 3. The worst condition is usually low ship speed in quartering seas. Any claims of handling system capability in terms of particular Sea States, or in terms of angular displacements, must also state the ship type, range of wave encounter angles and ship speeds.

Pilot control
When a helicopter has decklock the pilot has full control of security on landing. The pilot can choose the moment of landing and take off. This makes the operation as safe as possible. The pilot knows if the decklock fails to engage, and so he can take off, apply negative thrust or execute any planned emergency procedure. When the security is provided by an active device on the ship, like RAST or ASIST, then the pilot requires a feedback to tell him he is secure. This is first problem. A second problem is that of necessity the active capture devices are of necessity complicated electro-mechanical devices which are unreliable.

Straightening
When a system uses a rail, then the helicopter has to be lined up with the rail. This process is called straightening. Because the helicopter will never land repeatedly in the same location, straightening will involve rotation and/or translation.

RAST
The helicopter is rotated by tail guide winches to get the tail landing gear over the rail. To reduce stress the RSD jaws are laterally released as a pair. As the helicopter is yoyoed backward and forward, the main landing gear is influenced to crab port / starboard.

ASIST
By a combination of towing forward and backwards at the probe, and port / starboard motion of the capture device, and free castor of the nose/tail gear the helicopter is aligned with the rail. This is like an XY plotter. 13

Note that helicopters like Lynx and NH90, which have no trailing castor, will require manual steering from the pilot during this process and are therefore unsuitable.

TC-ASIST
The helicopter is manipulated into alignment by the linear motion of two main landing gear axle extensions with their carrier beam. Once the centre of the MLG is over the track centre, the carrier beam is rotated to rotate the whole aircraft into alignment. Note that helicopters like Dauphin/Cougar, which have a trailing castor NLG, will require manual steering from the pilot during this process and are therefore unsuitable.

FHS
The helicopter is manipulated into alignment by the differential motion of two telescopic rams, one attached to each main landing gear axle extension. Note that helicopters like Lynx, which have no trailing castor, will require manual steering from the pilot during this process.

SAMAHE
For helicopters with a decklock, the helicopter is rotated about the decklock by the pilot using tail rotor thrust. The helicopter is rotated until the nose wheels are over the rail. For no decklock helicopters like Seahawk, the helicopter is rotated in to position using winches.

PRISM
Only used for Merlin. The nose gear is aligned with the centre rail by rotation about the decklock using slewing winches. A nose gear shuttle is attached and the Merlin pulled forward a short distance to a set position where the main landing gear is over arcuate plates. These plates slide over the flight deck to rotate the main landing gears into alignment about the nose landing gear.

TRIGON
The helicopter is straightened as it is pulled forward by steering.

Conclusion
RAST causes stress as the helicopter is not rotated about its centre of rotation. To reduce stress the helicopter is yo-yoed. ASIST, TC-ASIST and FHS may require pilot co-operation in steering.

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TC-ASIST and FHS have high twisting loads in the main landing gears. SAMAHE does not get the main landing gear centre aligned with the rail. PRISM aligns all landing gears in a stress free manner. TRIGON requires no straightening.

Steering
When a system uses a rail, then the helicopter should not require to be steered as it is attached to the rail. This is not always exactly as good as it sounds. To reduce fatigue loads on the airframe it is important that the helicopter wheels roll along a path of true rolling radius. That is to say that at any instant in the curved movement of the helicopter the centre of rotation for each wheel is at the same point in space, or that all the wheels are lined up with each other for a straight motion. If all the wheels roll along a true path, with no slide slip or tyre scrub, then the main wheels will follow a path called a tractrix [2]. The tractrix is an exponential curve to which the axis of the main wheels is always normal and the direction of travel tangent. If the distance between nose and main wheel centres is a, then the tractrix is defined in Cartesian coordinates by
x = y 1 a 2 y 2 dy = a 2 y 2 + a. ln y 1 a + a 2 y 2 + c

Tractrix is derived from the Latin trahere meaning to pull. The tractrix was discovered by Sir Isaac Newton and is said to be the first known use of logarithms in calculus and the first curve determined by integration. ref. Newton's 2nd Epistle to Oldenburg 1676. Newtons solution is for the nose wheel moving in a straight line. Euler solved the case for purely circular motion of the nose wheel 100 years later. There is no general solution for other motions of the nose wheel because of elliptic integrals. W. G. Cady described a mechanical device for drawing the curve and gave this brief history in American Mathematical Monthly, Vol. 72, 1965.

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It is thus proved that whilst towing a helicopter forward, from the nose, the main wheels will tend to align themselves. Conversely if the helicopter is pushed back, from the nose, the main wheels will tend to run off to port or starboard. The effect of the tractrix is self evident in every day life. You cannot park a car alongside the kerb without some measure of over steer on 'the nose wheel' path to get the 'main wheels' where you want. Similarly, it would be difficult to push a child's tricycle backwards in a straight line by applying a light force, but no torque, at the centre of the handle bars without jack-knifing. In order to ensure stress free movement of the helicopter these effects must be considered in both directions.

RAST
As the helicopter is pulled forward, the main landing gear is influenced to crab port / starboard by applying a sideways force to the probe. On a curved track the instantaneous centres of rotation of the main landing gears, tail landing gear and probe will be different.

Consider the diagram above. If the main wheels roll on some true path then the path of the RAST probe is defined and hence the RAST track. However, the tail wheel and tail wheel probe will describe a different path to the main probe. This results in tyre scrub and airframe fatigue.

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ASIST
ASIST requires that an additional shoe is fitted to connect the nose landing gear to the rail after straightening. As the nose wheel has to be manually jacked clear of the deck you loose nose wheel friction and the helicopter is free to slide in a rotary fashion about the probe. As with RAST on a curved track, or if the probe is not perfectly aligned on a straight track, the instantaneous centres of rotation of the main landing gears, tail landing gear and probe will be different.

TC-ASIST
TC-ASIST is not in service and the detail is not yet clear. However, if a nose landing gear device is not used then as described above the main landing gears will require perfect alignment for a straight rail, and for a curved path the nose and main landing gears will have different centres of rotation.

FHS
In the FHS system all the helicopter wheels are off the deck and so steering presents no problems.

SAMAHE

SAMAHE pulls the helicopter forward through the nose landing gear. The main wheels follow the tractrix. This means that the main wheels may not be aligned when the helicopter is the hangar. Because the nose wheels are attached to the rail, the nose gear can not be over steered to bring the main wheels into alignment. If the mains wheels are substantially out of line then they must be aligned using a re-centring device. 17

The helicopter is pushed back to the flight deck through the nose landing gear. This means the main wheels will run along the tractrix to either port or starboard of the required path. This is prevented by fitting a MLG guiding device between the main wheels with a connection into the deck. This means there will be a continuous side force on the helicopter forcing to keep to the path.

PRISM
Only used for Merlin. Steering is not an issue as PRISM only uses a straight track and spring compliance is built in to the attachments. Even so, the reverse tractrix effect can be seen when the helicopter is pulled back and the ship is listed.

TRIGON
The TRIGON deck man steers the helicopter naturally through the steering arm. There are no external influences to stress the helicopter.

Note that the helicopter is pulled forward and he helicopter is pulled back. The helicopter is never pushed.

Conclusion
RAST, ASIST, TC-ASIST and SAMAHE all cause stresses in the airframe by forcing the helicopter to roll along a single path. PRISM causes minor side loads when the ship is listed. FHS and TRIGON cause no stresses in steering.

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Attachment access & men


The helicopter needs to be attached to the handling system. This is either automatic or manual.

RAST
The RAST probe is automatically attached to the RSD. However, men are required on deck to attach the initial haul down cable when the helicopter is in hover, and to operate the tail guide winches. Access is clear.

ASIST
The ASIST probe is captured automatically, but the nose landing gear shoe has to be attached manually by lifting the nose landing gear.

Access is moderately restricted under the nose fuselage. The shoe is carried on to the flight deck

TC-ASIST
TC-ASIST is not in service and the detail is not yet clear. Theoretically it should be a no men on deck system, but then so was ASIST claimed to be. Access is clear at the main landing gear.

FHS
FHS would appear to be theoretically a no men on deck system, but as it is so unreliable in attaching itself men are required. Access is clear at the main landing gear and moderately restricted under the nose fuselage.

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SAMAHE

SAMAHE requires a man to attach the nose towing bar. The nose towing bar is carried to the helicopter by hand. Connection is difficult to fit as the carriage must be driven to an exact position relative to the tow bar. The tow bar must be held up manually during this process (approximately 25 kg).

The underside of the helicopter requires a slotted hole for the spring loaded pin of the swivel arm, shown here on a yellow test rig, or something similar on a real helicopter. A man will have to crawl under the helicopter to make and check this connection. Access is very restricted. Fitting the MLG guiding device between the main wheels for moving toward the landing spot is very awkward has men must crawl under the tail of the helicopter.

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Access is very restricted on Super Lynx because of the Doppler.

The MLG guiding device must be manually removed at the end of the rail, before the decklock is over the grid. After removal it must be carried back to the hangar manually (approximately 28 kg). It is very important for owners to check that helicopter has the correct mating part. With this version of the design for Lynx there is no clampdown force. The Dauphin/Cougar system is similar.

PRISM
Only used for Merlin. PRISM was designed to be a no man on deck system, but because of problems with the helicopter men are to attach the slewing cables and to lock the nose wheel shuttle.

TRIGON

TRIGON requires men to connect wires and steer.

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Access is clear at the main landing gear and moderately restricted under the nose fuselage.

Conclusion
Men on deck will always be required to fold blades, load stores and all the other tasks associated with shipbourne helicopters. Every workable system needs men on deck. Access for manned intervention is reasonably easy except for SAMAHE.

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Security, complexity and single points of failure


The helicopter requires to be secure against sling and toppling. Highly complex systems are more likely to be unreliable and therefore increase the risk of an accident. Systems with small, complex, parts exposed to the marine environment are likely to corrode to failure. Additional security is given when there are multiple failure points.

RAST
The RAST probe and the RAST RSD are both single points of failure. There have been many documented cases of loss of Seahawks were the RSD has failed, or the pilot has been unaware that the jaws are open.

The complexity of the RAST RSD makes it unreliable.

ASIST
The ASIST probe is a single point of failure. Because of the complexity of the ASIST RSD, its associated control systems and sensors, the Chilean Navy report a target of only 90% availability [3].

ASNE Launch & Recovery of Manned and Unmanned Vehicles - 2005, Annapolis, November 2005

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TC-ASIST
As the system is not yet in service no conclusions can be drawn, but of necessity the cross beam will be complex. To date (summer 2009) the system on the Andrea Doria has not been brought into service.

The only single point of failure is the decklock on landing.

FHS
The FHS system uses very complex engineering and sensors. This has made the system very unreliable.

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The decklock is a single point of failure both on landing and during the movement to and from the hangar.

SAMAHE
SAMAHE is complex in that is difficult to attach. The first single point of failure is spring loaded pin at the end of the curved beam. If the spring, or pin, fails then the helicopter is only restrained at the nose. This will not prevent sliding or tipping. The second single point of failure is the pin connecting the tow bar to the carriage. If this fails the helicopter can roll backwards and be completely unrestrained.

PRISM
1. Only used for Merlin. PRISM has undergone a full safety assessment by the Royal Navy. The only single point of failure for movement of the helicopter is a wire break, inside the rail, to the nose shuttle. This is same risk for all rail handling systems as their various RSDs and carriages are moved by wires.

TRIGON
TRIGON is simple by design to make it highly reliable. Because it has 5 cables it has multiple points of failure.

Conclusion
TRIGON is the only system which does not have a single point of failure.

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Summary of issues
The following is a summary of the reasons MacTaggart Scott do not normally provide rail systems.

Ship Motion
Extensive practical experience and dynamic simulations have shown TRIGON to perform adequately.

Pilot control
Use of TRIGON with a landing grid gives the pilot full control of launch and recovery.

Straightening
Skilled manipulation and stress inducing straightening is not required with TRIGON.

Steering
With TRIGON the helicopter moves with true rolling motion so no additional stresses are induced.

Security, complexity and single points of failure


TRIGON has multiple points of failure. As far as is known no system has ever suffered a wire break, but if it happenened with TRIGON it would only be 1 of 5. TRIGON has multiple points of failure. The simple, but effective, design of TRIGON ensures high reliability.

User friendly

No heavy parts to be carried out to the deck in heavy wether.

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Future proof
TRIGON will handle future helicopters and UAVs without expensive upgrading.

Versatile
TRIGON can handle all types of helicopter without modification to the aircaft or TRIGON. You do not need to change the large and expensive moving carriage

Tricycle

Tail dragger

Skid

4 wheel

Value for money


Capital cost of a rail system is more expensive. Rails are expensive to install in the ship. TRIGON equipment can be mounted anywhere to suit the shipbuilder and the Navy.

Drainage
Rails allow salt water to flow in to the hangar, and in a worst case situation allow burning fuel in to the hangar.

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Mission capability
Warships are warships, designed to operate a fighting asset in a theatre of war. The worst possible situation is where a rail based carriage is stuck on the deck from ship damage, blackout or breakdown. Such an obstacle prevents a helicopter being moved by hand, or possibly landing. TRIGON can not make such an obstruction.

Manning
All systems require men on deck for blade fold and/or tail fold and/or blade props, etc.

Finally, could you line up and attach the SAMAHE arm, or tow bar, under the Lynx in this weather.

Stealth
Deck rails can have a detrimental radar cross section unless their gap is manually filled in with sealing strips.

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Experience
The engineers of MacTaggart Scott have many years of experience in designing, developing, building and testing different types of helicopter handling systems for many helicopter types. Research and Development always continues with an aim to reduce costs or to embrace new technologies, or in response to specific customer requests. For instance, MacTaggart Scott is currently working on an electric drive version of TRIGON as many Navies have the aim of the all electric ship. As well as the facility to land test systems, MacTaggart Scott can also perform dynamic simulations of the ship/helicopter/handling system interface. From time to time MacTaggart Scott make presentations or give papers at international gatherings such as American Society of Naval Engineers AGARD The Embarked Aviation Seminar The MECON conference The Royal Aeronautical Society

It is with this wealth of experience, together with the ability to understand all the issues associated with helicopter handling, which leads MacTaggart Scott to still propose TRIGON as the most suitable system in the vast majority of cases.

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