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Research is a scientific investigation of phenomena which includes the collection, presentation, analysis and interpretation of facts that link

mans speculation with reality. Calmorin and Calmorin, 1995

Research is a systematic, controlled and empirical investigation about the occurrence of a certain phenomena guided by theories and hypotheses and the presumed relations of these phenomena. Kerlinger, 1981

Research is from the french word cerchier to seek or search and re means again and signifies replications of the search.

Webster defines it as a studious inquiry or examination, investigation and experimentation aimed at discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories, laws in the light of new facts or practical application for such new or revised theories or laws.

Barr defines it as any systematic search for understanding limited to a particular subject that for purposes of investigation has been cast in problematic form and formally defined.

Treece and Treece say research is in the broadest sense is an attempt to gain solutions to problems. It is the collection of data in a rigorously controlled situations for the purpose of prediction and explanation.

Research is considered to a formal , systematic and intensive process of carrying on a scientific analysis for the purpose of discovering and development of an organized body of knowledge. -Best

Treach describes research as essentially a problem-solving process, a systematic, intensive study toward fuller scientific knowledge of the subject studied.

Research discover answers to questions through the application of scientific procedures that have been developed to increase the likelihood that information gathered will be relevant, reliable and unbiased. -Claire, Seltiz

Research is an honest, scientific investigation undertaken for the purpose of discovering new facts or establishing a new relationships among facts already known which will contribute to the present body of knowledge and can lead to an effective solution of existing problems. -CRPNS

Research involves a systematic search for and validation of knowledge about issues of the importance of the nursing profession.

Vreeland says research is concerned with the systematic study and assessment of problems and phenomena finding ways to improve nursing practice and patient care.

Importance of Research - Professionalism -Accountability -Social Relevance of Research -Research and Decision Making

The Consumer-Producer Continuum of Research - Consumers -Producers -In Between *participation in journal club *attending prof. conferences *incorporate research finding *assist in data collection *evaluate completed research *review propose methods of gathering info * collaborate in the dev of idea for research project

Sources of Knowledge - Tradition - Authority -Logical Reasoning -Disciplined Research

Ontologic Assumption (What is the nature of reality?) Positivists Paradigm - Reality exists; there is a real world driven by natural causes. Naturalistic Paradigm -Reality is multiple and subjective, mentally constructed by individuals.

Epistemologic Assumption (How is the inquirer related to those being researched?)


Positivist Paradigm -Inquirer is independent from those being researched; the findings as not influenced by the researcher. Naturalist Paradigm -The inquirer interacts with those being researched; finding are the creation of the interactive process.

Axiologic Assumption (What is the role of values in the inquiry?) Positivist Paradigm -Values and biases are to be held in check; objectivity is sought. Naturalistic Paradigm -Subjectivity and values are inevitable and desirable.

Methodologic Assumption (How is knowledge obtained?) Positivist Paradigm -Deductive processes -Emphasis on discrete, specific concepts -Verification of researchers hunches -Fixed design -Tight controls over contexts -Emphasis on measured, quantitative information; statistical analysis -Seeks Generalization Naturalistic Paradigm -Inductive Processes -Emphasis on entirety of some phenomenon, holisitc -Emerging interpretations grounded in participants experiences -Flexible Design -Emphasis on Narrative information, qualitative analysis -Seeks patterns

Quantitative Research is the investigation of phenomena that lead themselves to precise measurements and quantification, often involving a rigorous and controlled design.

Quantitative Analysis in the manipulation of numeric data through Statistical procedures for he purpose of describing phenomena and assessing the magnitude and reliability of relationships among them.

Qualitative Research is the investigation of phenomenon, typically in an in-depth and holistic fashion, through the collection of narrative materials using a flexible research design. Qualitative Analysis refers to the organization and interpretation of nonnumeric data for the purpose of discovering important underlying dimension and patterns of relationships.

BASIC RESEARCH TERMINOLOGY 1. The Study 2. Phenomena, Concepts, and Constructs 3. Theories and Conceptual Models 4. Variables a. Continuous, Discrete, and Categorical Variables b. Active Versus Attribute Variables c. Dependent Versus Independent Variables

d. Heterogeneity
e. Operational Definitions of Variables 5. Data

6. Relationships
7. Research Control

Major Steps in A Quantitative Study 1. Phase 1: The Conceptual Phase a. Step 1: Formulating and Delimiting the Problem b. Step 2: Reviewing the Related Literature c. Step 3: Defining the Theoretical Framework d. Step 4: Formulating Hypotheses

2. Phase 2: The Design and Planning Phase


a. Step 5: Selecting a Research Design b. Step 6: Identifying the Population to be Studied c. Step 7: Specifying Methods to Measure the Research Variables d. Step 8: Designing the Sampling Plan e. Step 9: Finalizing and Reviewing the Research Plan

f. Step 10: Conducting the Pilot Study and Making


Revisions

3. Phase 3: The Empirical Phase a. Step 11: Collecting the Data b. Step 12: Preparing the Data for Analysis 4. Phase 4: The Analytic Phase

a. Step 13: Analyzing the Data


b. Step 14: Interpreting the Results

5. Phase 5: The Dissemination Phase


a. Step 15: Communicating the Findings b. Step 16: Utilizing the Findings

Activities in a Qualitative Study


1. Conceptualizing and Planning a Qualitative Study 2. Conducting the Qualitative Study 3. Disseminating Qualitative Findings

Research Purposes and Research Questions

Purpose
Identification

Types of Questions: Quantitative Research

Types of Questions: Qualitative Research What is the phenomenon? What is its name? What are the dimensions of the phenomenon? What variations exist? What is important about the phenomenon? What is the full nature of the phenomenon? What is really going on here? What is the process by which the phenomenon evolves or is experienced? How does the phenomenon work? Why does the phenomenon exist? What is the meaning of the phenomenon? How did the phenomenon occur?

Description

How prevalent is the phenomenon? How often does the phenomenon occur? What are the characteristics of the phenomenon? What factors are related to the phenomenon? What are the antecedents of the phenomenon?

Exploration

Explanation

What are the measurable associations between phenomena? What factors caused the phenomenon? Does the theory explain the phenomenon?

Purpose

Types of Questions: Quantitative Research

Types of Questions: Qualitative Research

Prediction and control

What will happen if we alter a phenomenon or introduce an intervention? If phenomenon X occurs, will phenomenon Y follow? How can we make the phenomenon happen or alter its nature or prevalence? Can the occurrence of the phenomenon be controlled?

Key Terms Used in Quantitative and Qualitative Research Concept Person contributing information Quantitative Term Qualitative Term Study participant Informant Researcher Investigator _ Phenomena, topics Concepts _ Theory _ Data (narrative descriptions) Patterns of association

Subject Study participant Respondent Person undertaking the study Researcher Investigator Scientist That which is being _ investigated Concepts Constructs Variables System of organizing Theory, theoretical concepts framework Conceptual framework, conceptual model Information Data (numeric values) Connections between concepts Relationships (cause-andeffect, functional)

Example of Terms Relating to Research Problems Term Topic or focus Research problem Example Side effects in chemotherapy patients Nausea and vomiting are common side effects among chemotherapy patients, and interventions to date have been only moderately successful in reducing these effects. New interventions that can reduce or prevent these side effects need to be identified.

Statement of purpose

The purpose of the study is to test an intervention to reduce chemotherapy-induced side effects specifically, to compare the effectiveness of patient-controlled and nurse-administered antiemetic therapy for controlling nausea and vomiting in chemotherapy patients.

Research Question

What is the relative effectiveness of patient-controlled antiemetic therapy versus nurse-controlled antiemetic therapy in chemotherapy patients with regard to (a) medication consumption and 9b) control of nausea and vomiting?

Term
Hypotheses 1.

Example
Subjects receiving antiemetic therapy by a patient-controlled pump will report less nausea than subjects receiving the therapy by nurse administration. 2. Subjects receiving antiemetic therapy by a patient-controlled pump will vomit less than subjects receiving the therapy by nurse administration. 3. Subjects receiving antiemetic therapy by a patient-controlled pump will consume less medication than subjects receiving the therapy by nurse administration

Aims or objectives

This study seeks to accomplish the following objectives: (1) to develop and implement two alternative procedures for administering antiemetic therapy for patients receiving moderate emetogenic chemotherapy (patient controlled versus nurse controlled); (2) to test three hypotheses concerning the relative effectiveness of the alternative procedures on medication consumption and control of side effects; and (30 to use the findings to develop recommendations for possible changes to therapeutic procedures.

Examples of Research Questions From the Research Literature Research Question Quantitative Studies How do childrens preoperative focus of attention on the stress of surgery relate to their preoperative coping? (La Montagne, Johnson, Hepworth, & Johnson, 1997) What is the relationship between anger frequency, intensity, and suppression and blood pressure among women? (Thomas, 1997) Childrens focus of attention (IV) Preoperative coping (DV) Variables or Concept

Anger frequency, intensity, and suppression (IV) Blood pressure (DV)

Qualitative Studies
How do recently graduated nurses describe nursing care provided to culturally diverse clints in hospital settings? (Kirkham, 1998) Among those responsible for selecting a nursing home for an elderly family member or friend, why and how does the decision to institutionalize get ade? (McAuley, Travis, & Safewright, 1997) Perceptions of nursing care provided to culturally diverse clients

Examples of Simple and Complex Hypotheses


Hypotheses Older patients are at higher risk of experiencing a fall than younger patients. Infants born to heroinaddicted mothers have lower birthweights than infants with no addicted mothers Structured preoperative support is more effective in reducing surgical patients perceptions of pain and requests for analgesics than structured postoperative support Independent Variable Dependent Variable Age of patients Falling behavior Simple Complex Simple

Addiction versus nonaddiction of mother

Birthweight of infant

Simple

Timing of nursing intervention

Patients pain perceptions; requests for analgesics

Complex

Positive health practices Self-esteem; social are favorably affected by support high self-esteem and greater amounts of social support.

Health practices

Complex

Sources of Research Problems -Experiences -Literature- published research reports -Social Issues -Gaps Between Ideal and Practice -Theory -Ideas From External Sources

Development and Refinement of Research Problems


-Selecting the Topic -Narrowing the Topic -Evaluating Research Problems a. Significance of the Problem b. Researchability of the Problem c. Feasibility of Addressing the Problem - Time and Timing - Cooperation of Others - Facilities And Equipment - Money - Experience of the Researcher - Ethical Considerations

Testing Hypothesis -an inductive hypothesis is a generalization based on observed relationship. Patterns, trends or associations are observed and uses this as a basis for tentative explanation or prediction. -deductive hypothesis has a starting point of theories that are applied to particular situations. -a workable hypothesis staes a relationship between two or more variables and is capable of empirical testing. Directional hypothesis is one that specifies the expected the expected direction of the relationship between . variables. -nondirectional hypothesis does not stipulate the direction of the relationship.

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