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Ocampo et el. v. The Secretary of Justice et el. G.R. No. L-7910 (1955)* Excerpts from the minutes of Jan. 18, 1955 In Ocampo et al. vs. The Secretary of Justice et a1., G. R. No. L-7910, the petition was denied, without costs, due to insufficient votes to invalidate section 3 of Republic Act No. 1186. Chief Justice Paras and Justices Padilla, Reyes (A), and Labrador voted to uphold that particular section; Justices Pablo, Bengzon, Montemayor, Jugo, Bautista, Concepcion and Reyes, J.B.L., believe it is unconstitutional. The opinions follow: PARAS, C.j.: Under the Judiciary Act of 1948, Republic Act No. 296. the judicial function in Courts of First Instance was vested in District Judges, Judgesat-Large and Cadastral Judges. Sixteen Judicial Districts were constituted, and seventy-four District Judges were provided and distributed thereover in the proportion fixed in the Act. Aside from the seventyfour District Judges, section 53 of the Act provided for the appointment of "eighteen Judges-at-Large and fifteen Cadastral Judges who shall not be assigned permanently to any judicial district and who shall render duty in such district or province as may, from time to time, be designated by the Department Head." The petitioners were duly appointed and. had qualified under said section 53, four as Judges-at-Large and six as Cadastral Judges. Under Republic Act No. 1186, which took effect on June 19, 1954, several provisions of the Judiciary Act of 1948 were amended. Now, the judicial function in the Court of First Instance is vested in District Judges; and although the number of Judicial Districts is maintained, the number of District Judges has been increased to 114. Section 3 of Republic Act No. 1186, provides that "all the existing positions of Judgesat-Large and Cadastral Judges are abolished, and secticn fifty-three of Republic Act Numbered Two Hundred and Ninety-six is hereby repealed." Shortly after the effectivity of Republic Act No. 1186, the Secretary of Justice informed the petitioners that they had ceased as Judges-at-Large and Cadastral Judges. The petitioners have filed the present petition for declaratory relief and/or mandamus, for a judicial declaration that section 3 of Republic Act No. 1186 is unconstitutional and void, that the respective positions and offices of the petitioners under
Motion for reconsideration subsequently dismissed in Supreme Court of February 16, 1955.

a resolution of the

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the Judiciary Act of 1948 still exists, and that they are entitled to exercise the powers and functions. of said offices; and for a directive against the Secretary of Justice to permit the petitioners to continue in the exercise of said powers and functions, and against the Chief Accounting Officer and Judicial Officer of the Department of Justice to pay the petitioners their corresponding compensation beginning June 20, 1954. Section 1 of Article VIII of the Constitution provides that "the judicial power shall be vested in the Supreme Court and in such inferior courts as may be established by law," and section 9 of the same Article provides that "the Members of the Supreme Court and all judges of inferior courts shall hold office during good behavior, until they reach the age of 70 years, or become incapacitated to discharge the duties of their office." The power of Congress under section 1 to organize, reorganize and even abolish courts inferior to the Supreme Court, is conceded; and the contention advanced on behalf of the petitioners is merely that such power is restricted by and may be reconciled with section 9 in the sense that they should be allowed to continue holding their offices during good behavior, until they reach the age of seventy years or become incapacitated, notwithstanding the reorganization effected under Republic Act No. 1186 and the express abolition of their positions by section 3 thereof. In this case we have to assume, both from the explanatory note ot the basic Bill and from the sponsorship speeches, that the main objective of Republic Act No. 1186 is to vest the judicial function of Courts of First Instance in District Judges, eliminating Judges-at-Large and Cadastral Judges, the creation of whose positions (by Republic Act No. 296, section 53), as Mr. Justice Padilla says in a separate opinion, offends against the constitutional mandate that no judge appointed for a particular district shall be transferred to another district without the approval of the Supreme Court. For under said Republic Act No. 296, those judges could be assigned by the Secretary of Justice to any Judicial District,-a practice undoubtedly allowing, if it had not already allowed, the designation of any of them to try specific cases with perhaps indicated results. Indeed, the present administration is to be commended for thus totally doing away with the system of "rigodon de jueces", which under the former law it could have maintained to its obvious advantage. It is very significant that not a single District Judge has been ceased out. We cannot accept the insinuation that the petitioners have been purposely removed or legislated out, because the isolated personal opinion expressed by one or two members of Congress that undesirable judges must be weeded out, is not controlling and, as already stated, all positions of Judges-at-Large and Cadastral Judges, and not merely those held by the petitioners, were abolished. If petititioners were not.: after the abolition of their posts, retained in the judiciary, like the others by giving them appointment as District Judges,

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which involves a promotion to positions of higher category, that is not attributable to Republic Act No. 1186, for petitioners are in fact casualties of the legitimate exercise by the President of his prerogative appointment. Moreover, if the petitioners were intentionally ceased out for being "undesirable", no provision for the payment of any gratuity would have been provided, because removal for cause is never rewarded. It is argued for the petitioners that Republic Act No. 1186 has not abolished any Court of First Instance and, on the contrary, it has increased the number of District Judges. This is followed by the reminder that in American States where the legislative power to abolish a judgeship was sustained, the corresponding court was also abolished. The flaw of this argument lies in the fact that none of the petitioners was a District Judge presiding over a District Court, and they were all only occupying the positions of either Judge-at-Large or Cadastral Judge in virtue of section 53 of the Judiciary Act of 1948, which positions were eP. abolished and which section wal>. repealed expressly by Republic Act No. 1186; hence it was no longer necessary to abolish any court. It is not amiss to recall that the position of District Judge has heretofurc always been considered as distinct and different from that of J udgeat-Large or Cadastral Judge, such that the latter had to look forward to being promoted and made a District Judge under a new and different appointment with increased compensation. Our considered opinion is that if it be, as it is, admitted that Congress can abolish courts inferior to the Supreme Court, it can do the lesser thing of reducing the number or changing the category of judges presiding over such courts. In the case of Zandueta vs. De la Costa, 66 Phil., 615. lvlr. Justice Laurel, one of the most eminent members of the Constitutional Convention. voiced the opinion that the legislature may abolish courts inferior to the Supreme Court and reorganize them territorially 01 otherwise, thereby necessitating new appointments and commissions. Indeed, only recently, in the case of Brillo vs. Enage, G. R. No. L-7115, we ourselves expressed the view that "el derecho de un juez de desernpefiarlo hasta los 70 afios de edad 0 se incapacite no priva al Congreso de su facultad de abolir, fusionar 0 reorganizar juzgados no constitucionales," Citations from other jurisdictions contain pronouncements to the eflect that "if the framers of the Constitution intended to leave it to the legislature to establish and abolish courts as the public necessities demanded, this was not qualified, or limited by the clause as to the judge's term of office," (McCulley vs. State, 53 S:W. 134); "a constitutional provision that judges of a certain court shall hold their offices for five years must yield to another provision that the legislature may alter or abolish the court, and therefore the legislature may reduce the number of judges by fixing an end to the terms of certain of them although within five years after they took office. State ex rel, Kenny vs. Hudspeth (1890) 59 N.J.L. 304; 37 Atl. 504, 37 Atl. 67; Nolle v. State (1698) 62 N.J.L.

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533, 41 Atl, 832, affirmed in (1900) 64 N.J.L. 363, 48 Atl, 1118." (4 AL.R. 216); "the legislative power to create a court carries with it the power to abolish it. When the court is abolished any unexpired term is abolished also. The judge of such a court takes office with that encumbrance and knowledge. (Cherokee County v. Savage, 32 So. 2nd 503); and "the legislature has the power to abolish as well as to create, to diminish as well as to increase, the number of judicial districts" (AIkman vs. Edwards, 30 L.R.A 149, 55 Kan. 751, 42 Pac. 366). The reasons for the above pronouncements are, among others, that security of tenure is certainly not a personal privilege of any particular Judge (concurring opinion of Mr.' Justice Laurel in Zandueta vs. De la Costa, supra); a public officer, no matter what the department of the government in which he serves is a public servant, and while the public should deal justly with him, his individual rights are by no means of primary importance (AIkman vs. Edwards, 30 L.R.A. 149, 55 Kan. 751, 42 Pac. 366); the judge's right to his full term and his full salary are not dependent alone upon his good conduct, but also upon the contingency that the legislature may for the public good, in ordaining and establishing the courts, from time to time consider his office unnecessary and abolish it (McCulley vs. State, 53 S.W. 134). Properly and logically speaking, the petitioners were not removed from office because a removal implies that the office exists after the ouster. Thus in the case of Manalang vs, Quitoriano, G. R. No. L-6898, promulgated on April 30, 1954, this Court said:
"This pretense can not be sustained. To begin with, petitioner has never been Commissioner of the National Employment Service and, hence, he could not have been, and has not been removed therefrom. Secondly, to remove an officer is to oust him from office before the expiration of his term. A removal implies that the office exists after the ouster. Such is not the case of petitioner herein, for Republic Act 761 expressly abolished the Placement Bureau, and, by implication, the office of the Director thereof, which, obviously, cannot exist without said Bureau. By the abolition of the latter and of said office, the right thereto of its incumbent, petitioner herein, was necessarily extenguished thereby. Accordingly, the constitutional mandate to the effect that 'no officer or employee in the civil service shall be removed or suspended except for cause as provided by law' (Art. XII, Sec. 4, Phil. Const.) , is not in point, for there has been neither a removal nor a suspension of the petitioner Manalang, but an abolition of his former office of Director of the Placement Bureau, which, admittedly, is within the power of Congress to undertake by legislation."
(supra,

50 0.0. 2515.)

To the same effect is the following:


"To dispense with an unnecessary court is not to change his term of judgeship, nor is it to affect the guaranties of the Constitution as to his salary, nor does it remove the judge from office. The office no longer exists, and, of course, a removal from an office that has no existence is not a conceivable proposition." (McCulley vs. State,

53 S.W. 134.)

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For all practical purposes and to all constitutional intents, a judge of first instance is on the same footing as an officer or employee in the civil service insofar as permanence of tenure is concerned, because whereas the judge is to serve during good behavior, an officer or employee in the civil service may not be removed or suspended except for cause as provided by law. In both cases the office is statutory, and it is fundamental and elementary that a statute cannot be irrepealable. The petitioners are certainly mistaken in believing that the only way toreconcile section 1 with section 9 of Article VIII of the Constitution is to hold that any attempt to abolish the position of a judge should only 00 made effective after the expiration of his term; because it is no less tenable and sound to rule that a judge may hold office during good behavior only as long as his position lasts. It may not be urged that the latter construction would render section 9 meaningless, for the reason that, in the absence of said constitutional provision, the Congress may fix the judge's term of office at, say, one year, two years, three years, or any definite period. The case of Commonwealth vs, Gamble, 62 Pa. 343, mainly relied upon by the petitioners, is not decisive, since the statute therein involved singled out a particular judge. In the case at bar, as already pointed out, all positions of Judge-at-Large and Cadastral Judge were not abolished. Besides, the case of Commonwealth vs. Gamble was invoked in the case of AIkman vs. Edwards, supra, and the Supreme Court of Kansas did not follow it, holding:' ''To allow the legislature, while making one new district, to legislate the judge of an old district out of office, and provide for appointment or election of two new judges, would clearly be vicious in the principle, and this is the class of legislation which falls within the ccnstitutional inhibition. But to prohibit the legislature from abolishing a district which had been improvidently established, and thereby vacates the office of a judge, is another and altogether different thing, which the Constitution does not, in express terms, prohibit." There is no point in the observation that the implied power of Congress to abolish inferior courts cannot prevail over the express constitutional provision on tenure of office. The petitioner's case is also necessarily premised only upon the implied proposition that said tenure may not be shortened. If the power to abolish were intended to be qualified by the permanence of tenure, the Constitution would have, along with the provision that the judges of inferior courts shall hold office during good behavior until they reach the age of seventy years or become incapacitated, further ordained that their term shall not be shortened or affected by the abolition of any inferior courts; in the same way that although the judges "shall receive such compensation as may be fixed by law," the Constitution contains the express limitation that

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such compensation "shall not be diminished during their continuance in office" (Section 9, Article VIII, Constitution). There is nothing to the distinction attempted to be drawn from the circumstance that the legislative power to abolish a court sustained in American cases, was expressly conferred by the Constitution, whereas the right of our Congress to abolish is merely implied from its constitutional power to create inferior courts. In both cases the power exists, and we cannot see any difference as to its force and effect when exercised. Let it be clearly understood that we are not here concerned with a case of one or more judges of first instance being singled out for elimination nor with a case contemplated by Mr. Justice Laurel in his concurring opinion in Zandueta vs. De la Costa, supra, when he gave the warning that where the violation of a constitutional provision regarding security of judicial tenure is palpable and plain, and the legislative power of reorganization is sought to cloak an unconstitutional and evil purpose, it will be the time to make the hammer fall and heavily. As the power of appointment carries with it the power of removal, it is more logical to suppose that, as the judges are appointed by the President, the security of tenure contemplated by section 9 of Article VIII of the Constitution, was intended more as a restraint against Executive removal; and as a matter of fact, in implementation of this objective, it has been provided in section 67 of the Judiciary Act of 1948 that no District Judge, Judge-at-Large or Cadastral Judge shall be separated or removed from office by the President of the Philippines unless sufficient cause shall exist, in the judgment of the Supreme Court, involving serious misconduct or inefficiency, for the removal of said judge from office after the proper proceedings. We are not blind to the great importance and imperative desirability of having and maintaining an independent judiciary. At the same time, we cannot abridge the powers of Congress under the Constitution. It is not for us to judge the wisdom of the framers of our Constitution in granting Congress legislative power with reference to the establishment of courts inferior to the Supreme Court. But with all the constitutional and statutory safeguards, and any device conceivable by the ingenuity of man, for judicial independence, after all there can be no surer guaranty for a true administration of justice than the God-given character and fitness of those appointed to the Bench. The judges may be guaranteed a fixed tenure of office during good behavior, but if they are of such stuff as allows them to be subservient to one administration after another, or to cater to the wishes of one litigant after another, the independence of the judiciary will be nothing more than a myth or an empty ideal. Our judges, we are confident, can be of the type of Lord Coke, regardless or in spite of the power of Congress-we do not say unlimited but as herein exercised-to reorganize inferior courts.

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PADILLA, }.: .In so far as the security of tenure of judges is concerned, I am in accord with Mr. Justice Bengzon's view. A fixed tenure during good behavior, long recognized as essential to an independent judiciary, has in this country been translated into a constitutional ban limiting the powers of Congress in dealing with the courts and for that reason not to be written off with the argument that as Congress has the express authority to establish courts inferior to the Supreme Court, it necessarily has also the implied authority to abolish them. For how could there be a fixed tenure if the office may at any time be abolished? As the Constitution expressly prohibits the removal of a judge (except for cause) during his term of office, reason dictates that the implied power to abolish courts must be deemed withheld where its exercise would bring about what is prohibited. What the Constitution prohibits the Congress to do directly should not be allowed to be done by indirection, circumvention and resort to an implied power to nullify an express constitutional mandate. The Constitution provides and ordains that "all judges of inferior courts shall hold office during good behavior, until they reach the age of seventy years, or become incapacitated to discharge the duties of their office" and "shall receive such compensation as may be fixed by law, which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office." 1 It also provides that "No judge appointed for a particular district shall be designated or transferred to another district without the approval of the Supreme Court. The Congress shall by law determine the residence of judges of inferior courts." Z Section 53 of Republic Act No. 296 provides:
In addition to the District Judges mentioned in section forty-nine hereof there shall also be appointed eighteen Judges-at-large and fifteen Cadastral Judges who shell not be assigned permanently to any judicial district and who shall render duty in such district or province as may, from time to time. be designated by the Department Head. (Underscoring supplied.)

This is the law that created or established the office of the petitioners. The law offends against section 7, Article VIII, of the Constitution, not only because it does not determine or fix the residence of the petitioners as judges, as ordained bv the Constitution, but also because the authority to designate them to render duty in districts or provinces other than those of their residence is lodged in the Department Head alone when accoruing to the same section and article of the Constitution the authority must be exercised with the approval of the Supreme Court. There is no reason why section 9, Article VIII, of the Constitution should be given effect and section 7 of the same article nullified. The last paragraph of section 3 of Republic Act No. 1186 repeals
1 Section 2 Section

9, Article 7, supr.

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section 53 of Republic Act 296 quoted above and the positions of Judgesat-Large and Cadastral Judge are thereby abolished. The paragraph is assailed on the ground that it infringes upon section 9, Article VIII, of the Constitution. By repealing section 53 of Republic Act No. 296 and abolishing the anomalous judicial positions therein created, the Congress has but rectified a grave error-with intent, no doubt, to make the judicial system conform to the Constitution by eliminating therefrom judges that could be moved about at the pleasure of an Executive Department and to that extent exposed to extraneous influences. To permit the continuance of a system that offends against the fundamental :aw would be :a dereliction of duty on the part of Congress. On the other hand, the Constitution is upheld and not violated where judicial positions created or established contrary to its provisions-such as those held by the herein petitioners-are abolished. For these reasons the petition should be dismissed. REYES, A., J., concurring: I concur in the opinion of the Chief Justice. But I must say further that even supposing that Congress may not, as a general rule, abolish a judicial post without allowing the incumbent to finish his term of office, still I see weight in Mr. Justice Padilla's opinion that to allow the petitioners herein to continue as judges-at-large and cadastral judges without permanent assignment and forever subject to being moved from one judicial district to another without the consent of the Supreme Court would be to perpetuate a system repulsive to an independent judiciary and a clear evasion of the Constitution. LABRADOR, J.: I do not dispute the fundamental principles which my brethren have expounded as underlying our scheme of government. The independence of the judiciary, its inviolability against executive or legislative encroachment and the permanence of judicial tenure are so plain as to need elucidation. I am also aware of the fact that the judiciary is the weakest of all the three departments of the Government. However, in our zealousness to conserve judicial independence we should be careful to guard against self-pity and passion taking the better part of reason and allowing them to becloud the real issue. The question should be dispassionately considered, bearing in mind, on the one hand, that every presumption of good faith should be accorded a coordinate department that had decreed the passage of the disputed legislation, especially as in the present instance the legislative department has been expressly granted the power to organize <?rreorganize inferior courts (Section 1, Article VIII, Constitution of the Philippines), and on the other, the nature of the offices abolished and the underlying causes for said abolition, as these

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circumstances in a very great measure may give an aspect to the issue different from what it may appear to be. The office of judge-at-Iarge was introduced in this jurisdiction in the year 1902. It is a peculiar contraption unknown in other judicial systems. Under Act No. 396 (Philippine Commission, May 9, 1902), four judges of first instance, in addition to those created in Act No. 136, were to be appointed, who "may be required to perform the duties of the judge of first instance of any province, when directed by the Civil Governor." But under the first judicial reorganization act (Act No. 2347, approved February 28, 1914), the positions of auxiliary judges of first instance were created in the place of judge-at-large in that he is appointed to a group of judicial districts to which he is appointed and acquires the right to hold court and exercise judicial function only if and when he is assigned by the Executive Department to a district. Under Act No. 2347 the auxiliary judge was to hold session in the place of his residence. Specific prohibition existed against his serving in any district not included in his commission. (Sec. 4.) The positions of auxiliary judges were continued in the Administrative Code of 1916 and 1917. Under the latter, the stations of auxiliary judges were fixed, and they were to hold court thereat without need of assignment by the Secretary of Justice, but only upon request of a judge of a district. (Secs. 157-160.) These positions of auxiliary judges were continued until December 6, 1932, when Act No. 4007 by amending Section 157 of the Administrative Code again created the positions of six judges-at-large, who were not assigned to any judicial district but were to hold court in any district when the Secretary of Justice designates them to do so.
"Sec. 157. Judges-at-Iarge.-In addition to the judges mentioned in section one hundred and fifty-four hereof, as amended, there shall also be appointed six judges who shall not be assigned permanently to any judicial district and who shall render duty in such districts or provinces as may, from time to time, be designated by the Department Head. (Sec. 24, Act No. 4007.)

The above was the set-up of judges-at-large when the Constitution was approved. Thereafter, on November 7, 1936. Commonwealth Act No. 145 reduced the number of judges-at-large to five. (Sec. 3.) On August 19, 1938, C.A. No. 348 increased the number of judges-at-large to twelve. (Sec. 2.) The positions of cadastral judges were first created under C.A. No. 504, which provides:
"Sec. 1. In addition to the existing positions of judges of first instance, there are created fifteen positions of judges of first instance to be appointed as provided by law. Said judges shall be paid a salary of eight thousand four hundred pesos per annum each, and shall have the same rank, powers and privileges enjoyed by and granted to judges of first instance,' but their jurisdiction shall be limited to

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cases an smg under the Cadastral Act and the Land Registration Act. They shall render duty in such judicial districts or provinces as m;y, from time to time, be ,designated by the Secretary of Justice."

There were, prior to the passage of Republic Act No. 1186, 18 positions of judges-at-large and 15 positions of cadastral judges. (sec. 53, R.A. No. 296.) While the idea of a judge-at-large may be traced to an early date (1902) it was suppressed in 1914 and did not appear again in our judicial system until 1932. Its usefulness as a contrivance to help in the clearing of clogged dockets may be admitted, but its useful existence Ior a long time in our statute books can not cure or remedy its fundamental defect-the lack of a specific district where the judge can exercise his judicial functions freely without interference from anyone, much less an executive or administrative superior, and from which he may not be moved away without his consent. It must be remembered that one of the legal ramparts guarding judicial independence is irremovability from the district to which one is appointed. This principle was first enunciated in the case of Borromeo vs. Mariano, 41 Phil. 322. and I hold that it should not apply to district judges alone, but to all judges of any court of any grade. If a judge can be moved from one place to another at the will or mercy of an executive official he certainly cannot have the freedom to act in the trial and decision of cases according to the dictates of his reason and conscience; there is no hindrance for him to trade his convictions for personal conveniences in order to win favor with the executive authority that assigns him and upon whose good will his promotion depends. The other fundamental defect of the system of judges-at-large is the power of the Executive branch to determine where judges shall sit. Through the exercise of this power the Executive branch can assign friendly, or sympathetic, or willing tools to any place to try specific cases so that these may be tried and decided in the form and manner in which the Executive branch desires. The office of judge-at-large, therefore, is incompatible with the principle of judicial independence. In the cases of Borromeo vs. Mariano, supra, and Concepcion vs. Paredes (42 Phil. 599), this Court frowned upon the attempt to transfer a judge to another district against his will and the attempt to decide by lot where judges shall sit, these being, according to the Court, subversive of judicial independence, self-respect, and integrity, it is much more undesirable and condemnable to have judges act as such only if and when directed by an executive officer and only at places to which they are assigned. Section 7 of Article VIII of the Constitution provides:
"No judge appointed for a particular district shall be designated or transferred to another district without the approval of the Supreme

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shall by law determine

The above provision of the residence of judges was inserted because judges of first instance used to reside in Manila, or in places other than where they hold court, making them unavailable in their courts except where they actually hold sessions, to the great inconvenience of the public, and impairing their efficiency, because the time and energy spent by them in going to and from their residence to their courts, reduced the time and attention they could devote to their work. The prevailing l'eeling in the Constitutional Convention that judges of first instance should have designated places of residence must be considered applicable to judges-at-large, who resided in Manila. They could not permanently reside in districts out of Manila because by the very nature of their office they were to be assigned from time to time to different provinces of the Archipelago where their services are needed. Notwithstanding the constitutional directive for the legislature to provide by law the residences of judges of inferior courts, the legislature did not for some time see fit to provide official residences for judgesat-large and cadastral judges. In time, the party in power saw in these judges-at-large and cadastral judges, and specially in the peculiar provision that they shall hold court only in places to which they may be assigned by the Secretary of Justice, a means to influence the course of justice. Through the Secretary of Justice, a political appointee, friendly or sympathetic judges-at-large and cadastral judges were picked up for assignment to places where the administration or the party in power or the influential politicians desired cases (especially election cases) to be decided in one way or another. In time, judges-at-large and cadastral judges were not only assigned to specific provinces, but they were assigned to hear particular cases and authorized to decide these cases in Manila. In one notorious case once before this Court, a judge-at-large was made to abandon a heavy calendar of hearings to try a case in 3 nearby province presumably in the form and manner in which the Adminstraticn desired it to be conducted or decided, to the extreme inconvenience of the residents of the province where his calendar was previously fixed and to the just indignation of lovers of justice. (Montano vs. Mejia, G.R. No. L-6416.) It has come to pass, therefore, that the offices of judges-at-large and cadastral judges, which were established for the prompt dispatch of cases has become the avenue through which pernicious political influence has sought to corrupt the administration of justice. It can not be: denied that it is this intolerable anomaly which Congress sought to remedy by Sec. 3, par. 2 of Republic Act No. 1186, although some legislators may have personal reasons of their own in supporting its passage. To the credit of the present Congress, let it be said that the disputed

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'Apf kh vj} jcpf- qt vj} hqqv uecpfcnkng vjgg- ewv kv qhh- cpf ecuv kv htqo vjgg/ Iv ku dgvvgt hqt vjgg vq iq kpvq nkhgockogf qt ncogvjcp jcxkpi vyq jcpfu qt vyq hggv- vq dg ecuv kpvq gxgtncuvkpi hktg/' *Sv/ Mcvvjgy- ejcr/ 18- x/ 8,/

Tjku vq o} okpf ku pqv vjg qeecukqp yjgp- kp vjg yqtfu qh Jwuvkeg Lcwtgn- yg owuv ngv 'vjg jcoogt hcnn/' Iv ku tcvjgt cp qeecukqp yjgp yg ujqwnf pqv nqqmhqt fghgevu kp vjg ncy- dwv uggmkvulwuvkhkecvkqp/ Wg hkpf uwej lwuvkhkecvkqpkhpqv kp yqtfu qh vjg eqpuvkvwvkqpcn fktgevkxg vjcv vjg ngikuncvwtg hkzguvjg tgukfgpegu qh lwfigu- cv ngcuvkp vjg tgcuqp qt urktkv qh vjg qvjgt rtqxkukqp vjcv lwfigu ujcnn dg cuukipgf vq fkuvtkevu htqo yjkej vjg} oc} pqv dg tgoqxgf qt vcmgp cyc} // Tjgtg ku cpf vjgtg ecp dg pq swguvkqpcu vq vjg gzkuvgpegqh vjg rqygt qh Cqpitguu vq cdqnkuj qt vq tgqticpkng kphgtkqt eqwtvu/ Tjku rqygt ku gzrtguun} itcpvgf vq Cqpitguu d} vjg Cqpuvkvwvkqp yjgp kvrtq. xkfgf kp Sgevkqp 1- Atvkeng/''' vjcv vjg lwfkekcnrqygt ujcnn dg xguvgf kp qpg Swrtgog Cqwtv cpf kp 'uwej kphgtkqteqwtvucu oc} dg guvcdnkujgf d} ncy-' qt kp Sgevkqp2 qh vjg ucog Atvkeng/ Bwv qwt Cqpuvkvwvkqp cnuq gzrtguun} iwctcpvggu vjcv lwfigu ujcnn pqv dg tgoqxgf htqo qhhkeg wpvkn vjg} tgcej vjg cig qh ugxgpv} }gctu- qt dgeqog kpecrcekvcvgf vq fkuejctig vjg fwvkguqh vjgkt qhhkeg *Sge/ 9- Atvkeng VIII,/ Iv kuvjgug vyq eqphnkevkpi eqpegrvu vjcv yg ctg ecnngf wrqp vq crrn} kp vjg ecug cv dct/ Au I wpfgtuvcpf kv-vjg swguvkqpcv kuuwg kupqv- Mc} vjg ngikuncvwtg ngikuncvg lwfigu qwv qh qhhkeg d} c uwrrqugf cev qh lwfkekcntgqticpknc. vkqp? Tjcv yqwnf dg wphckt vq vjg ngikuncvwtg vjcv gpcevgf vjg rtqxk. ukqp cpf c fkuvqtvkqpqh vjg kuuwghqt lwfigu ctg pqv dgkpi gcugf qwv dwv vjgkt rqukvkqpuctg dgkpi cdqnkujgf cpf ctg pqv dgkpi hknngfd} qvjgtu/

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vjgtg yqwnf dg pq vgpcdng ukfg vjcp vjg pgicvkxg/ Ih vjcv ygtg vjg kuuwg Tjg swguvkqpujqwnf tcvjgt dg uvcvgf vjwu: Hcu vjg ngikuncvwtg cdwugf kvu rqygt vq tgqticpkng eqwtvu qh hktuvkpuvcpeg yjgp kv cdqnkujgf vjg rqukvkqpuqh lwfigu.cv.nctig cpf ecfcuvtcn lwfigu? Nq qpg fgpkgu vjg hcev vjcv vjg rqygt vq cdqnkuj qt tgqticpkng kphgtkqt eqwtvu ujqwnf dg tgeqpekngf ykvj vjg rgtocpgpeg qh lwfkekcn vgpwtg-cu dqvj rtqeggf htqo eqpuvkvwvkqpcn rtqxkukqpu/ Bwv ygtg yg vq jqnf vjcv lwfkekcnvgpwtg ku rctcoqwpv qxgt vjg ngikuncvkxg rqygt vq tgqticpkng- vjg ncvvgtyqwnf dg korqvgpv vq gzgtekug vjg rqygt itcpvgfhqt kvecp pqv dg fgpkgf vjcv c lwfkekcntgqticpkncvkqp qt c okpqt ejcpig kp vjg lwfkekcnu}uvgo owuv cnyc}u chhgevkpewodgpvu qh lwfkekcnqhhkegu/ Tjg rqygt vq tgqticpkng vjg lwfkekcnu}uvgo ujqwnf dg eqpukfgtgf rctc. oqwpv qxgt vjg rgtocpgpeg qh lwfkekcnvgpwtg- vjg ncvvgt ugtxkpi qpn} cu c nkokvcvkqp yjgp vjg ngikuncvkxg rqygt jcu dggp cdwugf/ Fqt yg ecp pqv eqpegkxg- d} vjg ogtg iwctcpv} qh vgpwtg- vjcv vjg Cqpuvkvw. vkqp kpvgpfgf vq eqpxgtv vjg lwfkekcndqf} kpvq uwej c rtkxkngigf itqwr qh wpvqwejcdnguvjcv gxgp vjg ngikvkocvgpggfu cpf fguktgu qh vjg dqf} rqnkvkeucu gzrtguugf vjtqwij kvuncyhwntgrtgugpvcvkxg- owuv dg uwdqt. fkpcvgf vjgtgvq cpf cdkfg vjg rcuukpi cyc} qh lwfigu/ Wgtg yg vq ceegrv vjg rtkpekrng gpwpekcvgf kp vjg qrkpkqp uwuvckpkpi vjcv vjg ngiku. ncvkxg tgqticpkncvkqp ecppqv qxgttkfg vgpwtg- yg yqwnf dg ocmkpi vjg cfokvvgfn} ygcmguv fgrctvogpv qh vjg Gqxgtpogpv uwrtgog cpf eqp. xgtvkpi c tgrtgugpvcvkxg fgoqetce} kpvq c lwfkekcnqnkictej}/ Ann ctiw. ogpvu qhhgtgf cickpuv vjg eqpuvkvwvkqpcnkv} qh vjg fkurwvgf rtqxkukqpu yqwnf dg xcnkf cickpuv vjg Swrtgog Cqwtv- c eqpuvkvwvkqpcn eqwtv- dwv pqv cickpuv vjg kphgtkqt eqwtvu cu vq yjkej vjg Cqpuvkvwvkqp itcpvu vjg ngikuncvwtg rngpct} rqygt qh qticpkncvkqp cpf eqpugswgpvn}qh tgqticpknc. vkqp/ I jcxg vcmgprckpu vq gzcokpg vjg oquv korqtvcpv ecugu yjkej jcxg dggp ekvgf kp hcxqt qh qpg qt vjg qvjgt ukfg- dwv I jcxg hqwpf pq ukping ecug yjkej gzcevn} hkvu vjg hcevuqh vjg ecug cv dct/ Tjg ecug qh Svcvg xu- Ftkgfng}- 34 N/E/ 872- ecppqv dg ekvgf kp uwrrqtv qh vjg xkgy vjcv vjg Aev qt vjg rtqxkukqpu qh vjg Aev wpfgt qwt eqpukfgtcvkqp ctg wpeqp. uvkvwvkqpcn/ Ip vjcv ecug vjg tgncvqt Gkduqp ycu vjg uqng lwfig qh vjg hqwtvj lwfkekcnfkuvtkevqh Ipfkcpc- cpf Ftkgfng}- vjg uqng lwfig qh vjg hkhvjlwfkekcnfkuvtkev/ B} cp cev qh vjg ngikuncvwtg vjg hkhvjlwfkekcnekt. ewkvycu cdqnkujgf cpf vjg vgttkvqt} eqxgtgf d} kvcvvcejgf vq vjg hqwtvj lwfkekcn ektewkv/ Au Ftkgfng} eqpvkpwgf vq gzgtekug jku qhhkegcu lwfigGkduqp kpuvkvwvgf c ecug vq fgvgtokpg Ftkgfng})u tkijv vq jqnf qhhkeg kp vjg hqwtvj lwfkekcnfkuvtkev/ Gkduqp eqpvgpfgf vjcv Ftkgfng} jcf pq tkijv vq gzgtekug vjg qhhkeg cu vjg ucog jcf dggp cdqnkujgf d} vjg cev qh vjg ngikuncvwtg/ Tjg Swrtgog Cqwtv qh Ipfkcpc jgnf vjcv vjg ngiku. ncvwtgeqwnf pqv cdqnkuj vjg ektewkv cpf vjwu ngikuncvg qwv qh qhhkegvjg lwfig cpf vjg rtqugewvkpi cvvqtpg} qh vjg hkhvjlwfkekcnektewkvhqt ygtg kv

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rgtokvvgf vq fq uq- vjg lwfkekct} yqwnf dg uwdlgevgf vq vjg ngikuncvkxg rqygt cpf lwfkekcnkpfgrgpfgpeg fguvtq}gf/ Bwv kvujqwnf dg pqvgf vjcv vjg Ipfkcpc eqpuvkvwvkqp pqv qpn} hkzgf vjg vgto qh vjg ektewkv lwfig hqt ukz }gctu- dwv wpfgt kv ektewkv eqwtvu ctg eqpuvkvwvkqpcn eqwtvu/ *Atv/ 7uge/ 161- Rgx/ Svcv/ 1881/, Tjg eqwtv uckf vjcv khvjg ngikuncvwtg oc} cdqnkuj c ektewkvcpf kvu cev dg ocfg vq vcmg ghhgevcv cnn-kv ujqwnf pqv dg dghqtg vjg gzrktcvkqp qh vjg vgto qh qhhkeg qh vjg lwfig cv vjg vkog qh vjg cev oB Drn BniCy DriD Drn tEmpn ku c lyCDsDEDsyiv qhhkegt/ Tjku ecug ku fkhhgtgpvhtqo vjg ecug cv dct kp vjcv wpfgt vjg Ipfkcpc eqpuvkvwvkqp ektewkv eqwtvuygtg eqpuvkvwvkqpcn eqwtvu/ *Cqpuv/-Atv/ 7- uge/ 161- Rgx/ Svcv/ 1881, cpf vjg vgto qh c ektewkv lwfig hkzgf cv ukz }gctu *kfgo- uge/ 169,- yjkng kp vjku lwtkufkevkqp eqwtvu qh hktuvkpuvcpeg ctg pqv eqpuvkvwvkqpcn eqwtvucpf DrnBn ku iy gzrtguu ABFsCsy o Drn lyCDs1 DEDsy iEDrBsJsyp Drn vnpsCviDEBn D BnBpiysJn qt gxgp ijvsCr kphgtkqt eqwtvu-kpenwfkpi eqwtvu qh hktuvkpuvcpeg/ *AtvkengVIII- Sge/ 1 qh vjg Cqpuvkvwvkqp xguv lwtkufkevkqp kp vjg Swrtgog Cqwtv iym sy uwej DrnB syonBsB eqwtvucu Drn viG wiI mnDnBwsyn:Apqvjgt ecug ekvgf vq uwuvckp vjg xkgy qh wpeqpuvkvwvkqpcnkv} ku vjg ecug qh Cqooqpygcnvj 54e Gcodng- 62 Pc/ 343- 1 Ao/ Rgr/ 422/ Ip vjku ecug- Gcodng tgegkxgf c eqookuukqp htqo vjg iqxgtpqt vjg vgpwtg qh yjkej ycu d} vjg lyCDsDEDsy D lyDsyEn DB Dny }gctu qp vjg qpn} eqpfkvkqp vjcv jg ujqwnf uq nqpi dgjcxg jkougnh ygnn/ Swdugswgpvn}vjg ngikuncvwtg rcuugf c ncy crrtqxgf d} vjg iqxgtpqt cdqnkujkpi vjg fkuvtkevvq yjkej jg ycu crrqkpvgf- vtcpuhgttkpi kvvq- cpf eqpuvkvwvkpi c rctv qh- cpqvjgt fkuvtkev/ Tjg eqpuvkvwvkqp rtqxkfgf vjcv Jwfig Gcodng ujcnn jqnf qhhkeghqt c vgto qh vgp }gctu- kh jg ujqwnf uq nqpi dgjcxg jkougnh ygnn/ Av vjg vkog qh vjg rcuucig qh vjg cev Gcodng)u eqo. okuukqp jcf pkpg cpf vyq.vjktfu }gctu oqtg vq twp/ Tjg eqwtv jgnf vjcv vjg cev qh vjg ngikuncvwtg ycu xqkf dgecwug kv ycu xkqncvkxg qh vjg eqpuvkvwvkqpcn rtqxkukqp/ Tjg eqwtv uckf: Tjg rqygt cpf cwvjqtkv} qh vjg lwfig ygtg gzrtguun} itcpvgf d} vjg Cqpuvkvwvkqp vq eqpvkpwgvq dg gzgtekugf hqt c rgtkqf qh vgp }gctu cpf vjku eqpuvkvwvkqpcn itcpv qh tkijv cpf cwvjqtkv} oc} pqv dg ejcpigf d} ngikuncvkxg cevkqp- dgecwug kh vjg ngikuncvwtg ygtg cwvjqtkngf vq oqfkh} *vjg vgto, d} ngikuncvkxg cev vjgp yqwnf vjg cwvjqtkv} qh vjg eqpuvkvwvkqp dg uwdlgev cpf uwdqtfkpcvg vq ngikuncvkxg cwvjqtkv}/ Ngkvjgt ku vjku ecug crrnkecdng vq vjg ecug cv dct dgecwug vjg vgto qh qhhkeg qh Gcodng ycu hkzgf gzrtguun} d} vjg Cqpuvkvwvkqp cv vgp }gctu- yjkej kupqv vjg ecug qh lwfigu.cv.nctig cpf ec. fcuvtcn lwfigu- pqy rgvkvkqpgtu kp vjku ecug/ A /vjktf ecug ekvgf cickpuv vjg eqpuvkvwvkqpcnkv} qh vjg rtqxkukqp ku vjg Orkpkqp qh Jwuvkeg171 N/E/ 237/ Ip vjku ecug- c rtqrqugf ngikunc. vkqp ycu uwdokvvgf vq vjg uwrtgog lwfkekcneqwtv qh Mcuucejwugvvuhqt cp qrkpkqp qp vjg rtqxkukqpuvjgtgkp vq vjg ghhgev vjcv lwfigu yjq jcxg tgcejgf vjg cig qh 70 }gctu ujcnn dg tgvktgf vq rctv vkog ugtxkeg/ Tjgtg

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ycu vjgp pq rtqxkutqp kp vjg Mcuucejwugvvueqpuvkvwvkqp ukoknct vq qwtu cpf tgictfkpi eqorwnuqt} tgvktgogpv cv vjg cig qh ugxgpv}/ Tjg uwr. tgog lwfkekcneqwtv jgnf vjcv vjg rtqrqugf rtqxkukqp ku xkqncvkxg qh vjg rv qxkukqp qh vjg eqpuvkvwvkqp vjcv cnn lwfkekcn qhhkegtuujcnn jqnf vjgkt qhhkegu fwtkpi iqqf dgjcxkqt/ Tjg eqwtv uckf vjcv vgpwtg qh qhhkegqh lwfigu cu vjwu ugvvngfd} vjg eqpuvkvwvkqp ku korgtcvkxg cpf hkpcncpf vjg ucog oc} pqv dg gpnctigf- nkokvgf-oqfkhkgf- cnvgtgf qt kp cp} yc} chhgevgf d} vjg Ggpgtcn Cqwtv/ Tjku ecug ku pqv crrnkecdng vq vjg ecug cv dct dgecwug pq rqukvkqpycu cdqnkujgf/ Tjg rqukvkqpuygtg eqpvkpwgf cpf vjg kpewodgpvu ygtg uqwijv vq dg. fgrtkxgf qh vjgkt qhhkegu wrqp vjgkt tgcejkpi vjg cig qh 70 }gctu/ Tjg ecug ycu engctn} ujqtvgpkpi vjg vgpwtg qh lwfkekcnkpewodgpvu cpf ecp pqv crrn} vq vjg ecug cv dct yjgtg vjg rqukvkqpuqt qhhkegu qh lwfigu.cv.nctig cpf ecfcuvtcn lwfigu ctg cdqnkujgf/ Lgv wu pqy gzcokpg vjg ecugu vjcv jqnf vjg eqpvtct} xkgy/ Ip vjg ecug qh Akmocp xu/ Efyctf- 30 L/R/A/ 149- cp cev qh vjg ngikuncvwtg cdqnkujkpi egtvckp lwfkekcnfkuvtkevu ycu cvvcejgf qp vjg hqnnqykpi itqwpf: gjcv kvxkqncvgf vjg rwtrqug cpf kpvgpvqh vjg eqpuvkvwvkqp vq rtqvgev vjg lwfkekcnfgrctvogpv htqo ngikuncvkxg kpvgthgtgpeg cpf vq kpuwtgvq lwfigu c vgpwtg qh qhhkeghqt vjg vgtou hqt yjkej vjg} ygtg gngevgf/ Ip vjcv ecug vjgtg kugxgp c eqpuvkvwvkqpcn rtqxkukqp hkzkpivjg vgto qh vjg lwfigu 20 fkuvtkeveqwtvu cpf rtguetkdkpi vjg oqfg qh vjgkt tgoqxcn htqo qhhkeg *yjkej ku pqv vjg ecug kp vjg Pjknkrrkpgu,/ Tjg lwfkekcnfkuvtkevu yjkej ygtg cdqnkujgf jcf dggp guvcdnkujgf kp vjg dgnkghvjcv vjg} yqwnf dg pgeguuct} vq oggv cp gzrgevgf kpetgcug kp vjg rqrwncvkqp yjkej fkf pqv ocvgtkcnkng; uq vjg ngikuncvwtgvjqwijv kv pgeguuct} cpf gzrgfkgpv vq cdqnkuj uqog qh vjgo/ Tjg eqwtv uckf 'lgcnqwu} qh gpetqcejogpvu qp lwfkekcnrqygt owuv pqv dnkpf wu vq vjg lwuv rqygt qh vjg ngikuncvwtg kp fgvgtokpkpi ykvjkp eqpuvkvwvkqpcn nkokvuvjg pwodgt qh eqwtvu tgswktgf d} vjg rwdnke gzkigpekgu-z z z-' *r- 153,/ Iv cnuq uckf DriD Drn BsprDC 01 cp symsFsmEiv rvmsyp Drn ACsDsy qh tEmpn liyyD jn lyCsmnBnm iC AiBiwEyD iym CEAnBsB D Drn BsprDC qh Drn AEjvsl cpf vjcv kv ycu pqv ykvjkp vjg kpvgpvkqp' qh vjg eqpuvkvwvkqp vq rtqjkdkv vjg ngikuncvwtg htqo cdqnkujkpi c fkuvtkev yjkej jcf dggp kortqxkfgpvn} guvcdnkujgfcpf vjgtgd} xcecvg vjg qhhkeg qh vjg lwfig/ Ip fgvgtokpkpi vjg eqphnkev dgvyggp vyq eqpuvkvwvkqpcn rqygtu cpf tkijvu- vjg rqygt qh vjg ngikuncvwtg vq tgqt. icpkng vjg eqwtvu cu cickpuv vjg kpfkxkfwcntkijv qh c lwfig vq jqnf jku qhhkeg fwtkpi iqqf dgjcxkqt- vjg eqwtv kornkgf vjcv khvjg tgqticpkncvkqp ku hqt c rwdnke kpvgtguvvjg tkijv vq vjg qhhkeg owuv ikxg yc}/ Ip qvjgt yqtfu- rwdnke kpvgtguvcpf rwdnke iqqf owuv rtgxckn qxgt cpf cdqxg vjg vgpwtg qh lwfkekcnqhhkegcpf vjg jqnfgt vjgtgqh ecppqv eqornckp kh vjg ngikuncvwtg d} c ngikvkocvg gzgtekug qh kvu ngikuncvkxg rqygt qxgt tgqt. icpkncvkqp cdqnkujgujku qhhkeg/

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ykug cpf ngikvkocvg rqnke}.vjg fguktg vq gnkokpcvg c uqwteg qh gxkn gzkuvkpikp vjg lwfkekcnu}uvgo *cu yg jcxg cntgcf} cfxgtvgf vq cdqxg,/ Tjgtg ku c ncuv tgcuqp hqt uwuvckpkpivjg xcnkfkv} qh vjg fkurwvgf rtqxkukqpu/ Wjgp vjg Cqpuvkvwvkqpcn Cqpxgpvkqp tgeqipkngf vjg korqt. vcpeg qh vjg kttgoqxcdknkv} qh lwfigu htqo vjgkt tgurgevkxg fkuvtkevuvq rtqvgev vjgkt kpfgrgpfgpeg- cpf fktgevgf vjg ngikuncvwtg jI viG vq rtq. xkfg hqt vjg tgukfgpegu qh lwfigu qh kphgtkqteqwtvu-kvfguktgf cpf gzrgevgf vjg ngikuncvwtg vq korngogpv vjku fktgevkxg cpf rtqxkfg tgukfgpegu hqt cnn lwfigu qh kphgtkqt eqwtvu-rtguwocdn} lwfigu.cv.nctig yjq jcf pq qhhkekcn tgukfgpegu/ Apcnqiqwu fktgevkxguctg eqpvckpgf kp vjg Cqpuvkvwvkqpuwej cu vjg qpg tgictfkpi vjg guvcdnkujogpv qh c pcvkqpcn ncpiwcig- yjkej vjg ngikuncvwtg jcu cntgcf} korngogpvgf/ Wjgp vjg Cqpxgpvkqp fktgevgf vjcv vjg tgukfgpegu qh lwfigu qh kphgtkqt eqwtvu ujqwnf dg hkzgf- kv eqwnf pqv jcxg kpvgpfgf vq gzvgpf vjg tkijv vq rgtocpgpv lwfkekcnvgpwtg vq vjqug jqnfkpi rqukvkqpu yjkej kv gzrgevgf vjg ngikuncvwtg vq cdqnkuj kp rwtuwcpeg qh vjg eqpuvkvwvkqpcn fktgevkxg/ Ip qvjgt yqtfu- kv ku vq dg rtguwogf vjcv yjgp vjg Cqpxgpvkqp cfqrvgf vjg rgtocpgpeg qh vgpwtg hqt Jwfkekcn qhhkegtukvogcpv vq gzvgpf kvqpn} vq lwfigu ykvj rgtocpgpv uvcvkqpupqv vq lwfigu jqnfkpi vjg rqukvkqpuhqt yjkej vjg ncy cv vjg vkog qh vjg Cqpxgpvkqp jcf pqv rtqxkfgf qhhkekcn tgukfgpegu cpf yjkej gjg Cqpuvkvwvkqp kornkgfn} rtqjkdkvgf/ Fcknwtg qp vjg rctv qh vjg ngiku. ncvwtg vq korngogpv vjg eqpuvkvwvkqpcn fktgevkxg- ecppqv dg kpvgtrtgvgf vq tckug vjg ecvgiqt} qh lwfigu.cv.nctig vq vjcv qh lwfigu qh fkuvtkev eqwtvu-kp uq hct cu vgpwtg kueqpegtpgf/ Fgct ku hgnvvjcv khvjg xcnkfkv}qh vjg rtqxkukqpu kp swguvkqpku uwu. vckpgf- lwfigu yqwnf dg cv vjg ogte} qh vjg ngikuncvwtgcpf vjgkt kpfg. rgpfgpeg ewtvckngf/ I jqnf vjcv hgct ujqwnf pqv dg vjg dcuku qh- qt fkuvqtv-hwpfcogpvcn rtkpekrngu/ Ih cpf yjgp c eqqtfkpcvg dtcpej qh vjg Gqxgtpogpv ujqwnf uggmvq iq dg}qpf kvungikvkocvgurjgtg cpf gpetqcej wrqp cpqvjgt- vjcv yknndg vjg vkog vq cev rtqorvn} cpf fgekukxgn}/ Ip vjg yqtfu qh JwuvkegLcwtgn- vjgp ujcnn dg vjg qeecukqp vq ngv vjg jco. ogt hcnncpf jgcxkn}/ Bwv yjgp cu kp vjg kpuvcpvecug vjg ngikuncvkxg cev ku engctn} kpfwegf d} vjg jkijguv oqvkxgu vq tgoqxg c uqwteg qh gxkn kp vjg lwfkekcnu}uvgo cpf htgg kvhtqo cp cpqocnqwu crrgpfcig vjtqwij yjkej rgtpkekqwu rqnkvkeu jcf uqwijv vq kphnwgpeg lwfigu- cpf crrgctu- dg. ukfgu- vq korngogpv c eqpuvkvwvkqpcn fktgevkxg- ngv wu pqv kpukpwcvgvjcv lwfkekcnkpfgrgpfgpeg ku dgkpi korcktgf nguv qwt lgcnqwu tgictf vjgtgqh dg okukpvgtrtgvgf- cpf kpuvgcf qh gpeqwtcikpi lwfkekcnxcnqt yg yknndg kpfwekpi lwfkekcncttqicpeg/ Fqt vjg cdqxg tgcuqpu- kp xkgy qh vjg gxkfgpv iqqf hckvj cpf oqvkxg yjkej jcxg kpfwegf vjg ngikuncvkxg fgrctvogpv qh vjg Gqxgtpogpv vq gpcev vjg fkurwvgf rtqxkukqpu- I co eqpuvtckpgf vq jqnf vjcv vjg cdqnkvkqpd} vjg ngikuncvwtg qh vjg rqukvkqpu qh lwfigu.cv.nctig cpf ecfcuvtcn lwfigu fqgu pqv eqpuvkvwvg cp cdwug qh vjg rqygt qh tgqticpkncvkqp itcpvgf vq kv d}

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vjg Cqpuvkvwvkqp/ Wjgtghqtg- I xqvg cickpuv vjg itcpvkpi qh vjg rgvkvkqp vjcv vjg fkurwvgf rtqxkukqpu qh vjg pgy Jwfkekct} Lcy *Rgrwdnke Aev Nq/ 1186, dg fgenctgf wpeqpuvkvwvkqpcn cpf xqkf- cu cickpuv vjg rgvk. vkqpgtu/ BENGYON- p.a Tjg qwveqog qh vjku nkvkicvkqp ku crv vq tgxkxg vjg urgewncvkqp yjg. vjgt ykvvkpin}qt wpykvvkpin}vjg Cqpuvkvwvkqp jcu hwtvjgt ygcmgpgf vjg wuwcnn} ygcm lwfkekcnfgrctvogpv/ Fqt jgtg kucp cvvgorv- qt vjg dgikp. pkpi qh cvvgorvu cickpuv vjg kpfgrgpfgpeg qh vjg nqecn lwfkecvwtg cpf }gv vjg Swrtgog Cqwtv *ugxgp lwuvkeguoqtg vjcp c ogtg oclqtkv}, hkpfu kvugnh rqygtnguu vq ejgem kv-vjg Cqpuvkvwvkqp jcxkpi vkgf kvujcpfu ykvj vjg rtqxkukqp vjcv c vyq.vjktfu xqvg ujcnn dg pgeguuct} vq fgenctg c uvcvwvg wpeqpuvkvwvkqpcn/uSgxgp lwuvkegu uc} vjg ncy xkqncvgu vjg eqp. uvkvwvkqp; hqwt qvjgtu fgekfg vq uwuvckpkv-cpf vjgkt xkgy rtgxcknu/ Tjg qrkpkqpu qh ugxgp ogodgtu ctg kp hcev fkuugpvkpiqrkpkqpu/ Wjgp Rgrwdnke Aev Nq/ 1186 vqqmghhgevqp Jwpg 19- 195<h-vjg vgp rgvkvkqpgtu ygtg rtgukfkpi fkhhgtgpveqwtvuqh hktuv kpuvcpeguqog cu lwfigu. cv.nctig- qvjgtu cu ecfcuvtcn lwfigu/ Sjqtvn} vjgtgchvgt vjg} ygtg pqvkhkgf d} vjg tgurqpfgpv Sgetgvct} qh Jwuvkegvjcv jcf egcugf vq jqnf qhhkeg d} xktvwgqh vjg rtqxkukqp qh ugevkqp3 qh uckf Aev fgenctkpi- 'cnn vjg gzkuvkpi rqukvkqpu qh Jwfigu.cv.Lctig cpf Ccfcuvtcn Jwfigu ctg cdqnkujgf/' Pgvkvkqpgtu eqpvgpf vjcv- kp cdqnkujkpi vjgkt rqukvkqpucpf tgoqxkpi vjgo- Cqpitguu cpf tgurqpfgpvu wpeqpuvkvwvkqpcnn} ujqtvgpgf vjgkt vgtou qh qhhkeg rtguetkdgf d} vjg Cqpuvkvwvkqp/ Wjgtghqtg- vjg} cum hqt fg. enctcvkqpqh kpxcnkfkv} qh uckf ugevkqp-cpf hqt lwfiogpv vjcv vjgkt rquk. ukqp cpf qhhkegu uvknn gzkuvykvj vjgkt eqttgurqpfkpi tkijv vq gzgtekug vjg hwpevkqpu vjgtgqh- Tjg} cnuq tgswguv crrtqrtkcvg qtfgtu hqt rc}ogpv qh vjgkt eqorgpucvkqp- cpf hqt qvjgt tgnkgh/ Ipxqmkpi vjg qticpke rtqxkukqp vjcv lwfigu 'ujcnn jqnf qhhkegfwtkpi iqqf dgjcxkqwt- wpvknvjg} tgcej vjg cig qh ugxgpv} }gctu- qt dgeqog kpecrcekvcvgf-' 1 vjg} chhkto vjg} jcxg pqv dggp iwknv}qh okueqpfwev- jcxg pqv tgcejgf 70 }gctu cpf ctg rj}ukecnn} ecrcdng vq rgthqto vjgkt fwvkgu/ Fqt cpuygt- vjg Sqnkekvqt.Ggpgtcnockpvckpu vjcv rgvkvkqpgtu)tkijv vq cev cu lwfigu jcf egcugf ykvj vjg gzvkpevkqp qh vjgkt rqukvkqpuCqpitguu jcxkpi vjg eqpuvkvwvkqpcn rqygt vq cdqnkuj kphgtkqteqwtvu-kpenwfkpi vjg rqukvkqpu qh Jwfigu.cv.Lctig cpf Ccfcuvtcn Jwfigu/ Cqoogpfcdn} cxqkf. kpi cnnkuuwgu cu okueqpfwev- cig qt ecrcekv}- jg ockpvckpu-cu ugeqpfct} rtqrqukvkqp-vjcv cp}yc} vjg uvcvwvg etgcvkpi rgvkvkqpgtu) rqukvkqpu xkqncvgf vjg Cqpuvkvwvkqp cpf guvcdnkujgf pq lwfkekcnqhhkeg/
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hqt vjg lwfigu vjgtgqh/ *Sgg Svcvg x/ Cnctm- 87 Cqpp/ 537- 89 Avn/ 172/ 52 L/R/A *N/S/, r/912/, Tjg hqwt.}gct vgto hkzgf d} vjg Cqpuvkvwvkqp 'ku dg}qpf ngikuncvkxg ejcpig/ Iv ku c hkzgf iwctcpv}/' *Sgg Svcvg x/ Tjqocu- 10 Kcp/ 191Wknuqpx/ Sjcy- 188 N/W/ 943/, Lgikuncvwtg ecppqv- d} cdqnkujkpi qt ejcpikpi Jwtkfkecnektewkvutg. oqxg qt ngikuncvg lwfigu htqo qhhkeg rtkqt vq gzrktcvkqp qh vjgkt vgtou/ *Svcvg gz tgn/ Wcfuyqtvj x/ Wtkijv 5 N/E/ *2f, 504- 211 Ipf/ 41/, *hqqvpqvg48 C/J/S/ 3e 975/, 'Wjgtg c ekv} jcu dggp tgkpeqtrqtcvgf- dwv kvupcog- kfgpvkv}-cpf vgttkvqtkcnnkokvutgockp vjg ucog- c lwuvkegqh vjg rgceg liyyD dg vnpsC1 viDnm ED :J qhhkegd} vjg pgy ejctvgt)u rtqxkukqp tgfwekpi vjg pwo. dgt qh lwuvkeguyjgp vjg Cqpuvkvwvkqp rtqxkfgu vjcv c lwuvkegujcnn jqnf qhhkeghqt hqwt }gctu cpf wpvknjku uweeguuqt ku gngevgf cpf swcnkhkgf/ Gtcvqrr x/ Vcp Er *1897, 113 Mkej/ 590- 71 N/W/ 1080/' *Vqn/ 4Ca:f: r/ 211/, 'Tjg qhhkeg qh rqnkeg ocikuvtcvg kp ekvkgu qh vjg ugeqpf encuu jcxkpi oqtg vjcp 5-000 cpf nguu vjcp 25-000 kpjcdkvcpvu ku etgcvgf cpf vjg ngpivj qh vjg vgto hkzgf d} vjg Cqpuvkvwvkqp/Tjg Lgikuncvwtg ecppqv ejcpig vjg ngpivj qh vjg vgto yB tgoqxg Drn sylEwjnyD d} ngikuncvkqp dghqtg. vjg gzrktcvkqp qh jku vgto/' ZS}nncdwu Svcvg gz tgI/ Me/ Dgtoqvv Cqwpv} Avv}/ x/ Rgknn}94 Ngd/ 232, 142 Rgr/ r/ 923/, 'Ip Svcvg x/ Svwjw- 52 Ngd/ 209- 71 N/W/ 941- vjg cev etkvkekngf rtqxkfgf vjcv vjg rqnkeg ocikuvtcvg gngevgf kp Oocjc kp 1897 ujqwnf gp. vgt wrqp jku vgto qh qhhkeg dghqtg vjg vgto qh vjg vjgp kpewodgpv gz. rktgf- vjwu cdtkfikpi vjg vgto qh vjg kpewodgpv- cpf vjku ycu jgnf vjg ngik.uncvwtg eqwnf pqv fq- ukpeg vjg Cqpuvkvwvkqp hkzgf vjg vgto qh vjg kpewodgpv cv vyq }gctu/ Iv ycu dgecwug Drn vnpsCviDEBn lEvm yD CrBDny vjg vgto qh vjg kpewodgpv vjcv vjg vkog hkzgf hqt vjg pgy vgto vq dgikp ycu kp xkqncvkqpqh vjg Cqpuvkvwvkqpcpf pqv dgecwug vjg Cqpuvkvwvkqp hkzgf fghkpkvgn} yjgp gcej vgto ujcnn dgikp/' *142 N/W/ Rgr/ 3e 924,/ *Ovjgt cwvjqtkvkguogpvkqpgf kp vjg rgvkvkqpgt)uectghwnn}rtgrctgf dtkgh ctg qokvvgf hqt vjg ucmg qh dtgxkv}/, Afokvvgfn}- Sgevkqp 9 Atv/ VIII ckou vq rtgugtxg vjg kpfgrgpfgpeg qh vjg lwfkekct}/ Iv cuuwtgu lwfigu vjcv uq nqpi cu vjg} dgjcxg- vjg} ecppqv dg tgoqxgf htqo qhhkeg..pq ocvvgt yjcv rctv} eqpvtqnu vjg Gqxgtpogpv.wpvkn vjg} tgcej vjg cig qh ugxgpv} }gctu qt dgeqog kp. ecrcekvcvgf/ Tq eqorngvg vjgkt kpfgrgpfgpeg htqo rqnkvkecneqpvtqn qt rtguuwtg- kvhwtvjgt cuuwtguvjgo vjcv vjgkt ucnctkguecppqv dg fkokpkujgf fwtkpi vjgkt kpewodgpe} *uge/ 9,/ Hgpeg kv oc} dg cumgf- qh yjcv eqpugswgpeg ku vjg cuuwtcpeg qh ucnct} pqp.fkokpwvkqp- kh cp} lwfigu eqwnf dg ngikuncvgfqwv vjtw c eqwtv tgqticpkncvkqp? Sq owej fkf qwt Cqpuvkvwvkqpcn Cqpxgpvkqp fguktg vq uvcdknkng lwfkekcn vgpwtg vjcv kv qxgttwngf c oqvkqp vq rgtokv vjg DBnyCsnB qh lwfigu htqo

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vq cpqvjgt vjtw c eqwtv tgujwhhng/ qpg fkuvtkev 'Tjg lwfkekct} eqookvvgg qh vjtgg rtcevkecnn} gpfqtugf vjg tgeqo. ogpfcvkqp qh vjg Cqpxgpvkqpeqookvvgg qp lwfkekcnrqygt qp vjg ocvvgtkp vjg hqnnqykpi rtqxkukqp:p
)Nq lwfig yjq jcu dggp crrqkpvgf hqt c rctvkewnct fkuvtkev ujcnn dg fgukipcvgf qt vtcpuhgttgf vq cpqvjgt fkuvtkev ykvjqwv vjg crrtqxcn qh vjg Swrtgog Cqwtv/) 'Tjku rtqxkukqp qh vjg tgxkugf lwfkekct} ctvkengu ycu eqpukfgtgf d} vjg Cqpxgpvkqp qp Jcpwct} 17- 1953/ 'Dgngicvg Bgtpcdg fg Gwnocp rtqrqugf cp cogpfogpv vq vjg ghhgev vjcv vjku rtqxkukqp ujqwnf pqv dg crrnkecdng vq c tgqticpkncvkqpu qh vtkdwpcnuqh lwuvkegqt qh fkuvtkgvu;dwv vjg cogpfogpv ycu fghgcvgf gcukn} ykvjqwv fgdcvgu/' *Atwgiq- Ftcokpi qh vjg Pjknkrrkpg Cqp. uvkvwvkqpVqn/ 1- r/ 513,/

Nqy- vjgtghqtg- jcxkpi xgvqgf vjg ;9u6:.-9 qh lwfigu vjtw c tg.qt. icpkncvkqp- vjg Cqpxgpvkqp gxkfgpvn} eqwnf pqv jcxg rgtokvvgf vjg tg. 57=u4 qh lwfigu vjtw tg.qticpkncvkqp/ Tjg rtkpekrng qh cp kpfgrgpfgpv lwfkekct}-eq.gswcn cpf eq.korqtvcpv ykvj vjg qvjgt vyq dtcpejgu qh vjg Gqxgtpogpv ecog vq qwt ujqtgu ykvj vjg Aogtkecp qeewrcvkqp/ Xgv vjg kpfgrgpfgpeg qh lwfigu.rctvkewnctn} qh vjg kphgtkqt eqwtvu-ycu qh unqy itqyvj/u. wpvknkv tgegkxgf xkiqtqwu hgtvknkncvkqp kp vjg Bqttqogq rtgegfgpv- yjgtgkp vjku Cqwtv kp c dqnf uvtqmg qh lwfkekcnuvcvguocpujkr urgnngf qwv qh fqwdvhwnrtqxkukqpu vjg fqevtkpg vjcv c lwfig qh hktuvkpuvcpeg 5u@ 67; >1;07<; 01: +76:-6; dg vtcpuhgttgf d} vjg Gqxgtpqt.Ggpgtcn vq cpqvjgt fkuvtkev-dgecwug uwej rqygt vq vtcpuhgt eqwnf dg c ogcpu vq yjkr kpvqnkpguwej lwfigu cu oc} fgh} uwrgtkqt qhhkekcn fkevcvkqp/ Tjg iguvwtg ycu ygnn tgegkxgf- vjg sDEyFsvsmim fg hEnlnC ycu jgtg vq uvc}/ Ovjgt fgekukqpu tgchhktogf kv/u Apf eqpvgorqtcpgqwu ngiku. ncvkqpgzrtguun} rgtokvvgf tgoqxcn qh c lwuvkeg qh vjg rgceg 'yjgp jku qhhkeg )ku)ncyhwnn} cdqnkujgf qt ogtigf kp vjg lwtkufkevkqp qh uqog qvjgt lwuvkeg' *uge/ 206 Rgx/ Afo/ Cqfg,; yjgtgcu 1; 15841-,4@ 89701*1;-, uwej tgoqxcn *d} cdqnkvkqp,qh lwfigu qh hktuvkpuvcpeg-dgecwug ykvjqwv ogpvkqpkpi cdqnkvkqpqt ogtigt- kv fktgevgf vjcv vjg} 'ujcnn ugtxg wpvkn vjg} tgcejgf vjg cig qh 65 }gctu- uwdlgevvq vjg vtcpuhgt rtqxkfgf hqt qt cwvjqtkngf kp vjku Aev' *htqo qpg fkuvtkevvq cpqvjgt,/ *Sge/ 149 Rgx/ Afo/ Cqfg/, Apf yjgp vjg Cqpuvkvwvkqp ycu cfqrvgf kp 1935- vjg Gqxgtpogpv rtcevkeg qh tgvckpkpi lwfigu kp lwfkekct} tgujwhhnguvjg uvcvwvg cpf vjg lwtkurtwfgpeg cnneqodkpgf vq hnqygt kpvquge/ 9- yjkej ykvj uge/ 7 cuuwtgf lwfigu uvcdknkv} qh vgpwtg-uq nqpi cu vjg} dgjcxg- wpvkn vjg} tgcej ugxgpv} qt dgeqog kpecrcekvcvgf/
i. Tjg} ygtg cv hktuv crrqkpvgf vq jqnf qhhkegfwtkpi vjg rngcuwtg qh vjg Pjkn. krrkpgu Cqookuukqp *Aev 136,/ 4 DBBwn x/ biBsiy. 41 Pjkn/ 322/ 5 HylnAlsy x/ eiBnmnC. 42 Pjkn/ 599; CvjnBD x/ cslviC. 51 Pjkn/ 370/

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'Tjg Cqpxgpvkqp kpenwfgf kp vjg Cqpuvkvwvkqp rtqxkukqpu hqt jgnr. kpi ugewtg vjg kpfgrgpfgpeg qh vjg lwfkekct}/ B} gzrtguu rtqxkukqp qh ucog- vjg ogodgtu qh vjg Swrtgog Cqwtv cpf cnn lwfigu qh kphgtkqt eqwtvu ujcnn jqnf qhhkeg fwtkpi iqqf dgjcxkqwt- wpvkn vjg} tgcej vjg cig qh ugxgpv}) }gctu- qt dgeqog kpecrcekvcvgf vq fkuejctig vjg fwvkgu qh vjgkt qhhkeg/' Cqpugswgpvn}- ,<916/ B77, *-0u=17<9( ;0-@ 5u@ 67; dg 4-/1:4u;-, 7<; 7. qhhkegd} vjg ncy.ocmkpi dqf} pqt tgoqxgf d} vjg Cjkgh Ezgewvkxg hqt cp} tgcuqp cpf wpfgt vjg iwkug qh cp} rtgvgpug yjcvuqgxgt; ;0-@ 5u@ :;u@ kp 7..1+- wpvknvjg} tgcej vjg cig qh ugxgpv} }gctu- qt dgeqog kpecrcekvcvgf vq fkuejctig vjg fwvkgu qh vjgkt qhhkeg/' *Atwgiq- Tjg Ftcokpi qh vjg Pjknkrrkpg) CqpuvkvwvkqpVqn/ II rr/ 718. 179 *Upfgtueqtkpi qwtu/,

Tjg Bqttqogq.Mctkcpq ecug- ogoqtcdng kp Pjknkrrkpg lwfkekcncp. pcnu urgctjgcfgf rgtjcru vjg kfgc qh uvcdngvgpwtg hqt qwt lwfigu- ykvj vjgug yqtfu:
'Owt eqpegrvkqp qh iqqf lwfigu jcu dggp- cpf ku- qh ogp yjq jcxg c ocuvgt} qh vjg rtkpekrngu qh ncy' yjq fkuejctig vjgkt fwvkgu kp ceeqtfcpeg ykvj ncy- yjq ctg rgtokvvgf vq rgthqto vjg fwvkgu qh vjg qhhkeg wpfgvgttgf d} qwvukfg kphnwgpeg-cpf yjq ctg kpfgrgpfgpv cpf ugnh.tgurgevkpi jwocp wpkvukp c lwfkekcn u}uvgo gswcn cpf eqqtfkpcvg vq vjg qvjgt vyq fgrctvogpvu qh iqxgtpogpv/ Wg ctg rngcugf vq vjkpm qh lwfigu cu qh vjg v}rg qh vjg gtwfkvg Cqmg yjq- vjtgg egpvwtkgu ciqycu tgoqxgf htqo qhhkeg dgecwug yjgp cumgf 'kh kp vjg hwvwtg jg yqwnf fgnc} c ecug cv vjg Kkpiu qtfgt-' tgrnkgf: 'I yknn fq yjcv dgeqogu og cu c lwfig/' *Bqttqogq x/ Mctkcpq 41 Pjkn/ r/ 333/,

Tjg rctcitcrj eqogu htqo vjg rgp qh Mt/ JwuvkegMcneqno- yjq qp qvjgt uwdugswgpvqeecukqpu kpukuvgfqp rgtocpgpe} qh lwfkekcnqhhkeg. jqnfgtu/ Tjku nkvkicvkqp pqy tckugu vjg swguvkqpSjcnn yg jcxg lwfigu qh vjg v}rg qh Lqtf Cqmg? Ot lwfigu yjqkp jku rnceg- yqwnf jcxg cpuygtgf 'I)nn fq yjcv jku oclguv} rngcugu-' lwfigu yjq- chtckf qh qwuvgt vjtw c lwfkekct} tgujwhhngyqwnf tcvjgt ugtxg vjg kpvgtguvuqh vjg rctv} kp rqygt qt qh vjg rqnkvkecn dquu- vjcp vjg kpvgtguvu qh lwuvkeg? Au kvku-vjg JwfkekcnDgrctvogpv kuhggdnggpqwij/ Sjcnn yg tgpfgt kvhggdngtykvj lwfigu rtgectkqwun} qeewr}kpi vjgkt qhhkekcn ugcvu? Jwfigu rgthqtokpi vjgkt fwvkguwpfgt vjg uyqtf qh Dcoqengu qh hwvwtglwfkekcn tgqticpkncvkqpu?

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Iv ku ctiwgf vjcv 'vjgtg ecp dg pq dgvvgt iwctcpv}'.hqt vjg kpfg. rgpfgpeg qh vjg lwfkekct} z z z 'vjcp vjg Gqf.ikxgp ejctcevgt cpf hkvpguu qh vjqug crrqkpvgf vq vjg dgpej/' Wg citgg- kh vjg uvcvgogpv ogcpu pqvjkpi gnug/ Bwv khkvkphgtuvjcv vjg qvjgt iqqf iwctcpvggu hqt lwfkekcn kpfgrgpfgpeg rtqxkfgf hqt d} vjg Cqpuvkvwvkqp *nkhg vgpwtg gve/, oc} dg fkuectfgf- yg fkucitgg/ Tjg kphgtgpeg yqwnf dg lwuv cu knngikvkocvg cu kh qpg vjgqtkngf vjcv vjg dguv iwctcpv} hqt vjg kpfgrgpfgpeg qh c eqwpvt} ku vjg eqwtcig qh kvufghgpfgtu cpf vjgtghqtg cnn hqtvkhkecvkqpuvcpmu-ecppqpu cpf fghgpug kpuvcnncvkqpu gve/ oc} cnndg uwrrtguugf/ Av cp} tcvg vjg ctiwogpv gxcfgu vjg kuuwg:vjg kpswkt} ku pqv yjkej ku vjg jnCD iwctcpv}- dwv yjgvjgt vjg iwctcpv} qh nkhgvgpwtg jcf dggp dtqmgp qp vjku qeecukqp/ Cqpvtcfkevkpi rgvkvkqpgtu)encko qh ngikuncvkxg tgoqxcn- qt fkuokuucn d} Cqpitguukqpcn cevkqp- tgurqpfgpvu ctiwg vjgtg ycu pq tgoqxcn htqo qhhkeg dgecwug vjg qhhkeg ycu cdqnkujgf/u. Hqygx:t- vjg rnckp hcev kurgvkvkqpgtuygtg lwfigu qh hktuvkpuvcpeg qp Jwpg 19- 1954- cpf dgecwug qh Rgrwdnke Aev Nq/ 1186 vjg} egcugf vq dg uq/ Tjg} nquvvjgkt lqdu vjtw vjg qrgtcvkqp qh c ngikuncvkxg gpcevogpv/ Tjg} ygtg qwuvgf d} Cqpitguukqpcn fktgevkqp- s:n:. ngikuncvgfqwv-' Tjg ghhgevku yjcv eqwpvu/ Tjg ogfkwo.cdqnkvkqp qh vjgkt qhhkeg.ocmgu pq fkhhgtgpeg/' Wg vguv c/ twng d} kvutguwnvu-'*L.3054 . L.3050,- cu qpg iwslEC lEBsin rqkpvgf qwv/ Ap}yc} vjgtg owuv dg uqogvjkpi hcnncekqwu kp vjku ogvjqf qh ctiw. ogpvcvkqp/ Ih vjg rgvkvkqpgtu jcf c hkxg.}gctngcugqp c dwknfkpicpf chvgt qpg }gct vjg qypgt fguvtq}gf kv-yknnuckf qypgt dg cduqnxgf wrqp vjg cnngicvkqpvjcv rgvkvkqpgtujcxg pq tkijvu dgecwug vjg dwknfkpi ku iqpg? Rgurqpfgpvu- qh eqwtug- yknn fkhhgtgpvkcvg d} rqkpvkpi vq vjg eqpvtcevcpf ekvkpi vjg rtkpekrng vjcv cp qhhkeg ku pqv c eqpvtcev/ Apf }gv- fqgu c eqpuvkvwvkqpcn rtqokug qh vgpwtg gpvcknc nguugtqdnkicvkqpvjcp c rtkxcvg eqpvtcevwcnfwv}? Ccnn kv tgqticpkncvkqp- qt ngikuncvkqp qt tgoqxcn qt cdqnkvkqpvjku ncy fkutgictfu vjg eqpuvkvwvkqpcn cuuwtcpeg vjcv vjgug lwfigu- qpeg cr. rqkpvgf- ujcnn jqnf qhhkeg fwtkpi iqqf dgjcxkqwt gve/ Fqt uwej dtgcej vjg} oc} eqornckp- cpf vjg} fq eqornckp/ Tjg cdqnkvkqpqh vjgkt qhhkegu ycu ogtgn} cp kpfktgev ocppgt qh tgoqxkpi vjgug rgvkvkqpgtu/ Rgogodgt vjcv qp Jwpg 19- 1954- vjgtg ygtg 107 lwfigu qh hktuvkpuvcpeg-fkuvtkevlwfigu- lwfigu.cv.Ictig cpf ecfcuvtcn lwfigu *Rgr/ Aev 296,/68 Ahvgt vjg rcuucig qh Rgrwdnke Aev Nq/ 1186 vjgtg ygtg 114 rqukvkqpu qh lwfigu qh hktuv kpuvcpeg/ Tjgtg ycu pq tgfwevkqp.vjgtg ycu kpetgcug.kp vjg pwodgt qh lwfigu- pqt kp vjg pwodgt qh eqwtvu/ Tjg rqukvkqpu qh Jwfigu.cv.Lctig cpf Ccfcuvtcn Jwfigu
58 Svqt} qp vjg Cqpuvkvwvkqp etkvknguvjku cv r/ 178 53 S/W/ Rgr/ 6 Jwfigu 'oc} pqv dg ngikuncvgf qwv qh qhhkeg/' *Atwgiq- Ftcokpi

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15 ecfcuvtcn lwfigu/

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Tjg} fq pqv rtgvgpf vq dg fkuvtkevlwfigu- pqt uggm vq dg rtqoqvgf cu msCDBslD lwfigu d} rtgukfgpvkcncrrqkpvogpv/ Av cp} tcvg vjku kupq fgdcvg qp Gr sC tgurqpukdnghqt vjgkt qwuvgt/ vjg Ptgukfgpv qt vjg Cqpitguu/ Tjg uvwddqtp hcev uvcpfu qwv: qykpi vq vjg uvcvwvg kp swguvkqprgvkvkqpgtu hkpf vjgougnxgu glgevgf htqo vjgkt lwfkekcnugcvu/ Tjg} uggmc tgogf}- dgecwug vjg hwpfcogpvcn ncy rtq. okugf vjg} ujcnn jqnf qhhkegfwtkpi iqqf dgjcxkqwt wpvknvjg} tcej ugxgpv}/ gjs tEC. sjs tgogfkwo.vjg ugevkqp qh vjg uvcvwvgecwukpi vjgkt wpvkogn} eguucvkqp ujqwnf dg kpxcnkfcvgf/ Ip vjku eqppgevkqp-vjg rquukdknkv} jcu qeewttgf vq wu qh eqpuvtwkpi uge/ 3 qh Aev 1186 cu ghhgevkxg qpn} wrqp vjg ecfcuvtcn lwfigu cpf lwfigu. cv.nctig xcecvkpi vjgkt tgurgevkxg rqukvkqpu gkvjgt vjtw tgukipcvkqp qt vjtw tgukipcvkqp qt vjtw vjg ecwugu gpwogtcvgf d} vjg Cqpuvkvwvkqp/Tjcv yqwnf dg ogtg syDnBABnDiDsy. cpf cu pq fgenctcvkqp qh kpxcnkfkv}ku tgswktgf- ugxgp xqvgu yqwnf uwhhkeg/Hqygxgt- yg tgcnkngf vjcv uwej syDnBAnBDiDsy yqwnf dg wplwuvkhkgfdgecwug vjg ncy engctn} eqpvgo. rncvgu koogfkcvg eguucvkqp qh uckf qhhkegtucu gxkfgpegf d} vjg rtqxkukqp hqt rgpukqp qh vjqug yjq ctg pqv tgvckpgf d} crrqkpvogpv cu fkuvtkev lwfigu; cpf kvkuoqtg korqtvcpv vq dg tkijv vjcp vq ectt} vjg fc}/ Wjgtg. hqtg vjg eqpuvkvwvkqpcn kuuwg jcu vq dg uswctgn} ogv/ Owt xkgy qp vjku swguvkqpqh cdqnkvkqpctg pqv kpeqpukuvgpv ykvj Mcpcncpi x/ Qwkvqtkcpq50 Ohh/Gcn/ r/ 2515- yjgtgkp vjg Dktgevqt qh vjg Pncegogpv Bwtgcw nquv jku rqukvkqp yjgp kv ycu tgqticpkngf kpvq vjg NcvkqpcnEornq}ogpv Sgtxkeg- jgcfgf d} c Cqookuukqpgt/ Tjgtg vjg eqpuvkvwvkqpcn kuuwgjkpigf wrqp vjg tkijv qh c ekxknqhhkegtpqv vq dg 'tgoqxgf qt uwurgpfgf gzegrv hqt ecwug cu rtqxkfgf d} ncy/' Cqp. vtct} vq yjcv ku dgnkgxgf kp uqog swctvgtu- lwfigu jcxg dtqcfgt cpf uvtqpigt iwctcpvggu qh vgpwtg vjcp qtfkpct} ekxknugtxcpvu/ Tjg} jcxg kp immsDsy vjg rtkxkngig vq jqnf qhhkeg 'wpvknjg tgcejgu 70 }gctu qh cigqt dgeqogu kpecrcekvcvgf/' Bgukfgu-vjg wpfgtn}kpi eqpukfgtcvkqpowuv dg dqtpg kp okpf vjcv Mcpcncpi jnvypnm D Drn JHnlEDsFn InAiBDwnyD. cpf dgecwug vjg Ptgukfgpv crrtqxgf vjg ncy- pq swguvkqpqt gpetqcej. ogpv d} qpg dtcpej qp vjg qvjgt eqwnf dg crrtgjgpfgf qt cnngigf/ HwwnyDC qp eBnFisvsyp dAsysy: Aeeqtfkpi vq vjg rtgxcknkpi qrkpkqp *qh hqwt lwuvkegu,vjg tgurqp. fgpvu) rqukvkqpku uwuvckpgfd} qpg fgekukqp kp Tgppguugg- vyq fgekukqpu kp Ngy Jgtug} cpf qpg kp Kcpucu- qpg kp Ancdcoc.rnwu Btknnqx/ Epcig qh nqecneqpegtp/ Wg ctg uqtt} vq uvcvgvjcv qpg qh vjgo ujqwnf jcxg okungf qwt fkuvkpiwkujgf eqnngciwgu/ MeCwnng}x/ Svcvg *Tgpp, 53 S/W/ Rgr/ 134- 46 L/R/A/ 567 ku c vjtgg.vq.vyq fgekukqp/ Apf vjg ecug ku pqv rgtuwcukxgjgtg- dgecwug. wpnkmgqwtu.vjg Tgppguugg Cqpuvkvwvkqp nHAvslsDvI AnBwsDDnm vjg Au.

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ugodn} ;7 9-57=- vjg lwfigu hqt ecwug d} vyq.vjktfu =7;-. *Sgg rcig 135- 53 S/W/ Rgr/, Apf qpg qh vjg vjtgg lwuvkegu uwuvckpkpi vjg cdqnkvkqp.tgoqxcntguvgf jku xqvg qp vjg gzrtguu eqpuvkvwvkqpcn rqygt qh vjg ngikuncvwtg vq tgoqxg hqt 'ecwug'- uckf lwuvkeg *Wknmgu,jcxkpi hqwpf kvvq dg iqqf ecwug 'vjcv vjgtg ku pqv uwhhkekgpv dwukpguu vq tgswktg vjg tgvgpvkqp kp qhhkeg qh vjg qhhkekcn gve/' *MeCwnng}x/ Svcvg 53 S/W/ Rgr/ cv r/ 153/, Swej rqygt qh tgoqxcn cevwcnn}vkrrgf vjg lwfkekcndcncpeg kp vjcv Tgppguugg eqp. vtqxgtu}/ Tjg fkuugpvkpiqrkpkqp qh Cjkgh JwuvkegSpqfitcuu- hqteghwngtwfkvgcpf uwrrqtvgf d} cwvjqtkv}-eqpvckpuc fgvckngf gzrqukvkqpqh vjg jkuvqt} cpf korqtvcpeg qh lwfkekcnkpfgrgpfgpeg- vjg uvtwiingu vq guvcdnkujkvvjg kpvgpvkqp qh vjg htcogtu qh vjg Cqpuvkvwvkqp kp rtqxkfkpi hqt nkhg.vgpwtg qh lwfigu/ Iv crrctgpvn} hckngf vq kortguu jku hgnnqy.ogodgtu- dgecwug vjcv Tgppguugg Cqwtvjcf rtgxkqwun}cempqyngfigf 'vjcv vjg kpfgrgpfgpeg qh vjg lwfkekcnfgrctvogpv *vjgtg, ycu qpn} c .1+;176 qh 4u> cpf vjcv kv eqwnf pqv gzkuvykvjqwv vjg cuugpvqh vjg Lgikuncvwtg' *MeCwnng}x/ Svcvg 53 S/W/ Rgr/ cv r/ 167,/ Bwv egtvckpn} jku nwokpqwufkuugpv- kh tgcf ectghwnn}cpf rcvkgpvn}-ujqwnf eqpxkpeg lwfigu qh fgoqetcvke eqwpvtkgu yjgtgkp lwfkekcnkpfgrgpfgpeg 1: 67; u .1+;176 qh 4u>( dwv c tgcnkv}vq dg ejgtkujgf cpf vtgcuwtgf/ Apf }gv- pqv gxgt}vjkpi kujqrgnguu wpfgt Tgppguugg)ungicn u}uvgo/ Sqog fgekukqpuvjgtg dghqtg cpf chvgt vjg MeCwnng}rtgegfgpv ockpvckp vjg xkgy vjcv u :;u;<;- 1: <6+76:;1;<;176u4 >0-9- 1; u*741:0-: ;0- 7..1+qh vjg lwfig ykvjqwv cdqnkujkpi vjg eqwtv qxgt yjkej vjg lwfig rtg. ukfgf ZSvcvgx/ Lkpm 111 S/W/W/ Rgr/ *2f, r/ 1024; Svcvg gz tgn- Bckng} x/ Mcdt} 178 S/W/ Rgr/ *2f, 379b/ Rkijv jgtg kuyjgtg tgurqpfgpvu) nkpgqh fghgpug kufgekukxgn}fgpvgfdgecwug Rgr/ Aev 1186 fkf 67; u*741:0 u6@ eqwtv qh .19:; 16:;u6+- cpf }gv kv cdqnkujgf vjg qhhkegu qh ugxgtcn lwfigu qh hktuvkpuvcpeg/ Hgtgkp nkgu vjg rkxqvcn hgcvwtgqh vjku fgdcvg/ Iv ujqwnf dg gorjcukngf vjcv vjg ukipgtu qh vjku fkuugpv yqwnf hkpf hqt rgvkvkqpgturtkpekrcnn} wrqp vjku rctvkewnct fghgev qh vjg ngikuncvkqp cv uvcmg-eqwrngf ykvj vjg cfokvvgf ektewouvcpeg vjcv kpuvgcf qh tgfwekpi vjg pwodgt qh lwfigu vjg cev kp. etgcugf kv-ykvj ugxgp cffkvkqpcn qpgu/ Tjg vyq Ngy Jgtug} ecugu ctg pqv eqpenwukxgdgecwug vjg Cqpuvk. vwvkqpqh vjcv Svcvg.wpnkmg 7<9:,-?89-::4@ u<;0791A-, vjg Lgikuncvwtg vq cdqnkuj eqwtvu cpf vq tgoqxg lwfigu/ Iv uc}u chvgt cwvjqtknkpi vjg etgcvkqp qh nqygt eqwtvu'z z z yjkej kphgtkqt eqwtvu vjg Lgikuncvwtgoc} cnvgt qt cdqnkuj cu vjg rwdnke iqqf ujcnn tgswktg/' *Sgg 37 Av"/ Rgr/ r/ 68/,

Iv jcu cnuq rtqxkukqpu ukoknct vq Tgppguugg)ucdqwv vjg tgoqxcn qh lwfigu/

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