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Earth Systems, Structures and Processes Earths saltwater, freshwater, and landform features

Morgan McCandless Instructional Design Plan Vines/434 Fall 2013

I. Purpose of the Unit For my Instructional Design Plan (IDP), I have chosen to engage my students in a unit on Earths saltwater, freshwater, and landform features. The purpose of this unit is for students to understand and recognize that landforms play a significant role in their lives. I will achieve this goal by having students explore through different lessons integrated across the subjects of Science, Language Arts, and Social Studies. Each lesson they participate in will support the previous lesson on Earths landforms. In Language Arts the students will complete a K-W-L chart so I can gauge their previous knowledge and properly support their learning experience. I will have the students go outside and make observations to see if they notice the landforms that surround their own community. The students will then complete a flipbook that covers five specific landforms. Students will get to practice their skills by utilizing a dictionary as we look up definitions of the landforms that will then lead us into our Social Studies-focused lesson. Once the students have some background information of the five landforms, they will take a look at maps to see how the landforms are drawn and how they look on Earth. The students will then get to construct their own 3-dimensional salt map of a landform and present it to the class. I will then introduce the students specifically to volcanoes in the form of a Guess Who poem. During the science lesson, the students will go further in their research on volcanoes, looking at types and formation, as well as the effects it has on humans and the environment. They will get to use Google Earth and watch videos on volcanoes to see that they exist in their world. During these lessons, the students will employ many of the 21st-Century Skills discussed in the chart below. Throughout this unit, my ultimate goal is to get students to become more informed and aware of the world they live in. Students

will understand the many landforms that are present on our Earth, and will be aware that some of these landforms even exist in their own community. Learning Goals and Objectives:
Common Core/Essential standards (Goal) Lesson #1: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.3.4 Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 3 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.3.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.3.8 Recall information from experiences or gather information from print and digital sources; take brief notes on sources and sort evidence into provided categories. Objectives (Teach/Address) Horizontal Alignment Vertical Alignment 21st Century Skills

CCSS.ELALiteracy.L.3.4d Use glossaries or beginning dictionaries, both print and digital, to determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases. CCSS.ELALiteracy.W.3.2a Introduce a topic and group related information together; include illustrations when useful to aiding comprehension. CCSS.ELALiteracy.W.3.2b Develop the topic with facts, definitions, and details. CCSS.ELALiteracy.W.3.2c Use linking words and phrases (e.g., also, another, and, more, but) to connect ideas within categories of information. CCSS.ELALiteracy.W.3.2d Provide a concluding statement or section.

Science Essential Standard 3.E.2 Compare the structures of the Earths surface using models or three-dimensional diagrams.

2nd Grade (ELA) CCSS.ELALiteracy.RI.2.3 Describe the connection between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text. CCSS.ELALiteracy.RI.2.7 Explain how specific images (e.g., a diagram showing how a machine works) contribute to and clarify a text. 4th Grade (ELA) CCSS.ELALiteracy.RI.4.7 Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears. CCSS.ELA-

- Learning and Innovation Skills (Critical Thinking, Communication and Collaboration)

-Information, Media & Technology Skills (Information Literacy, Media Literacy)

-Life and Career Skills (Productivity and Accountability)

Literacy.RI.4.6 Compare and contrast a firsthand and secondhand account of the same event or topic; describe the differences in focus and the information provided. CCSS.ELALiteracy.W.4.1b Provide reasons that are supported by facts and details. Lesson #2: 3.G.1 Understand the earths patterns by using the 5 themes of geography: (location, place, human environment interaction, movement and regions). 3.G.1.6 Compare various regions according to their characteristics. 3.G.1.5Summarize the elements (cultural, demographic, economic and geographic) that define regions (community, state, nation and world). Science Essential Standard 3.E.2 Compare the structures of the Earths surface using models or three-dimensional diagrams. CCSS.ELALiteracy.W.3.7 Conduct short research projects that build knowledge about a topic. (Kindergarten SS) K.G.1 Use geographic representations and terms to describe surroundings. (4th Grade SS) 4.G.1 Understand how human, environmental and technological factors affect the growth and development of North Carolina. (5th Grade SS) 5.G.1.1 Explain the impact of the physical environment on early Settlements in the New World. -Learning & Innovation Skills (Communication & Collaboration)

- Information, Media, and Technology Skills (Information Literacy, Media Literacy)

-Life & Career Skills (Flexibility & Adaptability, Initiative & Self-Direction, Productivity & Accountability, Leadership & Responsibility)

Lesson #3:

3.E.2 Compare the structures of the Earths surface using models or threedimensional diagrams.

3.E.2.2 Compare Earths land features (including volcanoes, mountains, valleys, canyons, caverns, and islands) by using models, pictures, diagrams, and maps.

CCSS.ELALiteracy.RI.3.1 Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for

(1st Grade Science) 1.E.2.1 Summarize the physical properties of Earth materials, including rocks, minerals, soils and water that make them useful in

- Learning & Innovation Skills (Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, Communication and Collaboration)

- Information, Media, & Technology Skills

the answers.

different ways. (2nd Grade Science) 2.E.1 Understand patterns of weather and factors that affect weather. (4th Grade Science) 4.E.2.3 Give examples of how the surface of the earth changes due to slow processes such as erosion and weathering, and rapid processes such as landslides, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes.

(Information Literacy, Media Literacy, and ICT Literacy)

CCSS.ELALiteracy.RI.3.2 Determine the main idea of a text; recount the key details and explain how they support the main idea.

CCSS.ELALiteracy.RI.3.7 Use information gained from illustrations (e.g., maps, photographs) and the words in a text to demonstrate understanding of the text (e.g., where, when, why, and how key events occur).

- Life & Career Skills (Flexibility and Adaptability, Initiative and Self- Direction, Social and Cross-Cultural Skills, Productivity and Accountability, and Leadership and Responsibility)

3.G.1 Understand the earths patterns by using the 5 themes of geography: (location, place, human environment interaction, movement and regions).

(6th Grade Science) 6.E.2.1 Summarize the structure of the earth, including the layers, the mantle and core based on the relative position, composition and density. 6.E.2.2 Explain how crustal plates and ocean basins are formed, move and interact using earthquakes, heat flow and volcanoes to reflect forces within the earth.

II. Student Background, Knowledge, and Experience Cove Creek Elementary School is located in the rural mountains of Western North Carolina in Watauga County. Within the school environment there is little racial diversity, with the majority of the students being Caucasian. Of the 281 students enrolled at Cove Creek, 93% are White, 5% are Hispanic, 3% are Black, and 1% is Asian. Since this is a Title I school, most of the students come from a low socioeconomic background. Out of all the students enrolled, 34% are eligible for free lunch and 16% are eligible for reduced lunch. Cove Creek has approximately 26 full time teachers and has a student to teacher ratio of about 11 students per teacher, the average in Watauga County being 13 to 1. Since Watauga County does not have separate elementary schools from middle schools, Cove Creek has students ranging from pre-kindergarten to eighth grade. Cove Creek takes these age gaps into account by having the school conveniently divided into an elementary and middle school section, only having the students share the main parts of the building, such as the cafeteria. Mrs. Austins third grade classroom has a unique set-up that does not compare to most traditional classrooms. The desks are arranged in two rows, both of them in a Ushape form around the front of the room. The desks are centered towards her desk, and allow all students to have a full view of the white board and Smart Board. Although this environment is geared towards a whole-class working structure, students are able to collaborate with their peers when working on assignments. Located behind the students desks is the classroom library, where Mrs. Austin has provided many books to be read throughout the day. Students utilize this space daily during silent reading time, as well as other instructional time.

There are a total of 17 students that make up Mrs. Austins class. Of these 17 students, over half receive special services in specific areas, either in speech, reading, or EC. This information is displayed in the following chart:

Student Initials VB

Student Needs Average in both reading and math.

Collaborator Mrs. AustinClassroom Teacher

Nature of Collaboration Discuss lessons and activities that we will be doing in order for these students to receive the appropriate support and are provided with information at a developmentally appropriate level. Discuss with Mrs. Wilson how the reading and writing activities can be differentiated for the students reading level. Discuss the reading materials that will be covered in each assignment.

SB

Below average in reading. Receives extra assistance in reading with the Title I reading services. Average for all other subjects. Some group assistance is needed to ensure the topic is understood. Below average in reading. Receives extra assistance in reading with the Title I reading services. Below average in math. Extra support from the classroom teacher is needed.

Mrs. WilsonReading Specialist; collaborates five days a week for 30 minutes

AD

Mrs. Wilsonreading specialist; collaborates five days a week for 30 minutes

Discuss with Mrs. Wilson how the reading and writing activities can be differentiated for the students reading level. Discuss the reading materials that will be covered in each assignment.

Mrs. Austinclassroom teacher CD Average in all subjects. Some group assistance is needed to ensure the topic is understood. Requires more behavioral attention. Mrs. Austinclassroom teacher Discuss lessons and activities that we will be doing in order for these students to receive the appropriate support and are provided with information at a developmentally appropriate level.

DF

Above average in both reading and math. Has a speech impediment and meets with the speech teacher, but is placing out of the program. Average in both reading and math. Has a speech impediment and meets with

Ms. Allyson- speech teacher; collaborates three times a week for 30 minutes

Discuss expansion topics that will cover the material being taught. Discuss different activities that will challenge the student.

GG

Ms. Allyson- speech teacher

Discuss lessons and activities that we will be doing in order for these students to receive the appropriate support and are provided with

the speech teacher.

information at a developmentally appropriate level. Mrs. Austinclassroom teacher Discuss lessons and activities that we will be doing in order for these students to receive the appropriate support and are provided with information at a developmentally appropriate level. Discuss expansion topics that will cover the material being taught. Discuss different activities that will challenge the student. Discuss with Mrs. Wilson how the reading and writing activities can be differentiated for the students reading level. Discuss the reading materials that will be covered in each assignment. Discuss lessons and activities that we will be doing in order for these students to receive the appropriate support and are provided with information at a developmentally appropriate level. Discuss lessons and activities that we will be doing in order for these students to receive the appropriate support and are provided with information at a developmentally appropriate level. Discuss with Mrs. Twigg to see what modifications need to be made to ensure this student is working on an appropriate level that is both challenging and workable.

KH

Average in reading and slightly below average in math.

SH

Above average in all subject areas.

Mrs. Austinclassroom teacher

KJ

Below average in reading. Receives extra assistance in reading with the Title I reading services. Average in other subject areas. Average in all subject areas. Some group assistance is needed to ensure the topic is understood.

Mrs. Wilsonreading specialist; collaborates five days a week for 30 minutes Mrs. Austinclassroom teacher

KM

KP

Average in all subject areas.

Mrs. Austinclassroom teacher

ER

Low-performing student in all subject areas. EC in math and reading. Has a speech impediment and meets with the speech teacher.

Mrs. Twiggexceptional children teacher

Ms. Allyson- speech teacher; collaborates two times a week for 30 minutes GR High performing student in all subject areas. Mrs. Austinclassroom teacher Discuss expansion topics that will cover the material being taught. Discuss different activities that will challenge the student. Discuss lessons and activities that we will be doing in order for these students to receive the appropriate support and are provided with information at a developmentally appropriate level. Discuss with Mrs. Twigg to see what

WT

Average in both reading and math. Has a speech impediment and meets with the speech teacher.

Ms. Allysoncollaborates three times a week for 30 minutes

JT

Below grade level in all

Mrs. Twigg-

subject areas. Only EC in math, and receives Title I reading services.

exceptional children teacher

Mrs. Wilsonreading specialist; collaborates five times a week for 30 minutes EW Below grade level in both reading and math. Receives Title I reading services. Mrs. Wilsonreading specialist; collaborates five times a week for 30 minutes

modifications need to be made to ensure this student is working on an appropriate level that is both challenging and workable. Discuss with Mrs. Wilson how the reading and writing activities can be differentiated for the students reading level. Discuss the reading materials that will be covered in each assignment.

Discuss with Mrs. Wilson how the reading and writing activities can be differentiated for the students reading level. Discuss the reading materials that will be covered in each assignment.

MW

Below in reading, but does not receive any services. Previously received Title I reading services, but placed out of it. Average in math.

Mrs. Austinclassroom teacher

Discuss lessons and activities that we will be doing in order for these students to receive the appropriate support and are provided with information at a developmentally appropriate level.

JT is a student who is currently receiving services from the EC teacher because he demonstrates difficulty comprehending and retaining information. JT receives a handful of modifications in the classroom to facilitate the success of his learning. During tests, JT has the questions read aloud to him by a teacher and he also is provided extended time on completing his tests. Mrs. Austin modifies some of JTs assignments in order for him to better understand the material. JT also is not expected to fully complete all of his assignments, and is graded with a curve. Mrs. Austin is aware that she cannot grade JT as harshly as she does with the other students in the class, because that would result in failure. ER is also receiving EC services, and is the lowest performing student in Mrs. Austins class. ER is given additional support in small group pullouts, as well as one-onone assistance. Like JT, tests are read aloud to ER and he has extended time to complete

his assignments. When students are given spelling tests, ER has a separate list of spelling words that are given to him individually. ER is far behind grade level in all subjects, and is receiving as much support from teachers as he can. However, it looks as if he will be retained next year for third grade. SH is the highest performing student in Mrs. Austins class. Although she is not enrolled in the Academically and Intellectually Gifted (AIG) program at Cove Creek, she scores well above average on all of her tests and learns new material at a fast pace. SH almost always has perfect scores on math assessments, and has an extremely high reading level for her age. Through observation, I have noticed that SH is typically the first student to complete assignments. While most students in the class talk with their peers when they finish an assignment, she always reads a book or is involved in something productive to keep herself occupied. As I take into account the needs of each student, I will modify my lessons to ensure that all students in Mrs. Austins class will work at a developmentally appropriate level. When teaching different concepts and terminology to the students, I will present the instruction in multiple ways in order for students to learn the information most effectively. These modifications will be most beneficial to the EC students and those who struggle with learning new material because they will be provided with extra support. This extra support will keep these particular students from getting far behind on assignments. I will also provide additional assignments for those students who complete their work before the rest of the class, like SH. This way, these students will have something productive to do while they wait for their peers to complete their assignments, and they will be challenged to expand their knowledge of the original lesson.

To provide proper support for each student in the class, I will model and demonstrate all of the activities that students will be expected to complete. Each lesson will begin with a whole group activity or discussion, and they will gradually be released to small group or individual work. By modeling and demonstrating the activities, students will have a clear idea of what they are expected to do. This will help to clear any confusion the students may have, and will prevent many questions that may be asked.

III. Essential Content Outline

Lesson #1: Introducing Landforms

English Language Arts Standards:

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.3.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.3.8 Recall information from experiences or gather information from print and digital sources; take brief notes on sources and sort evidence into provided categories. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.3.4d Use glossaries or beginning dictionaries, both print and digital, to determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.3.2a Introduce a topic and group related information together; include illustrations when useful to aiding comprehension. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.3.2b Develop the topic with facts, definitions, and details.

Science Standard: Science Essential Standard 3.E.2 Compare the structures of the Earths surface using models or three-dimensional diagrams.

Key Vocabulary: Landform, Canyon, Hill, Island, Mountain, Peninsula, Valley

Landform: any natural formation of rock and dirt that is found on Earth

Canyon: a deep, narrow valley with steep sides

Hill: a rounded, raised landform; not as high as a mountain

Island: a body of land that is completely surrounded by water

Mountain: a high landform with steep sides; higher than a hill

Peninsula: a body of land that is surrounded by water on three sides

Relationships among Facts and Concepts: Landforms occur all around us and are prominent in our everyday lives. The Prezi presentation demonstrates the many landforms that are on our Earth today. Students can make connections to the photographs that are displayed in the presentation. Every student will be able to make a personal connection to the Mountain landform, because that is what surrounds his or her community. Students will grow even further in their knowledge when creating their flipbooks of terms and illustrations. Students will be able to compare and contrast each landform by their specific characteristics. Blooms Taxonomy Chart:

Remembering: Students will be introduced to the simple facts about landforms. Students will be required to know about each landform, their definition, and their characteristics. Students must be able to recall these facts when creating their flipbook of information.

Understanding: Students will be asked questions to explain each landform. When students are describing their landforms, they must demonstrate their understanding of how they are formed and what they look like. Students must also demonstrate their understanding of landforms when illustrating the pictures in their flipbooks, to show that they know the structure and form of each one.

Analyzing: Students will compare and contrast the six different landforms that are introduced to them. They will differentiate the similarities and differences that pertain to each one. This will help students to categorize each landform and to separate them as individual structures.

Lesson #2: Landform Salt Maps

CCSS/NC Essential Standards Objectives/Goals:

Social Studies Essential Standards: 3.G.1 Understand the earths patterns by using the 5 themes of geography: (Location, place, human environment interaction, movement and regions)

3.G.1.6 Compare various regions according to their characteristics.

Science Essential Standard: 3.E.2 Compare the structures of the Earths surface using models or three-dimensional diagrams.

Language Arts Essential Standard: Literacy.W.3.7 Conduct short research projects that build knowledge about a topic.

Key Vocabulary: Hill, Island, Mountain, Canyon, Peninsula, Landform, Ocean

Landform: any natural formation of rock and dirt that is found on Earth

Canyon: a deep, narrow valley with steep sides

Hill: a rounded, raised landform; not as high as a mountain

Island: a body of land that is completely surrounded by water

Mountain: a high landform with steep sides; higher than a hill

Peninsula: a body of land that is surrounded by water on three sides Ocean: a large body of water that is salty; can surround islands and other landmasses

Relationships among Facts and Concepts: Students participating in this lesson will be able to relate to it in a number of ways. The students can look out their class window and discuss the landscape, and will realize that landforms exist everywhere we look. The students will have personal experience with interacting with landforms in their backyard, and can apply this previous knowledge to the lesson. Students will be able to take what they learn in class and apply it to the real world around them, and start to make those connections. They will also better understand how the Earth is made, and what it may look like in other areas of the World.

Blooms Taxonomy Chart:

Creating: Students will be creating their very own Landform Salt Maps out of play-dough. Students will work in groups of 3-4 students to design a plan for their model. Then they will build their 3D model of their assigned landform. They will have to create a model that is scientifically correct, and includes features of the landform.

Understanding: Students will be asked questions about past knowledge in the beginning of the lesson as a review. Students will have to understand their landforms, and what they look like, as well as how they got there. They will then be able to build a model of their assigned landform. Students will also demonstrate their understanding in their group presentations to the class.

Applying: Students will have to apply themselves in many ways throughout the lesson. They will have to apply themselves in their groups, to brainstorm ideas for the construction of their landform. They will also have to apply previous knowledge, to be able to construct their landform correctly. Students will have to apply themselves in the building of their landform, to successfully work as a unit. Analyzing: Students will be observing each groups landform, during the presentations. They are required to write down one fact they thought was interesting about the landform presented. The class will also have to discuss their process of thinking, and how they decided to build their landform. Students will also have the ability to compare and contrast all the landforms together in a class display.

Lesson #3: Volcanoes

Science Standard: Essential Standard 3.E.2: Compare the structures of the Earths surface using models or three-dimensional diagrams. Clarifying Objective 3.E.2.2: Compare Earths land features (including volcanoes, mountains, valleys, canyons, caverns, and islands) by using models, pictures, diagrams, and maps.

Key Vocabulary: Volcano, Lava, Magma, Composite Volcano, Cinder Cone Volcano, Shield Volcano, Pyroclastic, Crust, Ash Cloud, Conduit, Continental Plates

Volcano: a mountain that opens downward to a pool of molten rock below the surface of the earth

Lava: liquid rock that flows out of a volcano

Magma: liquid rock inside of a volcano

Composite Volcano: steep-sided volcanoes composed of many layers of volcanic rocks

Cinder Cone Volcano: circular or oval cones made up of small fragments of lava from a single vent that have been blown into the air, cooled and fallen around the vent

Shield Volcano: volcanoes shaped like a bowl or shield in the middle with long gentle slopes made by basaltic lava flows

Pyroclastic: a big cloud of ash that you see shortly after a volcano erupts Crust: the outer layer of Earths surface

Ash Cloud: rocks and minerals that are created during volcanic eruptions

Conduit: a pipe or tube in which the magma travels through

Tectonic Plates: huge slabs of rock that have an irregular shape; these make up the foundation of the Earth and the shapes of the continents

Relationships among Facts and Concepts: Volcanoes can be an abstract concept for students. This lesson will inform students about the different types and parts of a volcano, how they are formed, as well as what they look like through Google Earth and real world pictures. This lesson will connect to the real world by having

students understand planet earth more in-depth. Through these activities and research, the idea of volcanoes will become more realistic and the content will be easier to grasp for students. Students will have the opportunity to observe videos of active volcanoes on the computer, and engage in various activities that will generate a better understanding of the concept.

Blooms Taxonomy Chart:

Remembering: Students will remember terms specific to volcanoes throughout the lesson. Students will need to remember these terms and vocabulary words in order to apply them to other aspects in the unit.

Understanding: Students will need to understand the meanings of the terms and vocabulary that are mentioned above. Students will be required to utilize their understandings of these words in assessments throughout the unit.

Analyzing: Students will be asked to compare and contrast the three different types of volcanoes. Students will be responsible for differentiating between the three types. Students will also analyze the eruption of a volcano, and see how those eruptions compare to the eruption that is made in the model volcano they build in class.

Evaluating: Students will be asked to evaluate the benefits and non-benefits of living near a volcano. They will need to defend their answers, and argue whether or not they think that living near a volcano would be beneficial or not.

Creating: Students will be asked to create a model of a volcano using specific materials. This model will need to be accurate to one of the volcano types, and will also need to contain a safe place for it to erupt. Although this is not as severe as an actual volcano eruption, it will need to represent some form of eruption.

IV. Assessment Plan

Lesson #1

Common Core Objectives: The students will be assessed on their understanding of the third grade Science Essential Standard 3.E.2 This standard states that the students will compare the landforms on Earths surface using models and diagrams. Students will also be assessed on the English Language Arts standards W.3.2, W.3.8, and L.3.4. These standards require students to research information by utilizing a dictionary, and to write informative information based on what was researched. Students are expected to develop their topic by using facts, definitions, and details.

Assessments to be Used:

A pre-assessment for the introduction of this lesson and unit will be a K-W-L chart. The students will be responsible for completing the three columns in the chart to indicate their previous knowledge of the content and what they have learned. The K (know) column of the chart will serve as a reliable source of information to let the teacher know what the students already know about the topic. This will help the teacher to know where the students are and where the students need to be guided. Throughout the lesson, the teacher will be able to formatively assess students through class discussion, responses to questions, and observation. If there are any misconceptions, the teacher will be able to lead students in the right direction during this time. The summative assessment will be the completion of the K-W-L chart, as well as the flipbook that the students create.

Prior Assessment Data: Objectives Pre Assessment Formative Assessment The students will be formatively assessed throughout the lesson. The teacher will observe interactions and Summative Assessment

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.3.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.3.8

K-W-L chart will serve as a preassessment. Students will provide information to the teacher by

The students will be required to complete the L (learned) column of their K-W-L chart as their summative assessment. Also, the teacher will utilize the

Recall information from experiences or gather information from print and digital sources; take brief notes on sources and sort evidence into provided categories. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.3.4d Use glossaries or beginning dictionaries, both print and digital, to determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.3.2a Introduce a topic and group related information together; include illustrations when useful to aiding comprehension. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.3.2b Develop the topic with facts, definitions, and details. Science Essential Standard 3.E.2 Compare the structures of the Earths surface using models or three-dimensional diagrams.

recording what they already know about the topic of landforms, as well as what they would like to learn.

conversations in the classroom. Students will also be assessed during whole class discussions about landforms, and the landforms that surround them.

landform flipbook as a summative assessment. The flipbook will be graded with the use of a rubric. This will be a great way to see what the students have learned from the lesson and how much information they took away.

KWL Chart Know Want to Know Learned

Rubric for Flipbook 3 Students writing demonstrates full understanding of landforms and their characteristics by utilizing proper definitions and illustrations. Illustrations are accurate and clearly represent the landform and its features. 2 Students writing demonstrates partial understanding of landforms and their characteristics by utilizing definitions and illustrations. 1 Students writing does not demonstrate any understanding of landforms. Does not have any supporting information.

Understanding of Landforms

Accurate Illustrations of Landforms

Illustrations somewhat depict the landform, but is not clearly represented. Some features are

Illustrations are not accurate or clear representations of the landform.

apparent. Accurate Definitions of Landforms Definitions are accurate and are a clear description of the landform. Punctuation and grammar are apparent. Utilize capitalization to begin sentences and correct punctuation to end them. Majority of words are spelled correctly. Definitions are somewhat accurate, but are not clear in descriptions of the landform. Punctuation and grammar are somewhat apparent. Utilize some capitalization to begin sentences and sometimes correct punctuation to end them. Only some words are spelled correctly. Overall appearance is somewhat neat and organized. Writing is somewhat legible. Definitions are not accurate, and do not relate to the landform.

Writing Conventions

Punctuation and grammar are not apparent. Does not utilize capitalization or proper punctuation. Majority of words are not spelled correctly.

Overall Quality and Neatness

Overall appearance is neat and well organized. Writing is legible.

Overall appearance and organization is not present. Writing is not legible.

Lesson #2

Common Core Objectives: Students will be assessed on their understanding of the third grade Social Studies Essential Standards; 3.G.1 understand the earths patterns by using the 5 themes of geography:(location, place, human environment interaction, movement and regions), 3.G.1.6 compare various regions according to their characteristics. Students will be looking at the Science Essential Standard; 3.E.2 compare the structures of the Earths surface using models or three-dimensional diagrams. As well as the Language Arts Third Grade standard; Literacy.W.3.7 Conduct short research projects that build knowledge about a topic. Students will be showing their understanding of these standards by building their own Landform Model, and writing about their landforms, as well as speaking about their landform model in front of the class.

Assessments to be Used: A pre-assessment will be conducted at the beginning of the lesson. The teacher will preassess the students by asking questions about the material covered the day before. The students should have constructed their landform flipbooks, so they should have previous knowledge of the landforms. The formative assessment will consist of the teacher listening to the students discussions throughout the project, as well as approving their design plan for the Salt Map model. The summative assessment will consist of the students building a landform salt map. The salt map should be accurate of the landform assigned to the group. At the end of class, students will present their maps to the class, and discuss their landforms characteristics. Students will be required to write down one fact about each landform presentation to turn in.

Prior Assessment Data:

Objectives Social Studies Essential Standards: 3.G.1 Understand the earths patterns by using the 5 themes of geography: (location, place, human environment interaction, movement and regions)

Pre Assessment The teacher will pre-assess the students by asking questions about the material learned previously. The teacher should ask higher order thinking questions.

Formative Assessment The students will be formatively assessed throughout the lesson. The teacher will observe interactions and conversations in the groups. Students will also be assessed by the design plan they turn in to the teacher to get approved, before they get their materials to build their landform salt map.

Summative Assessment The students will be required to complete a Landform Salt Map Model as their summative assessment. The students will be presenting their Salt Maps in front of the class as a group. Also, the teacher will collect the students peer review at the end of the class presentations. Each student will be required to write four interesting facts they learned by listening to the group presentations. The landform salt maps will be graded with the use of a rubric. This will be a great way to see what the students have learned from the lesson and how much information they took away.

3.G.1.6 Compare various regions according to their characteristics.

Science Essential Standard: 3.E.2 Compare the structures of the Earths surface using models or three-

What is an island? What is a peninsula? What is the difference between an island and a peninsula? What is a Mountain? What is a hill? What is the difference between a hill and a mountain? What does a canyon

dimensional diagrams.

look like? Are there canyons in the US?

Language Arts Essential Standard: Literacy.W.3.7 Conduct short research projects that build knowledge about a topic.

Landform Salt Map Rubric

Category Scientific Knowledge

4 The Landform is scientifically represented in the students Salt Map correctly. The Landform features are correctly labeled. Student speaks clearly. Student talks about the Landform, and at least 3 facts about the Landform. The Landform Salt Map is clean and accurately

3 The Landform is scientifically represented in the students Salt Map correctly. The landform features are labeled incorrectly. Student speaks clearly. Student talks about 3 facts about the Landform.

2 The Landform is modeled with a few errors. The landform features are labeled incorrectly.

1 The landform is not correctly represented by the students Salt Map. The Landform features are not labeled.

Class Presentation

Student speaks unclearly. Student only mentions 2 facts about the Landform. The Landform Salt Map is messy and

Student speaks un-clearly. Student only mentions 1 fact about the Landform.

Neatness

The Landform Salt Map is clean and accurately

The Landform Salt Map is unrecognizable. The labels

designed. The Labels are spelled correctly.

designed. There are few spelling errors on the labels.

contains few design flaws. There are multiple spelling errors on the labels. The Landform is creatively designed. The Salt Map is bland and doesnt possess originality. Student writes 3-4 sentences. Multiple punctuation and grammar mistakes.

contain multiple spelling errors, and are placed randomly on the Map.

Creativity

The Landform is creatively planned, designed and put together. The Salt Map is colorful and contains personality. Student writes 4 complete sentences. Punctuation and grammar are all correct.

The Landform is creatively planned, and designed and put together. The Salt Map doesnt contain much color, or personality. Student writes 3-4 complete sentences. Few punctuation, and grammar mistakes.

The Landform is not planned out. The Salt Map lacks creativity and personality.

Peer Review

Student writes 2-3 sentences. Sentences contain many punctuation and grammar errors. Sentences are incomplete.

Lesson #3 Common Core Objectives:

The students will be assessed on their understanding of the third grade Science Essential Standard 3.E.2. This standard states that the student will be able to compare the structures of the Earths surface using models and diagrams. The clarifying objective 3.E.2.2 states specifically to compare the Earths land features by using pictures, diagrams, maps and models.

Assessments to be Used:

As a pre-assessment, students will be formatively assessed through whole class discussion. The teacher will be aware of student responses to questions, as well as comments that they make throughout the beginning of the lesson, to assess their prior knowledge of the content. Throughout the lesson, other formative assessments will be

utilized to track the students understanding of the material. By these assessments, the teacher will have a firm understanding of where each child is and will be able to notice if a child needs extra support or instruction in a particular area. At the conclusion of the lesson, students will be asked to fill out a chart and label parts of a volcano as a summative assessment.

Objectives Essential Standard 3.E.2: Compare the structures of the Earths surface using models or three-dimensional diagrams.

Pre Assessment Students will be preassessed through a whole class discussion. The teacher will read a poem describing a volcano, and students will need to guess what landform the poem is referring to. The poem includes many keywords that relate to volcanoes. The teacher will need to assess the students responses to the poem to see where they stand with the content.

Formative Assessment The students will be formatively assessed various times throughout the lesson. Not only will students be assessed through discussion and observation, but also with handouts. Students will fill out a venn diagram comparing and contrasting the three volcano types. Students will also be filling out a chart by sorting the benefits and non-benefits of living near a volcano. Also, students will be conducting an internet workshop on the Ring of Fire, and answering questions as they go along.

Summative Assessment The students will be asked to complete a worksheet by labeling the different parts of a volcano. Students will also be asked to draw the three types of volcanoes and label the characteristics of each one. This will be a great way to assess students understanding of the content, and is a great summary of information that they would have been taught.

Clarifying Objective 3.E.2.2: Compare Earths land features (including volcanoes, mountains, valleys, canyons, caverns, and islands) by using models, pictures, diagrams, and maps.

V. Lesson Plans

Lesson #1: Introducing Landforms Statement of Purpose: The purpose of this lesson is to introduce the major landforms to students. They will become familiar with landforms through various activities, such as filling out charts, observing the environment surrounding them, watching videos, and creating a flipbook of

terms and pictures. After the lesson, students will have developed the knowledge of understanding the common landforms and their definitions. CCSS/NC Essential Standards Objectives/Goals: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.3.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.3.8 Recall information from experiences or gather information from print and digital sources; take brief notes on sources and sort evidence into provided categories. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.3.4d Use glossaries or beginning dictionaries, both print and digital, to determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.3.2a Introduce a topic and group related information together; include illustrations when useful to aiding comprehension. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.3.2b Develop the topic with facts, definitions, and details. Science Essential Standard 3.E.2 Compare the structures of the Earths surface using models or three-dimensional diagrams. Blooms Taxonomy: Remembering Understanding Analyzing

21st Century Skills: Learning and Innovation Skills - Critical Thinking - Communication and Collaboration Information, Media, and Technology Skills - Information Literacy - Media Literacy Life and Career Skills - Productivity and Accountability

1. For this lesson I have chosen to facilitate whole group instruction utilizing technology to present a short PREZI presentation on landforms that will provide students with a clear understanding of the various landforms that are on our Earth. Students will also be completing a KWL chart to provide the teacher with their previous knowledge of

landforms, as well as seeing where the instruction should focus on to expand their knowledge of the topic. Students will be working individually to complete a flipbook of information about specific landforms, illustrations, and a definition of each landform. 2. This lesson addresses the needs of various learners by providing photos for students who learn visually. Students who benefit from working as a whole group will have the opportunity to do so before being asked to do an assignment individually. However, students who work better alone will also have this opportunity. 1. For this lesson I chose to utilize a presentation of photographs because I believe that students can gain more knowledge and a better understanding of the earths landforms by having the opportunity to see live footage. I chose to utilize a KWL chart because this will allow students to ponder previous information on what they know about the topic and what they are interested in learning. This will engage the students and will increase their curiosity about the subject. Students will be asked to go outside their school building and observe the environment that surrounds them. This will help them to create personal connections about the landforms that are present in their own lives. Students will be creating a flipbook to help them broaden their understanding of landforms and to further investigate what these landforms look like, as well as their specific characteristics. 2. This will meet the needs of a variety of learners by providing both visual and auditory information for both types of learners. Adaptations/Modifications: For this lesson, students should be able to participate in the majority of activities as a whole class without specific modifications. Some students who have trouble with fine motor skills may need extra support when creating their flipbook of landforms. Students who have trouble searching for definitions in the dictionary may also need instructional help by the teacher. If needed, the low-performing and struggling students can be put into a small group to work together with the teacher when creating their flipbooks. Throughout the entirety of the lesson, the teacher will always be present for those students who need additional support and scaffolding with the activities. Classroom Management Students will begin the lesson as a whole class with a discussion of landforms, while filling out their KWL chart. Class discussions can lead to side chatter and students can get off task, so it is important for the teacher to emphasize the importance of paying attention and remaining silent unless called upon by the teacher. After the discussion, students will be asked to go outside to observe the landforms that surround them. Before students line up, the teacher must go over all guidelines and rules. The teacher should remind the students to stay together as they go outside, and while they are outside to remain as quiet as possible. Tell the students that this is a time for individual observation, so there is no need for discussion with their peers. Give students a couple minutes to observe, and then tell them to line up to go back into the classroom, making sure they remain quiet. Once students are back inside, show students the prezi presentation. Tell students to remain silent during this time so that everyone can hear and that everyone can

gain as much knowledge as they can. When the presentation is over, review the flipbook with the whole class. Demonstrate what the students will be doing, and tell them that it is an individual task. If students need help, tell them to raise their hands so a teacher can assist them. Allow around 30 minutes for students to create their flipbook. Throughout the lesson, provide positive and reinforcing feedback to those students who are cooperating and following directions. If students choose to misbehave, they will lose privileges during the remainder of the day. Materials:

KWL Chart PREZI Presentation (http://prezi.com/iigyv57_igic/edit/#27) Flipbooks Colored pencils Pencils Paper

6-point Lesson Plan: I. Focus and Review (Establish prior knowledge) Prior to this lesson, students will have had very little knowledge about landforms. In previous grades, students learn the physical properties of the materials on Earth, but nothing about the actual landforms that occur. This lesson will begin by filling out a KWL chart. Students will be asked to write down what they already know about landforms in the Know column, whether it is a definition of the word or examples. The teacher will tell students that they will be responsible for filling in the rest of the chart as they learn new information. II. Statement (Inform student of objectives) The teacher will have the following objectives written on chart paper in the front of the classroom: Compare the structures of the Earths surface using models or threedimensional diagrams and Use glossaries or beginning dictionaries, both print and digital, to determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases. Aside from these objectives being present, the teacher will also inform the students that they will be spending time gathering information about landforms to provide proper detail and illustrations.

III. Teacher Input (Present tasks, information, and guidance) Students will first be asked to go outside and observe the landforms that they see. They will take mental notes and will then gather back together as a whole class to discuss what they saw. At this time, ask students to fill out the Want to Know column of their KWL chart. Ask students what they want to know about landforms. After a brief discussion, the teacher will present a prezi to the students that incorporates photographs of the landforms they will be responsible for learning. Along with these photographs, there will be specific descriptions of each landform so that students will be able to get a firmer grasp of the content.

IV. Guided Practice (Elicit performance, provide assessment and feedback) Once the teacher has gone through the prezi of the different landforms, the class will have a whole group discussion about what they saw in the presentation and what they took away from it. The teacher will then present the flipbook of landforms to the students on the document camera. As a group, the teacher will demonstrate how to fill out the flipbook and they will do the first landform together. The teacher will show how to utilize the dictionary to research the definitions of each landform, or will give students the option to utilize the ipad to search the Internet. After finding definitions, the students will be responsible for finding a realistic picture that will depict what the landform looks like and will illustrate that specific landform. V. Independent PracticeSeatwork and Homework (Retention and transfer) After instruction on filling out the flipbook, students will be responsible for completing the rest of the landforms. After the appropriate amount of time, ask students to wrap up their work. If students have not completed their flipbook, inform students that they can fill in the information as the class goes over the information together. VI. Closure (Plan for maintenance) Bring the class back together and ask individual students to share specific landforms with their peers utilizing the document cameras. The teacher will conduct a whole-group discussion on the students findings. At this time, the teacher should aim for little intervention. The discussion should be between the students themselves and what they have found out about landforms. The students should be able to accurately describe the given landforms and accurately pair them with an illustration. After reviewing the landform flipbooks, students will be asked to complete the Learned column of their KWL chart. By this time, students should have gained a great amount of information about landforms and what they look like. Students should be able to discuss what they have learned in their chart with little support and guidance from the teacher. Assessment: For this lesson students will be formatively assessed as the teacher observes interactions and conversations in the classroom. Students will be formatively assessed when having whole class discussions about landforms, as well as when students discuss their observations about the landforms that surround them. The students will also be assessed through their completion and accuracy of the KWL chart and their landform flipbook.

Teaching Reflection: To start the unit on Earths landforms, I introduced the students to the new term landform. I asked the students if they have ever heard this word, and what they think it is. After a brief discussion on what a landform is, I asked the students to fill out the Know of their KWL chart. I told the students to write what they know and what comes to mind

when they hear the word landform. After students filled out the Know column, I asked them to fill out the column Want to Learn. I asked the students to write down any questions they had about landforms or what they were interested in learning. I then introduced the flipbook that they would be filling out, and gave instruction on how the flipbook operates. As I went through the Prezi presentation on the landforms, students wrote down definitions and drew an illustration to represent each landform. I thought this lesson went very well. Through this lesson I was able to see how the students and I interacted while I was teaching, and how well we collaborated together as teacher and student. The students enjoyed filling out the flipbook and had a great time drawing pictures of each landform. In the future I would improve on better time management with the students. Each student worked at a different pace, so many students didnt know what to do while they were waiting on their peers to complete their work. My cooperating teacher provided positive feedback on the lesson and asked to keep an example flipbook to use in her future lessons. Tomorrow I will be expanding on the topic of landforms by letting the students create a salt map of a specific landform. This will help students visualize each landform and become fully engaged in the unit. The activity will be handson and students will be able to utilize their flipbooks to help guide them when building their landform. Resources: Landform Flipbook: Retrieve from http://amazingclassroom.blogspot.com/2011/09/teaching-landforms.html

Lesson #2- Landform Salt Maps

Statement of Purpose: The purpose of this lesson is for students to get a hands-on approach to learning about the Earths landforms. Students will be constructing their very own 3D landforms by making Salt Maps in a group. Students will be given a specific landform to design, and construct. Then the students will have to label the major characteristics/ features of their landform, and present their Landform Salt Map to the class.

CCSS/NC Essential Standards Objectives/Goals: Social Studies Essential Standards: 3.G.1 Understand the earths patterns by using the 5 themes of geography: (Location, place, human environment interaction, movement and regions) 3.G.1.6 Compare various regions according to their characteristics. Science Essential Standard:

3.E.2 Compare the structures of the Earths surface using models or three-dimensional diagrams. Language Arts Essential Standard: Literacy.W.3.7 Conduct short research projects that build knowledge about a topic. Blooms Taxonomy:

Create Understanding Applying Analyzing

21st Century Skills: Learning and Innovation Skills Critical thinking Creativity and innovation Communication and collaboration Basic literacy Visual literacy

Information, Media, Technology Skills Information literacy

Life and Career Skills Flexibility and adaptability Productivity and accountability

1. This lesson is designed for students to work together and offer support to each other. The dough was pre-made, so the students would have plenty of time to build their landforms. The class was split into groups of about 3-4 students, to allow everyone a chance to contribute to the landform. The students in their groups have to plan out their landform map beforehand. This allows them to practice collaboration, as well as understand that they might have to give up something they want to do for the productivity of the group. 2. This lesson meets students various needs in many ways. The student groups allow the students to offer support to their peers. The teacher can make sure weaker students are paired with more advanced students. The teacher can also make sure there are artistic people in each group, to help their peers with the design aspect of the project. This project gets the kids moving, and into a new environment, besides sitting at their desks. Books will be provided to groups on the subject of their landform, to offer support visually to them.

1. I chose the materials listed because a lot of the materials can be found in your everyday kitchen. I wanted to keep the supply cost low. All the materials are non-toxic. The dough definitely wouldnt taste good if you ate it, but it is safe and harmless to the students. Students build their landforms on an aluminum cookie sheet. This gives the students a boundary for building, and its a way to control the potential mess. I chose books from the library that contained a good amount of visual images of the students landforms, to help them get an idea of how to build it. 2. The materials provided can be utilized by all the students. Since the dough is safe, students with allergies can participate in the construction of the landforms. Directions are given out loud. Books are provided as resources for a visual reference. At the end of the lesson, students will present their landform, so they can show the teacher they understand the landforms in an oral form, and then a written form by writing their four facts down as an assessment.

Adaptations/Modifications: Students will be split into groups of 3(4) to further research their assigned landforms. The teacher can assign groups, to make sure weaker students are partnered with stronger students in the class to support them. The teacher could do this as a class project as well. The students could be assigned a role for the group (color mixer, builder, labeler, etc.) to make sure all the students are included. If students are having trouble building their model, the teacher could check the students blueprint plan before they start to build, and before the students finish, the teacher will have to check it off and give advice. The students could research the day before and collect pictures and books of their landform, to look at as they build their Salt Maps for support.

Classroom Management: Students will be put into groups of 3-4 randomly by pulling sticks, and then they will create a landform 3D model using a Salt Map. The teacher can pre assign groups, based on the students personalities, and who works better with each other, or may lend support to weaker students. The teacher can also assign groups at random, but I would recommend the alternative for better management and class productivity. The teacher can assign roles to each student in the group such as, Color Mixer, Surveyor, Presenter, etc. to keep the kids focused and on task. Throughout the project, the teacher can walk around the class and check in on the groups to make sure they are working well together. The teacher can have any interns or TAs walk around the room as well. The teacher should explain exactly what the students will be doing before he/she dismisses them. If

any of the students have questions, the teacher should remind them that they should raise their hands.

Materials:

Salt Map Dough (PRE MADE BY TEACHER or Make with Students) 1 five-pound bag of All Purpose Flour (20 Students) 3 26 oz container of Salt 5 boxes of food coloring 1 mixing bowl 1 mixing spoon 1 container of cream of tartar Water Measuring cup

Directions: Recipe: 1 cup of table salt 2 cups of flour (use all-purpose flour, not self-rising flour) 1 cup of water (approximately -- use 3/4 cup, then add more in small increments) Mix the salt, flour, and water in a large bowl until smooth and pliable (like cookie dough -- not runny like cake batter). You might need to add more water or flour and salt to get the right consistency.

Other Cardboard/ Pizza Boxes Toothpicks Markers Glue Plastic spoons Scissors Tarp

Resources Student Landform flipbooks Library Landform Books Pictures from websites

Student Roles

Architect- this student will draw out the groups plan Contractor- this student will get the plan approved by the teacher, and then receive the materials for the construction. Artist- this student will mix the colors for the landform Labeler- this student will make the feature labels for the Landform, and stick them in, once the landform is built. The student roles can be designed by the teacher to fit the situation in any way.

Lesson Plan:

I. Focus and Review (Establish Prior Knowledge) (5-10 min) The teacher should ask the students to get out their flipbooks from the previous lesson. The class can review the landforms they learned about the day before. The teacher can ask them to explain each landform to her/himself. The teacher can also ask the students if there are any landforms outside the school, city etc. Then the teacher will introduce the SALT MAPS.

II. Explore (30 min) The teacher will go over all the instructions before breaking the students into landform groups. Then the teacher will go back through the directions step by step. The groups will have to brainstorm and draw a plan for their model. Then the students will have to bring their plan over to the teacher to be approved. After their plan is approved, the teacher will give them their dough, and food coloring. The students will also be given a pizza box or a cardboard surface to build upon, as well as any other materials needed. The students can use their flipbooks for a picture resource, or the library books that have been pulled. Another student will be in charge of labeling the features of the groups landform. A good amount of class will be spent building the Salt Maps.

III. Summarize (5-10 min) AFTER LESSON or DAY AFTER LESSON for Presentation

Students will be given a Bib Card to label 1-4. Each group will then come to the front of the class, and present their Salt Map Model. The groups should talk about how they built it and the different features that are presented on their Salt Map. Students could also give a real world example of where that particular landform can be found. While each group is presenting, the rest of the students should write down ONE sentence on their Bib Card of something they learned from the presentation. After all the groups have presented, the teacher can collect the cards as a form of assessment. The teacher can also ask the

students, why do you think its important that we know what landforms are, and what they look like.

Assessment: The teacher will be assessing the students by using a rubric for their project. The rubric will contain 5 categories for evaluation. Scientific Knowledge, Class Presentation, Neatness, Creativity, Peer Review. The students will be given a score out of 4 points. The students will also be given a note card to write one fact they learned from each landform presentation to turn in at the end.

Teaching Reflection:

Today the students were put into small groups and built a landform using homemade dough. There were five different groups, and each group was assigned one of the landforms that we learned yesterday. While the students were at lunch, I made the dough and divided the dough for each group. Once the students were back from lunch, each group was responsible for making a plan before building their landform. When a teacher approved their plan, they were able to build their landform. After the landforms were built, each group labeled their model and placed it at the back of the room to be put on display. When all of the students completed their landform, each group presented their model that they built. While each group presented, the other students were responsible for writing down something they learned about each groups landform. This way all students were paying attention and were engaged with each presentation. Each group did an awesome job on their landform and they proved to me that they understood the characteristics each one had. I had brought in food coloring to dye the dough a different color if the groups wanted their landform to look accurate. However, the dye did not mix well with the dough and it got all over the students hands. Now I know in the future that I should not use food coloring with the salt maps. My cooperating teacher was very impressed with the students landforms and she put them on display in the schools library. Tomorrow I will be introducing the volcano, which is a landform that we have not discussed in class. I thought volcanoes deserved a separate lesson because they are an abstract concept for students. They will be learning about the different types of volcanoes and will view an informative video clip that introduces the topic.

Landform Salt Map Rubric

Category

Scientific Knowledge

The Landform is scientifically represented in the students Salt Map correctly. The Landform features are correctly labeled. Student speaks clearly. Student talks about the Landform and at least 3 facts about the Landform. The Landform Salt Map is clean and accurately designed. The Labels are spelled correctly.

The Landform is scientifically represented in the students Salt Map correctly. The Landform features are labeled incorrectly. Student speaks clearly. Student talks about 3 facts about the Landform.

The Landform is modeled with a few errors. The landform features are labeled incorrectly.

The Landform is not correctly represented by the students Salt Map. The Landform features are not labeled.

Class Presentation

Student speaks unclearly. Student only mentions 2 facts about the Landform. The Landform Salt Map is messy and contains few design flaws. There are multiple spelling errors on the labels. The Landform is creatively designed. The Salt Map is bland and doesnt possess originality. Student writes 3-4 sentences. Multiple punctuation and grammar

Student speaks unclearly. Student only mentions 1 fact about the Landform.

Neatness

The Landform Salt Map is clean and accurately designed. There are few spelling errors on the labels.

The Landform Salt Map is unrecognizable. The labels contain multiple spelling errors and are placed randomly on the Map.

Creativity

The Landform is creatively planned, designed and put together. The Salt Map is colorful, and contains personality. Student writes 4 complete sentences. Punctuation and grammar

The Landform is creatively planned, designed and put together. The Salt Map doesnt contain much color or personality. Student writes 3-4 complete sentences. Few punctuation

The Landform is not planned out. The Salt Map lacks creativity and personality.

Peer Review

Student writes 2-3 sentences. Sentences contain many punctuation and grammar

are all correct.

and grammar mistakes.

mistakes.

errors. Sentences are incomplete.

Resources: http://www.sjusd.org/williams/downloads/4th_Gr_CA_Relief_Map.pdf

Lesson #3: Volcanoes 1. Volcanoes 2.Overview and Statement of Purpose. A. The purpose of this lesson is to inform students about the intriguing landform, the volcano. Students will be looking at the different types and parts of volcanoes, how they are formed, and what they look like through Google Earth and real world pictures. Students will observe videos of active volcanoes, build a model volcano, read informational books, research the different types of volcanoes on the computer, and engage in an Internet workshop about The Ring of Fire. B. This lesson connects to the real world by having students understand planet Earth more in-depth, as well as the volcanoes that are located throughout the world. Students will learn about how active volcanoes affect the lives of people who live near them. Volcanoes can be an abstract idea for students, and through these activities and research, the idea of these landforms will become much more realistic and the content will be easier to grasp. 3. Grade Level and Objectives. A. Essential Standard 3.E.2: Compare the structures of the Earths surface using models or three-dimensional diagrams. Clarifying Objective 3.E.2.2: Compare Earths land features (including volcanoes, mountains, valleys, canyons, caverns, and islands) by using models, pictures, diagrams, and maps. B. Although the objective states various land features, this lesson will be focusing specifically on volcanoes. Students will investigate and build their knowledge of volcanoes through experimenting with a model volcano (models), observing pictures of the different types of volcanoes (pictures), comparing and contrasting volcanoes with a Venn Diagram (diagrams), and observing maps of the world to see where active volcanoes are located (maps).

4. 21st Century Skills. A. Here are the 21st Century Skills that will be met throughout this lesson: Learning and Innovation Skills- Critical Thinking and Problem Solving, Communication and Collaboration; Information, Media and Technology SkillsInformation Literacy, Media Literacy, and ICT (Information, Communications and Technology) Literacy; and Life and Career Skills- Flexibility and Adaptability, Initiative and Self-Direction, Social and Cross-Cultural Skills, Productivity and Accountability, and Leadership and Responsibility. B. Learning and Innovation Skills will be met through students analyzing volcanoes and the specific behaviors they have. They will be asked to think critically throughout the lesson to explain these behaviors and why they think they occur. Also, throughout the entire process, students will be communicating and collaborating with their peers and their teacher to share their observations and thought processes. Information, Media and Technology Skills will be met through the utilization of video clips, as well as through an interactive Internet Workshop on the Ring of Fire. Life and Career Skills will be met in various ways during the lesson. Students will need to be flexible and adapt to changes in the schedule due to time constraints, or other situations that may occur. They will need to take on responsibility and the initiative to complete assignments, act appropriately, follow directions, etc. Students will also need to engage with their peers in a suitable manner, without causing disruption, but to simply enhance the learning environment. 5. Curricular Integration. (Note: You do not actually have to teach these activities during your 5E lesson. This just shows that you are aware of some ways that you could integrate). A. First Activity: An additional curricular integration activity that could be utilized with this lesson plan is in the subject area of Language Arts. Students would be provided a general writing prompt where they would be asked to write a narrative about a volcano they have stumbled upon during an excursion they were on. (Ex. You have been exploring an exotic forest in an unknown land for about a week. One day, you come across a large, steaming volcano. Your curiosity gets the best of you, and you decide to climb to the top to find out more about this massive land feature. What do you discover?) This activity would be integrated after teaching the bulk of information about volcanoes. It is important to give this prompt after students have been well educated about the topic, so they can write about specific details and facts that they have learned about volcanoes. When writing this narrative, the teacher will need to make sure that students are

incorporating facts and are demonstrating how well they understand the content. This could be utilized as part of a summative assessment. Competency goals addressed: o CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.3.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. o CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.3.3 Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.

B. Second Activity: Another additional curricular integration activity that could be utilized with this lesson plan is in the subject area of Social Studies. Students would research different communities that live near active volcanoes (Ex. Mount Vesuvius in Naples, Italy; Kilauea in Kalapana, Hawaii; Suribachi in Iwo Jima, Japan; Popocatepetl in Puebla, Mexico). Students would be divided into small groups, and each group would choose a community to research. Students would be responsible for finding out when the last eruption was, how it has affected the community, what the community does to remain safe during the time of an eruption, etc. After collecting a substantial amount of information, students will share what they have researched with the class. This activity could be integrated near the beginning of the lesson when students are discussing active, dormant, and extinct volcanoes. After explaining to the students what each type is and the specific characteristics of each one, students can research what active volcanoes are affecting communities today. This would be a great way for the information that is being taught to become more realistic to the students and they will be able to build a personal connection to the content.

Competency goals addressed: o 3.G.1 Understand the earths patterns by using the 5 themes of geography: (location, place, human-environment interaction, movement, and regions) 3.G.1.3 Exemplify how people adapt to, change and protect the environment to meet their needs.

6. Essential Knowledge (for teacher). (Teacher Background Knowledge) What is a Volcano? http://www.weatherwizkids.com/weather-volcano.htm

o A volcano is a mountain that opens downward to a pool of molten rock below the surface of the earth. How Do Volcanoes Form? o Deep inside the Earth, between the core and the thin crust, there is a solid body of rock called the mantle. o When rock from the mantle melts, it moves to the surface through the crust. At the surface, it erupts to form the flow of lava and ash. Over time the volcano continues to erupt, and it will grow bigger and bigger. How/Why do Volcanoes Erupt? o In a volcanic eruption, hot lava spews out from beneath the Earths crust up to the Earths surface. This lava is hot melted rock called magma. Underneath the Earths crust is a layer called the mantle, which is made up of plates that are constantly moving and shifting. Sometimes these plates will separate, which creates heat and causes the mantle to melt into magma. The magma comes up through the crack between the plates. It spreads and then cools, and becomes rock again.

Diagram of the Earths Layers

Different Stages of Volcanoes: Active, Dormant, and Extinct o An active volcano is one which has recently erupted and there is a possibility that it may erupt soon (Ex. Mt. Fuji in Japan, Mount

Rainier in Washington, Pinatubo in the Philippines, Irazu in Costa Rica) o A dormant volcano is one which has not erupted in a long time, but there is a possibility it can erupt in the future (Ex. Mauna Kea in Hawaii, Mount Teide in Spain, Mount Ararat in Turkey, Mt. Kilimanjaro in Africa) o An extinct volcano is one that has erupted thousands of years ago and there is no possibility of an eruption (Ex. Mount Ashitaka in Japan, Mount Buninyong in Australia, Zuidwal in the Netherlands, Shiprock in the U.S.) o There have been over 1,300-1,500 volcanoes that have shown activity over the last 10,000 years. How many volcanoes are there? o There are more than 1500 active volcanoes on the Earth o Most of the active volcanoes are found in Hawaii, Alaska, California, Oregon, and Washington

What is the difference between lava and magma? o Magma is liquid rock inside a volcano o Lava is liquid rock (magma) that flows out of the volcano; lava flows very slow and it thickens as it becomes more solid Fun Facts o What is the largest active volcano? The worlds largest active volcano is Mauna Loa in Hawaii, where famous coffee is grown in the rich volcanic soils. Mauna Loa is 13,677 feet above sea level. o When did Mt. St. Helens erupt? On May 18, 1980, Mount St. Helens erupted. It is located in Washington and the blast was heard far away in Montana, Idaho, Canada and California. Fifty-seven people died and the eruption caused $1.2 billion worth of damage.

o Not all volcanoes are found on earth Although there are some big volcanoes on earth, the biggest known volcano in our solar system is actually on Mars. Its name is Olympus Mons and it measures 373 miles wide and 13 miles high! o Volcanoes can be found on the ocean floor, not just earths surface Some volcanoes are found under icecaps, like those found in Iceland

TYPES OF VOLCANOES Name Composite Description *Can be over 8000 feet tall *Made up of layers and layers of hardened lava *One of the most common types of volcanoes Real World Ex. Mount Rainier Mount St. Helens Mount Shasta Violent/Nonviolent Eruption Violent Eruption

Shield

*Looks like a warriors shield because its very large in size and has a low profile *Mostly made up of lava flows (contributes to the huge, low shape) *Forms when lava blows out so fast and violently that the magma chamber is emptied *The volcanic

Hawaiian Volcanoes Highland Butte Larch Mountain

Nonviolent Eruption

Caldera

Yellowstone Long Valley Newberry Crater Lake

Aftermath of a violent eruption

structure collapses *Pyroclastic flows and ash *Very vicious lava *Small dome or mounds

Volcanic Dome

Mount St. Helens Dome

Can be explosive

Cinder Cone

*Very steep cone formed above the vent *Made up of small fragments that stick together to form cinders that land around the vent

Mount Tabor Mount Zion Pilot Butte

Violent

Pictures of Different Volcanoes: Composite Volcano

Shield Volcano

Cinder Cone Volcano Caldera

Volcanic Dome

Parts of a Volcano

Magma: molten rock within the Earths crust Lava: magma that comes through the earths surface Ash: powdered rock and debris that explodes from the volcano (looks like dark smoke) Cinders: Bits of fragmented lava The Ring of Fire http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/volcano/ringoffire/ o Most volcanically active region on Earth o of Earths active and dormant volcanoes lie along this arc o It has 452 volcanoes; 90% of the worlds earthquakes and 81% of the worlds largest earthquakes occur along the Ring of Fire o The arc lies along the margins of the Pacific Ocean, where the large Pacific plate and other tectonic plates dive beneath even more plates o The ring stretches from South America, to the Andes Mountains, and then up north along the coasts of Central America and Mexico o Earthquakes are very common because of the movement of plates o The edge of the Pacific Continental Plate is expanding in the seabed and is hitting the North American Plate, the Nazca Plate, the Eurasian Plate, and other plates, causing the margins of the plates to collide, buckle, and compress, causing the earthquakes and volcanoes

o Define Continental Plates The Earths rocky outer crust became solid billions of years ago, soon after the Earth was formed. This crust is not a solid shell; it is broken up into huge, thick plates that drift along the mantle. The plates are made of rock and drift all over the globe; the can move sideways and up and down. Over long periods of

time, the plates can change size as their edges are crushed together, or pushed back into Earths mantle. o When two plates collide, some crust is destroyed in the impact and the plates become smaller

7.Developmental Level/Student Background Knowledge. A. How does this lesson fit the students coming to you in terms of what they might have experienced in real life? Our lesson fits the students and what they might have experienced in real life in helping them become more aware of the world we live in and the landforms that make up our Earth. Students who have been privileged enough to travel to Hawaii can relate learning about volcanoes to their trip and talk about if they saw the lava fields, or the black sand beaches, or even the lava that still flows into the ocean there. Even if they havent been to them they probably have talked about the Hawaiian Islands as one of our 50 states and now can understand in depth how they got there. This can also be applied to students who may have visited Yellowstone National Park, or Mount St. Helens, Mount Rainier; these are all volcanoes in our own backyard of the US. This lesson can also be applied to our students in the future. If they ever watch the news, they will be able to understand more about when volcano eruptions are reported around the world, especially if it occurs in the Ring of Fire. B. Explain how it is matched to their physical skills (what they can do with their bodies)? Students at this age cant sit too long without doing something stimulating to keep their attention. During our lesson students will be going outside to watch our homemade volcano erupt. This will give them a chance to move a little and get a change of space. Students will also be participating in an Internet workshop. This will take place in the computer lab, or on laptops, but it will allow students to use their hands. C. How is it matched to their conceptual skills (what is going on developmentally in their minds)?

Our students would be categorized into Piagets Concrete Operational Stage of Development. Our third graders are 8 years old or turning 9. Piaget listed the ages for this stage between 7 years old and 11 years old. They are at the age where they are beginning to use logical thought, but then can only apply it to physical objects. Our third graders in this lesson are watching videos of the Earth and how volcanos form, as well as pictures, and diagrams of three types of volcanoes, and then they are being shown real life pictures of these volcanoes. In their heads they are remembering characteristics we described, such as, low to the ground, looks like a warrior shield, etc. and then apply it to the picture and make these connections from the diagram to the real life picture of a shield volcano. They are also being asked to use their minds to understand that the Earth has different layers, and the shifting of Earths plates makes volcanoes, even though we cant feel it. We see the aftermath of the shifting in the form of mountains and volcanoes, more specifically. D. How does it relate to what they would have learned in previous grade levels? Our lesson starts to build upon what our students should have experienced in first grade and in second grade. In first grade students look at the Essential Standard, 1.E.2 understand the physical properties of Earth materials that make them useful in different ways, and the clarifying objective, 1.E.2.2 Compare the properties of soil samples from different places relating their capacity to retain water, nourish and support the growth of certain plants. Students might have looked at soil near a volcano and compared it to soil in other places. In second grade students should have looked at the Essential Standard, 2.P.2 Understand properties of solids and liquids and the changes they undergo, and the clarifying objective, 2.P.2.1 Give examples of matter that change from a solid to a liquid and from a liquid to a solid by heating and cooling. Students will be prepared to better understand the process of magma changing into lava, as well as what lava looks like as a liquid and then what it looks like as a solid, and why there is a change because of the lava cooling or heating up. E. How does it relate to what they will learn in the future (look at the curriculum!)? Our lesson in third grade will be built upon in fourth grade, when the students begin to look at the Essential Standard 4.E.2 Understand the use of fossils and changes in the surface of the earth as evidence of the history of Earth and its changing life forms, and the clarifying objective 4.E.2.3 Give examples of how the surface of the earth changes due to slow processes such as erosion and weathering, and rapid processes such as landslides, volcanic eruptions, and earthquake. In this standard students will be looking at how volcanic eruptions change the surface of the Earth and how they might fossilize plants or animals. A great example of this would be the Pompeii eruption and the shells of people and dogs left over (it would have to be introduced carefully, because it is visually powerful). In sixth grade students will be looking at the Essential Standard 6.E.2 Understand the structure of the earth and how interactions of constructive and destructive forces have resulted in changes in the surface of the Earth over time and the effects of the lithosphere on humans, and the clarifying objectives 6.E.2.1Summarize the

structure of the earth, including the layers, the mantle and core based on the relative position, composition and density, and 6.E.2.2 Explain how crustal plates and ocean basins are formed, move and interact using earthquakes, heat flow and volcanoes to reflect forces within the earth. In our lessons students are getting an intro into the layers of the Earth, because they need to understand where the magma comes from, and that is the mantle. Later in sixth grade they will get an in-depth look at the layers of the Earth and each layers characteristics. Our students are getting a brief introduction into tectonic plates, because we talk about the formation of volcanoes, and that requires two plates crashing into each other. In this standard they look at how the volcano is a reflection of whats going on inside the earth and they would have already gained some knowledge about the subjects and the structure of the Earth. 8. Detailed Lesson Plan. The Learning Cycle (5Es) should be developed in enough detail for a knowledgeable substitute to use. (Be sure to see your rubric for specific details of what to include in each of the phases of the 5E Learning Cycle.) You may need to include more detail than the questions included, but make sure that you include the answer to these questions as part of your answer. Remember a KNOWLEDGEABLE SUBSTITUTE should be able to follow your plan.

A. Engagement with transition question, challenge, or problem (Process Skills Used: Predicting) To introduce the lesson, the teacher will first read a poem to the students that provides a series of clues about volcanoes and it will be up to the students to try and guess what landform the poem is describing. Tell students to listen carefully and to keep their thoughts to themselves as the poem is being read to them. After the poem is read, then with a show of hands the teacher can call on them to see what landform they think is being described: Guess What Landform: Magma, melted, molten rock, like soup that boils, in a crockBeneath the Earth, it rolls and roils, Beneath the Earth, It turns and toilsPressure grows, magma escapes, blows through holes, of different shapesMountain cones, Ring of Fire, these landforms blow, ash flies higher! Magma flows, becomes hot lava, cools to make, a place like JavaMagma comes, from underground, and flows in lava, all aroundListen now, dont interrupt, when these landforms blow, they do erupt! After the poem is read, ask students: - What clues did you use to help you guess what landform it was describing?

(Process Skills Used: Observation) After discussing the poem, show students a video that provides a brief introduction of volcanoes to get them excited about the topic. Once the clip has ended, ask students: - What stood out to you in this video? - Did this video spark any questions that you may have about volcanoes? - Have any of you ever visited a volcano? Video Link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Be7o6BYVOzA

Ask students to come to the carpet to read the story The Magic School Bus Blows Its Top: A Book About Volcanoes. While reading the story, the teacher will stop frequently to discuss some of the terms that are brought up throughout the book to ensure that the students have a firm understanding of what is happening.

B. Exploration (Process Skills Used: Planning an Investigation) Once the students have been introduced to volcanoes, tell them that one of the most interesting things about volcanoes is how they erupt. As a class, you will build your own model volcano and create an eruption. Go over the rules and procedures with the students, as this can be a messy project. The teacher will explain to the students step-by-step what they will be doing. (Process Skills Used: Predicting) Once the teacher has gone over everything, ask students to pull out their science journals and title the first section Volcano Experiment Prediction (teacher will write this title on the board to model the spelling of each word). Ask the students to write down what they predict is going to happen during the experiment. Write down a handful of questions to help students generate some ideas of what is going to happen: What do you think is going to happen when we mix all of the ingredients together (baking soda and vinegar)? Will something happen or will the volcano stay the same?

(Process Skills Used: Measuring, Observation) Once students have their predictions, conduct the experiment. Have the students help build the volcano, and mix together the ingredients. (Depending on how much time is given, the teacher may need to build the volcano ahead of time).

1. First make the 'cone' of the baking soda volcano. Mix 6 cups flour, 2 cups salt, 4 tablespoons cooking oil, and 2 cups of water. The resulting mixture should be smooth and firm (more water may be added if needed). 2. Stand the soda bottle in the baking pan and mold the dough around it into a volcano shape. Don't cover the hole or drop dough into it. 3. Fill the bottle most of the way full with warm water and a bit of red food color (can be done before sculpting if you don't take so long that the water gets cold). 4. Add 6 drops of detergent to the bottle contents. The detergent helps trap the bubbles produced by the reaction so you get better lava. 5. Add 2 tablespoons baking soda to the liquid. 6. Slowly pour vinegar into the bottle. Watch out - eruption time! (Process Skills Used: Observation, Recording Data) When the teacher has reached the last step of the experiment (pouring the vinegar into the baking soda), ask students to put another title under their predictions labeled, Volcano Experiment Observations. Tell students to observe what happens and to write down what they see and draw a picture. (Process Skills Used: Inference, Observation, Comparing and Contrasting) After the experiment, ask students what they saw and if their predictions were accurate. Explain to the students what happened to make it erupt: The cool red lava is the result of a chemical reaction between the baking soda and the vinegar. In this reaction, carbon dioxide is produce, which is also what real volcanoes produce. As the carbon dioxide gas is produced, pressure builds up inside the plastic bottle, until the gas bubbles erupt out of the volcano.

****After students have observed the eruption of the volcano, be sure to explain to them that it was not a realistic representation of what causes volcanoes to erupt. As a class, compare and contrast how the model volcano was/was not like an actual volcano. C. Explanation The teacher will use a PREZI to explain the three types of Volcanoes, the parts of a volcano, and a few benefits/non-benefits of living near a volcano. http://prezi.com/kbntalbnf6qm/?utm_campaign=share&utm_medium=cop y

(Classifying, Comparing and Contrasting, Recording Data) Students will be given a Venn diagram to fill out to compare and contrast the three main types of volcanoes: Composite, Cinder Cone, and Shield. The students will be filling this Venn diagram out as we talk about the three types of volcanoes and the different qualities they each possess by going through the Prezi. (Classifying, Inference, Recording Data, Comparing and Contrasting) On the back of the Venn diagram will be another chart with two columns listing Benefits and Non-Benefits of Living near a Volcano. The Students will be filling this chart out as we talk about the benefits and nonbenefits of living near a volcano.

What do you guys think a volcano is? (A mountain that explodes, a mountain on fire) Lava Video: How do you think the lava changes from moving really fast like in the clip we watched too really slow and becomes hard? (The lava is cooling, it becomes hard) (Inference, Predicting) Where did the magma come out of our volcano when it erupted? (Hole at the top, Vent, Crater) What is the magma now called that it is above the ground? (Lava) What do you think the words active and non-active mean? (Exercising, not exercising. A volcano is erupting still, not erupting, wont erupt) Do you think volcanoes can be positive to our environment? (Yes, No) We are going to take a closer look at the benefits of volcanoes Introduce different types of volcanoeswhat type of volcano did we construct? (Composite) After PowerPointNow looking back what is our volcano eruption lacking that a real volcano eruption has? (Ash cloud, pyroclastic flow, Lava bombs, Acid Rain, landslide, lava wasnt real) Have any of you been to Yellowstone National Park? Hawaii? Or would want to go to these places? (Yes, No)tourism What kind of volcanoes are the Hawaiian Islands? Why? (Shield Volcanoes, because the shape is long and low) Who would want to live by a volcano? Why? (Hands raised/not raised, varied answers) Understanding Volcanoes come in different forms (being able to recognize them in a picture) Understanding that not all volcanoes are active Understanding the difference between Composite, Cinder Cone, and Shield Volcanoes Understanding the benefits and non-benefits of living near volcanoes o Volcanoes contribute to fertile soil, thermal energy, tourism o Health effects, destruction, mudslides

I will be putting pictures of myself at Pompeii and Yellowstone National Park and maybe my trip from Hawaii, to support the tourism aspect of volcanoes and how its actually really awesome!! I will be showing this slideshow of pictures after the lesson.

Terminology Introduced: Shield, Composite, Cinder Cone, Volcano, Vent, Magma, Lava, Crater, pyroclastic, Active, Non-active The terminology will be introduced as we go through the one PREZI, and look at the diagrams and definitions of the different volcanoes. D. Expansion (Recording Data, Comparing and Contrasting, Planning an Investigation, Classifying) In the Expansion phase students will be participating in an Internet workshop on the Ring of Fire, they will be learning more about this area on Earth and how the plate movements affect the formation of volcanoes there. Attached are the directions for the Internet workshop as well as the worksheet with questions to answer about the Ring of Fire. The teacher can arrange a day to rent out the computers ahead of time, or if they have scheduled free computer time, the teacher can make use of this time to do the Internet workshop. The teacher should go over the whole worksheet ahead of time, and make sure the directions are clearly understood by the students. The websites can be linked up to the teachers website or pulled up ahead of time. After the workshop is completed, the class should go over the answers as a group. This workshop is still focused on volcanoes, but we are taking an in-depth look at volcanoes in a specific area on our planet. Students will be introduced to the famous Ring of Fire, located in the Pacific Ocean. They will learn about plate tectonics and the three major plate boundaries and how they are formed, and how they are responsible for the formation of volcanoes. They will also get to draw the Ring of Fire on a map to help their understanding of its exact location and make observations about it from the map. Has anyone ever heard about the Ring of Fire? (No) we are going to be doing an Internet workshop on it today. What are some observations you made about the Ring of Fire map? (Answers may vary) Do you guys know what an Internet workshop is? (Yes, No) How did you guys feel about the Internet Workshop? (Fun, I didnt like it, etc.) Did you guys learn a lot from it? (Yes.) Can you provide an example(answers may vary)

E. Evaluation (Process Skills Used: Classifying, Comparing and Contrasting) Formative assessments will be taking place throughout the entire lesson. The teacher will be asking students a handful of questions during the engagement, exploration, explanation, and expansion activities related to volcanoes. Not only will teachers be responsible for asking content related questions, but listening and observing how students interact and respond to the material that they are being introduced to. Also, throughout the lesson, students will be asked to fill out a Venn Diagram comparing the three main volcano types (composite, shield, and cinder cone). This diagram will be taken up at the end of the lesson and will be a good indicator of what the students understanding is of volcanoes. The teacher will specifically be looking for the validity and accuracy of the answers that students have in response to the questions that they will be asked. It is important for teachers to clarify any misconceptions students may have in these responses. (Process Skills Used: Classifying, Comparing and Contrasting) The summative assessment that will be utilized after the lesson will be a worksheet asking students to label the different parts of the volcano. On the back of the worksheet, we will have students draw a picture of the three different volcano types and label three characteristics of each volcano. The teacher will look for completion and accuracy of the worksheet in labeling the different parts of the volcano, as well as describing the three types and characteristics of volcanoes. The drawings of the volcanoes should accurately portray what they look like in relation to what their characteristics are. An answer key of the assessment worksheet has been provided in the back of this packet.

9. Modifications. A. How will you modify this lesson to meet the needs of students with ADD/ADHD? Sit the child in the front of the classroom when watching the videos and PowerPoints, that way the student cant really see his/her other classmates and wont be as distracted by them Give the students something to balance on his or her legs, or something between his/her legs of the chair to balance their feet on while teaching, that way they have a task they are focusing on, while doing his or worksheets about volcanoes. Giving the students opportunities to stretch or take a two minute break, maybe even have them as a class stand up to review a

worksheet. That way they move a little bit and wont be sitting the entire time. All our activities are short, so the students get a variety of activities in different forms in a short amount of time to add intrigue to their learning and hopefully catch their attention.

B. How will you modify this lesson to meet the needs of learning disabled students? Note: connect these to the Extended Essential Standards. If a student has a disability with writing the assessment could be spoken out loud at their pace or they could respond out loud with their response. If the student has trouble hearing, make sure you could add subtitles to the video for the student to be able to read. If the student is in a wheel chair, the teacher needs to make sure that the outside activity with the class volcano is accessible to a wheel chair (blacktop). Most of our worksheets are designed for open-ended answers by the students. This will allow the AG students to be free to go into as much detail they want to about the volcanoes in the assessment. Our assessment is having them label the parts of the volcano and then drawing the three main types and writing down characteristics, so that lets them be free in their explanations. We will have books available for them to read about volcanoes, if they finish any of the work earlier than the other students.

C. How will you modify this lesson to meet the needs of AG students?

D. How will you modify this lesson to meet the needs of ESL students? Our lesson includes a lot of pictures and diagrams to help ESL students get a better idea of what we are talking about. As the teacher, I will take some time to work one on one with the students to make sure he/she is understanding the material If the video is available in a different language you could play the same video but in the students native language, that way he/she could understand even more. As the teacher, I would need to talk clearly and pronounce words very carefully. Encourage the student to work with other classmates, when filling out the Venn Diagrams and charts to help further understanding.

10. List of Materials. Engage

o Copy of Guess What Landform Poem o Copy of The Magic School Bus Blows Its Top: A Book About Volcanoes by Gail Herman Exploration: o Science Journals o Pencils o Measuring Spoons o Tin Baking Pan o Empty Soda Bottle o Mixing Bowl o Wooden Spoon o 6 Cups of Flour o 2 Cups of Salt o 4 Tbsp. of Cooking Oil o 2 Cups of Water o Warm Water o Red Food Coloring o Dish Detergent o 2 Tbsp. of Baking Soda o Bottle of Vinegar Explanation o Copies of Venn Diagram/Chart o Pencils o SmartBoard/Projector o Powerpoints/Prezi Expansion o Computers/Ipads o Ring of Fire Internet Workshop Handouts o Pencils Evaluation o Pencils o Summative Assessment Handouts

11. Safety Considerations. Transition between the classroom to the site for the class volcano. Make sure the kids are in line, no pushing or shoving. Make sure the students dont push or shove when the volcano is going off, because theyll most likely be really excited. The students need to be careful when using the laptops or the computers. The teacher would want to go over some safety and respectful rules when using the computers explaining how its a privilege. The teacher needs to make sure that the kids wash their hands after they paint the class volcano. The teacher needs to remind them that they arent supposed to ingest the paint in any way.

12. Sources. Breitsprecher, S., Monroe, M., & Holthaus, A. (2012, November 14). Volcanoes. Retrieved from http://prezi.com/2zudsxxiefv5/volcanoes/ This Prezi is a great way to introduce the topic of volcanoes. It provides intriguing images of volcanoes erupting, a kid-friendly definition of what a volcano is, the different types of volcanoes, a diagram of the parts on a volcano, a video of a volcano, as well as important vocabulary related to volcanoes.

Col, J. (1996). Enchanted learning: The ring of fire. Retrieved from http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/volcano/ringoffire/ This website describes the Ring of Fire and provides a detailed description of why it is called the Ring of Fire. It introduces important terminology, such as continental plate and oceanic plate. There is a simplistic diagram of the location of the Ring of Fire, as well as the different plates that make up the area. There is also a description of the movement of continental plates and what occurs with those movements. Helmenstine, A. M. (n.d.). How to build a baking soda volcano. Retrieved from http://chemistry.about.com/cs/howtos/ht/buildavolcano.htm This webpage explains the step-by-step process in making a volcano and creating an eruption. Each step is very detailed to avoid any confusion that may occur when conducting this experiment. After the steps are given, tips are also provided at the bottom of the page to explain why the eruption has occurred and the reaction between the baking soda and vinegar. R, M. (2012). Mr. r's world of math and science. Retrieved from http://sciencepoems.net/sciencepoems/volcano.aspx This website is full of scientific and mathematical information. It provides a clever poem about volcanoes, utilizing many key terms and important characteristics that volcanoes have. At the end of the poem, a brief summary is given, describing what a volcano is and also discusses how volcanoes play a significant role in the ring of fire.

Van, H. (2013, March 26). Copy of volcanoes. Retrieved from http://prezi.com/qk4cibi2qgf/copy-of-volcanoes/ This Prezi is full of movement and entertainment to draw attention when learning about the hazards of living near volcanoes. There are a handful of videos that coincide with each point that is made when discussing the hazards and dangers of volcanoes. Each video is a great visual and provides a dramatic effect to the presentation. Not only are the hazards of living near a volcano discussed in this Prezi, but the benefits are provided as well. Wicker, C. (2003). Weather wiz kids: Volcanoes. Retrieved from http://www.weatherwizkids.com/weathervolcano.htm This website is full of information about volcanoes. It describes what a volcano is, how volcanoes are formed, the different stages of volcanoes, why volcanoes erupt, how many volcanoes there are, the different types of volcanoes, the difference between lava and magma, and so much more. It also includes some safety tips if you were to live near a volcano, as well as some volcano activities.

Name: ___________________________________

Volcanoes (End of Lesson Assessment)


Directions: Label the parts of the volcano using the word box below.

Word Box:

ASH CLOUD VENT

CRUST MAGMA CHAMBER

LAVA SIDE VENT

CONDUIT PYROCLASTIC

Directions: Draw the 3 volcanoes we talked about in class, then under your picture write 3-5 characteristics about that specific volcano. Composite Cinder Cone Shield

Characteristics:

Name:_____________________ Internet Workshop: RING OF FIRE!! This Internet Workshop will introduce you to the famous Ring of Fire. Please follow the directions, and only go to the assigned websites. The goal of this workshop is to further your understanding of volcanoes on our planet Earth. Please use the website to fill in the blanks and to answer the following questions: 1. Navigate to http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/volcano/ringof fire/ 2. Make 3-5 observations about the map, and write them below Scroll down to the map on the website page. Look at the picture and draw a line on your map of where the Ring of Fire is located using a RED marker. Be sure to label the continents.

Continent Word Bank NORTH AMERICA ASIA

SOUTH AMERICA AUSTRALIA

Map Observations:

3. Navigate to http://education.nationalgeographic.com/education/encyclo pedia/ring-fire/?ar_a=1 4. Fill in the blanks by reading the information on the website. 5. Be sure to click on words in BLUE, for the definition.

FAST FACTS: The Ring of Fire is a string of _________________________. Seismic is a fancy word that also means _________________________.

The Ring of Fire is located in the _____________________ Ocean. The Ring of Fire is about __________________ miles long. The Ring of Fire is shaped like a ___________________________. A string of ______________ volcanoes stretch from the southern tip of South America, up along the coast of North America, across the Bering Strait, down through Japan, and into New Zealand.

FORMATION FACTS: The Ring of Fire formed because of _______________________. A ___________________ plate boundary is formed from tectonic plates crashing into each other. This plate boundary builds volcanoes.

A _____________________ plate boundary is formed from tectonic plates pulling apart from each other. A ________________ plate boundary is formed from two tectonic plates sliding next to each other. This plate boundary causes earthquakes.
If you have reached this point you have completed your RING OF FIRE INTERNET WORKSHOP!!! GIVE YOURSELF A PAT ON THE BACK! NICE JOB!! Isnt our world a COOL place!

Teaching Reflection: I introduced this lesson by reading a poem aloud to the students. While I read the poem, the students had to guess what landform it was referring to. All of the students guessed a volcano and claimed the poem was talking about a volcano because it had the words magma, lava, eruption, etc. After I read the poem, I let the students watch the volcano video that displayed volcanic eruptions, as well as the inside of a volcano and how volcanoes are formed on Earths crust. The students were extremely intrigued by this video and we had a class discussion on what the students observed and what they thought was interesting. After our discussion we passed out a chart of the three types of volcanoes that the students would be filling out. During this time, the students were not paying attention and became extremely rowdy. Because there are only two third grade classes at Cove Creek, I taught this lesson to both of the classes, resulting in a total of 35 students. All of the students were well behaved for the introduction of the lesson, but gradually became talkative and disinterested. Students were not listening to the instructions and did not properly fill out their chart as I had intended them to. Now as I am reflecting back on this situation, it would have been more beneficial to do this activity as a whole group activity, rather than individually. The chart could have been completed on the whiteboard, or on the document camera. This would have prevented side chatter and the students would have been more focused and attentive on the lesson. Although there was a good amount of talking during the lesson, students proved to me that they still learned a great deal of information about volcanoes through discussion and questions. By the

completion of the lesson, students were able to explain to me the difference between magma and lava, and they were able to apply the information about the three types of volcanoes to the video that they watched at the beginning of the lesson. My cooperating teacher agreed that combining both third grade classes to teach this lesson was too overwhelming and that the lesson would have been more beneficial with a smaller group. This was the last lesson I would teach to my class and I thought the overall experience was very positive. I learned a great deal about classroom management and discipline, and I also learned the importance of flexibility in a classroom environment.

VI. Results and Analysis of Student Learning V+= Exceeds Expectations V= Meets Expectations V-= Below Expectations

Student Name

Pre-Assessment (K-W-L)

Formative Assessment (Lesson 1) V VV VV+ VV V V VVVV+

Formative Assessment (Lesson 2) V+ V V VV VV V V VVVV+

Formative Assessment (Lesson 3) V VVVV VV V+ VVVVV

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V VVVV VV V VVVVV

WT JT EW MW

VVVV

V V V V

V VV V

V VV V

Student Name

Pre-Assessment (K-W-L)

Summative Assessment (Lesson 1)

Summative Assessment (Lesson 2)

Summative Assessment (Lesson 3) V VV VV VV V+ V V V VV V-

VB SB AD CD DF GG KH SH KJ KM KP ER GR WT

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When assessing students knowledge, I found that their performance was scored higher through formative assessments than through summative assessments. Although I utilized a handful of summative assessments throughout the lesson, the overall assessment of the students knowledge was based on the completion of the K-W-L chart. The K-W-L chart provided understanding of the students previous knowledge, what they wanted to learn, and what they learned following the lesson about landforms. This assessment was extremely beneficial when measuring students knowledge about the concept. The K-W-L chart provided me with straightforward information that each student had gathered from the content on landforms. The K-W-L chart was not an accurate representation for students knowledge in all situations. For example, JT, ER, and GG did not meet expectations in the preassessment categories because they either did not complete the chart, or did not provide me with accurate information. However, when these students were provided with proper support, they were able to define specific terms, and were able to accurately describe each landform based on their characteristics. GG was a particular student who knew the majority of the information I taught him, but when it came to writing things down on paper, he began to slack off. Through discussion and questioning, GG made it apparent that he knew the content. However, it is typical for his work ethic and motivation to decrease when he is asked to complete an

assignment. GG is easily distracted in class and gets out of his seat to talk to his peers multiple times throughout the day. However, when he is isolated from distraction, he will apply himself and complete his work with minimal errors and mistakes. Overall, I found that the unit on Earths landforms was successful in my classroom. This topic was new to the students and I felt that they all made leaps of improvement from the beginning to the end of the unit. The students made it obvious that they gained a great amount of knowledge from the lessons I taught them, and they will be able to apply that knowledge in the future. Although some of the assessment scores portrayed little achievement with select students, I feel confident that each student took away something from the unit.

VII. Reflection on Teaching and Learning Teaching this unit about Earths landforms has provided me with a significant amount of knowledge and professional development. Through the process of planning and teaching each lesson, I have been taught more than I ever thought I could. I feel that my students truly enjoyed learning about landforms through the various hands-on activities that they completed during each lesson. They were happy to stray away from their daily routine to take part in each investigation. Overall, this experience has made me realize who I am as a teacher and how I interact with students in the classroom environment. If I were to teach this unit in the future, I would make a few overall changes to better my teaching and the learning of my students. When looking back on my teaching experience, I notice a similar pattern of problems that tend to arise during each lesson.

Before each lesson, I need to be sure to provide each student with clear expectations. Although I gave students proper instruction before each activity, there would still be confusion and need for clarification. The majority of young children perform better when they have step-by-step instruction. Even though I thought my instruction made sense, I still needed to put myself in the shoes of my students considering they were hearing this information for the first time. With clearer instruction and expectations, I believe that each lesson would have been more beneficial to both the students and me. Along with more detailed instruction, I feel that more modeling and demonstrating of each activity would have fostered better success for each student. When beginning each activity, I would discuss with the students what I wanted them to do and how I wanted them to do it. I would walk through each handout and assignment with the students and would make sure each student understood what was expected of them. However, I would observe students writing information in the wrong places, and labeling incorrect illustrations. For example, when students were working on their flipbooks I gave specific instructions on how to fill it out, yet students were still drawing their pictures where they were supposed to write the definition and vice versa. I could have gone through the first landform in the flipbook and demonstrated on the document camera how to properly fill out the information. Before passing out the handouts, specifically the chart on volcanoes, it would have been helpful to go through the entire worksheet. With the landform flipbook I was sure to provide students with instruction before I passed it out to them. However, I gave the students the volcano chart prior to my instruction. This was definitely a mistake, because almost all of the students began working on the chart without knowing what they

needed to do. This resulted in many errors and mistakes, and students became confused as to what they should be doing. It is hard for me to grasp the fact that when something as simple as a worksheet is in front of the students, they are not able to pay attention and they become completely distracted from the teacher. In the future I need to keep in mind that before passing anything out to the students, it is vital to provide them with instruction and modeling in order for them to complete the task accurately. The teaching and learning experience has altered my thinking about assessment by allowing me to realize the importance of formative assessment. Although summative assessment is crucial when monitoring the performance of your students, formative assessment provides a greater understanding of where each student stands. Throughout group discussion and observation of my students in the classroom, I was able to see the information that they did and did not understand. Students were able to demonstrate their knowledge of landforms and the specific terminology through questioning and comments during discussion with their peers and me. Many students do not perform well on written tests, but through hands-on activities and inquiry-based lessons. Students learn in many different ways, which is why it is important to not make any assumptions off of one assessment. Summative assessments are simply a letter grade that may negatively portray a student, but teachers can gain much more information on a student through formative assessments. I feel that I was able to properly modify my instruction to meet the needs of my students. However, I had a small class with little variation in disabilities. The needs for the lower performing and EC students were easily met. Each of these students was provided with extra time to work on assignments, and was given extra support from a

teacher. These students were given the opportunity to work with a teacher, because this was such a small group of students. On the other hand, if the class size were larger, it would have been much more difficult to meet the needs of each student. Therefore, if I had a classroom with a larger class size and a wider range of disabilities, I would not feel as comfortable as I did in my third grade classroom. The discomfort I feel about meeting the needs for all my students and including modifications in my instruction stems from the simple fact that I lack experience. However, I am confident that I will quickly learn to support each of my future students and create lessons that are developmentally appropriate for them. My number one goal as a teacher is the success of my students, and I will go the extra mile to make that happen for them. During my next internship I hope to grow in many ways. I would like to grow in two specific areas that I have always been the most concerned about: classroom management and meeting the needs of all my students. As a first year teacher, it is easy to replay a situation in your head where all of your students are out of control and you cannot contain them. This being one of my biggest fears, I want to be sure that I am fully prepared for any situation that may occur. I plan to improve my classroom management by collaborating with my classroom teacher and observing the different strategies he/she utilizes in the classroom. I would like to discuss with my cooperating teacher what strategies work best with them, as well as strategies that seemed to be ineffective. I am aware that all teachers manage their classroom in a different way, but the more exposure I have, I believe I will obtain the proper knowledge I need to effectively manage my classroom.

Along with managing my classroom, I would also like to grow in meeting the needs of each student. It is vital that all students needs are met, or else they will be set up for failure. I am aware that meeting the needs of each student requires differentiation in instruction and assignments. I plan on collaborating with my cooperating teacher, as well as any specialists that the school has. Not only do EC students need support, but also the Academically and Intellectually Gifted students need proper instruction in order for proper growth. Observing the EC and AIG teacher, I will be able to gain a better idea of the differentiated instruction I can utilize in my own classroom. Through these observations and discussions with my collaborating teacher and the specialists, I plan to significantly grow and develop into the teacher I know I can be.