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The University of Liverpool,


.: -

Thesissubmittedin accordance Liverpool University the with the requirements of of for the degreeof Doctor in Philosophy By

SherineAbd El Aziz El Menshawy

September 2000


Table of Contents



List of figures viii .............................................................................. List of abbreviations xi ...................................................................... Bibliographical abbreviations xi ................................................... Other abbreviations xiv .............................................................. Acknowledgement xv ........................................................................ 1 Prologue .......................................................................................................... CHAPTER 1. INTERACTION BETWEEN THE KING AND HIS PEOPLE (TEXTUAL EVIDENCE) 1 1T extual narrative . ......................................................................................... 1.1.1. Basic elements of narrative .................................................................... 1.1`2. Preparations before meeting the king ..................................................... The Duties of the Vizier text .................................................... 5 8 10 11 story of the ShipwreckedSailor ........................................... 1.1.3.Peopleresponsible for the usheringin ....................................................
1.1.4. The king's appearancein audience hall .......................................... 1.1.5. Kings' behaviour ........................................................................... 1.1.6. People's attitude ............................................................................ 1.1.7. Greetings ...................................................................................... 1.1.8. Court entertainment for kings ....................................................... 1.1.9. Kings' visits and interaction with their subjects .............................. 1.1.10. Interaction during rituals and ceremonies ..................................... 1.1.11. Interaction with subjects when celebrating their coronation.......... Classesof people who have accessto the king ............. 1.1.12. Other sorts of interaction

15 17
26 27 30 31 33 37 39 42 46 48

.............................................................. 1.1.13. Kings' contact with their subjects from battlefield tests 51 ................ The battle of Qadesh 51 .................................................... Ahmose son of Abana 54 ........................................ stelaof Kha-Sobek ....................................... battle of Megiddo ......................................... inscription of Amenemheb ...............................

55 55 57


........................................................................................... CHAPTER 2. INTERACTION BETWEEN THE KING AND HIS PEOPLE (PICTORIAL EVIDENCE) 2.1. Pictorial narrative ....................................................................................... 2.1.1. The promotion and rewarding scenes ............................................ Interaction through scenesbefore Amarna period........... The tomb of Wsr-7mn .............................. The tomb of Rh-ml-R3 .............................. The tomb of 7mn-htp-s3-s ........................... The tomb of Nb-7mn .................................

1.2. King's decision


61 62 62 62 64 64 65

66 ................................... 67 Amarna interactionfrom scenes the period of tomb of 7y ........................................ tomb of Twtw..................................... The tomb of P3-rn-n ...............................

67 70
71 tomb of Mry-Rr I tomb of Mry-Rn II


73 74

............................... Audiencesand the Window of Appearances at Amarna...... .................... .......

86 86 Interaction through scenesafter Amarna period .................................. The tomb of Hwy ............................................. tomb of Nfr-htp



90 1.1.Discussion ..................................................... 91 Interaction after the EighteenthDynasty .............................. StelaLouvre C 213 ............................................ tomb of 7py ............................................... reward of Pn-niwt ........................................ ...........................................

91 92 93 94

2.1.2. Tribute scenes 95 .......................................................................................... The tomb of 7mn-ms 95 .................................................... The tomb of Mry-R" II .................................................. 96 99 The tomb of Hwy3 .......................................................

iv The Tomb of Hwy ....................................................... Discussion ..............................................................

101 102

flowers to the king 2.1.3. Presenting


109 110 111 The Tomb of Dhwti....................................................... The Tomb of Nfr-rnpt ................................................... The tomb of P3-rn-nfr ................................................... The Tomb of R"-ms ....................................................... The Tomb of 7mn-m-h3t (Surer) ........................................ Discussion .............................................................. 2.1.4. Presentation of the New Year's gifts ......................................................... The Tomb of 7mn-htp (?) ................................................ The Tomb of Sn-nfr ....................................................... The Tomb of Tn-n3 ...................................................... The Tomb of 7mn-m-h3t .................................................. Discussion ....................................................................

112 113 118 118 119 120 120 122

2.2. Over all discussion 123 ..................................................................................... 2.2.1. Basic elements 123 of narrative ............................................................ before meetingthe king 2.2.2. Preparations 123 ............................................. 2.2.3. The king's appearance in the audience hall 124 ..................................... for the usheringin 2.2.4. Peopleresponsible .................................... 124
124 2.2.5. People's attitude ........................................ ..... ...............................

2.2.6. Greeting 124 ................................................... .................................... 2.2.7. Court entertainment 125 ....................:................................................. 2.2.8. Peoplewitnessingtheseevents 126 ...................................................... 2.3, Interpreting pictorial narrative 127 ..................................................................... 2.4. Appendix I: The dw3rhyt Motif ..................................................... 2.5. Appendix II: The Heb-Sedfestival 132 ............................................................ 2.5.1. Discussion 136 ............ . ... .................................................... CHAPTER 3. INTERACTION BETWEEN THE KING AND HIS PEOPLE (ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE) 3.1. Palacelayout 138 .................. .......................................................... 3.1.1. Residentialand administrativepalaces 138 ........................................... 129 The Malkata Palace .............................................. The Palace of Merenptah .................. ................... ..

142 AmarnaPalaces ........................................................... The North Palace .................................... The North Riverside Palace ......................... The Great Palace ..................................... The King's House ..................................... Depictions of the Amarna Palaces ..................

143 143 143 144 145

147 3.1.2. Temple palaces .............................................................................. 3.1.3. Comparison between residential palaces and temple palaces.......... 149

151 3.2. Terms indicatinghallswithin the palacearchitecture ................................... 151 3.2.1. d3dw ............................................................................................ 157 3.2.2. W3hy ............................................................................................ 160 3.2.3. Is-Ist ............................................................................................. 163 3.2.4. n-imy-wrt ...................................................................................... 166 3.2.5. stp-s3 ............................................................................................. 169 Discussion ......................................................... 170 3.2.6. rrryt ........................................................................................... CHAPTER 4. PEOPLE ASSOCIATED WITH THE KING THROUGH TITLES

174 4.1. Titles and epithets ...................................................................................... 175 4.1.1. Eyes and earsof the king ............................................................ 183 Discussion .................................................................... in freely" "stepping 4.1.2. Peoplereferring to themselves the sacred as place................................................................................. 196 Discussion ..................................................................... 203 4.1.3 Approach ability to the royalty ...................................................... 207 Discussion 4.... ................................................................. 212 4.1.4. The king's acquaintance ............................................................... Discussion 4.215 .....................................................................


his king's interaction 4.2. Narrative with specialstatements the reflecting with subjests ..................................................................................................... 217



4.2.1. The autobiography of Tti on his stela BM 614 ......................... 4.2.2. The autobiography of In-It son of Tfi -f ................................. 4.2.3. The Quarry inscription of the Steward Hnw ................................. 4.2.4. The two stelae of the Chief Priest Wpw3w3t-r3 .............................. Leiden V 4= No. 5

217 218 220 221 221

........................................................ 222 Munich GL. WAF 35 ...................................................... 223 4.2.5. Stela of the Chamberlain Semti the Younger .................................. 4.2.6. The autobiography of Shtp-lb-Rr on his stela Cairo No 20538, originally ....................................................................................... 4.2.7. Discussion ................................................................................... CHAPTER 5. CONCLUSIONS from Abydos 224 225

5.1. To what extentwas the king isolatedin his palace? ............................. 5.2. Reconstructionof a royal audience ................................................ 5.2.1. Barrier of the royal palace ..................................................
5.2.2. Purifying before entering ................................................... 5.2.3. Waiting for the ushering in......:.........................................

227 235 235

235 237

5.2.4. The momentof usheringin

................................................. 5.2.5. Attitude of recipientsupon usheringin front of the king ..............

238 238

239 5.2.6. Placeof ushering ............................................................ in the audience 241 5.2.7. The King's appearances hall .................................. 242 5.2.8. The last stagebefore leaving ......................................................... 242 5.2.9. A continuationof the narrative ...................................................... 243 5.3. Relationshipbasedon the idea of `Exchange' .............................................. . 243 5.3.1. Spiritual offerings ..................... ..................................................... 243 5.3.2. Material offerings . .........................................................................

WorksConsulted 245 Interest or of Related . .............................................................




This work seeks to determine and analyze the relationship between the king, as the head of the Egyptian political structure, and his people. The research is based on textual, pictorial and archeological evidence. It also employs' narrative accounts, epithets and titles of the officials.

Chapter One introduces the main themes using texts from the Old to the New

Kingdom. It is divided accordingto the following categories: The basic elements of narrative, preparations before meeting the king, people in the audiencehall, people's responsiblefor the ushering in, the king's appearance attitude, greeting, court entertainmentfor kings, kings' visits and interactions with their subjects,interactionwith the kings when celebratingtheir coronation, other sorts of interactionsand kings' contactwith their subjectsfrom battlefieldtexts. ChapterTwo examines the relationshipbetweenthe king and his subjectsbased It is divided accordingto the following categories: on pictorial evidence. The promotion and rewarding scenes,tribute scenes,presentingflowers to the king
and presenting New Years gifts to the king.

Chapter Three has two parts. Section One examines the layout of the palaces. Section Two discussesthe various terms used to refer to as rooms/halls where have to taken place.Theseinclude: w3hy,d3dw, is-ist, stp-s3, audiences are considered imy-r wrt and rrryt.

ChapterFour searchin the relationshipbetweenthe king and his officials based on their titles, epithetsand their biographies. ChapterFive I considerthe evidenceas a whole and attempt to reconstruct a view of the ancientEgyptian royal audience.


List of figures

Fig. I Ushering the official into the presence of the vizier (after Davies, Rekhmire, pl. XXV). Fig. 2a The reward of ly (after Davies, ElAmarna VI, pl. XXIX). Fig. 2b 7y Congratulated by his friends (after Davies, ElAmarna VI, pl. XXX). Fig. 3 The reward of Twtw (after Davies, El Amarna VI, pls. XVII, XVIII). Fig. 4 The P3-rn-nfr (after Davies, El Amarna VI, pl. IV). Fig. 5 The promotion of Mry-Rc I (after Davies, ElAmarna I, pl. VI). Fig. 6 The reward of Mry-Rr II (after Davies, ElAmarna II, pl. XXCIII). Fig. 7a The North Reverside Palace (after Kemp, JEA 62, fig. 4).

Fig.7b The king's houseat El Amarna(after Kemp, JEA 62, fig. 1). depictedshut by a door with two leaves(Badawy, Fig.8 The window of appearances History of Egyptian Architecture III, 33, fig. 18). in the facade of the first palace at Medinet Habu Fig.9 The window of appearances (Hlscher, TheMortuary Templeof Ramesses III, pl. 3). (after from Amarna Fig.10a Two representations RC Mry the the tomb of at palace of Badawy,History of Egyptian Architecture III, fig. 15).
Fig. I ObRepresentation of the palace from the tomb of Twtw at Amarna (after Badawy, History of Egyptian Architecture III, fig. 16).

Fig. Il The promotion of Hwy (after Davies, Tombof Huy, pl. VI). Fig. 12 The reward of Nfr-htp and his wife Mrit-Rr (after Davies, Tomb of Neferhotep, pl. 1). Fig. 13 Hr-min and an audiencewith the king stela Louvre C213 (after Schulman, CeremonialExecution, fig. 22). Fig. 14 The reward of 7py (after Davies, TwoRamesside Tombs,pl. XXVII). Fig. 15 Tribute introduced to the king (tomb of 7mn-ms) (after Davies, Tombs of Menkheperrasonb, pl. XXXIV). Fig. 16 Mry-RC II introduces tribute to the king (after Davies, El Amarna II, pl. XXXVII). Fig. 17a The king and the queencarried on the state palanquin(tomb of Hwy3) (after Davies,ElAmarna III, pl. XIII).


Fig. 17b Bringing the tribute of the nations (tomb of Hwy3) (after Davies, El Amarna III, pl. XIV). Fig. 18a Tutankhamun sits in state under his baldachin (after Davies, Tomb of Huy, pl. XXII). Fig. 18b Hwy introduces the tribute of the south to Tutankhamun (after Davies, Tomb of Huy, pl. XXIII). Fig. 19 Dhwti presenting flowers to the king (after Davies, in Studies Presented to Griffith, pl. 35). Fig. 20a Nfr-rnpt (1961), 103 fig. 3). MDAIK bouquet before kings (after Helck, two presenting a 17

Fig.20b Nfr-rnpt presentingtwo bouquets and geesebefore the king's kiosk (after Helck, MDAIK 17 (1961), 102fig. 2). Fig.21a The tomb of R"-ms: AmenhotepIV enthronedwith the goddessMaat (after Davies, Tombof the Vizier Ramose,pl. XXIX). Fig.2lb-c Rr-ms presentingdifferent bouquets and staffs to the king (after Davies, Tombof the Vizier Ramose,pls. XXX, XXXI). Fig.22 7mn-m-h3t presentingdifferent staffs and bouquetsto the king (after Save-S6 derbergh,Four EighteenthDynasty TombsI, pl. XL). Fig.23 7mn-htp presentingNew Year's gifts to Hatshepsut(after Habachi, JNES 16 (1957), 92, pl. V). Fig.24 PresentingNew Year's gifts to AmenhotepII (tomb of Sn-nfr) (after Davies, BMMA 23 (1928), fig. 6T). Fig.25 New Year's gifts presented to king ThutmosisIV (tomb of Tn-n3) (after SaveSderbergh, Four EighteenthDynasty TombsI, pl. LXXII). Fig.26 7mn-m-h3tpresentingNew Year's gifts to the king (after Save-Sderbergh, Four EighteenthDynasty TombsI, pls. XXX, X)O(VI): Fig-27 Dancers and musiciansperforming jubilee ceremoniesbefore Amenhotep III (after The Epigraphic Survey, Tombof Kheruef, pl. 34). Fig.28a Scene of the First Sed-Festivalof Amenhotep III at Soleb temple (after Gohary,AkhenatenSed-Festival,pl. I). Fig.28b Scene of the First Sed-Festivalof Amenhotep III at Soleb temple (after Gohary,"Akhenaten Sed-Festival,pl. II).

Fig. 29 Tell Basta, Middle Kingdom Palace Plan (after Lacovara, Royal City, fig. 35). Fig. 30 A Palace of the 13th Dynasty at Tell el Dabra (after Eigner, in Bietak (ed.), House and Palace, fig. 1). Fig. 31 Malkata, Palace of Amenhotep III: Tytus and Metropolitan Museum of Art Excavations Plan (after Lacovara, Royal City, fig. 22). Fig. 32 Tell el Amarna, North Palace Plan (after Lacovara, Royal City, fig. 26). Fig. 33 Tell el Amarna, North Riverside Palace Plan (after Lacovara, Royal City, fig. 27). Fig. 34 Tell el Amarna, Great Palace Plan (after Lacovara, Royal City, fig. 24). Fig. 35 Tell el Amarna, King's House Plan (after Lacovara, Royal City, fig. 25).

Fig.36a Comparisonof Temple Palaceand Official Palace:Medinet Habu, Mortuary Templeof Ramesses III First PalacePlan (after Lacovara,Royal City, fig.29a). Fig.36b Comparison of Temple Palace and Official Palace: Palace of Merenptah at Memphis(after Lacovara,Royal City, fig.29b). Fig.37 A diagramillustrating the king's word carried out by the official to the outside world. Fig.38 Schematic layout of the palacein P. Boulaq 18 (after Quirke, Administration of Egypt in the Late Middle Kingdom, 41, fig. 1). Fig.39 Palacesectorsin the orders for supplies.(after Quirke, Administration of Egypt in the Late Middle Kingdom, 104, fig.4).


List of abbreviations

Bibliographical AA AT AcOr

abbreviations Agyptologische Abhandlungen. gypten und Altes Testament. Acta Orientalia.


Abhandlungen des Deutschen Archologischen Instituts, Abteilung



Annual Egyptological Bibliography, Leiden. Agyptologische Forschungen.



Archiv fr Orientforschung. American Journal of Archaeology. American Journal of SemiticLanguagesand Literatures, Chicago.
Annie Lexicographique, Paris.

AnOr AoF

Analecta Orientalia, Rome. Altorientalische Forschungen,Berlin.

Artibus Asiae Artibus Asiae Journal of the Institute of Fine Arts. New York University. ARWAW Abhandlungen Wissenschaften. ASAE Annales du ServicedesAntiquites de 1'Egypte. der Rheinisch-Westflischen Akademie der


Abhandlungender SchsichenAkademie der Wissenschaften zu

Leipzig. Archaeological Surveyof Egypt. Archologische Verffentlichungen. Bibliotheca Aegyptiaca,Brssel. Bulletin of the Egyptological Seminar. Bibliotheque d'Etude, Institut Francais d'Archeolgique, Cairo. Bulletin de 1'Institut d'Egypte. Bulletin de l'Institut Francais d'Archeologie Orientale, Cairo. Bibliotheca Orientalis, Leiden.




Bulletin desMuseesde France, Paris. Bulletin of theMuseumof Fine Arts, Boston. Bulletin of theMetropolitan Museumof Art, New York.
Bulletin des Musees Royaux d'Art et d'Histoire, Bruxelles. Britich School of Archaeology in Egypt.


Cahier. Supplements aux ASAE, Cairo = SASAE. Chroniqued'Egypte, Brssels.

Catalogue General des Antiquites Egyptiennes du Musee du Caire. Cahiers de Recherches de'Institut de Papyrologie et d'Egyptologie de

Lille. DE EEF

Discussionsin Egyptology. Egypt Exploration Fund

Egypt Exploration Society


GttingerMiszellen, Gttingen Gttinger Orientforschungen,Wiesbaden. Journal of American Oriental Society Journal of the American ResearchCentre in Egypt Journal d'entree, Cairo Museum Journal of Egyptian Archaeology Journal of Near Eastern Studies Journal of the Society for the Study of Egyptian Antiquities Kemi. Revue de Philologie et d'Archeologie Egyptiennes et Coptes, Paris


Kush. Journal of the SudanAntiquities Service,Khartum Lexikon der gyptologie Liverpool Annals of Archaeologyand Anthropology Lepsius,DenkmaelerausAegyten und Aethiopien Mnchner gyptologischeStudien,Berlin Mnchenerg q tologische Untersuchungen Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archologischen Instituts, Abteilung Kairo



Memoire publies par les Membres de 1'Institut Francais d' Archeologie Orientale, Cairo Mitteilungen desInstitutsfr Orientforschung,Berlin Memoire publies par les Membresde la Mission Archeologie Francais Caire au Metropolitan Museumof Art Journal Nachrichten von der Gesellschaftder Wissenschaften zu Gttingen
sterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften.Denkschriften der Gesamtakademie




Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis Orientalia LovaniensiaAnalecta, Leuven Orientalia LovaniensiaPeriodica, Leuven OrientalistischeLiteraturzeitung,Berlin, Leipzig Orientalia, Nova Series,Rome Problemeder gyptologie Leiden Topographical Biblio raphy of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts. Reliefs, and Paintings by Bertha Porter and Rosalind L. B. Moss, Oxford, 1960-1981.


Proceedingsof the Societyof Biblical Archaeology,London Revued'Egyptologie Recueil de Travaux Relatifs la Philologie et 1'Archeologie Egyptiennes Assyriennes et Studienzur AltgyptischenKultur, Hamburg Studienzur Archologie und Geschichte Altgyptens Studiesin Ancient Oriental Civilisation, Chicago StudiaAegyptiaca,Rome TbingergyptologischeBeitrge gyptens Untersuchungen Geschichte Altertumskunde zur und Urkundenzum Rechtsleben im Alten gypten Varia Aegyptiaca Verffentlichungen der gyptischenKommission. Wien Wrterbuchder gyptischenSprache




Die Welt des Orient WienerZeitschriftfr die Kunde desMorgenlands Zeitschriftfr gyptischeSpracheund Altertumskunde


Other Abbreviations


Faulkner,R..O. A ConciseDictiona of Middle Egyptian. Oxford,1962. de Buck, Adriaan. The Egyptian Coffin Texts. 7 vols. OIP 34-37. Chicago,

col(s). fig(s). no(s). P P1(s). PT EYE

column(s) figure(s) number(s) Papyrus Plate Faulkner, R. O. The Ancient Egyptian Pyramide Texts. Oxford, 1969. Sethe, K. Die Altaegyptischen Pvramidentexte. 2 vols. Leipzig, 19081910.


Theban Tomb

[... ] <> () (?)

lacuna/possiblerestorationin the translation enclosewords or parts of words omitted in the original text encloseadditionsto the Englishtranslation follows words or phrases of which the translationis doubtful


I would like to express my sincere gratitude and appreciation to Dr. Christopher J. Eyre who granted me a great opportunity to be under his supervision. He has shown every help, care, guidance and a considerable amount of patience throughout my research. He has launched me on Egyptian sea of knowledge though I have not yet reached the far distant shore. My thanks are due to Dr. Khaled Daoud, for his valuable help and advice. His encouragement contributed enormously towards the completion of this project. I am deeply grateful to Prof. Kenneth A. Kitchen for his continuous support and A. Professor during in Liverpool. My to thanks encouragement are extended my years Nur el Din (Cairo University), Dr. M. Saleh (Cairo Museum), Professor E. M. Ahmed (Alexandria University), Professor A. Omar (Helwan University), Dr. M. Nigem (Helwan University),, Dr. M. El Zerai (Sohag University) and Dr. G. Abd el Razik (Alexandria University), for their assistance.

Mark Dr. I am thankful to Dr. Steven Snapefor his kind assistance to and C. Mee, Collier for his valuableremarks.I also appreciatethe assistance Professor of ProfessorA. Millard, ProfessorE. Slater,ProfessorJ. K. Davies, Dr. F. Jonesand Mrs. N. Fox. My warm thanksare due to Miss Pat Winker andMrs JeanBolton for their kind Also, I would like to thank my colleagueswho contributed in a variety of assistance. Dr. P. Kousoulis,Mrs A. Koltsida, Miss S. Thomas,Mr ways to this researchespecially, W. Ertl, Mr. A. Cooke, Miss F. Simpson, Miss G. Muskett andMiss M. Rajh. I owe a special depth to Ms Lara Thompson and Miss Akiko Sugi for their specialcare and assistance always. I would like to thank Mr R. Wilde the Sub-Deanof the Faculty of Arts and his kind staff and to expressmy warm thanksto the membersof the Egyptian Educational and Cultural Bureau in London for their support during the yearsof this scholarship.I am grateful to Mr. M. Dessouky,Judgein the Egyptian Court, for his assistance. I acknowledgereceipt of funds from the Egyptian governmentwhose financial support without which I would havebeenunableto undertakethis research.


My heartfelt thanks, respect and gratitude are offered to my father Professor A. El Menshawy, my Mother and my two brothers Ahmed and Sherif for their encouragement and support.

ideal To my sweet-heart, being for deeply YOUSSEF, I an apologize not young hope he I time took mother to a child his age. The research will of my and most work forgive me in the future. To him I dedicatethis work. .

Prologue The ruler's responsibilitywas significantfor the performanceof Egyptian civilisation. The country depended on socialand cosmicorder, and so maintainingthesewas one of the duties of the king: that of liaison betweenthe gods and humankind.The concrete foundation of his authority was the ability to managethe machineryof administration, including the military forces and the police force. Edgerton, in his classic article, this standardview of how authority functionedin relation to the people of summarises Egypt.' He stresses that `the court scribestell us that the divine Pharaohpersonally did every thing needful for the welfare of Egypt, with that unlimited personalability his down he They tell which properly characterises personallymowed a god. us that 2 by battlefield, tens enemies of thousandson the personally discovered what was laws his devised throughout the and regulation wrong empire,and personally necessary 3 from their to set everythingright. They tell us that foreign kings camespontaneously distant lands,bearingtheir tribute on their backsand beggingPharaohfor the breathof life which he alone could give.4 And they tell us many other things equally incredible'. Traditional assessments acceptat face value many of these assertionsof the nature of the role of the Egyptian king. The problem is to reach a more modern assessment of contemporary reality. This poses the question of the king's role in ritual and ceremonial, whether he was without real personaladministrativepower or was really a ruler controlling the government,and what evidencedo we have for what he actually did?

life idealised Diodorusof Sicilydescribes the an circumscribed of an pictureof

Egyptian king. He says: `In the first place, then, the life which the kings of the Egyptianslived was not like that of other men who enjoy autocratic power and do in all matters exactly as they pleasewithout being held to account,but all their acts were regulatedby prescriptionsset forth in laws, not only their administrativeacts, but also those that had to do with the way in which they spenttheir time from day to day, and with the food which they ate'. He continued,`For instance,in the morning, as soon as

1Edgerton,JNES 6 (1947), 153. 2 Seebelow (51-57) discussion the on contactbetweenthe kings and their subjectsin battlefield texts. 3 Seebelow (58) discussion on reporting to the king by his vizier concerningthe condition of the land. Van den Boom, Duties of the Vizier, R 5. Cf. Seebelow (102-108)discussionon king's decision. 4 See later discussion on tribute scenesin the course of the interaction between the king and his people.

he was awake, he first of all had to receive the letters which had been sent from all sides,the purposebeing that he might be able to despatchall administrativebusiness and perform every act properly, being thus accuratelyinformed about everythingthat was being donethroughout his Kingdom'.' At the peak of the Egyptian social order stood the king whose doctoral nature
was both divine and human. As a political power, however, he had to rely on performers for the implementation of his willpower. Sequentially, to run every section 6 degree high-ranking The king to of the government, the officials. selected various which ruler's courtiers transformed his determination into realism presumably varied from occasion to occasion and from place to place.'

8 Next to the king the most significant figure in the state was the vizier, who head functioned the the the of organized as administrativesystemof governmentand the judiciary. As the prime minister, the vizier was in close contact with the king, for whom he servedas a `mouth piecethat brings contentmentof the entire land'.9Among his functions he was `the one to whom the affairs of the Two Lands are reported'.' The people close to the king gained both power and prestige. As such they are the class who have left the most monuments, inscribed with texts, titularies and " focus king. their to the autobiographies, which strongly on relationship The privacy of the king and what happenedinside his house was kept a king, the mystery.Palaceswere the placeswhere specialclasses meet of people could deal with him, and be close to him. To the outside world, it was perhapsa matter of hidden places,full of secretswhich were not to be revealedto the outside world. This aim of mystery was the focus of my interest and from here the idea for this project

5Diodorus Sicily, of with an English translation by C.H. Oldfather, Book I. 70-71. 6 Wen-Peng, Atti VI Congresso Internazionale di Egittologia II, 270. 7 Edgerton,JEA 6 (1947), 219-230. 8 In the Old and Middle Kingdoms there was only one vizier. In the New Kingdom there were two viziers, one for Upper Egypt and one for Lower Egypt. Each vizier in his own region probably directed all public activities, being subordinateonly to the pharaoh. SeeEva Martin-Pardey, LA VI, 1227-1235. 9 Davies, Tomb the Vizier Ramose, XXXX, XL. of pl. 'o Habachi, SupplementBIFAO 81 (1981), 29-39. 11The king's authority over his subjectsalso extendedinto the after world. There is evidencethat at leastduring the Old Kingdom the Egyptiansbelievedthat their king would defendand supervisethem in hereafter.Also, high-ranking officials were buried around his tomb. Since they were surrounding him in life, they wanted to do the samein death. Reisner,Developmentof the Egyptian Tomb, 117121.

hasbeenpreviouslyundertakenregarding especiallyas no completeresearch appeared, the conduct of audiences andthe control of entry to the royal presence. The aim of this project is to try to determinethe relationshipbetweenthe king both his through textual and audience pictorial, and archaeologicalevidence,using narrativeaccountsand also the titles and epithetsof the officials. This project will deal with three types of interaction:
(a) From/to the king. (b) From/to the court. (c) From/to the public.

The court here represents the peoplewho held high-rankingpositions and who could, in one way or another, have accessto the king. I was particularly attracted to the from the Amarna period, many of which enabledme to investigatethis sort of scenes communication between the king and his subjects. I started my enquiry at this king I the than was particular point, where endedup with more one occasionwhere large his Private tombs the communicatingwith subjects. of officials provided a amount of information, which I have dealtwith in ChapterTwo. I divided this chapter into four categories:the rewarding and promotion scenes,tribute scenes,presenting flowers to the king, and presentingNew Year's gifts to the king. In each of these king, I the the categoriesI selectedthe best examples as casestudies. concentratedon recipient (mainly the tomb-owner), and the intermediarypeople, as the main elements the peoplewitnessingtheseeventsas secondary of the pictorial narrative.I considered elements. The main aim of ChapterOne was to try to examinethe early contact between the king and his people since pictorial evidencedoes not allow me discovering such interaction before the New Kingdom. I examinedtexts, from the Old to the New Kingdom, and attemptedto employthem accordingto the following themes: Basic elementsof narrative. Preparations before meetingthe king. Peopleresponsible for the usheringin. The king's appearance in the audience hall. People's attitude. Greeting.

Court entertainment for kings. Kings' visits and interactionswith their subjects. Interaction during rituals and ceremonies.
Interaction with kings when celebrating their coronation. Other sorts of interactions.

Kings' contactwith their subjectsfrom battlefieldtexts.

In Chapter Three I examine the question of where these occasions might have taken place inside the palace. An essential part of the search was based on the archaeological Section beginning included the the chapter. of at remains of palaces, plans of which are Two of this chapter considers the issue of special rooms of the palace, focusing on the different his have discussed king terms I the to subjects. places where meet used rrryt. in d3dw, imy-r is-Ist, to the and wrt alluding rooms/halls palace: w3hy, stp-s3,

In ChapterFour I attemptto considerthe relationshipbetweenthe king and his his functions his the to titles and and epithetsof people,employing officials connected `Eyes in king deal I Here the the and epithet oneway or another. relationshipwith with Other its bearer. discover function king', for I tried to the the of real ears of which `One interest: in `One freely the sacredplace', notably epithetswere of special stepping who can approachhis Lord' and `King's acquaintance'.Section Two of this chapter containssectionsof interesting biographical narrative, in which their owners refer to specialcontactwith the royal personage. In Chapter Five I consider the real limitations, even failure of this data in reconstructinga consistentview of the royal audience.


1.1.Textual narrative Narrative is the explanation of an occasion and its significance. The Oxford English Dictionary defines the term `narrative' as `a tale or a story'. 12In its elementary form, it is any story which involves a teller and receivers.13However, the term also includes the location in by detailed at a account of a characters a particular event carried out 14 particular time. In Egyptian sources narrative appears in both texts and pictures.

The typical basicsin the Egyptian textual and illustrative narrative are location indicate inscription the illustrations to In time. appears and an additional manypictorial be in its depicted Gaballa whole sensemust event of a notes that narrative occasion. recognizedfrom theseelements andthe non existenceof a particular characteror place it be however its indicate is in can that could completesense, narrative not recognized taken as narrative. Gaballa adds `This is due to the fact that the significanceof the if Therefore is dependent the event. other elements entirely on the specific nature of this is absent,the other elementswill certainly not form a significant story and the '5 be but representation will not a narrative a typical action'. in Egypt: Quirke16 distinguishes between the two types narrative of specifically " literary non-literary narrative and the narrative. In a non-literary narrative the 18 includes both This on tombaudiencewas autobiographies19 edified and entertained. chapels, royal inscriptionsincluding the Knigsnovelle,and narrativeart.

12The ConciseOxford Dictionary, 785. 13Toolan, Narrative: A Critical Linguistic Introduction, 1; a guide to literary theories: Jeffersonand Robey,Modern Literary Theory:A ComparativeIntroduction. 14Gaballa,Narrative in Egyptian Art, 5. 15Gaballa,Narrative in Egyptian Art, 6. 16Quirke, in Loprieno (ed. ), Ancient Egyptian Literature, 263. 17For Egyptological discussions literature of and specific argumentsabout the nature and purposeof literature see,e.g. Assmann, OLZ 69 (1974), 117-126;Baines,Man 18 (1983), 572-599; Baines and Eyre, GM 61 (1983), 65-96; Loprieno (ed.), Ancient Egyptian Literature, passim; Parkinson, Tale of Sinuhe, 1-25. Eyre justified the writing of literature `as a way of extending the effectivenessof intellectual creativity, as well as ensuring its survival': in Atti VI Congresso Internazionale di Egittologia II, 118 and cf. Morenz, Beitrge zur Schriftlichkeitskultur im Mittleren Reich. 18Eyre, in Loprieno (ed.), Ancient Egyptian Literature, 415.

Rare instances of narrative survive from the Old Kingdom. 20Texts concerning the construction' and the endowment of tombs and funerary offering chapels22 provide the earliest attestations of narrative form in Egypt. Narrative autobiography enters the hieroglyphic field in tomb chapels as early as the Fifth Dynasty in the Memphite Necropolis. 2' Examples continued to be used in the Sixth Dynasty as for Wnl at Abydos, 24 or in the tomb-chapels of the provincial governors at Deir el Gabrawi and Aswan.25During the First Intermediate Period narrative autobiography appears in the 28 Asyut'26 This sort of narrative Mo'a11a27 Abydos. tomb chapels of governors at and at 29 New Kingdom during Middle Kingdom. the also occurred on offering stela autobiography includes extended accounts on tomb-chapel walls, for example that of 3 All such narrative 734-ms, son of Abana, at El Kab, and on temple statues and stelae. focuses on relations between the king and his subjects.

31 inscriptions included Royal limited narrative in the Old Kingdom, may have althoughevidencefor such featuresin royal texts is very limited before the end of the Twelfth Dynasty.This is the issueof a few fragmentarytexts. At the end of the Middle for Kingdom more examples Knigsnovellen, the as occur, of royal narrative, so-called example,the stela of King Neferhotep, which recountsthe decisionto renew various 32 Osiris. From the New Kingdom, there is the longest elementsof the cult of the god royal narrative of campaigns,in the annals of Thutmosis III, located within the
19For the term `autobiography' ), Schrift und Gedachtnis,64-93; cf. seeAssmann,in Assmann (eds. Nicole, 54K 25 (1998), 189-205;Gnirs, in Loprieno (ed.), Ancient Egyptian Literature, 191-241. 20Eyre, in Powell (ed.), Labor in theAncient Near East, 5-6. 21E.g. Dbhni (Urk I, 18-21). 22E.g. Estate Khafra of pyramid complex (Urk I, 11-15); Nykawra, son of Khafra (Urk I, 16-17); the fuller early Fifth Dynasty text of Ny-k3-enb(Urk I, 24-32), involves grants from Menkawra and Userkaf. 23E.g. Pth-JJpss (Urk I, 51-53); S3bwknown as Tty (Urk I, 84-85); Wal-Pth (Urk I, 40-45); Sndm-lb Intl (Urk I, 59-67); cf. Eyre, in Powell (cd.), Labor in Ancient Near East, 6. 24Urk I, 98-110. u E.g. Hnkw (Urk I, 76-79); Tb! (Urk I, 142-145);Dew (Urk I, 145-147). 26Edel, Die Inschriften der Grabfronten der Siut-Grber in Mittelgypten aus der Herakleopoli tenzei t.
27Vandier, Walla: la Tombe d'Ankhtifi et la tombe de Sebekhotep; Gnirs, in Loprieno (ed.), Ancient Egyptian Literature, 198-199.

28Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Autobiographies. 29For Abydos stelaeduring the Middle Kingdom; seeLichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Autobiographies, 55-128. 30An early example Dynasty stele of a private stela in temple with narrative text is the Seventeenth juridique from Karnak. SeeLacau, UneSteleJuridique de Karnak, Spalinger,LA VI, 6-8. 31 See a fragment from the valley temple of the Sahure pyramid complex: Borchardt, Das GrabdenkmaldesKnigs Sa? huRe , pl. 72. 32Comparethe building inscription Senwosret I, seede Buck, StudiaAegyptiaca 1 (1938), 49. of

33 is battle Qadesh Karnak The temple. another example of sanctuary area of of 34Royal inscriptionsrecount eventsin order to maintain and Egyptian royal narrative. kingship. propagandise Literary narrative appears in manuscripts in the Middle Kingdom. The discourseof Nfr-ty3Sbegins with a short narrative passage to locate the scenefor a is by framed declarations. Sailor36 The Shipwrecked tale the a conversation seriesof of between the head of a failed expedition and a member of his team. The Westcar Papyrushaslost its beginning,but the surviving part beginsat the court of King Khufu 37 from is he the past. where entertainedby his sons, each of whom recites a story Characteristically the border of such a narrative provides information of royal ceremonyand audience. In art, episodesof narrative are recorded in relief on walls of templesfor the 38 Dynasty, Fifth, Sixth Eleventh Dynasty. Eighteenth the By the the royal cult of and divine birth of Hatshepsutandthe expeditionto Punt illustrated at the temple of Deir el Bahari, provide full cycles of narrative in art. There are also occasionsof juxtaposed visual and textual narrative however, as for the battle of Qadesh,where the pictorial and textual narrativesgive parallelinformation regardingthe event.

Theframeworks an amountof of thesenarratives canbe regarded as supplying

`objectiveaccount' for various events.This structure of fiction, or idealising,narrative furnishesa realistic context, and so in principle a reliable source of material. In such narrativesthere is often a contact, an interaction, betweenthe king, the court, and the people,in different situations.

33Urk IV, 625. 34Kuentz, La Bataille de Qadech;KRI II, 3,1- 147,4. The textual record is conveniently published by Kitchen, RamessideInscriptions: Translated and Annotated II, 2-147; for a full translation see Hartman, The KadeshInscriptions of Ramesses II; II; Gardiner, TheKadeshInscription of Ramesses the texts of the "Poem" and the `Bulletin" have been translated by Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature II, 57-72. Cf. von der Way, Die Textberlieferung Ramses II zur Qades-Schlacht, Goedicke,Perspectives on the Battle of Kadesh.Cf Shirun-Grumach,in Eyre (ed), Proceedingsof the SeventhInternational Congressof Egyptologists, 1067-1073;for private royal narrative on stelaecf. Galan, in Proceedingsof the Seventh International Congressof Egyptologists,419-428. 35Helck, Die ProphezierungdesNfr, ti. 36 Golenishchev,Les Papyrus Hieratiques no. 1115,1116A and 1116B de 1'Ermitage Imperial St.Petersbourg,1-2, pl. 1-8. 37Blackman, The Story of King Kheops and the Magicians: Transcribedfrom Papyrus Westcar (Berlin Papyrus 3033), editedby W. V. Davies. 18Quirke, in Loprieno (ed).,Ancient Egyptian Literature, 266.

1.1.1 Basic elements of narrative The basic elements of narrative describing the interaction between the king and his people in most of the relevant texts deal with the following situations: the royal council, the speech of the king, his attitude, the reply of courtiers, their attitude towards their king, and the one who is responsible for ushering in the court to His Majesty. 39This motif generally appears as the frame to the literary type referred to as the Knigsnovellen. It is attested from the Middle Kingdom to the Ptolemaic period. Hermann defined this genre as an exact literary form reciting a sole event in the life of 40 king the which regarded as a solitary and enormous action. Loprieno understands the term as `referring to a form of Egyptian narrative which focuses on the role of the king as recipient of divine inspiration or as protagonist of ensuring the decision-making 41 for found, Knignovellen is The Middle Kingdom however process' a characteristic has in Dziobek Cheops. Nfr-ty's Court King the tales the example narrative and of of given this the title `king's audience', which he stresses is a theme repeated in `nonliterary' texts,42 for example, in the promotion text of the vizier Wsr, the coronation inscription of queen Hatshepsut at her temple of Deir el Bahari, or the throne session of her expedition to Punt. Therefore, the sequence of events is frequently repeated as follows: a- The appearance of the ruler. b- A request for information might follow. cThe king either relates a standard passage, or answers his officials' questions or statements. d- The officials then reply with admiration to the person of the king. The literary subject employed within this structure, is of the king displaying his authority. 43

The building inscription of SenwosretI, 44the so-called Berlin Leather Roll comprisessuch elements,revealing a direct contact and communicationbetween the king and his courtiers. The story recordsthe measures taken by SenwosretI in order to

39For examplethe beginning the of narrative of Nfr-ty presentsthe king in his palace surroundedby his courtiersand officials. See;Osing, LET Litterature et politique dans 1'Egypte III, 556-557;Posener, de la Xlle Dynastie, 30. 40Hermann,Die gyptischeknigsnovelle,19. 41Loprieno, in Loprieno (ed. ), Ancient Egyptian Literature, 277. 42 Dziobek, Denkmler des Yezirs User-Amum,16; Urk IV, 255; Urk IV, 349. 43Spalinger,Aspects the Military Documents,101-103. of 44Berlin Museum (no.3029). The documentis perhapsan EighteenthDynasty (?) hieratic copy of the building inscription of the temple of Heliopolis. Seede Buck, Studia Aegyptiaca I (1938), 49,1-4; Goedicke, in Festschrift zum 150 jhrigen Bestehendes Berliner gyptischen Museums, 87-104; Piccato, LingAeg 5 (1997), 137; Parkinson, VoicesFrom Ancient Egypt, 40-43. Comparewith Tod inscription of Senwosret I, Barbotin and Cl6re, BIFAO 91(1991), 1-32.

begin the construction of a temple for the god Harakhte in Heliopolis. 5 The king his project before the royal council. He has decidedto build a monument announces in fixed decrees for Harakhte, andto set up as well as to carry out architecturalworks the temple of Atum. The courtiers' answer with a hymn of admire declaring the dominanceof the royal project. SenwosretI then give the specific commandsto the chief architect. After this he celebratesthe foundation rites before the assembled 46 47 The text reads: people. `Year 3, third month of the inundation,day 8, under the Majesty of the King of Upper forever live he justified, Senwosret, Lower Son Ra, Egypt, Kheperkare, the may and of 48 in in double king The took the place49 the and ever. crown; a sitting appeared friends his followers, hall (d3dw), the of the palace audience and a consultationwith (smrw n stp-s3)5L. P.H, and the officials of the private apartment (st ww). 5' for instruction'. Commands hearing, their their at a consultation In the last stagethe king managed the founding ceremonyin which a cord was 52 for foundations building: the stretchedand released of the at the mark `The king appeared in the two-plumed crown with all the folk following him, the chief lector-priest and the scribe of the divine book stretching the cord. The rope was Majesty His into line in Then, the temple. this the released; ground and made put joined (them) himself face king to to the the turned caused proceed; people,who were togetherin one place,(both) Upper and Lower Egypt, they who are in prosperityupon earth'."

45Similarly constructedroyal king The 14327). (UC in King Rehotep the also narrative occurs stelaof to his courtiers his wish to renovatethe ruined gatesand door of his father's temple. See announces Stewart,Egyptian Stela, Reliefs and Paintingsfrom the Petrie Collection II, 78. 46Piccato,LingAeg 5 (1997), 137. 4' De Buck, StudiaAegyptiaca I (1938), 49,1-4. The theme which recountsa discussionbetweenthe king and his officials is paralleled by a fragmentarytext of SenwosretI from Luxor and the Abydos inscription of Nfr-http: see Pieper, Die grosse Inschri, J1des Konigs Neferhotep in Abydos, Helck, Historisch-biographischeTexteder 2. Zwischenzeit,21-29; cf. the stela of Sbk-htpIV and the stela of Re htp, both from the SecondIntermediatePeriod: Legrain, RT 30 (1908), 15-16; Petrie, Koptos, pls XII- XIII; translation after Parkinson, Voices from Ancient Egypt, 40-41. 48The double crown is technical a note about the royal regalia worn, which qualifies the characterof the meetingdistinguishedfrom the `plumedcrown'. 49 For jpr timst seeDerchain,RdE 43 (1992), 40. 50For smrw n stp s3seeDerchain,RdE 43 (1992), 41. 51Translation following de Buck, StudiaAegyptiaca I (1938), 52 from Ancient and Parkinson, Voices Egypt, 40. 52 De Buck, StudiaAegyptiaca I (1938), 51,7-12. 53 Translation after Parkinson, voicesfrom Ancient Egypt, 42-43.


in life for at court the The text provides evidence the conduct of ceremonial
king in the appears Its the which council royal are: elements acts. course of royal he in king" "' the which before a full gathering of the courtiers; the speech of build answering his an the making the courtiers to temple; of reply a plan announces by the in proposed the of project they royal plan; realisation applaud speech which king. The king turns to his chief architect and charges him with the implementation of 56 The founding king the ceremony. then personally presides over the plan, and the by his totally is as king unsure are the who courtiers, therefore surrounded runs: story to how to handle this particular difficulty, the king present the answer and the courtiers literary is ideological so and Although king. motif, this to their an react with respect fictitous, the royal counsel and its sequence of events is based on reality, and so this

maybe taken as reliableevidence. basic " the is The Great Harris Papyrus, another example, which clarify `the the king by it includes to the magistrates, a speechmade elementsof narrative, bowmen, Sherden, citizen land, every and the the numerous chariotry, army, princesof from is if is land Although this there no way to tell a real address of the of Egypt'. Ramesses III to the court, at a specific time and place, the delivery reflects the royal lint-nsw. hmst the sitting royal appearance nsw, and before meeting the king

1.1.2.Preparations (protocol)

Texts also allude to sorts of preparation,or kinds of protocol, taking place directly before making an audiencewith the king. The Oxford Thesaurusdefines the term behaviour, `protocol' as a `noun associated of with royal visits, rules of conduct, code

54 Amun, 1-6. For royal audienceseeUrk IV, 1380,12-15; Dziobek, Denkmaler des Vezirs User 55For direct addressto an audienceby the king cf. Eyre, in Israelit-Groll (ed.), StudiesLichtheim I, 134-165. 56 Loprieno, in Loprieno (ed.), Ancient Egyptian Literature, 277. 5' Grandet,Le PapyrusHarris I, 91-95. 58In a letter from Papyrus Anastasi VI 51-61, the text reads: di. I m snn where Goedicke translatedthe sentenceas `one shall bring it in a protocol'. He referred to a parallel passagefrom PapyrusAnastasiVI 74 where the text m snn n ply. t nb 'they were brought in a protocol of my lord'. The term snn literally means 'official document' (Wb III, 460,1). Goedicke overinterpretsthe term snn as `protocol', as for this there is no solid evidence,except in so far as protocol means communication and not an official document. For the term snn cf. Helck, Altagyptische Aktenkunde,131; Goedicke,SAK 14 (1987), 84.


conventions,formalities, customs,propriety, decorum, manners,courtesiesand good form'. S9 Theseare the themesI intendedto investigatehere. The Duties of the Vizier text

The text known as the Duties of the Vizier60provides us with specific 61 information: `Rulesof conduct of sitting of the overseerof the city and vizier of the southerncity does, for As the in this thing the official every vizier. and of the residence the office of floor, in He the listens a the the office of the vizier. sits on phdw chair, mat on vizier . np on it, a leathercushionunder his back and a leathercushionunder his feet, the [] Great him. The before in him, hand, his 40 b3 . of the the smw spreadout sceptre on hand his 10 of Upper Egypt, in two rows before him, the chamberlain side,the right on his left hand [his] is in the at vizier side, the scribesof one who chargeof enteringon hand, one facing the other, eachman opposite the other. Each one is heard after the (ranking high before be heard (ranking low the to the official) other without allowing be is beside (ranking "No to (however) high If the me one official) says: official). heard",then he is constrained by the messengers of the vizier. is There is reported to him the closing62 closed on time and their of what opening on time. There is reported to him the conditions of the southern and the leaves. house king's has leave (mnnww), to the that northern mnw when everything There is reported to him when everything that has to enter the king's house enters. Now asto, everythingthat entersor everythingthat leavesthe ground of the residence, they will enter and they will leave.It is his messenger who allows enteringand exiting. The Overseerof the Police and the Policemanand the Overseerof the District reports to him their condition. Now, he entersto greet the lord, life, prosperity and health. The affairs of the Two Lands are reported to him in his house every day. He will enter to the Great

59 Kirkpatrick, The ConciseOxford Thesaurus, 639. 60This distinctive text is our only connected'job description' of the office of the vizier, and provides primary evidencefor the administration of Egypt through the EighteenthDynasty. Seevan den Boom, Duties of the Vizier, 12. 61Translation closely following van den Boom, Duties of the Vizier, R 1-R 8. 62For reporting and receiving reportsseeDoxey,Egyptian Non-Royal Epithets, 173-177.


Houseiift the Overseerof what is Sealed. He standsat the northern flagstaff then, the Overseer double in doorway the to the the gate, and great vizier shall move appear of of what is Sealedwill come to meet him together and report to him, saying,"All your affairs are safe and sound, every responsiblefunctionary has reported to me", saying "All your affairs are safe and sound. The king's houseis safe and sound". Then, the it vizier will report to the Overseerof what is Sealed."All your affairs are safe and sound, every place (office) of the Residenceis safe and sound. The closure of the buildings(btmw) on time hasbeenreported to me, and their openingon time hasbeen reportedto me by every functionary".Now after the two officials havereported one to 64 house'. king's doorway eachother, then, the vizier will sendout to open every of the The text begins by illustrating a sceneof the vizier in his complete authority by insidehis office receivinga daily report on the affairs of the Two Lands, surrounded his assistants. his ceremonialsetting in his office: sitting in The first section describes his back floor, leather the the and stateon chair, with a mat66 on cushionon phdw6S a another at his feet, and a sceptre in his hand as a visible symbol of his power and 67 authority. The 40 Ismw68lie spreadout in front of the vizier and a high-ranking69 is group arrangedin two rows before him. The phrasepresumablyalludesto a certain kind of protocol, which probably demandsthe presenceof the smw and the high . 7 involving the ranking group of officials at the sessionof the vizier. The arrangement wrw andbmewwas in all likelihood the standardpractice in the New Kingdom. The framework as a whole resembles that of a sessionwith a council, standingaround to give advice. Comparablein this respect are the prologues to the Middle and New " For examplein the story of the Eloquent Peasant,when Kingdom Knigsnovellen.
63Van den Boom translatedthe term bft The word as `correspondingto', which is incomprehensible. could be translatedas `with' or `as well' sincethere was `team work' betweenthe imy-r btm and the vizier. Seevan den Boom, Duties of the Vizier, 59-60. 6' Translation closelyfollowing van den Boom, Duties of the Vizier, 12-79. 65According to this text van den Boom concludedthat the vizier adoptedthe phdw chair from the royal court. Seethe discussionof van den Boom, Duties of the Vizier, 25-26. 66Cf. Urk IV, 1104,1. 67Cf. Hassan, Stckeund Stbe, 183-188. 68 See discussion and referencecollection of van den Boom, Duties of the Vizier, 29-32; for the interpretationas `rods', againstthe continuing argumentof Allam, in Studien WestendorfII, 447-453 as rolls of laws. 69The title wrw-md . me'wtraces its origin back to the Third and Fourth Dynasty, where Fischer the fact that already in the Old Kingdom theseofficials seemto have had strong ties with the stresses SeeFischer,Dendera, 99 no.452. residence. 70Van den Boom, Duties the Vizier, 33. of 71Cf. Blumenthal, ZAS 109 (1982), 17-19.


he Steward, the first Rnsi, High case to the the peasant passed respectively appealed 72 for his the them their matter. adviceon court, asking on to On the vizier's right and left hand, standingrespectfully,are the imy-r rhnwty is rhnwty's The imy-r is for the the presence perhaps access. one who responsible and in in besides he and protocol the obvious since, other roles, was chargeof ceremonies 73 Surrounding in halls treasuries. the the the vizier and of of the palace,of receptions him also are his scribes, as his representativesor secretaries,necessaryfor the 74 bureau workings of the of the vizier. All are standing opposite to each other, an indicationof the proper, respectful,attitude of officials. in The next section describesthe speeches the to an vizier of the officials inferior. before in The organised way. court givestheir opinions order of rank, superior The final word is then for the vizier himself. The third section speaksabout reports made to the vizier. The first report is made about the htmw, which are closed and opened at the accurate times. The second report is made about the state of the king's includes The the through third the entering southernand northern mnnw. report house,pr-nsw, and exiting from it. The text highlights the fact that the vizier is in charge of the security, order, and access in the royal complex. This vizier's His his is is in described here the representative, wpwty, chargeof security. as one who is role to allow the entering and exiting from/to the pr-nsw. There are other security the imy-r SntOverseerof the Police, the . ntw policemanand the Imy-r hrp" personnel: Overseerof a District76who reports to him aswell. The text describesone side of the arrangements for the royal audience,the R5 Section king. his before business the to vizier's preparation of entering report describes the responsibilitythe vizier performed every day: to enter the palace,greet the king and report on the condition of the Two Lands. Before entering, the vizier is double `the in (pr-9), front to the great required wait outside of rwty wrty palace " by is Overseer Sealed, What Imy-r htm, the takes the up position gates' until the of
72 Parkinson,Tale ofSinuhe, 60 B170. 73Cf. Gardiner,AEO I, 44-45; Helck, Zur Verwaltung,54. 74 Helck, Zur Verwaltung,54-55; Ward, Index of Egyptian Administrative and Religious, 159. 75Seevan den Boom argument:Duties of the Vizier, 50-53; cf. Meeks,Annee Lexicographique I, 77 (77.07 98). 76Seediscussionof the titles by van den Boom, Duties of the Vizier, 50-53. " In the early Middle Kingdom the title tmy-r jtmt Overseerof the Treasure,literary `of what which is sealed', held a function, which may be exercisedat various levels. At an individual level it may designatea confidant in the serviceof a high official. At an intermediate level it may designatethe


doorway the flagstaff (snt On the towards of the seeing moving northern mhtt). vizier is double him. btm There imy-r the an exchange of reports great gate goes and meets between the vizier and the imy-r htm, in preparation for the meeting with the king. This One have begun btm ! to the two the would vizier. reports with giving would my-r in by fry 1m, the the the charge of was who nb s concern condition of country, prepared 78 in (btmw) the various enclosures the pr-nsw. The other would concern the situation inside the king's house itself. In this way the vizier would be up to date about state business and issues of importance before entering to the king, and consequently able to happen information date him. This outside to to report up exchange of reports would 79 the pr-nsw, therefore the vizier had to pass through some part of the pr-nsw to reach 8 for his king. the pr-f3 audience with the

A discussionconcerning the place where the vizier meets the Imy-r btm is derived from this text. The term snt is frequently used in New Kingdom texts to 81 Wb describe before flagstaffs the temple the refersto this and not a palace, whereas a term as alluding to the flagstaffs of a palace.Van den Boom consideredthat the snt imy-r building here the the the the which mhtt an adjunct of pr-c3, vizier enteredwhen btm had drawn up to his position at its northern flagstaff.82He argues that mhtt 83 `northern' alludesto the main entranceof the palace,which was oriented east-west. David O'Connor, on the other hand, arguesthat flagstaffs are connectedonly with templesand that the referencemust be to a temple orientatedeast-west.He alludedto Karnak templewhich hasan east-westorientation.He suggests thereforethat the vizier in be be in from therefore the the towards a might east and process of moving or

treasury director of a town or region. At the national level, the Overseer of the Treasure's tribute in booty that responsibilities extended to the goods and the administration of came as or preciouscommodities,including metals and fine stone,which may explain why the title appearsfor the first time at this level during the Twelfth Dynasty. Building activities were part of the treasurer's responsibilitiesas well. SeeVernus, in Allara (ed.), Grund und Boden, 251-260. 78Van den Boom, Duties the Vizier, 72. of 79Van den Boom arguedthat sectionthree indicatedthat the management and the operationof the prnsw were taskspassedon to the vizier who acted in co-operationwith the Overseerof the Treasury as his co-director. However in theory the king personally controlled the pr-nsw. Van den Boom, Duties of the Vizier, 74-75. 80Lorton, SAK 18 (1991), 293. 81WbIV, 152,9-11; Arnold, LA II, 257-258; Urk IV, 152,9-10. 82Urk IV, 152,11. 83Van den Boom, Duties the Vizier, 63. of

building oriented east-west.84 Van den Boom argues, certainly correctly, that the 8S into the palace. consultation with the Imy-r htm comes before the vizier's admission Van den Boom translated the phrase fir mnmn 3tym wbn m p3 sb3 n rwty wrty as follows: `Then, the vizier shall move to appear in the doorway of the great double gate', as `in/from the East in the gateway of the main entrance'. Next he will move on 86 in indicates he However, to enter the pr-r3, which that wbn will proceed westwards. this context is a verb connected to movement rather than orientation, so it would be translated as `to appear' with no reference to orientation. The verb wbn meaning `to appear' is usually functional only to gods or kings but can be used rarely denoting 87 individuals. private

The vizier then repliesthat st nbt hnw `every place in the residence'is working well, the individual departments(meaning either departmentsof state outside the king's house, referring to the affairs of the Two Lands, or inside the king's house). After the vizier and the Overseerof What is Sealedreport to each other, the vizier to open the door of the king's house.This is to allow the sendshis wpwty messenger enteringand exiting from the king's house,including that of the vizier himself.

To sumup the overallnarrative the vizier receives of the text: at the beginning
a day to day report on the affairs of the Two Lands in his residenceor in his office, then confersand checksthe information with the Imy-r htm before enteringthe palace, all as part of the protocol. He then enters the palace to simultaneouslysalute and 88 king. be den Boom, His report to the as role can summarised,according to van managing director of the pr-nsw, head of the civil administration and the King's Deputy. story of the Shipwrecked Sailor The tale of the ShipwreckedSailor89 is a work of fiction90that has a context basedon realism.The story is arrangedin a narrative frame. A high-ranking official is
84O'Connor and Silverman,Ancient Egyptian Kingship, 272. 85 For other opinions Lorton, CdE 70 (1995), 126-127. cf. 86Van den Boom, Duties the Vizier, 63-65. of 87O'Connor and Silverman,Ancient Egyptian Kingship, 273; CDME, 58 refers to Caminos,Literary Fragmentsin the Hieratic Script, 11 dating to the secondhalf of the Eighteenth Dynasty. 88Van den Boom, Duties the Vizier, 310. of 89Blackman, Middle Egyptian Stories, 41-48; Simpson, LA V, 619-622; for its interpretation see Baines,JEA 76 (1990), 55-72. 90SeeParkinson,in Quirke (ed. ), Middle Kingdom Studies,79-98.


returning from a mission that appears to have failed in its aim hence he is afraid of attending his audience with the king. One of the retainers recites a tale for him concerning a previous journey that happened to him years ago, in order to inform his superior of how a tragedy may turn into an achievement. He intends to give confidence 9' his leader for his king: to passing account to the `The excellent follower said, "Command your heart my lord. See, we have reached home. The mallet has been taken up. The mooring-post has been struck. The prowrope has been placed on land. Praise has been given. God has been thanked. Everyone is embracing his companion. Our crew has come safe, with no loss to our expedition. We have reached the limits of Wawat. We have passed Senmut. Look, we have come in safety. Our land, we have reached it. Listen to me my lord. I am free of exaggeration, Wash yourself, pour water upon your fingers. Then, you will answer (when) you are questioned. You must speak to the king with presence of mind. You will answer with no stammering. The mouth of a man saves him. His speech makes one forgive him. (But) you can do as you wish! It is too weary talking to you. I will tell you something similar which happened to me myself ". '

The tale beginswith a dramatic setting, which matchesthe subsequent subject 92 home bright for (. is looking The ikr)93 of a successful side returning. a retainer msw is to be disconsolateabout the failure of their and encouraginghis leaderwho appears 94 current mission. He is giving advice that his master must follow before having audience with the king. He askshim to wash himself and pour water on his hands.This possibly representsa preparation for his reception at court and indicates a kind of protocol performed when attendingfor audiencewith the king. Washing and pouring water could alludeto a sort of purification, which would take placebefore meetingthe person of the king. Presumably this practice would resemble the purification undertakenby the king before entering the presenceof a god in a temple. The king,

91Blackman,Middle Egyptian Stories, 41-42,1-23. 92 Parkinson,Tale of Sinuhe,89. 93The Egyptians called the peoplewho followed their mastersthroughout a trip Smsw.Also the term designates servantsin general.SeeIgnatov,JEA 80 (1994), 195. 94Der Manuelian, in Gamer-Wallert(ed. ), Gegengabe: Festschriftfar Emma-BrunnerTraut, 226.


however, had to be purified by two priests who sprinkled him with water, sometimes 95 containingnatron. The retainercontinuesencouraging his masterto justify himselfbefore the king, presumablyso he can tell him of the ineffective expeditionin the best way. Kemp has that `one might imagine that the official to be rewarded, before making suggested audiencewith the king, receivessome instructions or reminder of what to do and of 97 96 king' based his He what to say to the argumenton archaeologicalevidence. Does the evidencetherefore show that a sort of purification should be undertakenbefore undergoing an audiencewith the king? However, the statement`wash yourself and pour water on your hands' could possibly imply a cooling off of anxiety rather than protocol. It is characteristicthat priests performing rituals should be `pure'. This seems also to be the casefor officials dealingpersonallywith the king. The Royal Butler Rr98 for He Lands. has , Two Priest Pure Hands the title mss-m pr-R example of the of was a Royal Butler whose main duty was as a personalservantwith close connection to the administrationof food, which may possiblybe connectedwith the epithet wrb 9' it is ewyPure of Hands. Sincehe also held the title First Royal Herald of His Majesty, possibleto accept that officials in personal contact with the king were required to loo adherespecificstandards of purity.

1.1.3. People responsible for the ushering in Texts alludeto the personsresponsible for usheringin or introducing peoplebefore the king. The verb used is st3, literally meaning`to pull' or `to drag'. 10'In practice, it is 12 in is `introduce It the to to also used sense commonlyused to someone somebody'.

95Grieshammer,LA V, 212-213. The water is called `the water of life and good fortune' and that which `renewslife'. It wasbrought from the sacredpool, which everytemple seems to have contained. SeeMariette, Denderah,pl. 10. 96 Kemp, JEA 62 (1976), 87. 97Kemp, JEA 62 (1976), fig 1. 98Gardiner,AEO I, 43. " For the title web ewyPure of Hands seeZivie, Giza, 99 1.6. For the title web dbewPure of Fingers seeZivie, Giza, 99 1.7. 100 Schulman,JARCE 13 (1976), 120; Schulman,CdE 61 (1986), 198; Sw-m-nlwt (TT 92) was also King's Butler web n nswt with the epithet `clean of hands' see Goedicke, in der Manuelian (ed.), StudiesSimpsonI, 253; Gardiner,AEO I, 40-43. 101 CDME, 255 102Meeks, Annee LexicographiqueI, 355.


denote the introduction of people into the presence of superiors, e.g. kings103 and gods ' instance for high Vizier (fig Duties The 1). the or ranking persons e.g. viziers of 'os had in-(and) be in `He he to reads: me ushered put my neck'. st3 caused something here is used for the ushering in of an official to the vizier. It is understood then that st3 is a well-known technical term in court procedure.

For example,in the tomb of Pwi-m-Rr,106 the upper sceneon the central panel is displays from foreigners. Pwi-m-Rr the the of shown sitting west wall contribution holding the hrp sceptrein one handand a long stick in the other. In front of him stand two representativegroups of three men each waiting to give their report and their products.Each is putting his right handon his left shoulderand holding his right elbow ` his hand. by described following The the text: with other scene `Introduction of the officials and the Overseersof Work. They say in front of this in is is heart happy Your because happened for All the good official. work of what you. order'. A scenefrom the tomb No 157 of Nb-wnn-f shows the tomb owner followed by a fan bearer and priest. He is shown usheredin and accordingly conferredwith his II, in the presenceof queen new promotion as High Priest of Amun by Ramesses Nefertari who is depictedin the palacewindow. 108 The text records his appointmentin it '9 year one, reads: `Coming to land at the Thinite Nome (t3-wr). Introduction (s13)of the High Priest of Amen, Nb-wnn-f, true of voice, in front of His Majesty. Now, he was the High Priest of Onuris, and the High Priest of Hathor Lady of 7wnt (Dendara), and Overseerof Priests of all the gods southwards to Hry-hr-7mn and northwards to Thinis. His Majesty said to him, "You are the High Priest of Amun. His treasury and his granary

103Urk IV, 1380,14-15; Dziobek, Denkmler des Vezirs User-Amun, 1-2.

104 Wb IV, 353,1-13; for more discussioncf. van den Boom, Duties of the Vizier, 92-94; Davies, Rekhmire,p1.XXV. 105 Van den Boom, Duties of the Vizier, R 12; translation after van den Boom, Duties of the Vizier, 89. 106Davies, Tomb of Puyemre, p1. XXXVII; for the same gesture see Dominicus, Gesten und Gebrden,abb.1,3-w. 107 Urk IV, 525,8-12. 108 PM I, 157; Borchardt, ZS 67 (1931), p1.1; cf. Kitchen, Pharaoh Triumphant, 46-47, fig 6. 109 KRI III, 5-8.


his foundations his You House, are under your all are chief of are under your seal. "" authority".
lll in is to literary Nfr-ty Nfr-ty, to the In the order court summoned story of 112 king fine The text reads: with speech. entertain the

bring him, "Go beside to `Then,His Majesty said to the Seal-bearer me and who was the court of the residencethat has gone out from here after making greeting today". 113 immediately'. it (in) Then was ushered q3 .
114 is The text reads: In the Quban stela of RamessesII the court summoned.

his by Egypt, King Lower `His Majesty saidto the Seal-bearer side who was of of the "Now, summonthe great oneswho were in the presence, so that His Majesty may take is I who shall put the arrangements foreign It them this country: about council with (into effect). " <They> were then immediatelyusheredin before the Good God, their face'. beautiful his homage jubilating in (raised) his ka, to and paying praiseof arms
In the Great Abydos inscription, "" the young king Ramesses II, in his first

Seti I he finds journey Abydos temple Thebes, the of to to where sails year's his his He them to immediately He announces summons court and officials. unfinished. ` intentionto completehis father's buildings.The text reads: his by Egypt Lower King `Then, His Majesty said to the Seal-bearer who was of of Recruits, Overseer "Speak King's the the of nobles,all side, and summonthe courtiers, " Book. House be, Chiefs the Work the the the Overseers they of of may of as many as They were then usheredin before His Majesty, their nosesgrazing the ground, their kneeson the floor, in jubilation and paying homage,their arms(raised) in praiseof His Majesty'.

110 Translation closeto Kitchen, Pharaoh Triumphant,46. 111 The original text is assignedto the reign of AmenemhetI and the papyruson which it is written is datedto the reign of AmenhotepII. Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature I, 139; Parkinson, Tale of Sinuhe, 131; Blumenthal, LA IV, 380-381;Foti, StudiaAegyptiaca 2 (1976), 3-18. 112 Helck, Nfr. ti, I, 5-6. 113 In the discourseof S3sbk, the words that of Nfr-ty. the structureas a whole probablyresembles Barns,Five Ramesseum Papyri, 1-10. 114 KRI II, 355,7-10. Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions Translatedand Annotated II, 191. 115 This is a large inscription that, with its framing scenes, occupiesthe whole south half of the back wall of the portico that gives admission into the temple of Seti I at Abydos. At the left (south) end, Ramesses II presentsMaat, `truth', to Osiris, Isis and his father, the deceasedSeti I. At the right (north) end, Ramesses II is addressinghis speeches; PM VI, 3 (34-37); Mariette, Abydos I, pls. 5-9; Abydos, II, 4-4; Gauthier,La Brandeinscription dedicatoire d'Abydos; KR! II, 326,6-8. 116 Translation after Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions Translatedand Annotated II, 166.

An inscription on a round-topped limestone stela of the Middle Kingdom 117 in. describes Wpw3wt-3's The text reads: ushering
`When I had gone north to council at that great residence of His Majesty, the Sealbearers who were at the King's House, and the living ones of the rrryt, watched as I into the King's House'. ushered was

In the Westcar Papyrus it is the King's Son, Hr-dd f who was the person 118 for in responsible ushering Ddi. The text reads: `When he reachedthe residence,the King's Son Hr-cidf entered to report to the Majesty of the King of Upper andLower Egypt Khufu, true of voice. Then the King's Son Hr-dd f, said, "0 King, L. P.H, my lord, I have brought Ddi. " Then, His Majesty said,"Go andbring him to me!". His Majesty proceededto the w3hy-hallof the palace (pr-r3). ThenDdi was usheredin for him'. 119 In the story of Sinuhe, the text does not specify which of the courtiers the king orderedto lift Sinuheup andlet him speakto him. The text reads: `His Majesty saidto one of those courtiers,"Lift him up, let him speakto me!". ' Durham, Art Oriental Gulbenkian Museum In the stelaNo 1935,120 the at of of Hnm-htp II, who was expeditionleaderin the reign of SenwosretI, is referredto as sr . nyt n nsw `who causesthe courtiers to ascendto the king'. It seemsthat s1'rhere 121 `the described has He the sole mouth, as probably samemeaningas st3w. was also functions his fact (other) One that the one of clothing mouths'. may also emphasise 122 his Door-Post in king, foreign titles to the the was was ushering sinceone of people " Foreign Lands. of the These texts indicate that the Seal-bearerand specially the l tmty-bity `Sealbearerof the King of Lower Egypt' was the personwho stood at all times besidethe king, andwas then responsible for usheringin and introducing the courtiers. One of the
117 Sethe,Lesestucke, 74,12-14. lib Westcar8,10. 1 19AnEgyptian official of the Middle Kingdom was expeled from Egypt. He was wealthy, settled abroadin which most of the story describeshis experiencesin the foreign countries away from the court. After all he received a royal letter asking him to return back home. He travelled to Egypt, returning to the court to meetthe king. SeeBlackman,Middle Egyptian Stories, 1-41; Parkinson, Tale ofSinuhe, 21-26. 120 The stela was found by J.G. Wilkinson in Wadi Gasusnear the Red Sea. SeeFranke, in Quirke (ed.), Middle Kingdom Studies,59, fig. 1 B; Sayed,RdE 29 (1977), 138-178,pl. 8a. 121 Agyptischen Blumenthal, Untersuchungen Knigtum I, 382. zum 122 Cf. Lloyd, in Lloyd (ed.), StudiesGriffiths, 23. 123 Franke, in Quirke (ed.), Middle Kingdom Studies,57.


for in his king, the substituted son, sometimes courtiers palace,or a relative of the e.g. him. Posener notes, however, that it is a common theme that differs only in the 124 individual peopleinvolved in the royal preparations. #nhmf n htmwThe phrasecdd. bity my r-gsf is repeatedword for word in the inscriptionsof Ramesses 11,125 therefore Posenersuggested that royal texts of the Middle Kingdom seemto be influencedby the 126 Nfr-ty. text of duty indication how 7n-tf, The stelaof 7n-tf 127 main was whose of gives us an
as whm-33-n-nswthe Great Herald of the King, played a great role in the management 128 in and organisation of ceremonies the palace. His role is encountered among the preparations that take place before meeting the king. The stela contains an extensive 129 It autobiographical text. reads:

`To the ka of the noble, prince, seal-bearerof the King of Lower Egypt, the sole in in king his trusted the companion,one controlling, of army, who sets motion the in (s3) (smrw), the nobles the recruiting council, who counts companions who ushers (srhw), who causes the 9psw-nsw to approach their places, who controls the "' the controllers, who assembles outer chamber, millions of men, chief of offices of foremost of place, efficient in the (royal) presence,who causesthe speech (the requests)of ordinary people to go up, who reports the condition of the Two Banks, who speaksabout mattersin the secretplace,who enterswith businessand comesout heart, favour, his father's the with who places every man upon seat, who gladdens whom the praisedpraise, at whose authority the great ones stand,who organisesthe
124 Posener, Litterature etpolitique, 30. 125 Gauthier,La grande inscription dedicatored'Abydos, 1.33. 126 Posener, Litterature etpolitique, 30.

12'This stelais from thetomb 155of 7n-tf,at Dra Abu Naga,from thetime of Thutmosis III. no el

128 Comparing his role with that of the vizier in the Duties of the Vizier, they share some of their roles: a- Reporting to the king: one of the duties of the vizier was to report to the king the affairs of the Two Lands, daily (van den Boom, Duties of the Vizier, R 5). Whereasone of the duties of the w6m-r3-nnsw, was to report the affairs of the region to the king (Urk IV, 966,6), it is not certain whether it was a daily procedure,like that of the vizier, or not. b- The safety of the palace: one of the duties of the vizier was to control the safety of the king's residence,a duty sharedby the 1my-r! tm (van den Boom, Duties of the Vizier, R 8). 7n-tf, the whm r3 n nsw, seemsto be responsiblefor the administration and police control inside the palace, possibly including safety (Urk IV, 967,8). cManagementof the erryt: one of the duties of the vizier is to punish officials for wrongdoing in the erryt, which seemsto be the judgement hall (van den Boom, Duties of the Vizier, R 9). 7n-if describes himself as Irl nmtwt nt eryt who organisesthe stepsto the eryt hall (Urk IV, 967,7) and whm tp n''rryt First Herald of the erryt (Urk IV, 969,11), which shedsomelight on his role as a controller, organizer or evendirector of this hall. 129 Urk IV, 966,4- 969,14. 130 Cf. Quirke, Administration of Egypt in the Late Middle Kingdom, 72,118.


proceduresof the rrryt hall, who put into effect the regulations(tp-rd)13'in the King's House,who makesevery man know his duties and organisespresentations of rewards in the palace,who createsrespectwithin the Great Place,who silencesthe voice and foot'33 from the place of silence, the the creates separation(dsrw),132 who guards plummet of the balanceof the good god, who guides everybody according to what they do, who says,"Let it be done" and (it) happens[immediately], like that which comes out of the mouth of the god, who gives commandsto the people, to make accountof their work fr the king, who fixes authority for every foreign country and who dealswith the businessof their chiefs, great of skills (?) in counting, [...... ] who knows what is in the heart of the sovereign L. P.H, the tongue who speaksfor him who is in the palace,the eyesof the king, the heart of the lord of the palace. The instruction of the whole land, who suppresses rebellions,who causesthe petitioner to go out [...... ] from (?) the entourage,who grasps the hands of the robbers(?)/ robbed (?), who imposesbeatingson those who are violent, tough to the tough-minded, who humbles the arrogant, (who) shortens the hour of the cruel hearted,(who) causesthe disruptive-mindedto perform the regulations and the laws and the rules that his heart dislikes. Great of terror among criminals, lord of fear among the rebellious hearted, who puts opponents to flight, who punishes the aggressiveso that the palace flourishes, who establishesits laws, who pleasesthe multitude for their lord, chief herald of the rrryt, prince of Thinis of the Thinite Nome, chief of the entire oasis country, excellent scribe, who decipherstexts, 7n-tf, true of voice'. This is a New Kingdom stelaerectedby the whm-r3n nsw The Great Herald of the King, 7n-tf, who servedas the First Herald under the reign of the King Thutmosis III. The stela highlights his duties as whm-1*3 direct had therefore a n nsw, and connectionwith the palace and the king. His duties show him to have a ministerial power, and stressthe fact that he was not only responsiblefor issuing reports and introducing peopleto the king, but also to make known the royal commands.In other words, he actedas public orator and controller of royal publicity.
131 tp-rd is a noun usually renderedas 'instruction(s), regulation(s)'. See"V, 288-290; CDME, 297. Cf. van den Boom, Duties of the Vizier, Rl, 15-16; Cf. Urk IV, 255,11-12. 132Cf. Hoffmeier, Sacred in the Vocabulary Ancient Egypt, 182. For the general theme in a of religious context of Frandsen,in StudiesQuaegebeur II, 975-1000. 133 1 take this to mean `controlsthe movement'.


134 It is from The term whm appears the Middle Kingdom to the Saite period. 135 Herald, Reporter, Legal Registrar, usually translated as and `who transmits 136 137 fact, The is Speaker King. In the term the translated orders'. of whm-nsw as people with such titles were mainly in charge of `public relations' concerning matters 139 139 king. One duty related to the main was to report to the pharaoh and to pass on 140 orders to subordinates. For example Dw3-wo, who was the Overseer of the Estate 141 Amun, held Also, SnKing. The Trusty Repeater the title whm mnh n nsw of of the 142 Great held Great Chief Repeater. the title whm-nsw nfr, who was the of the pr-nsw,

7n-tf acquireda numberof titles, which stresshis contactwith the royal patron.
He was rprt-h3ty smr-wrty (3 n mrt h3ty-J n Thy T3-wr hr-tp n What ml kd.s whm 9n 143 144 7ntf imy-r hrp kit nbt nt pr-nsw145 imy-r bnwty, nsw pr wr, `Hereditary prince and governor, sole companion, great of love, Mayor of Thinis of the Thinite Nome, Chief of the Entire Oasis Region, Great Repeater of the King 7n-tf . In addition, he was mh lb n nsw `trusted by the king'.

The management in the palacewas clearly one and organisationof ceremonies of the duties of the 4m-(3-n-nsw. In other words, the previous title reflects court

134 WbI, 344,7-14; Helck, L,411,1153-1154;for whin seeRoquet,BIFAO 78 (1978), 487-495. 135 CDME, 67. 136 Meeks,Annee LexicographiqueI, 79. 137 Wb I, 344,8; For the sametitle seeKaplony, Orientalia 37 (1968), 341; Hayes argued that the whmw functions seem to have been confined to those performed nowadaysby notaries and town clerks. Elsewherethere is evidencethat town and district whmw also performed the duties of sheriffs. SeeHayes,A Papyrus of the Late Middle Kingdom in the Brooklyn Museum, 144; cf. P.Kah. 12,15; Smither, JEA 34 (1948), 32-34; cf. Harari, ASAE 51 (1951), 283; Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature II, 143 at note 17; Maxims of Ani 10-13(= P Boulaq 4,22,10-13). 138 Valloggia, Recherchesur les messagers'wpwtyw' dans les sources egyptiennesprofanes, 262; Gnirs, Militr und Gesellschaft,176. 139 The whm also held military functions (Urk I, 344,12). On the battlefield his duty was to announce acts of soldiers to the person of the king, and he was also in charge of counting them. (Helck, Verwaltung,67). Imny who held the title whm was engagedin the organisationof expeditionsto Wadi Hammamat(Farout,BIFAO 94 (1994), 143- 172). AhmosePennekheb has the title Herald who makes Captures (Urk IV, 35,13) which Breasted rendered `repeating captures'. Ahmose son of Abana referredto him as collector/announcer to the public of the reports/deeds of the soldier: see Urk IV, 3, 12-14; 4,7-8. For other titles including King's Heralds e.g. First King's Heralds or Heralds of Pharaoh.SeeBreasted, Ancient Records,Index. 57. For the civil functions of the First King's Herald. SeeHelck, Der Einfluss der Militrfahrer, 40, no. 5. 140 Faulkner,JEA 39 (1953), 46; cf. Gardiner,AEO I, 91-92. 141 Urk N, 453,9-10. 142 Urk IV, 546,1; Newberry,PSBA 22 (1900), 61-62. 143 Urk IV, 963,12-15. 144 Urk IV, 972,15-16. 145 Urk IV, 973,1.


146 his role regardingthe sequence functions. If we imaginethere was a royal audience, be follows: as of eventswould
in be (Urk IV, 967,6), Calling they to a sitting position them might as stand up aawaiting the audience arrangements. b- Counting companions (Urk IV, 966,7).

(Urk IV, 966,10-14). Arranging them to their rank according c(Urk IV, 967,12), preparingthem for entering the `silent d- Silencingtheir speech141 place'.
e- Moving them (Urk IV, 966,6).

f- Usheringthem to the king's seat(place)(Urk IV, 966,8-9).

(Urk IV, directs he After them, the audience takes place perhaps outside possibly g967,14).

(Urk IV, 969,9). hall if necessary h- Quietingthem againinsidethe audience He was not only concerned with the arrangementsregarding the royal follows: inside but in the that took palaceas place audiences, also the management Originating (Urk 967,8,10-11,15). IV, asetsof rules b- Conveyingandtransmittingduties(Urk IV, 967,3,9). c- Controlling administration(Urk IV, 967,13). As 4m-r3-n-nsw 7n-tf also playedthe role of an intermediarybetweenthe king imy-`h, tongue the by is His the the n mdw statementns and people. role emphasised is he Possibly the for him is in one that speaks the spokesman. a royal palaceas who According to for their to them royal audience. calling out people outside, preparing this title part of his role was a mouthpieceof the palace(Urk IV, 967,6). dated In a rock inscription on a damaged Wadi Hammamat, to the reign stelaat 148 Amenemhat rrryt, is Herald III, rrryt text the the owner whmw n reads: of the of a

146 His functions seemto correspondclosely to thosein chargeof court duties in the Ptolemaic period. SeeCumont,L'Egypte desastrologues,31 no. 4. 14 The mention of silencein the presence of the king in his palaceis interesting as this notion is also in the Jewishversion, it reads: `SinceYahmeh is in his temple, silencebefore him, all the expressed earth'. Cohen,TwelveProphets,Habakkuk 2:20. 148 Couyat-Montet,Oudi Hammmtt, no. 108,5-10; Frandsen,StudiesQuaegebeur II, 994.


dd distinguished, him is him loyal r nfrt `mdd r wit nt smnh sw one who to who made lord the is liked, the to of whom one whm mrt one who speaks well and repeats what Two Lands has sent with the words. hab n nb t3wy m mdw hr ikr rh. i mnb rh.f As my .f k3 hrw m st sgr who is loud knowledge is excellent, his knowledge is efficacious, ....., f lirt to in 13wy whom reported t3wy n nb the whm nfrt of silence, smiw n. place of voice hryLands, Two lord the to the Two Lands of the affairs of the and who repeats well Gold'. in House knowledge Hwt-nbw the of master of secret s, t3 m

This text is of special interest; it highlights the actual responsibilitiesof the follows: whmw as (a) `to whom are reported the affairs of the Two Lands and who repeatswell to the lord of the Two Lands' and `one who speakswell and repeatswhat is liked'. These is He important imply that he was an two sentences official with personalauthority. Also, king. it the to informed of the progressof the land and consequently, reporting form diplomatic in deliver his reports the epithet dd r nfrt whm mrt refers to ability to king. the delivering king. focus is to The the messagewell and satisfy to the on by fact he be this he saying Accuracy149 that asserts and educated, well should means in Knowledge the Secret is his Master `As my knowledgeis excellent'. One of titles of House of Gold'. "' This epithet reflects one of the (b) `Who is loud of voice in the place of silence'. is heard. It be essentialdescriptive features that the whmw would adopt, which to loud be has he logically to is his of to that call people, roles understood since one of behaviour is 'S' in voice. Frandsen, noted that this caseraisingthe voice seenas positive the is the Herald, to although the voice, someoneauthorised raise since speaker a in that i. inappropriate behaviour, place a to noise a e. making phrasenormally refers shouldbe quiet. (c) `Whom the lord of the Two Lands has sent with words'. His role here is as an intermediarybetweenthe king and his people, as a mouthpieceand representativeof the king.

'49Doxey,Egyptian Non-RoyalEpithets, 73. 150 In an inscription in the tomb of Sbk-nht in El-Kab, the owner describeshimself as k3 brw r st sgr hry-tp m pr Nhbt `who is loud of voice in (?) the place of silence, who is Chief in the House of Nekhbet'. SeeTylor, The Tombof Sebeknekhet, pl. 9-10; Frandsen,StudiesQuaegebeurII, 994. 151 Frandsen,StudiesQuaegebeur, 994.


1.1.4. The king's appearance in the audience hall Texts refer to the king as being enthroned on the great throne, made of white gold. The text accompanying one scenels2describes the royal audience of Hatshepsut. The sceneshows the queen in the audience hall or throne room d3dw, decked with the Atef crown, holding the hk3 sceptre in one hand and in the other a long stick. She is shown seated on the great throne, its location being described as m-hnw dsrw nw rhf . In front of her a representation of three men with identical gestures represents the crowds of officers and attendants of all kinds, gathered around the throne in order to hear the '53 The text reads: voice of the sovereign.

`Year 9: a sitting happened in the d3dw.The king appearedin the Atef crown on the great throne of the white gold, inside the special apartments (dsrw)1S4 of the Chf. Usheringin of the officials and the courtiers of the royal attendance, in order to listen to the conduct of the command'. In the building inscription of SenwosretI of the Berlin Leather Roll, the text hall king `The in double in the the took reads: appeared crown; a sitting audience place (d3dw)'.155 'When it was dawn, they cameand summoned me, ten men coming and ten men going, (st3) ushering me to the palace.I touched the ground betweentwo sphinxes.The royal childrenwere standingin the thicknessof the gate in order to meet me. The courtiers, the oneswho s6 in to the w3hy,were directing me on the way to the 'Ihnwty. I found His Majesty on the great throne in a massof electrum'.'56 Sinuheis usheredinto the palace,at the gate flanked by statuesof sphinxes. He passes at 'the way through the wmt `thickness' of the portal, where he is met both by king's children and the palace officials responsiblefor introducing him to the royal audience.Then he is introduced into the w3hy, then to the r-hnwty, in a way that implieshis movementand progress.Parkinsonhas arguedthat `the c-h-nwty could refer

152 Naville, Deir el Bahari III, 75-6; Naville, RT 18 (1896), 103pl. III. Iss Urk IV, 349,9-14. 154 For dsrw of the palaceseeHoffmeier, Sacredin the VocabularyofAncient Egypt, 177-183. issPiccato,LingAeg 5 (1995), 1-4. 156 Translation after Parkinson, Tale of Sinuhe,40.


to the canopy of the king's throne or to the portal betweenthe pillared hall and the '57 hall king is audience where the enthroned'. Uphill comparedthe location of the throne in the palacewith the arrangement of the god's shrinein a temple.He pointed out that `everywherehe sat must be placed higher level upon a dais,thus commanding the placewhere others stood'.15" at a
1.1.5. Kings' behaviour

Texts reveal how kings behavedand how rulers dealt with their people. In the text of W3 pth the king felt grief for the deathof his official. W3 pth was a vizier, chiefjudge and chief architect in the court of Neferirkare. His text is set in the context that the king, his family and the court were one day inspectinga new building in the course of construction,with W39pth as chief architect. The king noticed that W31pth did not hearthe words of royal favour and so ordered the courtiers to carry him to the court. Priests and chief physicianswere summonedto him quickly. By then, W3 pth was dead. The king felt terrible grief for his official's death. He retired to his chamber, for W3 pth's burial. The where he prayed to Re. He also made all the arrangements "' text reads: `............ Walking to the court His Majesty causedthat the royal children, companions, lector priests,chief physicians to go out.......:..They said to His Majesty.... His Majesty ordered that a container of documentsto be brought to him..... They said to His Majesty (that) he hasfallen over. His Majesty was praying to Re concerning..., greatly beyond everything. His Majesty said that he used to do everything according to my heart's wish....... the like of him has never existed. Praising Re for him lw His in Majesty it his be tomb'. everyday....... orderedthat should put writing on This text could be classedas describingthe emotionalcontact betweenthe king and one of his courtiers. Hearing about W3 pth's death, the king felt anguish,and he simultaneouslyexpressedhis feelings in front of his family and his courtiers, who accompaniedhim on such an occasion. He also did not hide his reaction until he

's' Parkinson, Tale of Sinuhe, 51; For a discussion on the term - hnwty see Gauthier, BIFAO 15 (1918), 169- 206; cf. Feucht,in Israelit-Groll (ed.), Pharaonic Egypt, 38-39 issUphill, in Ucko ), Man, Settlementand Urbanism,722. et al. (eds. 's9 Urk I, 42,1- 43,6. 160 Breasted, Ancient RecordsI, 112.


and prayedto completedhis inspectionof the site, but insteadreturnedto his residence Re for him.
The king's behaviour reflects his evaluation of the `human being' and `the moment of death'. It uncovers how the king dealt with his courtiers, i. e. he does not land, but helping him in this them tools the the simply as of use affairs managing description stressesa kind of companionship and respect towards these people by the king.

from The prophesyof Nfr-ty supplies different behaviour King kind us with a of Snefru.The text in its compositionconsistsof three main sections.The first sectionis `prophetic' during King Snefru, the the time the an overview of actual of situation with includes Nfr-ty. The Nfr-ty's speechand the third provides a speech of secondsection 161 conclusion. Nfr-ty is a fictional characterwith an ideal chosenname,as `nfr' means `perfect': a sagewho utters perfect words,162 integrating with the king's aim which is to be amused with `fine literature'.' how the king summoned his courtiers and addressed The text describes them as him bring him `companions'. He tell translated them to rhw163 as asked one who would `my `good king for Nfr-ty, The the as some speech'. addressed courtiers sent whom friend'. Nfr-ty then askedif he should speakabout the past or the future, and the king askedto hear of the future. When Nfr-ty beganto speakthe king took out papyrusand 164 down Nfr-ty a pen andwrote said. what

165 Snefru'sbehaviour, in this tale, is describedby Blumenthalas unusual

behaviour and atypical to the conventional image of the sovereign166 and Hornung 167 describes him as acting in an unassuming his he First, officials of one addresses way. brother', `my then his courtiers as `comrades'and a commoner,who is Nfr-ty, as as `my friend'. He also behavesvery kindly because,instead of calling in a secretaryto take notes of Nfr-ty's speech,he picks up pen and paper and does the work himself. Gunn describes the king as `eminentlygenial and democraticin his dealingswith lower
161 Piccato,Ling Aeg 5 (1997), 144. 162 Parkinson,Tale of Sinuhe, 131. 163 For the word rhw compareUrk IV, 1154,5; Urk IV, 327,11 as the exact equivalent of 'mates' and 'comrades'.Posener, Litterature etpolitique, 30. '6' On the literacy issue see Baines and Eyre, GM 61 (1983), 77. On the context cf. Eyre, in Congresso Internazionale di EgittologiaAtti II, 115-120. 165 For the king's behaviourcf. Graefe,in Israelit-Groll (ed.), StudiesLichtheim I, 257-263. 166 Blumenthal, VS 109 (1982), 25. 167 Hornung, in Donadoni (ed. ), TheEgyptians,295.


168 be himself `writing Baines Eyre that a mark of may mortals', whereas and suggest 169Obviously, this is an attitude distant from protocol. his democratic character'. 1 Parkinson Posenernoted that the king in this situation acted as a priest's secretary. king the that stresses acts informally, due to the truth and importance of what Nfr-ty 171 in funerarytexts, where the king aspiresto says. He comparedit with what happens be the scribe of the gods. Parkinsonargued that `the discourseof Nfr-ty is a closest '72 in literature the Middle Kingdom, yet this work narrativeof the real social context of is apparently fictitional.13 Even so, the events described within the narrative are realistic. For example,the morning audiencewas an occasion for the vizier to give Vizier king in Duties the to the the the the of account about state, as shown affairs of text from the New Kingdom. Also, the Seal-beareris an attendant who deals with 174 business for king's the palace and stayswaiting Piccato arguesthat the prophecyof Nfr-ty is not a `historical event' but rather a reflection of the chaosand disorderoccurring during the First IntermediatePeriod, the 15 before time the ascensionof a new ruler, the conflict of chaos and order, which for behaviour imply description depicting that take the the might we cannot as normal the king. The generaldepiction does,however, reflect the reign of Snefru,which was 176 regardedas a period of great prosperityby the Egyptiansof the Middle Kingdom. It that Snefruwas greatly popular, and therefore he was chosento embodya ruler seems "' with a close relationshipto the public. Gunn"g pointed out `that king Snefru, as a 19 highly is described he in later times and that why as mnh'. ruler, was esteemed was The prophecyof Nfr-ty can be consideredas a mixture betweenfictionality and reality,
'68Gunn,JEA 12 (1926 ), 250. 169 Bainesand Eyre, GM61(1983), 77. 170 Posener, Litterature etpolitique, 30. 171 Parkinson,Tale ofSinuhe, 140. 172 Cf. Eyre, in Congresso Internazionale di EgittologiaAtti II, 115-120. 173 Parkinson,Tale of Sinuhe, 131- after Eyre, in Congresso Internazionale di Egittologia Attl II, 115; for a discussionof the dialectic between`reality' and `fictionality' seeLoprieno, Topos und Mimesis, 48-50. 174 Van den Boom, Duties of the Vizier, R 5. 15 Piccato,LingAeg 5 (1997) 145. 176 Piccato,LingAeg 5 (1997) 145-146. 177 Blumenthal, ZAS 109 (1982), 26. 178 Gunn,JEA 12 (1926 ), 250; cf. Graefe,in Studies Lichtheim I, 258. 179Graefe, in Studies Lichtheim I, 258-259. The word mnb means `effective' or `efficient'. See CDME, 109; Meeks,Annee Lexicographique III, 121. For the definition of the term mnh seeLloyd, JEA 61 (1975), 57 no. 18. Snefru is also describedas nsw mnh in the instructions of K3-gmni: see Spalinger,Aspectsof the Military Documents,39-41.


is difficult behaviour historical It to Snefru the reality. as of so we cannot regard determinethe extent to which the depiction portrays Snefru's character,or the extent be king Middle idealisation to to which he is being presented the a should as of what a Kingdom audience. In the Eloquent Peasantthe king orders his representative, the High Steward, to be silent in order to force the Peasantto carry on complaining and therefore his kindly has king be At the time, the and a caring, same perfect speechcould recorded. by his protective attitude, towards the peasantand his family, which is demonstrated for family. his The main aim of Rnsi Peasant to to the request provide provisions180 and be heart, his him, the king was to hear perfect speech, and gladden which could amuse instructive,however"' he behaverather immorally in achievinghis desire.In the words 182 do impunity'. His Simpson, lawlessness `the Egyptians means of and criminal saw law justice, be king to and not seemcompatiblewith a executing who was supposed equilibrium amongsthis people,and as the monarchof Egypt, was the embodimentof '83 knowledge authority, and also the one who establishes order. In the story of Sinuhe,the king acted to releaseSinuhe's fear. When Sinuhe first met him the king addressedhim (bnmw) `cheerfully', reflecting a kind of hospitality. It was a messageto him that he was safe. The king then ordered the in lift Sinuhe, indication harm. In to courtiers context, the story up an of peaceand not of the Shipwrecked Sailor the leader of the expedition is afraid, and un-willing to believethat a friendly receptionat court could be possible.

1.1.6.People's attitude Descriptions of the attitude of the courtiers usheredin to the royal audiencetend to this moment.The text reads: show them acting in a commonfashion.Sinuhedescribes `I was stretchedon my belly, and I did not know myselfbefore him'. 184 In the Nfr-ty text, the court of the residence king. The in before text the was ushered reads:

180 Leprohon,JARCE 12 (1975), 97-98. 181 Goedicke,ZAS 125 (1998), 119. 182 Simpson,GM 120 (1991), 96. 183 Faulkner,JEA 51(1965), 61. 184Sinuhe B 253. This is identical to the state of the Shipwrecked Sailor when he is first in the presence of the snake.Cf. Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature I, 211-1215.


`Then,they were upon their belliesin front of His Majesty L. P.H again '. 195 In the Qubanstela,the text describes the attitude of the court as follows. It reads: `Then <they> were immediatelyushered in before the Good God, their arms were (raised)in praiseto his ka, jubilating, and kissingthe ground to his beautiful face'.196 In the Great Abydos inscription,the text alludesto the courtiers' attitude. It reads: `Then,they were usheredin before His Majesty, their noseswere close to the ground, their kneeswere on the floor, in jubilation and paying homage,their armswere (raised) in praiseto His Majesty, and they adoredthis Good God, in magnifyinghis beauty in 197 the (royal) presence'. 188 The people are either stretchedon their bellies, or touching the earth with 189 forehead. Sometimestheir hands are raised to the king's ka, praising and their kissingthe ground" in front of him asthey kneel on the ground in a gestureof respect. The gesturesare preciselythose shown and used when adoring or praying to a god. The different attitudes reveal the people's fear and respect to their king, their lord. Their uniform reaction towards the king also indicatesthat they might have received instructionsbefore having audience in be king, to the carried out one with which seem way or another.Does this therefore imply that a kind of protocol is being employed and that instructions for how to behavein the king's presenceare issuedbefore the royal council?In practice,the action itself could differ from one personto another,yet the sameinstructionsare given.

1.1.7. Greeting

Greetings191 could possibly be encountered among palace protocol. Griffiths'92 the meaning of the compound verb nd-brt as `to greet, to ask after the established

191Cf. Blumenthal, Untersuchungen zum Agyptischen Knigtum, 331-332; Grapow, Wie die alten gypter sich anredeten, 113-115.

185 Helck, Nfr. ti, 6. ' 186 KRI II, 355,10; translation after Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions II, 191. 187 KR! II, 326,8-9; translation after Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions II, 166. 188 SinuheB 264. 189 KRI II, 355 190 From the Old Kingdom the kissing of the ground in front of the king counts as showing obedience (Urk I, 110-16). As a special honour permission is permitted for the official to kiss the king's feet (Urk I, 41-15) (Urk I, 53,2-3). In the Middle Kingdom the kissing of the ground is usual towards kings and gods(Wb IV, 154,12-13). 192 Griffiths, JEA 37 (1951), 32-7; Grapow, Wie die alten Agypter sich

anredeten, 71-76.


business, discuss `to to Whereas Goedicke'93 the meaning condition of. postulated kings is by The to and when they are report'. verb usually used address gods officials 194 formula. in received personal audience. It signifies the common respectful greeting In the text known as the Duties of the Vizier, it reads: `Now, he enters to greet the lord, L. P.H., (after), the affairs of the Two Lands have been reported to him in his house every day'. 195 Therefore, after the salutation every day, he will inform the king of the report. A parallel for this procedure is in the text of Nfr-ty, the text reads:

`Now, it happened that the Majesty King of Upper and Lower Egypt (Snefru), true of it happened, beneficial land. king days, in One that the these this voice, was entire of court of the residenceentered in to the great house L. P.H. to make greeting. They 196 day'. in went out after they had madetheir greeting the way they did every In the installationof the vizier Wsr-lmn, the text reads: `There happenedthe sitting of the king [in the d3dw hall of] the west, the King of Upper and Lower Egypt Mn-bpr-Rr, given life. Ushering in of the officials (srw), courtiers (smrw) of the stp-s3,noblemen(sl'hw) of the private place, the chamberlains (#mywhnt), the great onesof the entire land, the entourage(.finit) of Horus in his palace to greet the king L. P.H. The vizier enteredto greet, concerningthe condition of the Two Lands'." The biographical inscription of the vizier Pth-ms of the Eighteenth Dynasty indicatesthat he practicedthe greetingand reported daily.19'It is understoodtherefore that the salutationand ensuringreport may be a daily procedure.Newberry discussed this particular event,basinghis evidenceon the text of the vizier Rh-ml-rr, in which the officials of the residence reported to the pharaohevery morning on the country affairs ' concerningtheir own governmentalprovinces. Lorton, however, pointed out that `the text stressesthe ceremonial aspects of `greeting' the king, with no explicit 20 He argued that the indication of the substantivenature of these daily meetings'.

193 Goedicke,TheProtocol ofNeferyt, 54-5 (b-c). 194 Urk IV, 1158,9. 195 Translation following van den Boom, Duties of the Vizier, R5,55. 196 Helck, Nfr. ti, 3-5. 199 Newberry,Life ofRekhmara, 2,5. 200 Lorton, SAK 18 (1991), 306-307.

197Urk IV, 1380,12-15; Dziobek, Denkmler des Vezirs User-Amun, 1-6. 198 Varille, BIFAO 30 (1930), 63.


brief he information daily then transfer that receive, and vizier's task was to screen the data to the king. On the other hand, the real purpose of the royal audience could daily be described best the paying of respect, to your superior as a as regular perhaps social duty.

1.1.8. Court entertainment for kings

It is a standardliterary theme, as well as a fact of being human,that kings sometimes literary is from bored It be sources,as preserved clear and neededto entertained. got from biographical texts, that carefully selectedand competentlyworded speech as well kind different f letter The Hr-diw favourite form to alludes a of royal amusement. was a facade tomb letter, the is This the of right carvedon a completeroyal of entertainment. 20' Yam. He f Hr-hw-f. Hr-hw. to returned with products of a voyage made chapelof him II Pepi boy-king including dwarf. Neferkare dancing The South, a writes the a dwarf his letter of acknowledgement, the to and promising a expressing eagerness see 202 203 The text reads: great reward. 204 dances dwarf the `You have said in this letter of yours that you have brought a of the like dwarf horizon205-people, treasurer from land the of the the the which of god of Majesty: My have in You Isisi. brought from to Punt Ba-wer-jed the time of said god "Never before has one like him been brought by any other who has visited Yam before.... Come north to the residenceimmediately! Hurry and bring with you this dwarf you have brought from the land of the horizon-people, alive, prosperous and health,for the dancesof the god, to distract the heart, to delight the heart of the King down he forever! When lives Upper Lower Egypt Neferkare, with goes of and who boat. Guard into both him be the the sidesof on you ship, get excellentmen to around againsthim falling into the water! When he goesto sleepat night, get excellentmen to

201 f addedthe text of Hr-bw-f led four expeditionsto Nubia. To the accountof his expeditionsHr-dew this letter. SeeLichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature I, 23-27. 202 Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature I, 23. 203 Urk I, 128,1- 130,15. 204 An allusion to a dancing dwarf that had oncebeenbrought from Punt, in the reign of King DjedKara-Isisi, referring to an indirect contact with Punt in private biographical inscriptions. See Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature I, 27; Kemp et al., Ancient Egypt, 52. 205 El-Aguizy mentioned that `the real home-land of such dancing dwarf seemsto have been a far away country which they called "land of the Horizon dwellers"; term implying that the Ancient Egyptians believed this country to be as far as the horizon which they could not reach'. See ElAguizy, ASAE 71(1987), 54.


Majesty this My in him his to Inspect see tent. ten times wishes night! at sleeparound 20' Punt'. dwarf more than the produceof the mine-land206 and of
This royal letter208was sent by the king to ffr-hw-f. It is a response to a letter in located the king's by f is, ffr-hw to the residence a royal at probably palace sent North, most likely at Memphis. It is based on ffr-hw f 's journey who was ordered by the king to `come downstream to the residence immediately'. Dixon209 argued that Memphis was probably the last stop of these missions, whereas Ede121 suggested that the heads of these expeditions would have stayed in Memphis after terminating-their journey, waiting to be asked for a new operation. It is therefore very likely that ffr-bwf travelled to the royal residence at Memphis, at the end of his mission to introduce the further instructions. he had to acquired and receive products

him brought f dwarf fr-hw The letter includesa reference as a to a with which functions fulfil king. dancing dwarf The to the and was also obviously cultic would gift intendedto entertainthe king, as the king's letter reads:r shmh-lb r snh3li ib n nswbity `to distract the heart, to delight the heart of the king of Upper and Lower Egypt'. El-Aguizy21 argued that `thesepygmieswere brought to Egypt to perform a dance in front be dances throne divine the ib3w-ntr `dances to of performed called of god' or in first for the dances time king divert his heart'. These the the to were mentioned of from the reign of King Pepi I, where the king, personifiedas'a pygmy Pyramidtexts212 dancedin front of the throne of the god to rejoice his heart. Sheaddedthat `The divine nature of these dancesis probably due to the fact that they were originally performed in front of a god but they were meant for the god's or the king's amusement'.The dwarf is presumablyan unusualgift to be offered to the king, and that is why the king prosperousand asksHr-bw f to look after him and to bring him back to the residence, in health.The king also asksfor a high level of security around the dwarf to make sure

206 The mine land was a namefor Sinai. 207 Translation closeto Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature I, 26-27. 208 A letter written by the king was called a `decree'and a number of royal letters havebeenpreserved as hieroglyphic inscriptions on stone,as copiesof letters originally written on papyrus in the cursive hieratic script. Wente,Letters From Ancient Egypt, 17; for lettersto the king in the Old Kingdom. Cf. Eichler, SAK 18 (1991), 141-171. 209 Dixon, JEA 44 (1958), 42. 210 Edel, AgyptologischeStudien (1955), 64. 211 El-Aguizy, ASAE 71(1987), 54. 212 Pyr 1189

35 213 he is that safe. These are the early days of the reign of Neferirkare, when he was still a boy king214and Hr-hw f was an experienced official who had served under the kings Mernere and Pepi II and who had become governor of Upper Egypt. 215

During court entertainment, the king would interact with his subjectsinsidethe in follows: differs from Texts text to text to as allude such palace. amusement, which the text of Nfr-ty, the king asks the companionsto bring a man who can choose 216 been be has in happy. front him him A to that phrases scribe uttered of will make chosento utter a piece of literature or a poem that would amusethe king. The text 217 1 reads: `His Majesty L. P.H. said to them. "Companions,see, I have had you summonedto haveyou searchout for me a son of yours who is wise, or a brother of yours who is able or a friend of yours who puts forward good things, and who will tell me some it". Then, hearing My Majesty that good words and choicephrases may entertain when they put themselves upon their belliesin front of His Majesty L. P.H. again.Then, they said to His Majesty L. P.H. "There is a great lector priest of Bastet, 0 king, our lord, calledNfr-ty. He is a commonerstrong of arm, a scribe excellentwith his fingers. He is a rich man, with more property than any of his equals.Would that he be brought, andHis Majesty will see".His Majesty L. P.H. said,"Go and bring him to me"! He was L. in him immediately. Then he was on his belly before His Majesty P.H, and ushered to His Majesty said, "Come, please,Nfr-ty, my friend, you should tell me some good words and choice phrasesthat may entertainMy Majesty when hearing it." And the lector priest Nfr-ty said,"Of what hashappened, happen, sovereignmy or of what will lord?" And His Majesty (L.P.H) said, "But of what will happen, for today has happened by!" Then, he stretchedhis hand out to a box of writing and then it passes materials.Then, he took out for himself a roll and a palette, and he was put in writing 21' lector `the Nfr-ty the Doxey that this what priest practical said'. motif commentson benefitsof eloquentspeech includedthe ability.... to relate storiesin a mannerthat was

213 Hornung, in Donadoni (ed. ), TheEgyptians, 289-291. 214 Hornung, in Donadoni (ed.), TheEgyptians, 290. 215 Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature I, 23. 216 d3ii-hr `entertainment' seeParkinson, in Quirke (ed.), Middle Kingdom Studies, 93; cf. Eyre, in Congresso Internazionale di Egittologia A tti II, 115. 217 Helck, Nfr. ti, 7-12. 218 Gardiner,JE4 1(1914), 100-106.


both entertainingand accurate,and to speakat the appropriatemoment in the course 19 interaction'. of socialand administrative 22the king ordered Rnsl not to Within the context of the Eloquent Peasant, in him forcing him this way to presentmore the or even peasant,encouraging answer king. down by literature the them the entertain could produced copying complaints,so After Peasant the The text221 consistsof a narrative structureand nine poetic speeches. hasbeenrobbed and hasprotestedbefore the magistratewho report it to the king. On him king's to the continuing the peasant, encourage orders the magistrateneglects justice is The then and receives peasant complaining until the peasant exhausted. 222 The text reads: reward. Upper King in Majesty and `Now, this peasant the the time the of this of made speech Lower Egypt Nebkaure, the justified. Then, the high steward Mrw's son Rnsl went beforeHis Majesty and said,"My lord, I have found one amongthose peasants whose is in by been is have beautiful. His my service. truly stolen a man who goods speech Behold, he hascometo petition me about it". Then, His Majesty said,"As you wish to In he to here in health, him detain that order says. all answering without see you will keephim talking, be silent! Then, his speechshallbe brought to us in writing, that we Behold, his his hear it. for however, Make, together children. with wife may provision Make is house just) before his (only here those empty. utterly one of peasants comes him food have for himselfl You to to without this peasant given also provision are letting him know that it is you who givesit to him'.2 In the story of Sinuhe,the king's wife and childrenbring their necklaces, rattles and sistrumsto be held in front of His Majesty, probably to perform a piece of music 224. important carrying religious symbolism.The text reads: `It was causedthat the royal children were usheredin (st3). His Majesty said to the She have Syrians "Look, has Sinuhe Asiatic, the created". queen, come as an whom gaveout a great loud cry, and the royal children were shriekingtogether. They said to His Majesty, "It is not really him sovereign,my lord?". His Majesty said, "It is really
219 Doxey,Egyptian NonRoyal Epithets, 52. 220 The Discourseof the Fowler resembles the style of that of the petitions of the Eloquent Peasantsee Posener, MDAIK 25 (1969), 101-106. 221 Fecht,IA I, 638-651. 222 PeasB1,102-115. 223 Translation after Parkinson,Tale of Sinuhe,62. 224 SinuheB 264-269.


held they brought him". Then they with them their necklaces,rattles and sistra, and 225 happiness Could this noise express his Majesty'. or welcoming similar to them out to in Egypt? Zagrwda226 modern a After a dialoguebetweenSinuheand the king, the royal children are usheredin. The description shows that Sinuhehad gained in age, whereasthe princessesseem is he identity; Sinuhe's initial a Their the of question evoke cry might unchanged. Barbarian or an Egyptian? The princesses then start shaking their rattles and sistra, in instruments by cultic rituals whereas the necklaces are women shaken musical 227 Baines that Hathor. argues to, the goddess particularly associated with, and sacred the king in this context substitutedas the creator god and the queentook the position Metaphorically `life'. Hathor; the the connection with sistra providing a merits and of 228 it but Sinuhe Egyptian, perhapsalso this rite might actually causethe revival of as an form festivity. a standard of shows

1.1.9. Kings' visits and interaction with their subjects

One of the pharaoh's concernswas with public projects, including tomb and temple building in both their and erections, which were of great economic significance his 229 king between building the and projects relations religious contexts. Due to known Examples demonstrated of ceremonial the are palace. subjectswere outside biography W3 there inscription inspect buildings. In Dbhni's the to pth and new visits king the are accountsof making a ceremonialvisit to the construction site of a new building. In Dbhni's inscription, King Menkawre is visiting the Giza cemeteryto inspect the work on his pyramid. He then orders the erection of a tomb to Dbhn#. This text

ns Translation after Parkinson, Tale of Sinuhe,40-41. 226A zagrwda is shrill or trilling cries of joy, made by mouth, expressing happiness on various occasionse.g. wedding events or in welcoming someonereturning from travel as in the case of Sinuhe. 227 Parkinson,Tale ofSinuhe, 53; cf. Derchain, RdE 22 (1970), 80-81. 228 Baines,JEA 68 (1982), 43; cf. Westendorf,SAK 5 (1977), 293-304. 229 Wen-Peng,in CongressoInternazionale di Egittologia Atti II, 270. In practice, public buildings were manageddirectly by the pharaoh and constructedto his commands.Each royal project was achievedthrough a high official entitled the Overseerof all Works of the King. SeeSmith, in Ucko et ), Man, Settlementand Urbanism,711- 712. al. (eds.


illustrates two main issues.First is the inspection of Menkawre's own pyramid. The 23 text reads:
`[ Sole companion, who is in the heart of his lord, Dbhnt], he said: `As for this tomb ... it of mine, was the king of Upper and Lower Egypt, Menkawre living for ever, who be in [His beside Majesty] to <made> the the ordered when road pyramid, was upon order to inspect the work on the (pyramid): Divine is Menkawre. ' The second issue is the king's order to construct a tomb for Dbhnl in which he commanded the necessary materials to be brought. 23' The damaged inscription also mentions the bringing of stone from the quarries of Tura so as to encasethe building in limestone, and provide two jambs of the entrance to this tomb. 2

There could therefore be a command of royal provision for a private tomb. Menkawreordersthe erectionof a tomb for Dbhni nearhis pyramid, amongthe tombs of members of the royal family. This was probably becauseone of Dbhnl's duties was Dbhnl was hrp-rh Director of to look after the work done on the king's own tomb.233 f `confidant of the heart of the the Palace,shkr Hr He who Adorns Horus, smr tb n nb. king', imy-lb n nbf `he who is in the heart of his lord', mry nb. f `the one belovedby his lord. 234 Eyre 5 summarised the roles of workmen sharingin such project, sayingthat: `involved in the work were a royal master builder, two chief controllers of the craftsmen,and a workforce. Fifty craftsmen(hmw) are mentioned,working every day, by the royal command.They were not to be taken for any other duty until that work was completed. Two god's treasurers were assigned for some duty, presumably bringing stone from the quarries...... from Tura,236 at least two false doors and the tomb portal, under the control of the two chief controllers of craftsmenand the royal the masterbuilder, as well as statuesfor different parts of the tomb'. The text stresses fact that sinceDbhnl was involved in personalservice of the king he was privileged
7 Menkawre's (jm3jiw) `provision' by the king. 23with is Dbhn#'s tomb provision of of
230 Urk I, 18,8-12. 231 Urk I, 19,7-20,6. 232 The issueof royal provisions is also discussed by Malek, see:In the Shadowof the Pyramids, 7277. 233 Eyre, in Powell (ed.), Labor in theAncient Near East, 21. 234 Hassan, Excavationsat Giza IV, 159. 235 Eyre, in Powell (ed. ), Labor in Ancient Near East, 21. 236 Tura El Masarawas the most important limestonequarry. 237 Eyre, in Powell (ed.), Labor in theAncient Near East, 9.


havebeenspecifiedfor work as an allusionto particular significance, as measurements a high level of technical skill or perhaps a requirement of the degree of labour
employed into the project.

in The text impliesan understanding the the and management system of service Old Kingdom. It also reflectshow the king and country forceswere engaged in private 238 mortuaryprovisions
In Dbhni's and W3 pth's inscriptions, the ceremonial visit seems to have a

political significance.The king desiresto ensurehis dominion and power before the is do his He inside his to to public. not simply staying messengers palacegiving orders work for him, but he himself visits the sites, which also reflects a social significance. Roth arguedthat the ceremonyprobably indicate that the royal works had been paid 239 Her evidence the right amountor for the reasonof receivingthankfulnessin person. includes relevant contexts, which have their parallels, where visits of three tomb ownersto their tombs were plannedto make certain that the regal works had inward their payment,as well as receiving gratitude for their kindness.She argues,however, 240 during king that suchvisits the was conductedand carried on a carrying chair.
1.1.10. Interaction during rituals and ceremonies

Other kinds of interactionbetweenthe king and his people sometimesappearthrough unusualincidentsand ceremonies as follows: The fragmentarystela of Rewr 241 king's incident the to of refers an unusual 242 Rrwr's foot by during he In the staff striking touched a ceremony. other words, was king's sceptre.The king immediatelyproclaimedhis desirethat Rrwr `be very sound' 243 incident be for The Rrwr's that the and ordered text reads: tomb. recordedon a stela `The King of Upper and Lower Egypt Neferirkare appearedas King of Lower Egypt on the day of taking the prow-rope of the god's boat. Now, the sm-priestRrwr was at

238 SeeMalek, In the Shadowof the Pyramids, 73-79. 239 Roth, in Silverman (ed.), For his Ka, 228. 240 Roth, in Silverman (ed. ), For his Ka, 227-228. 241 This biographical text occurson the stela of Re wr (Cairo JE 66682) found in his tomb at the Giza Necropolis. Re wr is attested in the reign of Neferirkare and possibly also Sahure. Hassan, Excavationsat Giza I, 18-19,pl 18. Cf. Gundlach,Der Pharao und sein Staat, 254-256. 242 O'Connor and Silverman (eds. ), Ancient Egyptian Kingship, 64. 243 Urk I, 232,5-16; Allen, in Lloyd (ed.), StudiesGriffiths, 14-20.


" keeper in his feet, His Majesty's of accoutrements? A royal office of sm-priest and His leg hand, in Rrwr. His'Majesty's the the of sm-priest struck staff, ,which was Majesty addressedhim: "Be sound!" said his Majesty. Now, His Majesty had said, "My Majesty has desired that he be very sound, without a blow for him, because he is more *Majesty it be in min": His His Majesty to than to ordered put writing on any precious his tomb that is in the necropolis. His Majesty caused a document to be made about it, in Great himself; duty (? ) House, king beside the the the order to of at place of written be written in his tomb, that is in the necropolis in accordance with what has been 243' said'

Here there is unintentionalcontact with' a royal object.-The king was probably `day formal the so-called of taking the prow-rope of religious ceremony, carrying out a 247 246 foot his time boat' in Rrwr's that at the god's who', was struck staff which just `touched' has his duty Rrwr that was not argued as a sm priest.-Allen carrying out by the royal staff, but he more likely stumbledover it sincethe event itself is described 248 `in `strike'. He this hsf that translated the mentions phrase usually verbal r rd with with from bar' it `to lift basically `bar', someone means. and construed r means passage in Peasant, bases his Eloquent He the where on a statement evidence a placeor action'. 249 the officials are saidto be ir. r hsf r iyt `appointedto be a barrier againstwrong, in NN bsf ib is Book Dead 30 B the the tm rf n rdt of of and on spell which written n hrt-ntr `for not letting the heart of NN be a barrier against him in the Necropolis'. However, his argument about the phrase `be barrier against' is strained and seems overstated.

244 Allen translatedthe term r-hrc as Keeperof Accoutrementswithout specifying a particular reason. 7 Tresembles `clothe'. Gardiner,Egyptian Grammar, 507. Also, there is evidence The sign that of that the sm priest was particularly concernedwith the clothing and adornment of the god. In the Twelfth Dynasty the chief treasurer Ikhernofret narrating his mission to the temple of Osiris at Abydos,usesthe words ntk webem shkr ntr Sm wrt dbew`I was pure of handsin adorning the god, a IV, 18 f. smpriest great (pure) of fingers'. Schfer,in Sethe,Untersuchungen 245 Translation after Allen, in Lloyd (ed. ), StudiesGwyn Griffiths, 14. 246 This ceremonyis an action associated elsewhere with the bark of the sun in funerary texts. Budge, TheBook of the Dead, 345; cf. Pyr 1347b. 247 Goedickearguedthat he-washolding the 3ms-scepter. He basedhis evidenceon Pyr 731-ac `You appearin the royal headdress, your hand graspsthe 3ms-scepter, your first clasps around the mace'. Goedicke, MDAIK 47 (1991), 137. 248 Allen, in Lloyd (ed.), StudiesGriffiths, 17; WbIII, 335. 249 PeasB 1.296.


Whether the king's staff touched Rrwr or he just tripped over it, a sort of by happened between king during Rrwr the contact and a ceremony, probably attended courtiers and other officials. The king's first reaction was expressing a wish for Rrwr's well-being, and that he should not suffer or be punished for the incident. Goedicke interpreted it as having `symbolic significance becausethe king hastened to explain that the move was accidental and that there was no significance attached to it in this 25 case'. Wilson argues that `the incident alludes to the divinity of the person of the 251 in itself is inscription Old Kingdom' Frankfort the thought that the pharaoh a sort of . `indemnification' of RCwr for the accident 252 The king ordered that this incident be . recorded on a stela for Rr'wr's tomb, and that he should supervise this himself, saying: `a document to be made of it written beside the king himself. Rrwr's titles reflect a high ranking position. His functional titles include several of priestly rank as sm, hryhbt, fry-s. t3 pr dw3t, and others associating him with the royal wardrobe such as r 0c, 253Rrwr was an important person therefore, with a hrp ch, zirp . ndwt, trl nfr-hat, it mny direct association with the person of the king, i. e one who should come into physical contact with the king.

Here the king did not hide his reaction of worrying for Rewr, but wished him `to be sound'. His publication of this incident is a sort of apology, and Lichtheim254 that not to apologisewould be an insult to arguedthat it signifiesRrwr's understanding his minister.Would it signify that the king and his officials were equally supportive of their respectivedignity? Could it refer to a sort of propaganda? However, Simpson definedthis term as `A message, its by author communication,or statementaddressed behalf on of an individual or group (a god, king, official, class) or ideology (cult, kingship, personalambition, specialinterest group) to a specific or general audience. The message generallycarries a frank or implicit attempt to persuadean audienceto follow the author's desire,to promote or publicisea cause,or to influenceits attitude. The statementor message can be a call to follow a cult or leader, may or may not includea reward for complianceor a threat for non-compliance, be in or may more the

250 Goedicke, MDAIK 47 (1991), 137. u' Wilson, in Frankfort (ed.), TheIntellectual Adventure ofAncient Man, 75. 752 Frankfort; Kingship and the Gods,360; cf. Hornung, in Donadoni (ed.), TheEgyptians, 288-289. 253 CG 197-200,216-17,280,287,318,350,365-7,815,1675. 254 Lichtheim, Moral Valuesin Ancient Egypt, 10-11.


declaration or proclamation. of a nature

Texts sometimes reveal a kind of

king, the the to or as anti-royalist propaganda position of promote propaganda either initially is king in Eloquent Peasant as the the the remote and shown where story of as from it be justice. Could Peasant's than a message eloquence more concerned with the him his how he deals his king as to them to the subjects surrounding with people show Rewr had to have previous permission from the king in order to publish details of such incident? an

1.1.11. Interaction with subjects when celebrating their coronation'

is one of the narrativesthat distinguishdifferent types Hatshepsut'scoronationtext257 her king. It have to to the role startswith a reference and classes of peoplewho access 259 It within the palace. reads: `Then,His Majesty saidto her, "Come, you useful one, whom I haveplacedwithin my in You (tp-rd) 1'h. the that shall make your conduct of arms, you may seeyour rules be double dignity k3s; glorious the shall you crown; of your precious you shall receive by your magic power; you shall be mighty by your strength;you shall be powerful in the Two Lands; you shall conquer the disaffected;you shall appear in the ch, your forehead shall be adorned with the double crown; you shall be satisfied as heir to The Wadjet. beloved have birth, daughter I the the of given of white crown, whom My Then, have been inhabit by the the those to gods. crowns seatsof given you who Majesty ordered to be brought to him (sic) the royal officers (.pssw nsw), noblemen (sl'hw), courtiers (smrw), the entourage(. nyt) of the residence,the chief of the rbyt, that they might do (my) command,taking the Majesty of this my daughterwithin his

255 Simpson, JEA 68 (1982), 266. 156For the coronation of Horemheb see Gardiner, JEA 39 (1953), 13-31; Kruchten, Le Decret d'Horemheb. traduction, commentaire, epigraphique, philologique et institutionnel. For the coronationof Thutmosis II see Urk IV, 160,10-15; Edgerton, The ThutmosidSuccession,31-43. For II seeShorter,JEA 20 (1934), 18-19; Sethe,ZS 44 (1907), 30-35. the coronationof Ramesses 257 Hatshepsut tried to asserther right to the throne of Egypt. Shehad two meansof carrying out this: firstly by stressingher legal right as successor to her father, Thutmosis I, and secondby emphasising the mystery of her divine patronage. To stress the legality of her succession,she recorded her coronation in an inscription at her temple Deir el Bahari. Redford, History and Chronology of the EighteenthDynasty of Egypt, 82. 258 Urk IV, 255,11- 257,2; Naville, The Templeof Deir el Bahari III, pl. LX.


u9 in in king himself, d3dw his A `sitting' ist". the the took of palace of arms place, of 26 the west. Thesepeoplewere upon their belliesin stp-s3'.
The following inscription is accompanied by a relief representing the king wearing the nms, seated in a pavilion raised on steps. In front of Thutmosis I stands a hand father His the shown as going seizes the youth's youth out of pavilion. with one right arm while he puts his left on the youth's shoulder. This is the queen. Her names 261 follows: The titles text are erased. and goes on as `Now His Majesty said before them, "This my daughter, Khnumt-Amun Hatshepsut, may she live, I appoint her in the place of the sovereign. She indeed is the one on my seat. It is she, indeed, who shall sit upon this my throne-dais of wonders. She will speak her command to the rlryt in all places of the ch. She is the one who will guide you. You will listen to her words; you will be united at her commands. He who shall praise her, he is the one who will live. He who shall say evil things in the way of Her Majesty, he is the one who will die. Whoever shall listen to the sum of the name of Her Majesty, he is the one who will indeed go immediately into the royal srrt, as is done by the name of My Majesty. She is your god, the daughter of god. Indeed it is the gods fight her behalf. They do their protection behind her every day, according to who on the command of her father, the lord of the gods' 262

Here there are shownthree rows of menwalking towards the king in his pavilion. They by the king to witness the raising of Hatshepsutto are the high dignitariessummoned 263 the throne andto pay homageto their new sovereign. `Listeningby the royal officers (Spswnsw), the noblemen(srhw), the chief of the rhyt to this decreeof ennoblingof his daughter,the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Maatka-Re, living forever. Kissing the ground by them before his feet; falling of the words of the king amongthem, and they praisedall the gods to the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, c3-hpr-k3-Rr, living forever. Going out by them, rejoicing and they dancedand they celebrated'. `All the rhyt heard(it), and all the apartments (sdrw) of the Residence.Coming by them rejoicing. They celebratedgreatly. Apartment (sdr) (after) apartment there
259 For ist seebelow (160-162)discussionon chapterThree. 260 Translation closeto Breasted, Ancient RecordsII, 96-97. 261 Urk IV, 257,5- 258,5; Naville, Deir el Bahari III, pt I.M. 262 Translation closeto Breasted, Ancient RecordsII, 97-98. 263 Urk IV, 259,1- 260-14; Naville, Deir el Bahari III, pL. LXII.


joy) (for jumping [... ]ing, (after), in his Soldiers264 they are soldiers name. was opened they are dancing. Their hearts are jumping. They proclaim, they proclaim the name of her Majesty as a king, when Her Majesty is still royal heir. For the great god inclined is knew forever. living For his daughter, Maat-Ka-Ra, that heart they his she towards in her fortunate indeed daughter they power above the the god, and were of is he day, her in his heart her loves for As every and praises any man who everything. for the As flourishes name of against speaks any man who and exceedingly. promoted, Her Majesty, god causesthat he dies at once. It is the gods who give protection (stps3) behind her every day.'

(to) the name `The Majesty of her father heardthesethings, how all the rhyt assembled his heart heir. The (still) Majesty his daughter be king Her of to royal was when of this Majesty was pleasedat it aboveeverything.His Majesty orderedthat the lector priests be brought to proclaim her great names,of receipt of the nobility of the double crown (building) the Upper Egypt, Lower King work together with placing on of of the and Round Going the Two Lands, for (ceremony the the the and of) uniting and all seals, Wall, and adorningall the gods of the (ceremonyof) uniting the Two Lands.He knows the value of the coronation on New Years Day, at the beginning of the contented in festivals is Sed It great numbers. she who will perform millions of years. Proclamationby them of her namesof the King of Upper and Lower Egypt. The god indeedput in their hearts that her namesbe made accordingto the form in which he had madethem in advance.Her great name:Horus, Woseretkaw, forever. Her great lady Goddess, Good Two Ladies, Years, Fresh the the of performing rituals. name: of Her greatname:the GoldenHorus, the Divine of Diadams.Her great nameof the King is her indeed, life. Now, Upper true name, Lower this Egypt, Maatkara, of and given 265 before. ' the which god made direct in It The text describes important a experience a palace setting. uses an 66 in inside the The to the the took specifically speech palace public. coronation place audiencehall `d3dw' in which Thutmosis I first gave Hatshepsutthe responsibility of

264 Vandersleyen t clearly applies to a class of `notables' arguedthat `there are instanceswhere mnf? rather than to the professional army itself, whereas Spalinger refers to mnlt as a class of `professionalsoldiery'. Cf. Vandersleyen,Les guerres d'Amosis, 180-182; Spalinger, Aspects of Military Documents,96 n.64; cf. Lorton, in Israelit-Groll (ed.), Studiesin Egyptology, 674. 265 Urk IV, 260,14- 262,1; translation closeto Breasted, Ancient RecordsII, 97-99. 266 Eyre, in Loperino (ed.), Ancient Egyptian Literature, 418.


the living in the ch. He then assembleda class of officials in front of her to witness such 268 Aw Noblemen, Officers, included the . psw-nsw267the Royal an occasion. They 269. nwt nt hnw the Entourage27 of the Residence and hat-rhyt the Courtiers, smrw Chief of rhyt: Possibly these classes of officials had free licence to step inside the inner implication be In the to that the apartments of access would palace. other words, the palace was restricted to a special class of people who could attend such occasions. The Spsw-nsw, s9hw and the hat-rhyt directly listened to Hatshepsut's coronation. It seemsthat part of their role, as intermediaries at this particular event, was to announce her coronation from the inner apartments of the palace to the outer palace.

heard it from them. This emphasises The rhyt271 the fact that restrictions and barriers did not allow anyone to step inside the palace. For example, one could betweentwo categories Chief distinguish hat the the of the rhyt, and the of people: rbyt ordinary rjiyt. The ordinary rhyt were those who were outside the palace.They, then, were not authorisedto enter, and so had to wait until the chief of the rizyt came out inside happening to the palace. them andannounced what was in the vicinity of the Outside the palace,the inhabitantsof. Thebesassembled The Karnak. located just Amun the temple of great palace,probably north west of news spreadthroughout the palaceand from there to the city. The soldiers are said

267 For Jpss-nsw seede Wit, CdE 31 (1956), 89-104; Fischer, 7.4S86 (1961), 26-8; Fischer,JAOS 81 (1961),423; Fischer,JARCE 3 (1964), 25 no. 4. 268 CDME, 214. `noble' `dignitary' IV, 50-51; Wb. or office. st'h was not associated with a specific Doxey on the basisof the epithetssuch as wr n wrw srhw smrw `greatestof the great ones, noblesand officials', sih smrw `noblest of the companions' and seh nfr m-m srw `worthy noble among the that the srhw formed a subsetof the larger group of srw and smrw. They were officials', shesuggested probablyhigher in statusthan the others. SeeDoxey, Egyptian Non-RoyalEpithets, 163; cf. also Eyre, in Eyre et al. (eds. ), The UnbrokenReed, 114. 269 smr is most often rendered`friend' or `companion'. Wb. IV, 138; CDME, 229. Meeks arguedthat the term means 'courtier' in which the contexts suggestthe status of an acquaintanceor associate rather than an actual personalfriendship. Meeks,Annie Lexicographique III, 254. Doxey suggested that smr appears to havebeena designationof relatively high status,basing her evidenceon a limited numberof very highly ranked individuals, including a monarch and a vizier: Doxey, Egyptian NonRoyal Epithets, 164. The term smrw has alwaysbeenusedwith a plural meaning either 'smrw of the king's palace' or `smrw following the king', which gives evidenceabout people being intimate with the king. 270 References to the fnwt in epithetsbegin in the Eleventh Dynasty. Doxey concludesthat `the term would appearto have designated a somewhathigher statusgroup than the srw or wrw'. Shebasedher opinion upon the relative infrequencyof epithets referring to the Inwt, the high rank of the officials described,and the associationof the Jnwt with the palace and the residence:Doxey, Egyptian NonRoyal Epithets, 161-162. 271 rhyt refers speciallyto the commonpeople,the membersof the lower strata of societywhich made up the vast majority of the Egyptian population. Meeks,Annie Lexicographique III, 173; Gardiner, AEO I, 100-110.


272 literally to have leapedand dancedfor joy, as well as the townspeoplethemselves. The celebrationdescribedin this text resembles the celebrationwhich took place after the rewarding ceremonyof 7y. The sceneshows him emergingfrom the gates of the him. probably his friends to their congratulate arms, were raising palacewhere all of Redford described the event as fictitious to someextent,yet basedon an actual
274 it interpreted in O'Connor happened as an exact palace area, whereas occasion `stage-managedin honour of a major political event'. 275The relation in this piece of text occurred between the queen and a special class of officials, who in turn played their role as intermediaries, hearing the direct speech of the queen's coronation and consequently passing it on to the ordinary. Classes of people who have access to the king

Inside palacesseriesof examplesillustrate different classesof people who also had 276 including held king. Wnl Sixth Dynasty In titles, to the the of a series access early imy-r hnti-9 pr-r3, which enabledhim to be associated with and close to the personof 27 king king. In the the W39pth text, the was with gmsw, `followers', smrw 278 building In Chief h, Physicians. Ritual Priest, the and wr sinw companions, 7-htp a Inscription of Senwosret I, the king spoketo the sd3wty-bity,the Seal-bearer of Lower Egypt', smr wnty `sole companion', imy-r prwy nbw Overseer of the Two Gold279 Houses, and prwy-hd the Two Silver-Houses. In the story of Sinuhe, the king's 28 him. In in Sinuhe the `courtiers' to the messengers meet were smrw who ushered had accessto the text of Nfr-ty those of the knbt nt hnw 281Court of the Residence282
272 In O'Connor and Silverman,Ancient Egyptian Kingship, 267. 273 Davies,ElAmarna VI, 75, pl. XXX. 274 Redford,History and Chronology, 82. 275 O'Connor and Silverman,Ancient Egyptian Kingship, 268. 276 ), The Eyre, in Powell (ed.), Labor in the Ancient Near East, 110. cf. Eyre, in Eyre et al. (eds. UnbrokenReed, 107-119. 277 The term . msw has been studied by Berlev. See Berlev, Trudovoe Naselenie Egipta v epokhu srednego Tsarstva, 206-229. See Ignatov, JEA 80 (1994), 195. Faulkner referred to them as `retainers',as they seemoriginally to havebeena non-military classof personalattendantsof the king or persons of high status. Their role after the Old Kingdom apparently constituted the king's household troopsor bodyguards:seeFaulkner,JEA 39 (1953), 38. 278 Urk I, 42,1-17. 279 De Buck, Studia Aegyptiaca I (1938). 51,1-2. Cf. Dziobek, Denkmler des Vezirs User Amun, 131-132. 280 Sin B 248-257. 281 The term knbt was usedfrom the early Middle Kingdom onward to refer to a group of magistrates in a general, or more specifically to the law courts. Wb V, 53-54; CDME, 280; cf. Lourie, JEA 17 (1931), 62-64. Both royal and private inscriptions demonstratethat the king surroundedby a knbt


Nfr-ty, whose title was hry-hbt btmw Seal-Bearer. king, usheredin by his messenger 293 king. had Lector Priest and his epithetwas s. ikr Excellent Scribe,also to the access
In the Westcar papyrus Hr-dd-f, who was s3-nsw the King's Son, had access to the king. 284Also,Ddi was brought in front of him. In the Eloquent Peasant, the high 295 Vizier, Duties king. had In Meru's Rnsi the the the of son steward an audience with 286 king Vizier In the 7n-tf stela, 7n-tf held a series of titles, the t3ty met the regularly.

includingwhm-r3-n-nsw Great Herald of the King which enabledhim to have access to 287 king. In the coronation inscription of Hatshepsut,the coronation took place in the front of a specialclassof people, .psw-nsw Royal Officers, smrw Noblemen, Snyt nt 288 hnw the Entourage of the Residenceand hat-rhyt the Chief of the rhyt. In the Qubbanstelathe king orderedthe usheringin of the wrw tmyw bahGreat oneswho are 28'In the Great Abydos inscription the peoplehaving access in the presence. to the king includethe . nit1 Courtiers,Jpsw-nsw Overseerof the King's Nobles, imy-r mnf3tm. 11w Soldiery of the Army, and imy-r" kit hr-tp nw pr md3t 3fdw Overseerof Works and Chief of the House of Rolls.290 Outside the palace Rr-wr, who held the title sm priest, seemsto have had 29' Senwosret inscription king building during In to the the of access a public ceremony. I, describingthe king presidingover the foundation ceremony,the king appeared with all people (rjyt) following him. The hry-hbt Chief Lector Priest, and the s ntr .fyt Scribeof the Divine Books stretchedthe cord. hnw end It seemsthat these Jmsw,smrw, knbt nt hnw, Spsw-nsw, . nyt nt and

ideas but job held and special shared nits were classes specific of people no who .
helpedthe king with advicesand suggestions They are when he found it necessary.

consistingof confidantsor intimates. They were alwayseither in the king's personalservicein palace administrationor could be senton all sortsof missions.Also, epithetsreferring to the knbt of the king and the knbt of the residence make it clear that this court was connected with the central administration. SeeAllam, Revue internationale des droits de 1'Antiquite 42 (1995), 11-69; Doxey, Egyptian Non-RoyalEpithets, 165. 282 Helck, Nfr. ti, 3-7. 283 Helck, IV fr. ti, 10-12. 284 Westcar8,10. 285 PeasB1 102-115. 2'6Van den Boom, Duties the Vizier, R 5. of 287 Urk IV, 969,8-14. 288 Urk IV, 256. 289 KRI II3355. 290 KRI II3326. 291 Urk IV, 232,5-16.


tmy-r Other king few had titles as the or no restrictions. accessto with people who denote those who had careers hnti-9 pr-r3, sd3wty-bity (htmw) and whm-33-n-nsw lord. their to they the were able approach palaceand within

1.1.12. Other sorts of interaction Texts reveal social and political relationships between the king and his people, as in the following examples. The autobiographical inscription of Wni, from his tomb at Abydos, be `judge'. He his by Pepi I to gained rank among the courtiers and a relates promotion 292 an income as a functionary of the pyramid temple. The passagereads:

`I was a child who tied the knot underthe reign of Teti. My office was Overseerof the Overseer become] had the [When I hnti-9 (then) I of the pr-r3.293 pr-Inew. was shd of Robbing Room under the Majesty of Pepi, His Majesty appointedme in the office of While his Town. Pyramid (skirl) Sub-Overseer Priests my office of of companionand of filled being his heart [...... ] His Majesty that with me of made me sib r-Nhn, was beyondany other servant(b3k) of his. I heard matters alone with the chief judge and harem for in king, in [I the and the the royal nameof vizier everyprivate matter. acted] his, (sr) because 6-Great-Houses, Majesty His the trusted me more than any official of 294 his'. (b3k) (seh) his, of morethan any noble of more than any servant `While I was seniorwarden of Nekhen, His Majesty made me a sole companionand imy-r bnti-9 pr-113. I replacedfour overseersof hntf-J pr-33 who were there. I acted king's in doing His Majesty the to path, and according what stp-s3, making praises it for in I Majesty His that very much. me attending. acted every respect so praised When there was a secret charge in the royal harem against the queen Wrt-kits, His Majesty mademe go to hear (it) alone.There was no chiefjudge and vizier, no official there, only I alone, becauseI was excellent,becauseI was rooted in His Majesty's
292 Urk I, 98,12- 99,8. 293 The function imy-r bnri-J pr-113 appearsin the later Fifth Dynasty. The bntl-J of the royal pyramids were the peoplewho suppliedthe essentialritual servicesin washing, clothing and feeding the `god'. SeeEyre, in Powell (ed. ), The ), Labor in the Ancient Near East, 110. Cf. Eyre, in Eyre et al. (eds. UnbrokenReed, 110-111; Andrassy argued that the title bntiw-. with high ranking persons in the Fifth Dynastyis not only directly associated of care-takingand provisionsbut also a sign with aspects of closeconnectionbetweenthe king and high officials. SeeAndrassy, in Kurth, Agyptische Tempelstruktur, Function und Programm, 312; Goedicke,WZKM 88 (1998), 116-118. 294 Translation after Breasted,Ancient RecordsI, 141 and Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature I, 18-19.


heart, becauseHis Majesty had filled his heart with me. I alone put (it) in writing, together with one (other) senior warden of Nekhen, while my rank was (only) that imy-r hnti-9 pr-s3. Never before had one like me heard a secret of the king's harem heart in but hear it, because His His I Majesty's Majesty was made me since ever, beyondany official of his, beyondany noble of his, beyondany servantof his'. 295 Wni beganhis careerunder Teti. He held the title Overseerof the pr- nfw, a
department in charge of food supply for the palace. He was then a Sub-Overseer (skid-) of the lints-g of the pr-r3, a function that probably attached him to the royal personage, since he also held the titles smsw n dw3t Elder of the Robing Room and Sub-Overseer (slid) of the Priests of the Pyramid Town. To these was added the function of sib r Nhn. ' He then held the title imy-r hnti-9 pr-9, in which his role was to introduce royal

attendants, present personal servants, or court bodyguards. In fact he `acted according to what his Majesty favours, in doing court duties (stp-s3), in clearing the way for the king, (and) in standing in attendance'.297

According to Wni's titles, two stagesof his career can be distinguished:The first is royal attendancein court, and the secondis state administration,particularly Room, Robbing dw3t WnI Elder When taxation. the recruitment and of was smsw n his Town Pyramid Priests of smr `companion',shd hm-ntr n nlwt f, Sub-Overseer of and sib r Nhn and Senior Warden of Nekhen he heard matters alone with the chief judge andthe vizier in every secretdealingwith the affairs of the royal Harem. He was a trusted person, in that he was in control of private and secret matters, but he also held other high ranking titles such as sib Chief Judge,and J3tyVizier. As Imy-r dint! -9 pr-r3 he advancedin his position to be more associatedand closer to the king, who ordered Wnt to hear the matter of a harem conspiracy alone: Being such a critical matter, which required high level of secrecy,that Pepi I excluded all highly ranked dignitaries,eventhe vizier, and entrustedthe casesolely to Wni. Assumingwe believe Wni's autobiography,it is highly possiblethat if this secretwas exposedit might have proved a seriousthreat to the political order or to the personof the king himself.Royal secretsin this connection could be confidential restricted matters; therefore Wni's the privilegedposition and the great extent of the king's trust in him. statement stresses
295 Urk I, 100,6 - 10,7; translation after Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature I, 19. 296 For this title seeFranke,SAK 11(1984), 209-217. 297 Eyre, in Eyre et al. (eds. ), The UnbrokenReed, 110-112.

. J. i


his personal associationwith the king, however the Wni's titles emphasise king's promotion of his courtiers is anothertype of king-subjectrelationship.It reflects king, before the the promoter comes a relation acted as a social event where inducement been have by friends. This an would practice surrounded companionsand for other officials to be honest to the king and trustworthy so that they would be his deal how king illustration It to the with used of rewardedas well. also providesan officials.
A further example is the autobiography of the architect Nhbw, 2' dated to the

Sixth Dynasty; the Boston text reads: `His Majesty hbsw praised me for it in the in beer bread (? ), His Majesty the and presence of officials. gave me golden-pendants Residence forth His Majesty the to to of company go great quantity. me a very caused I was so much more bearingit, until they reachedmy gate bearingthe present;because had in his king's Majesty the than sent excellent esteem architect whom any other before on the administrationof the royal domain',' father King by his Similarly, in the instructions300 King Merikare to addressed 301 Khety, the text reads: `Respect the officials! Make your peoplewell..... Make your great ones great, so that Great is the great one whose great ones are great, they will enact by your laws...... his Make is in king is has is he the nobles.... strong who councillors,wealthy who rich follow fighters, the you, your great ones great, advanceyour enrich young men who providewith goods, endowwith fields, reward them with herds'.302 Hr-hw }'s letter also raisesa political issueand social relationshipbetweenthe king and his official. The context indicatesa political relationship as Hr-hw f informs from Yam, together with journey in which he descended the king about his successful his army. Reporting such a messageto the king indicates that the king should be
298 There are two inscription texts of Nbbw, which form a descriptionof his occupation.The two texts adorn the jambs of a doorway in the chapel; the left-hand jamb (now in Boston), and the right-hand jamb that (now in Cairo). First the Boston text begins with an opening statement including the mentionof the three missionsallocatedto Nhbw by King Pepy I. Then the Cairo inscription continues with the mention of a fourth mission. This is followed by a number of titles and honoursbestowedon him by the king: Dunham,JEA 24 (1938), 1-8. 299 Urk I, 218- 219; translation after Dunham,JEA 24 (1938), 2. 300 Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature I, 98. 301 Golenischchev, Les Papyrus Hieratiques No 1115,1116A et 111B de I'Ermitage Imperial a StPetersbourg,10.42 and 45. 302 Translation after Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature I, 99-101 and Parkinson,Story of Sinuhe, 218-221.

51 informed with up to date information about every voyage or expedition 303 The king not only accepted Hr-hw f's gift, but also, promised to reward him for it. Accepting such a gift reflects a social relationship and complete act of communication: sending of by Hr-hw f to the king and receiving the letter from the king promising rewards. gifts Such a royal letter would, no doubt, be a mark of honour for the recipient from the king.

1.1.13. Kings' contact with their subjects from battlefield texts

During the New Kingdom, in an attemptto keepthe statepeacefuland secure,the king 3oa in leading the the military campaigns. The was person charge of the army and Egyptians also chose to use the motif of a war council between the king and his 3os importance decisions. his advisorsto stressthe of the monarchandthe superiorityof The battle of Oadesh

The battle of Qadesh3o6 reflects the style of a new era, which replacesthe ancient symbolic scenesof `smiting the enemies',with detailed representations of Pharaoh's 30' his wars against enemies. The text focuseson the personalrole of the king: `Now, His Majesty was all alonewith just his followers'. 308 `His Majesty had drawn the first battle line from all the leadersof his army'. 309 `Then one cameto report it to His Majesty.' Then His Majesty appeared like his father Montu. He took his adornmentof war, and presented himselfin his coat'of mail'. 310 `Now, His Majesty was after them like a griffin. I slaughteredamong them, without letting up. I raisedmy voice to call out to my troops, saying,"Stand firm! Be firm of heart,my troops! Seemy triumph, (all) on my own!". '31
303 He might haveplayed his role as Royal Messenger in a Foreign Country: seeValloggia, Recherche sur lesMessagers`wpwtyw', 210. 304 Wen-Peng, in Congresso Internazionale di EgittologiaAtti II, 270. 305 Spalinger, Aspectsof the Military Documents,101; Faulkner,JEA 39 (1953), 42. 306 The textual record is publishedby Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions II, 2-147; for a full translation II; Gardiner, The KadeshInscription of Ramesses seeHartman, TheKadeshinscriptions of Ramesses 11;the text of the "Poem" and the `Bulletin" has been translated by Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature II, 57-72. Cf. von der Way, Die TextberlieferungRamses II zur Qades-Schlacht, Analyse und Struktur, Goedicke,Prespectives on the Battle of Kadesh. 307 Hornung, in Donadoni (ed. ), TheEgyptians, 293. 308 KRI II, 21,5; translation after Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions II, 4. 309 KRI II, 23,12; translation after Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions II, 4. 310 KRI II, 28,1-2; translation after Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions II, 5. 311 KR! II, 55,1-56,4; translation after Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions II, 8.


`Now, when Mnn3 my shield bearer saw that a large number of chariots surrounded he his body. Then, fear heart he became His entered sank, and great weak. me, then Egypt 0 the lord, 0 "My His Majesty, on of to great protector ruler, good mighty said day of battle, we stand alone in the midst of the enemies! See the troops and chariotry have abandonedus. Why do you stay to save them? Let. us get clear, and you will save bearer, his `Be Majesty Usermaatre Setepenre. Then His to shield said us, my chiefs, firm! Be firm of heart, my shield bearer! I will enter into them like, the pounce of a falcon, killing, slaughtering, felling to the ground". '312

by his shieldbearer (krrw) named II was accompanied In the battle, Ramesses in his chariot as stated in the Poem, acclaimingthe king's action. Later, in Mnn3,313 in found I 314 king `They 272-3 the oneswhom states: were of the poem, the paragraphs bearer (ktn) Mnn3 the shield the midst of my enemy together with my charioteer drove Ramesses (krllw)'. In this context, Schulman315 the chariot and that comments in bearer', `shield `chariot that so the secondman servedas a subordinate warrior' and just bearer have than a the engagement performed more of the war, the shield would bearers illustrate 316 helps The ' the text position of shield ceremonial or court role. also, during Ramesside times, which appearsto be in the service of the king, their titles 317 God'. Good beingqualifiedby suchphrases `of `of His Majesty' the or as Following the battle, text then continues: `Then, my army cameto praiseme, their faces [amazed] at seeingwhat I had done. My officers cameto extol my strong arm, and likewise my chariotry, boasting of my 318 name' `It was they whom I found in the battle with the charioteerMnn3, my shield bearer, and with my householdbutlers who were at my side, those who are my witnesses 319 fighting'. regardingthe

312 KRI II, 66,1- 69,16; translation after Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions II, 8-10. 313 The verb kri, `draw near', `attend', underlines the primary employmentof a crew as someone who the notion of a court duty rather than attendsanotherperson.When this involves royalty it strengthens a military one: CDME, 208. 314 KRI II, 83.6-16. 315 Schulman, Military Rank, Title and Organisation in the Egyptian New Kingdom, 67 and 114. 316 Thomson,JEA 83 (1997), 218-220. 317 Edgertonand Wilson, Historical Recordsof Ramesses III, 8. 318 KRI II, 74,12- 75,10; translation after Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions II, 10. 319 KRI II, 83,10- 84,10; translation after Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions II, 11.


in his in `Reachingsafelyin Egypt, at Pi-Ramesses, palace great victories, and resting 320 dominion, like is in his horizons'. Re who of life and
In the "Poem" there are two speechesof the king to his army, one in which he king his "Bulletin" him face foes In the the them to the own. on of neglecting accuses likewise blames his army officers for deteriorating to supply him with exact information his king's forces. Hittite In the this the the criticism of army of context, point regarding is a kind of warning intended to make certain that something similar would not take 321 in future. place again

kings' Although Spalinger322 the that powers over their portraying argued in inscriptions Egyptian theme military writing, standard of enemies military was a Ockinga focused on the unique position which the king held in the battle of Qadesh, king him to Ockinga Amun. the the the of prayer and compared compared with god Amun and the words of the king to his soldiers;he noticed that the performanceof the 323 Amun. army toward the king was a parallel reverseof the king's behaviourtowards in the design of the Qadeshbattle' reliefs and the Ockinga pointed out that `changes accompanying texts could be connected with a development in Ramesses' he dogma kingship'. He that the the that this reason understanding of noted was of 324 himself in Abu Simbel the gods. placed a relief at reliefs accompanying The heroization of the king was a standardthemesoften displayedduring the II during their New Kingdom. For example,depictionsof ThutmosisIII and Ramesses first campaigns focus attention to the pharaohas a hero.325 However, Bolshakov and Soushchevskiargue that the hero's icon might differ yet he is oriented towards devastation, destroying if he deed, be this through and even also would made a good evil. They added`he is essentiallysuch a fighter whose life is dedicatedto overcoming 326 forces'. opposing

320 KR! II, 100,1-10; translation after Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions II, 14. 321 Cf. Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature II, 57-72. 322 Spalinger, Aspectsof the Military Documents,225. 323 Ockinga, CdE 62 (1987), 45. 324 Ocldnga,CdE 62 (1987), 48. 325 Wildung, LEI111,1152-1153. 326 Bolshakovand Soushchevski, GM 163 (1998), 9.

54 Ahmose son of Abana The Autobiography of Tub-msson of 7b3n3is carved on the walls of his rock-tomb at city of El-Kab in two parts. On the right hand wall is a standing relief showing 73h-ms accompaniedby a figure of his grandson Phri. The text reads: `The admiral Yhms son of 7b3n3Abana the justified, he says: "I speak to you, all people. I inform you of the favours that came to me. I have been rewarded with gold in female land, times the the slaves as well. seven presence of and with male and whole I have been endowed with very many fields. The name of a brave man is in what he has done. It will not perish in this land forever". '327

`ThenI conveyedthe King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Djeserkare,the justified, when he sailed south to Kush, to enlarge the borders of Egypt. His Majesty smote that bowman (= the Nubian chief) in the midst of his army, and they were carried off in had fetters, noneof them escaping, if fled destroyed they those never as and who were been.Now, I was in the front of our army and I really fought. His Majesty saw my courage.I brought two hands,and presented(them) to His Majesty. Thesehis people andhis cattle were hunteddown. Then, I brought a captive, and presented(him) to His Majesty.I brought His Majesty to Egypt from the Upper Well in two days.Then, I was rewarded328 with gold. Then, I brought away two female slavesas booty, apart from 330 329 thosethat I presented to His Majesty. Then, I was appointedfighter of the ruler'. The text revealsa kind of direct interaction between 73h-msand the king, in king. two ways. The first is the bravery of 73h-ms, the the of attention which catches The secondportraysthe honoursand reward to 73h-ms by the king.331

327 Urk IV, 1-11; Schulz, in Kessler and Schulz (eds. ), Gedenkschrif fr Winfried Barta, 315-352; Urk IV, 1,16-2,6; Vandersleyen,Les Guerres d'Amosis, fondateur de la XVIII e dynastie, 17-87; translationfollowing Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature II, 12. 32$ He is describedas being rewardedwith gold seventimes. The reward mentionedin Urk IV, 7,16 appliesboth to the two hands and to the skr-enhmentioned in Urk IV, 7,13 which might conclude that the killing of enemy soldier during battle, proved by the taking of a hand, was rewarded with gold. Lorton, JARCE 11 (1974), 53. 329 The statementUrk IV, 7,9-11 suggests that the king personallyviewed the deedand his presence explainswhy the handswere taken directly to him rather to the Royal Herald. SeeLorton, JARCE 11 (1974), 53. 330 Urk IV, 6,16-8,2; translation following Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature II, 13-14. 331 Schulz,in Kesslerand Schulz (eds. ), Gedenkschrift fir Winfried Barta, 350-352.

55 The stela of Kha-Sobek

in the Manchester Museum describeshis The Middle Kingdom stela of Uw-sbk332 333 king during The text reads: the courseof a war. relationwith the
`The civil administrator 334of the city [d33] says: I was born [in] year 27 under the Majesty of the King of Upper and Lower Egypt Nebkawre true of voice. The Majesty of the King of Upper and Lower Egypt Kha-kau-re, true of voice, arose as dual king on the Horus Throne of the Living. His person caused that I perform work in fighting behind335 and beside His Majesty with 7 men of the residence, and then I was efficient (spd) beside him. His Majesty caused that I would be appointed a follower (fmsw) of 336 head'. I 60 the ruler and was given

king. It between The text stresses Vw-sbk the the closeness and relationship mentionshis direct connectionto the king twice. Once during the course of the war, his king him fight beside him, him the to to roles asks where as part of probably protect bodyguard, his implying high level from king towards the official. as so a of confidence The secondtime Hw-sbk mentionshis efficiencyfor the king. The battle of Megiddo

The imy-r s m1 c Chief Military Scribe copied a record of the campaignof Thutmosis III, which was kept in the Archives of the temple of Amen-Re at Thebes,and which servedas the basisfor the Annual inscriptionsof ThutmosisIII on the walls of Karnak temple. This includes an account of the battle of Megiddo, fought between the Egyptians and the Syrians headed by the ruler of Qadesh. The Egyptian account mentions in detail the war meeting of the king with his army officers and the the arrival at progression of the troops before the battle takes place.The text describes Yam andthe council of war: `Year 23, first month of summer,day 16 at the town of Yam. [His Majesty] ordered a consultationwith his powerful army, saying: "That [wretched] enemy of Qadeshhas
332 The stela is the earliest Middle Kingdom textual evidencefor an Egyptian existencein Palestine. SeeBaines,in Osing and Dreyer (eds. ), Form und Mass. Festschrift f fr Gerhard Fecht, 43. , 333 Sethe, Lesestcke, 82,22 - 83,4. 334 Cf. Urk IV, 1093,4. 335 Baines, following the translation of Wilson, renderedthe word lt as 'behind'. He suggestedan alternative, to be `perform work as a fighter-in-the train beside': see Baines, in Osing and Dreyer, Form und Mass, 46 336 Translation after Baines,in Osing and Dreyer (eds. ), Form und Mass, 46.


come and entered into Megiddo. He is [there] at this moment. He has gathered to himself the chieftains of [all] the countries [which used to be] loyal to Egypt, [from] as far away as Naharin, consisting of the [countries] of Kharu, Kedou, their horses, and 037 their troops".

The adviceof the officers:

`They said before His Majesty, 338 ' ". narrow? "How can one go [upon] this road which is so

The decisionof the king:

`Then, [there were brought in] reports [concerning that wretched enemy, and there further discussion] was on the subject of [that] plan of which they had previously spoken. What was said by (?) the Majesty of the Palace (stp-s3), L. P.H.: "[As] I live, as Re loves me, as my father Amun praises me, as my nose is rejuvenated with life and power, I will proceed on this Aruna-road, let him among you whose heart is on these roads you have mentioned go (on them). Let him among you whose heart is on following My Majesty come (this way)" 339

Departurefrom Yam: `[And His Majesty causeda proclamationto be made] to the whole army: "[Your 340 Victorious lord will leadyour marches is i, ' v. Q)] upon on that road which so narrow. `Behold,His Majesty took an oath saying"I will not [permit my powerful army] to go in front out of My Majesty in [this place]", for His Majesty desired(?)] to go out in front of his army himself. And every man was causedto know his order of march, horseafter horse,while (his Majesty) was at the headof his army'. 34' The campin the plain of Megiddo:

`HisMajestyarrivedat the southof Megiddoon the bankof the brook Kina at seven
hours from the turning sun.Then, campwas set up there for His Majesty, and an order was given to the whole army, saying:"Prepareyourselves.Make ready your weapons, for one will engageto fight with that wretched foe in the morning, becauseone
15 ... .

337 Urk IV, 649,2-10; translation after Faulkner,JEA 28 (1942), 3. 338 Urk IV, 649,14-16; translation after Faulkner,JEA 28 (1942), 3. 339 Urk IV, 650,15-651,9; translation after Faulkner,JEA 28 (1942), 3-4. 340 Urk IV, 652; 2-4; translation after Faulkner,JEA 28 (1942), 4. 341 Urk IV, 652,5-11; translation after Faulkner,JEA 28 (1942), 4. 342 Urk IV, 655,12- 656,4; translation after Faulkner,JEA 28 (1942), 4.


`One went to rest in the tent of L. P.H. The officers were provided for, rations were released to the followers, and the sentries of the army were posted, having been told, "Be very steadfast and very vigilant. Watch for life at the tent of the king! " One came to say to his Majesty, "The coast is clear, and the southern and northern troops are safe likewise". ' 343 The battle of Megiddo conserves an account of a consultation 344between the

king and his advisors, which is described as the `audience-hall motif


`Knigsnovelle'.When the army council met, they suggested that the king should take the saferoads,whereasthe king hasdecidedthe direct way to Megiddo, as he assumes that the enemiescould believe that he is frightened of them. He also says that his aas his desire, indication if his towards soldiersmay take the saferroad they care an of interaction but he leads The that through soldiers also stressing personal example. betweenthe king andthe army officials canbe describedas follows: a- Introduction. b- Announcement of the problemandthe royal solution. from counsellors. c- Response d- The announcement of the royal decision. e- Approval, aswell as subordination,from the advisers. f- The outcomeof the problem,which is a success due to the royal decision. inscription of Amenemheb 346who played a part in the Asiatic campaigns of The inscription of 7mn-m-h3b, ThutmosisIII and also servedunder AmenhotepIII, reveals a sort of a relationship betweenhimselfand the king on the battlefieldsof Negeb andNaharin. The officer, lmn-m-h3b,says: `I was very faithful to the sovereign,L. P.H., devoted to the king, usefully minded to the King of Lower Egypt'. I followed my lord in his expeditionsin the northern and the
343 Urk IV, 656,5-16; translation after Faulkner,JEA 28 (1942), 4. 344 For later examples for discussion between the king and his advisors, cf. the Karnak stela of Sheshonk I, Legrain, ASAE 5 (1904), 38-39; Redford, JAOS 93 (1973), 10; Tanis. stela of Psammetichus II, see Sauneronand Yoyotte, BIFAO 50 (1952), 173-174. For the stela of Anlamani seeMacadam,Templesof Kawa I, 44-50, pl. 16. 345Bolshakov and Soushchevski,GM 163 (1998), 22; cf. Faulkner, JEA 39 (1953), 42; ShirunGrumach,in Eyre (ed. ), Proceedingsof the SeventhInternational Congressof Egyptologists, 1068. 346 Urk IV, 890,897; Lepsius,ZAS 11 (1873), 3.


southern country. He wished that I would be in attendance at his feet, while he was battlefield his the of upon power, while his might gave confidence to the heart. I made in a capture the foreign land of Negba, and I brought three Asiatic men as prisoners. When His Majesty came to Naharin, I brought three men as captures there, and I set them before his Majesty as prisoners'. 347 In reciting his military deeds during the reign of Thutmosis III, 7mn-m-h3b

his between him and the king through phraseslike mrr f 1w. 1 close relationship stresses m iry-rdwyfy `He wished I would be one in attendanceon his feet'. Amenemheb further continues with accountsof similar achievements, with stresson the rewardsand favour they brought from the king. Like 73h-ms he seeingand approving son of 7b3n3, deeds done by his close associate, that reinforce that association as personal relationship.

1.3. King's decision

in The questionarisesof the effectiveness In in king the the of council of war or peace? other words, how reality is the descriptions of the council and to whom the final decisionregardingthe solution of problemswas?Was it a duty completelyascribedto the king or did the king's advisors and messengers play the main role in resolving different aspects. Although Seidl argued that the Old Kingdom sovereignscontrolled the state accordingto their wi11348 and Hermannclaimedthat the king was the only personwho 349 had the capabilityto begin the decisionand he is always successful, Lorton stressed that the ruler allowed his courtiers to go up against his opinions, yet they were He basedhis evidence requiredto follow the royal choice once it hasbeenannounced. on Thutmosis III's council on his way to Megiddo during which the king did not " ignorethis procedureof discussion. Dziobek3s'discusses the narrative sequence of the audienceat which the king approvedthe appointmentof Wsr-7mn,as `staff of old age', for his father the vizier. He compares this with other texts that may serveto illustrate the topic `decisionof the
347 Urk IV, 890,6- 891,1; translation after Breasted, Ancient RecordsII, 230. sas Seidl,Einfhrung in die gyptischeRechtsgeschichte bis zum Ende desNeuenReiches, 16. 349 Hermann,Die gyptischeKonigsnovelle, 19. 35 Lorton, JAOS 99 (1979), 464. 351 Dziobek,Denkmler des Vezirs User-Amun,16-20.


king'. Dziobek divides the relationship between the king and his advisors, regarding is king the first into the The that three suggests category categories. consultations in bases his texts: He evidence on a number of single decision-maker of the empire. from I Thutmosis 1,352 Senwosret leather the Berlin stela of roll of particular the 355 353 In these Hatshepsut. Abydos, the stela of Nitokris354 and the Punt expedition of Senwosret leather King Berlin In the takes roll, place. examples a royal council build the decision his temple to giving the without a new subordinates with confronts king impression the that for his decision. the Therefore the reader obtains reasons The for decision the is is the council. necessary capable of making alone the one who her here the Hatshepsut Punt expedition of queen states reflects a parallel case: decision to send an expedition to Punt, although why she does this decision or came to the decision is not revealed to the reader.

In the secondgroup of texts there is discussionand consultationbetweenthe king and his advisors.Dziobek quotes a number of examplesincluding: the Kamose 357 356 Quban `Megiddo Battle', the Annals III Thutmosis stela of the the and at of, stela, 11.358 In such texts the officials surroundingthe king are askedto express Ramesses king Opposition in to the the may emerge,or their opinion order to resolve problem. king king. The by is the states and not accepted ratherthe advice given not acceptable his own decision, which is then accepted and acclaimedby his court. The stories thereforerepresenta social conflict illustrating the advisersas an autonomousgroup, discussing issueswith the king, yet the last word is for the king. Dziobek's third category consists of texts where the king and advisors are King in bases his He the to of story on analysisprimarily shown work clear partnership.
352 De Buck, StudiaAegyptiaca I (1938), 48-57. 353 Urk IV, 94. 354 This motif is an example from the Saite period. It refers to the installation of PsammetichusI's daughteras prospectivehigh priestess of Amun-Re. Caminos,JEA 50 (1964), 71-101. 355 Cf. Hatshepsut'sSpeosArtemidos Inscription, where the text summarisesthe queen's policies have done kt `I i ib. i ir. these Speos Artemidos. The through Hatshepsut'sspeech text at reads: n. nn m the fact that the queen's things through my personaldesire': Urk IV, 390,3. The statementstresses decisionis personal. 356 Habachi,TheSecondStela of Kamose,31-44. 357 Urk IV, 649,2-10; Faulkner,JEA 28 (1942), 2-15. 358 It is the beginning of the reign of Ramesses II, year 33, peret: the date of the stela is about 28 October 1277B. C. The main concernis how to overcomethe water shortageon routes to productive gold mining areasin the Nubian easterndesert,and how the king would solve this problem. On this II summonedhis courtiers for deliberation. It seemsthat from the early days of occasion,Ramesses Ramesses II's reign he used to discuss such matters with his courtiers. cf. Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions II, 214 ff; Institute Francaisd'archeologieOrientale, La stele de Kouban, 12.


Snefru in the Westcar papyrus, where the king not only approaches his advisors in a very personal manner, but also asks them for support in personal matters. The advisors are characterised as his friends. Yet, Snefru's behaviour is described as unusual action from a king as well as extraordinary concept of the conventional king. 3S9 It would be difficult to support Dziobek's argument based on that particular single text, which might be described as fictitous, but his comparison with the stele of Neferhotep, and with the Installation of Wsr-7mn, shows the validity of a type in which courtiers initiate hand, On the the king was the doer of the law. Few definite laws have advice. other come down to us, such as the decree of Horemheb36o,which begins with `the king himself has said', and the Nauri decree361which begins with `His Majesty has commanded', signify what the ruler has said as the law.

Frankfort assumed that the vizier set the king aside from the administration, 362 One heart that the vizier was the actual the supposing of of country's management. the vizier's roles, whose delegationof authority enabledhim to act as chief executive, andwho was also having an audience with the king eachmorning to report on the state of the nation, was to serveas a sort of filter, deciding which matterswere essentialto Important 363 king's decisionshowever were submittedfor the passthem to the notice. king's agreement.

359 Blumenthal,ZAS 109 (1982), 25. For more discussionseeChapterOne kings' behaviour. 360 Latestedition by Kruchten, Le Decret d'Horemheb. 361 Publishedby Griffith, JEA 13 (1927), pls. XXXVII- XLIII, 193-206. 362 Frankfort,Ancient Egyptian Kingship, 54. 363 Van den Boom, Duties of the Vizier, 310-331.



2.1. Pictorial Narrative Kingship required a standard arrangement for the appearance of the sovereign to the before Kemp is that This took the grand scale. argues public, on a place usually people. `in later times the Egyptian sources make much of the `appearance of the king', and we built for dramatic this that great moment, setting each age sought a should anticipate king large basic the open space, an elevated place where elements: a around certain formal framing, be and a token palace where robing and resting seen within a could ' could comfortably and privately take place'.

The Heb-Sedcelebrationis the earliestrepresentation of the public showing of back dates Old Kingdom Sed-festival king. The to the time of the earliestrecord of an from his sun-templenear Abu Gurab King Neuserreof the Fifth Dynasty where scenes 2 festival. show sucha king In -earlierperiods, the displaysof the public appearances the are only of 3 The absence' indicate does depictions found in temples. an not of of royal audiences ideological his isolation of the king, but might be for other reasons, role and the suchas him. 4 In the Old Kingdom the king, who was above men and near ritual surrounding gods, ' has in depicted Radwan that the the tombs. argued was simply not private iconographyof the king can be found in depictions,which were out of the control of 6 depend found Yet, Hatnub. the royal palace,suchas the graffiti on these cannot we at depictionsas sourcesfor the interactionbetweenthe king and his subjects. During the Middle Kingdom, depictionsof the king are still not found in private E built by in in 60, A fragmentary TT is found the tombs. possibleexception scene a King have 7ntf-ikr by his Snt, to represented appears vizier and used mother which
1Kemp,Ancient Egypt, 57.
2 PM III2,317-318; Gohary, Akhenaten's Sed-Festival at Karnak, 7 3 Davies, Z4S60 (1925), 51.

4Hornung, in Donadoni (ed.), TheEgyptians, 284. SRadwan,Darstellungen, 1. 6 Anthes,Die Felseninschrifien von Hatnub, pl. 5; Galan, in Proceedingsof the SeventhInternational Congress, 419-428. 7 Davies-Gardiner, Antefoker, pl. XVI.


Senwosret III. Also, in tomb I at Asyut of the vizier Df3-h3py, he is shown standing in front of the royal titulary, (which appears inside a frame of the sky sign supported by a 8 pair of was sceptres). It is perhaps of note that both representations appear in tombs

the closestcontactwith the king. speciallymadeby viziers, those possessing By the New Kingdom, the contact betweenthe king and his subjectsseemsto
develop groups of scenes that are often depicted in the tombs: the rewarding9 or promoting of an official, the open-air review of foreign troops and representatives of the state, and the presentation of flowers or New Year's gifts to the king. This development is of significant cultural and historical interest, since it reflects the nature 10 kingship during the that time. of principles of

2.1.1. The promotion and rewarding scenes

The royal participation in promoting officials was one of the royal appearances that attractedthe New Kingdom artists from as early as the mid EighteenthDynasty. Interaction in scenes before the Amarna period

Four examplesare quoted here, from the pre-Amarna period, showing the different stagesof interaction betweenthe king, and the person to be promoted, as well as his council. This type of sceneappearsin four casesin the tombs of Wsr-7mn(TT 131), Rb(TT 100),Nb-7mn(TT 90) and 7mn-htp-s3-s (TT 75).' mi-Rr The tomb of Wsr-7mn

On the north side of the eastwall in the hall of the tomb of Wsr-7mn(TT 131)11 is an early scene of pictorial contact between the king and one of his officials, on the occasionof the official's promotion to the post of vizier.12The event is related in two On the right is a representation episodes. of Thutmosis III who is shown seatedin his
8 Griffith, Siut, 4. pl. 9 Kemp argued that the window of appearances was the location for the reward ceremonies,which were held during the festival program at Thebes.This probably took place only once or twice a year. SeeKemp, Ancient Egypt, 212;. for hswt cf. Guksch, Knigsdienst, 39-45; Schulman, Ceremonial Execution,116-149. 10 O'Connor and Silverman (eds. ), Ancient Egyptian Kingship. 11Wsr was the governor of the town and vizier. He is also the owner of the tomb 61 at Shiekh Abd el Qurnah;PM I, 246; Dziobek, Denkmlerdes VezirsUser-Amun,73-85, figs 131-5. 12 Installation text with commentary:seeDziobek, Denkmler des Vezirs User-Amun.


frieze decorated in baldachin. Its the of enthroned columns are royal a palace, with uraei from the top. A winged sun-disk is seen protecting the king's head. He is wearing the Atef crown, and holds his regalia, which consist of the crook and the flail. Behind him, 'shown in a smaller scale, is a human figure representing his ka. 13

In front of him standsthe aged vizier wearing a long robe and sandals.He is by the imy-dint,two `courtiers of the king' and Wsr- 7mn himself, whose accompanied is in `scribe the treasury the position of of god the temple of Amun'. In the council, which took place between the king and his courtiers, they inform the king that the vizier's power has declinedand he cannot carry on his position alone. They therefore ask the appointmentof a `staff-of-old-age'. They suggest that his son Wsr, whose current position is a scribe in Amun's temple, could carry on the duty, and 14 king him deputy for his father. the consequently as appoints illustrated The second'. episode, on the left wall of the scene, shows the processionof the new co-vizier to the temple of Karnak (?) with the intention of illustrating his appointment.The temple is depicted as containing a couple of pylons, placed on a high plinth, with a high-ceilinged gateway joining them. During the ceremony,the king is shown borne on a palanquincarried by eight men. He is seated fanis by his feet. a He on a stool, wearingthe blue crown and sandals on accompanied bearer,who is walking by the king's side carrying feather-fanin one hand and a piece of cloth in the other. An attendantwalks in front, turning back to hold a sunshade over the king. The processioncontinuesin front of him in two files. In the lower row Wsr7mnis shownwearing a long robe, with a cone of ointment on his head.He is holding a long staff and is barefooted.He is now obtaining his new titles of Royal Chancellor, Great Companion,and Overseerof the Capital. His father seems to be absentfrom the event, possibly becauseof his old age. Four men are shown in front of Wsr-7mn, carrying palm (?) branches.Six armed soldiersare shown with shieldsand spears.By their side are three men, applaudingto the rhythm of a drum made by another man. Four men are shown beating sticks." In the upper row a man is shown censing.These

13 Davies,BMMA 21(1926), 6 fig 3. 14 Davies,BMMA 21(1926), 48; Dziobek, Denkmalerdes Vezirs User-Amun,1-15. 15Gaballa,Narrative in Egyptian Art, 63; Davies,BMMA 21(1926), 50.


by in preceded are soldiersmarching the following order: three men with long staves, anotherthreewith throw-sticks, a drummerand an officer. The tomb of Rh-mi-R' On the south side of the west wall in the hall of the tomb of Rh-ml-R" TT 100,16is a depiction of another occasion where the King Thutmosis III is conferring the title of Vizier (t3ty) on the tomb owner.

On the right, Thutmosis III is shown seatedon the royal throne, wearing the Atef crown and holding the crook and flail. Behind him is an illustration of a human figure representing his ka.'7 Before him probablystandsRh-mi-Rehoweverhis figure is 18 lost. Above is inscription duties the scene an entirely of the vizier. mentioning the After his audiencewith the king has terminated,he is shown leaving, carrying a long by six men. staff, proceeded The tomb of 7mn-htv-s3-s

On the south wall of the hall of the tomb of 7mn-htp-s3-s is an illustration of TT 75,19 his promotion as a SecondProphet of Amun. The scene, first The two shows episodes. episodeprobably showed Thutmosis IV, who would have been enthroned, but his figure is completelylost. The secondepisodeshows Nn-htp-s3-s moving to the right side, with a cone by an official who of ointmenton his headand carrying a long staff. He is accompanied is depictedas holding a long staff as well. They are precededby four men. All are met and congratulatedby 7mn-htp-s3-s's wife, his daughter and three other women, who might be membersof the household.Each is carrying a sistrum and a menat. Joining the procession are three files of men.

16 Davies, TombofRekh-mi-Re at Thebes I, 15-17;II, pls. XIII-XVI. 17 Davies,TombofRekh-mi-Re at Thebes II, p1.XIII. 18Gardiner,ZS 60 (1925), 62-76; Davies, Tomb ofRekh-mi-Re at ThebesII, pl. XIV. 19 Davies,Tombsof Two Officials, 8-10, pls. XIII-XIV>

65 The tomb of Nb-7mn On the south side of the west wall of the hall of the tomb of Nb-7mn (TT 90)20 is a depiction of the occasion of his promotion. He has not received the new position yet, his but he is Ship, Bearer Standard Royal the the the the scene shows still of of as 21 Chief The promotion was Military Police of the promotion to the position of the . baldachin but him by in Thutmosis IV, a shown seated whose on conferred who was figure is completely lost. The sub-scene shows those attending the king, represented facing the king's direction. They include a servant carrying a stool, sandals and a bag. A file of soldiers, 22 is carrying shields, also shown. Moving towards them are Nb-7mn's servants, bread, hare, in file. bring They them an ox, a gazelle, a vegetables, arranged one with flowers and two jars in net-bags. Davies suggeststhat the whole formation represents a 23 king. return gift to the

In the royal audience Nb-7mnis seenraising his handsin a gestureof adoration. In anotherepisode,he is in the act of receiving the sign and warrant of his chargeof hand in his long kilt holding a staff a skirt and office. He is represented and wearing with a curved tip and a weapon which Davies describe it as `peculiar to nomad 24 tribes'. luny, a royal scribe,is shown presentingNb-7mnwith the gazelle-standard of the police of westernThebesand the warrant of his appointment(which is containedin a little tube). Above, is the descriptivetext in which the king says:`Now My Majesty, life, prosperity and health, has commanded to confer office on him (Nb-7mn) as chief 25 the the of police of west of the city'. The rest of the wall is occupiedby three registersof military police, of which Nb-7mnhas becomethe commander.At the top are sevenmen carrying standardsof three kinds. One type shows high featherson a dd symbol, another the sunshade, and the third is describedby Davies as a `plain tablet'. Behind them are six soldiers and a trumpeter.In the middle register,the two seniorofficers in chargeprostratethemselves and kiss the ground at the headof the troops. One of them is the `commandant of the
20He held the titles Standard-Bearer `belovedof Amun', Captain of Troops of the Police on the West tomb of Sheikh Abd el Qurnah; PM I, 184 (4). of Thebes, 21Davies,Tombs Two Officials, 34 of pls. XXVI-XXVII; Radwan,Darstellungen, 19. 22 Davies,Tombsof Two Officials, pl. XXVI. 23 Davies,Tombsof Two Officials, pl. XXVII. 24Davies,Tombs Two Ofcials, 35. of 25 Translation after Davies, Tombsof Two Officials, 35 pl. XXVI.


headed by in Tere'. Thebes, Behind them a standardsoldiers of are a number police bearer. They are armed with bows, and are shown moving to the right. In the third bows. body is They are of soldiers, armed with spears,shields and register another 26 left. moving to the Discussion

In the layout of tomb decorations,the promotion event is always representedin the hall. It occupieseither the north side of the east wall27or the south side of the west 29 28 hail. in it wall. In one case occupiedthe west sideof the south wall the Persons involved in such an event are: the king, the recipient, and the people Witnessing the event are: palace escorts, royal the attended royal audience. who andthe military escort. servants, In the first two cases,the king is ThutmosisIII, who is seenenthronedin a royal baldachinand wearing the Atef crown. A solar hawk is addedto the crown protecting the monarch'sheadfrom behindwith its wings. He is holding the crook and the flail, is depictedin the Osiris form, and his ka accompanies him. In the secondtwo casesthe 30 is lost. king is ThutmosisIV, who is also enthronedin a baldachinbut his figure In the caseof Wsr-7mnthe recipient is shown, in a standingposition, taking part in in the royal audience he is `scribe the the treasury god the temple of of while still a 31 32 is represented Amun'. been Rh-ml-Rr's figure has lost. 7mn-htp-s3-s walking to of the right sidewith a cone of ointment on his head.Nb-7mnis seenraising his handsin a in king. first The to the three gestureof adoration casesshow no particular manner which the recipient has to act before the royal audience within the ceremony of hands his is illustrated is in Nb-7mn fourth He the promotion. raising case an exception. in jubilation, a gesture that is extremely common during the Amarna period.33The is through the recipient not offered gifts from the king's own hand,but they are passed handsof intermediaries.

26Davies,Tombsof Two Officials, pl. XXVII. 27Seethe tomb of Wsr- 7mn(TT 131).

28Seetomb of Rh-mi-Re (TT 100); tomb of Nb-7mn (TI' 90). 29Seetomb f7mn-htp-s3-s (TT 75).

30Davies,Tomb Two Officials, 8 of pl. XIII; Ibid., 34 p1.XXVI. 31 Davies,BMMA 21(1926), 13 fig. 2. 32 Davies,Paintingsfrom the Tombof Rekhmireat ThebesI, 15. 33 Dominicus, Gestenund Gebrden,58-61; cf. Hermann,ZS 90 (1963), 49-66.

67 Evidence of interaction from scenes of the Amarna period The Amarna period is regarded as a breaking point in the artistic style and context of the manifestations of the king, focusing on depictions. of both his governmental duties 34 his life. This supplies us with a blend of sources that permit us to private and construct the public appearancesof the Egyptian kingship, as displayed in the private 3' The Amarna period scenes reveal a kind of tombs of the officials of that period . intimate communication and relationship between the king and his people. The tomb of 7v

A kind of communicationand contact relationshipbetweenthe king and his people is illustratedthrough a scene that occupiesthe north wall of the eastside of the hall in the 36 (Amarna 7y (fig. 25) 2 tomb of a-b). This scenepresentsa view of the court of the interpreted in front it. be The as window of appearances a of with portico sceneshould taking placein a walled courtyard, sinceunder the window the picture seems to show a is in doorways. front Access through a two to the the wall with window area of gateway,from which, in the secondepisode,7y is seenemerging. balcony, in The king is represented the a standingposition and wearing the on hprS crown, and accompaniedby his wife and queen Nefertiti, who is shown in a by three standingposition, wearing.a crown with three uraei. He is also accompanied two of them shown with a side lock, and the youngestlooking back at her princesses, 37 her is feature A the mother, touching chin. unique of representation that the whole 38Behind the royal family are family are shown as being apparentlycompletelynaked. the palacequarterswith pillars decoratedwith frieze of uraei. The sun disk Aten is king hand, the towards shown spreadingout its rays, which end with an mnh sign or a andqueens'nostrils. In the courtyard in front of the window standsly and his wife Ty, loadedwith 39 is bag kilt, is 7y their collars around tunic and a sash necks. shown wearing a which wide and long, and an upper one which is looped up in puffs so as to show the under
34Gaballa,Narrative in Egyptian Art, 68. 35Kemp,Ancient Egypt, 276. 36PM IV, T28- 230 (6) (8); Davies, El Amarna VI, pl. XXIX; Sandman, Textsfrom the Time of Akhenaten,21-29. 3' Gaballa,Narrative in Egyptian Art, 74 pl. XX. 38 Davies,ElAmarna VI, 21 p1.XXIX. 39Cf. Vogelsang-Eastwood, Pharaonic Egyptian Clothing, 66.



kilt. 40He is wearing sandals. He and his wife are raising their hands to receive more bounty of the king, showered down from the balcony on the occasion of their reward by the king. The exceptional presence of the wife of 7y here is probably because of her 41 rank and role as nurse and tutoress of the queen. Further gifts are heaped in front of them. These include collars, fillets, two cups with stands and two without, and also vases, signet rings, a pair of gloves and a pair of plain armlets. The crowd that witnesses the event within the courtyard are grouped according

to their social status.In the first register are two chariots,whose horsesare decorated holding has horses (the Each two the chariot men grooms) and another with plumes. two, shownon a larger scale,who hold the reins (the charioteers).The first part of the holding Egyptian secondregister represents of scribes a role of papyrus a group each in recording the happy event. The second and a pen. They seemto be wholly engaged but holding the not sameregister shows another group of scribes, palettes part of followed by foreign (Libyans, Nubians and Syrians).The third writing, representatives both bag kilts holding typical registershowsone group of men wearing and standards, of officers.Behind are a group wearing the triangular kilts typical of ordinary soldiers. This group is followed by another one, of scribes carrying palettes in their hands. Behind are a group of men with triangular kilts and featherson their heads.They seem long long to be soldiersof foreign origin. A representation two skirts and of men with kilts, carrying piecesof cloth, is positioned overlappingthe door. One would suggest that they might be gatekeepers. The fourth register shows another group of men with bag-kilts typical of officers. A vizier among them he is recognisableby his dress. Following them are four standard bearers with triangular skirts, Nubian bowmen 42 bag kilts, feathers (from heads Syria). Libya wearing and spearmen and with on their At the bottom, behind 7y and Ty, there are two attendants.Behind these, six men are performing a dance.It seemsthat each one is performing a different motion. The seventhseems to be their leaderand is raising his handstowards the balcony as if 43 king. In the next episode7y is shown emergingfrom the gates of the the addressing 44 illuminated by Aten's the palace, which are rays. He is seenloadedwith collars and is
40Erman, Life in Ancient Egypt, 207. 41Davies, El Amarna VI, 21.

42Davies,ElAmarna VI, pl. XXIX. 43Gaballa,Narrative in Egyptian Art, 75. 44 Davies,ElAmarna VI, 75, pl. XXX.


larger is bestowed He is Here 7y the shown at a gloves. not wearing sandals. wearing friends, his his friends, him. Interestingly than to who come congratulate one of scale feet. his is in kissing 7y's one of relatives, shown prostrate position a or perhaps Another is shown in a kneeling position trying to touch 7y's hand. One of them is is bestowed boys hand. It that to take the seems young also came standing, and about to join in such an important occasion. A young boy is seen raising up his hands to salute 7y. Servants, divided in registers, follow him carrying the royal gifts on trays and

kilts. The upper register shows three chariots with their grooms triangular wearing 7y in in hands. They to their convey row carrying are an waiting upper whips who are 4' his friends followed by They men wearing of another row a group are containing and . bag tunics typical of officers. All havethe gestureof raising their arms most probably to salute7y. Precedingthem are two men, one of them in a prostrate position kissing the earth, and the other about to take up the sameposition. This group is followed by other men who are in a standingposition, raising up their handsto, salute7y, wearing typical of ordinary soldiers.Another row shows triangularskirts, and holding standards be bag holding to tunics officers. a group of menwearing and standards, who seem All are in the attitude of congratulating7y. One would interpret them as being in a circle aroundhim as all of them are salutinghim for being rewardedby the hand of 'are the police posts along the road where the king. In the top row, in the background, is borne The three two six standards are erectedon squarestandard platforms, on each. by by troops dressed is borne in a simpleloincloth, while the sunshade troops standard dressed in the long girt-up tunic. By each platform a guard sits on a cushioned-stool. They are keepingan eye on what is going on through the help of street boys who run in andbring the news. There we read an interesting conversationbetween a guard and a boy. The ". The boy replies, guard asks him "For whom is this rejoicing being made my boy? "The rejoicing is being made for 7y, the father of the god, along with Ty. They have beenmade people of gold!". Another guard tells a boy to, "Hasten, go see the loud rejoicing, whom it is, and come back at a run". The third guard has asked the same question-and the boy replies "Rise up and you will see: this is good thing which
45Gaballa, Narrative in Egyptian Art, 75.


has done father has for Ty! Pharaoh 7y, the the given them of god, and pharaoh "46 millions of loads of gold and all mannerof riches! The tomb of Twtw On the north side of the west wall of the tomb of Twtw (Amarna 8),47 is a representation of Twtw having an audience with the king on the occasion of his reward (fig. 3). The main elements of the scenesare the palace and the courtyard, in which the window of appearances is regularly depicted. The king is shown wearing a long, 48 fringe, in the courtyard of the palace elaborate sash with a seated on a stool and instead of leaning out of the window of appearances.He is wearing a crown with an (her him is it, his has feet. Behind the queen uraeus around unusual and sandals on upper part has been entirely lost), who is also seated on a stool. She is wearing a her dress has king, She to that two the of similar of with and she also wears sandals. daughters on her knee. They are accompanied by male and female servants and fan bearers, all depicted on a smaller scale in the bottom row. Over the royal couple is the sun disk Aten.

Before the king, in the courtyard, standsTwtw wearing a bag-tunic and a sash kilt, 49raisinghis handsin a gestureof jubilation. Behind him are (from top to bottom), are, in the first row: two chariots with their grooms (one of the horses is decorated by in the secondrow: foreign representatives with a plumed-headdress); characterised their dress;in the third row: soldierswith their military standards;in the fourth row: a group of menwearing bag tunics and kilts typical of officers. (One of them is shown in a prostratingposition); and in the fifth row: a group of scribeswho are busy recording Behind in front is the them, the the the event. gate of gatekeeper. courtyard, . Twtw's servantsbring gifts, including oxen. One of these is seenjust passing through the front gate of the courtyard, and two of the oxen have festive decorations including ribbons and plumeson their horns. Could they be gifts to the king in return

4GTranslation after Davies,ElAmarna VI, 23 p1.XXX; Gaballa,Narrative in Egyptian Art, 7. 47Davies, El Amarna VI, 10 p1. XVII-XVIII; Gaballa, Narrative in Egyptian Art, 73; Radwan, Darstellungen,21; Sandman,Texts from the Time ofAkhenaten, 50-54. 48Cf. Vogelsang-Eastwood, Pharaonic Egyptian Clothing, 81. 49Cf. Vogelsang-Eastwood, Pharaonic Egyptian Clothing, 66.

for Twtw's reward?The sixth and the seventhrows show a group of officials, including 5 fan, (? ), bearers the of the crook and axe.
After his reception by the king, Twtw is seenleaving the palace from the gate of the court, where the guards sit at their posts with their standards. Twtw is also met by the samekind of jubilation that we have seenbefore. Three chariots are shown, waiting to convey him home with his retainers. Also a few followers and women folk, perhaps his household or musicians, are clapping and singing. They are preparing to accompany Twtw's servants who are leading away oxen, and who are shown loaded with gifts, of s' included have full design king's bounty. Probably the the would vessels and meat, of 52 is the house of Twtw or the temple of Aten, since the decoration unfinished. The tomb of P3-rn-nfr

is depicted between king his Another scene the the on the revealing contact and people 53 include (Amarna (fig. 7) 4). Its P3-rn-nfr the tomb elements main northwestwall of of decoration The the palace,the window of appearances the shown on and courtyard. ' be facade detailed is the the than that seen of which can palace somewhat more interior background includes The the these rooms of elsewhere: scenes also someof of the palace. The king and the queenstandin the pylon-like window, which is adornedwith the =3-t3wy motif with prisoners,and flanked by two pillars decoratedwith heraldic bottom the riiyt-bird 'Inh the motifs: cartouches, and wassigns,papyrusplants and at adoring (dw3-rhyt).Unusually,a pair of columns,as well as the usual uraei tops these pairs it The be in front the separating pillars. unusual of columnscan seen of window, from the courtyard.Probablyall thesecolumnsshouldbe understoodas a singlerow. Akhenaten is shown leaning out, on a cushion, from the window of He is wearing the hpr crown and a collar from which the cartouchesof appearances. the Aten hangin pairs. Twin cartouchesof the Aten adorn his upper and forearms.He is also wearing a long detailed sashwith fringe. The sashis in a style more usual for women, like the princessesshown behind, and is not the normal style for Egyptian
50 Davies,ElAmarna VI, 7 pl. XVIII; Radwan,Darstellungen, 29. 51 Davies,El Amarna VI, p1.XVIII. 52Gaballa,Narrative in Egyptian Art, 73. 53PM IV, 219-221, (9), (10); Davies, El Amarna, VI, 2-3 pl. IV; Sandman, Textsfrom the Time of Akhenaten,69-70.


her is his dress for kings. him Nefertiti, Behind to wearing a similar wife, men,or is her forearms. Aten husband's, The the on upper arms and scene with cartouchesof illuminatedby the rays of Aten, which clasp the body of the king and the queenas if is human hands, mnh them, terminating signs, and also a uraeus,which with protecting Behind the royal pair, on a separate row, are three princesses, who are shown unusual. king dress by They the type to their and queen. are a similar of accompanied wearing Details of the palaceapartments are also shown. nurses. In front of the window, in the courtyard, standsP3-rn-nfr, who is honouredby the king with collars. He is shown raising his arms. In front of him is a man wearing a bag tunic and sashkilt typical of officers. Behind, is a man wearing a triangular kilt, held bowl his lays hand hand he back P3-rn-nfr to a one on andwith other reaches who by a third man.Possiblyhe is rubbingP3-rn-nfr's body with ointment. Behind him is a long file of servantsengagedin carrying jars, basketsand the king's gifts which comprise collars, necklacesand bags of gold. A scribe is shown registeringthem. The lower register shows a row of servantscarrying gifts, moving 54 towards a side gate. In the top register is a representationof a cupbearerwho is from him foreign from jars. Behind the or representatives, pouringwine water are Nubia and Syria,and at the end of the samerow a soldier is seen' just about to prostate himself.The secondregister shows a group of men characterised by their bag tunics and sashkilts typical of officers, who are also witnessingthe event.In the third register the representation probably shows the notablesof the city, including the vizier and at least three fan bearers.An interesting sceneshows a man dressedin a long garment typical of that of the vizier. He is shown standingvery close to'the balcony, nearerto the balconythan P3-rn-nfr, and is stretchingout his hand as if to touch the hand of the king in greeting.Behind are two chariots standingwith their grooms. Then comesthe central entranceof the palacecourtyard, which is representedas a double gate set in " the wall. The rest of the event is incomplete and is badly mutilated. However, it is divided into five rows, four of which show P3-rn-nfr's servants bearing away the king's bounty, where only a few jars and basinsare distinguishable.The central row

54Davies,ElAmarna VI, 3 pl. IV. ssDavies,ElAmarna VI, 4 p1.IV.


showsP3-rn-nfr mountedin his chariot and driving home. In front of him is a group of him dancing. led by They singing meeting and are a woman with uplifted arms women S6 hall; few his be On the there the a part can wife. of seena probably north wall of
traces of the house of P3-rn-nfr, which is ;what the procession is shown moving " towards. The tomb of Ma-Rc I

The occasion of the appointment of, Mry-Re I4 as a High Priest of Aten is wellillustratedin a scenedepictedon the south wall of the west side of the pillared hall of his tomb (Amarna 4) (fig. 5).58It seemsthat the artist wanted to depict the moment king his Mry-Re from formally the the emerged appointed when palaceand window of I, who " is shown standing in the courtyard, to be a high priest of Aten. In the representationof the king emergingwith the queen they are accompaniedby their daughter Mrt-7tn, whose nameis given, and who is leaning,on a thick cushion, young The front and frame of the window are decorated out of the window of appearances. with geometric patterns. The cornice that surmountsthe wall is adornedwith uraei for have been discs faces figures The crowned with symbolicalprotection. and royal but it can be seenthat the queenhas her arm around her husband's completelyerased, his waist and right hand is stretchedout delivering gifts and collars to Mry-Rr I. The usualsundisk with descending rays also appears. In the courtyard the artist introducestwo separatefigures of Mry-R' I. Both give importanceto the central figure and movement in the scene.In other words, severalstagesof an action appearin one picture, of which Schafersaid `we are still from Renaissance following to accustomed on one another art a whole seriesof stages being renderedas a narrative in a single picture'.S9In the first depiction, Mry-Rr I is by his long shownkneelingand raising his handstowards the king. He is recognisable by white gown. Behind him is a troop of men, which representofficials, characterised their bag tunics and sashkilts. A vizier is depictedin betweenthem, noticeableby his long dress.Having receivedthe new post and his gifts Mry-Rr I is seen,in the second
56 Davies,ElAmarna VI, p1.V. 57Gaballa,Narrative in Egyptian Art, 73; Davies,El Amarna VI, pl. VII. 58 PM IV, 214-217(23); Davies,ElAmarna I, pl. VI-IX; Urk IV, 2003-2005;Radwan,Darstellungen, 30. 59Schfer, Principles of EgyptianArt, 227.


depiction, carried on the shoulders of his followers and his neck is loaded with 60 collars.
The top row shows troops of soldiers, characterised by their triangular skirts. The next register displays a group of scribes, each with palette, pen and papyrus in their hands. They are engaged in recording the event that has just taken place. The episodes outside the courtyard are shown underneath, and here the appointment scene takes place in two rows. It is badly damaged but we can still see servants looking after the gifts given to Mry-Rr I, including vessels on stands. To the left is a chariot with its is home. A I Mry-Rr to shown gathered crowd of people charioteer, waiting convey him. It honours happiness his the the with round recipient, probably sharing of new includes a group of fan-bearers, characterised by the fans in their hands, followed by a is interest little is female dancers. dancing Of with them and six a girl who group of 61 branch in her hand. waving a palm The tomb of Ma-R'

A sceneillustrating the relationshipbetweenthe king and his subjectsis portrayed on a(fig. 6 (Amarna 2) hall II Mry-R' east the sideof the south wall of the of the tomb of b).62This sceneshowsa wide architecturalsetting of the facadeof the palace,with the Above the uraeus-crownedframe of main elementbeing the window of appearances. the window are seen the four columns which support the roof. To the right is a be doors The to the two the representation of columnsof underneathseem courtyard. the side doors of the facade. The decorations on the framework of the window resemble those in the, tomb of Twtw, where the frame being decorated with Egyptian design. characteristic The king is shown leaning on a cushion out of the window of appearances,
wearing the hprg crown, and accompanied by Queen Nefertiti. This is the point where the king must hand down necklaces, one by one, to Mry-Rr II, on the occasion of his reward. The king is in the process of receiving the necklaces from the hands of the queen. She was supplied with them by the princesses Mrt-7tn. and Mkt-7tn. Their
60Davies,El. 4marnaI, p1.VIII. 61Davies,ElAmarna I, pl. IX. 62PM IV, 212-214; Davies, El Amarna II, pl. XXXIII-XXXVI; Akhenaten,29-32.

Sandman, Textsfrom the Time of


daughters Nfr-nfrw-7tn Nfr-nfrw-RI mnh-n are shown standing on a p3-7tn, and younger higher level. In the courtyard, just under the balcony, Mry-Rr II is shown standing and double his honours. his hands be He to to of collars, added receive will receive raising to the two which are already around his neck. He is wearing a bag tunic and a sashkilt, his head, his feet. in is Also the the and sandals on courtyard a cone of ointment on familiar crowd that witnesses the event. In the top row is a representation of a group of behind is them one of the outer gates which people were allowed to enter men, and through. Below is a gathering of foreigners, interesting due to the variety of the dress is head below fourth In they the third the representation gear and row which wear. and of two chariots with their grooms and with horses wearing plumed-headdresses.The fifth row shows a number of scribes who are busy making entries of the gifts. Behind Mry-Rr II are a file of men wearing bag tunics and kilts typical of officers, and four of them are shown holding standards. Among them is a vizier, characterised by his dress. A common feature is that all of them are wearing sandals on their feet, apart from the first one who is unique as he is shown with a sandal on his right foot but not on his left. In the sub-scenerows, Mry-Rr II is shown emerging from the palace gate with

his neck loadedwith the king's honours, followed by his servantscarrying all kinds of including gifts collars, cups and vessels. He is received by his friends who are expressingtheir joy by raising their hands. One of them is prostrate on the ground, probablywishing to kiss his master's feet. Mry-Rr's chariot waits for him behind. In the bottom register, he is shown getting in it, and he is salutedby another group of is Behind men. a representation of the harem.They join in the event by dancing, and one of them is holding a bunch of flowers. Little girls are also shown joining in the occasion. The whole parade seemsto be moving towards Mry-Rr II's house. This has enclosingwalls and a high gate, in front of which are two trees. A houseboyis shown showeringthe floor with water from a jar, while a doorkeeperis seenleaning against the door jamb.63

63 Davies,El Amarna II, pl. XXXIII; Gaballa,Narrative in Egyptian Art, 77; Radwan,Darstellungen, 28.


An unfinished scene on the east side of the north wall of the same hall
represents the king receiving Mry-Rr II on the occasion of another event of his 64 reward. On the right, is a sketch of a palace. In the courtyard, under the radiating sun in the centre of the scene, stands the king wearing the hprg crown, and the queen, but the scenehas not been completed. The familiar cartouches of Akhenaten and Nefertiti are replaced by those of Mrt-7tn (their daughter) and her husband Smnh-k3-R". The unfinished picture perhaps reflects the unstable condition in the capital, Akhetaten, in

the later yearsof Akhenaten'sreign or upon his death. Mry-Rr II, whose depiction was also left unfinished,is here shown standingon a stool and held-up by his friends, sincea man's headis visible at his foot level. He is to receivethe golden necklacefrom the king. His breast is alreadycoveredwith such marks of royal favours. A cone of ointment is shown fastenedupon his head. He is wearinga bag tunic and a sashkilt and is barefoot. He is being decoratedby a number of men who might be royal servants.Those gathering around him are probably his friendsor servants. Presentin suchevent are a group of men wearing bag kilts typical of officers, andbelow them are a group of fan-bearers. Royal Audiences and the Window of Appearances at Amarria

A royal audiencerequired preparationfrom both sidesuntil the moment of the king's At Amarna, the king's main royal residence,was the riverside palace, appearance. 65 in it both (fig. his He the 7 situated north where gained and a). privacy and protection family might have stayedthere to spendtheir leisuretime. At intervals, the king drove along the royal road to the centre of the city, probably for the parade of the public showingof the kingship. On his arrival at the king's house(which is represented as a 66 67 he in be smallerpalace), chargeof the worship at the temple, the occasional would reception of foreign tribute'68or holding audiences.It was also an occasion for the distribution of rewards to officials69and to announce their promotion to higher

64 Davies,ElAmarna II, 44 p1.XLI; Gaballa,Narrative in Egyptian Art, 77. 65Kemp,Ancient Egypt, 276. SeeSpence, EA 15 (1999), 14-16. 66Kemp,Ancient Egypt, 281; Kemp, JEA 62 (1976), 99. 67Tomb of Mhw; Davies,ElAmarna IV, pl. XV. 68 Tomb of Mry-ReII; Davies,El Amarna II, pl. XXXVII. 69 Tomb of Mry-ReII; Davies,ElAmarna II, pl. XXXIII.


70 So the king's house served as the king's office, where he met with positions. 71 decisions holding for and reviews. ministers makingpolicy
The houses of the officials were distributed through the north and south suburbs. For example, the house of the vizier Nht was located at the far southern end of the 72 in king his highest held between Contact the the of state and ministers was city. house. king's The officials and ministers the the city, and occurred within centre of 13 by is illustrated in tomb scenes. chariot, and this would reach the centre of the city

Following the king's journey from the northern palace, his residence,to the king's house where the royal audiencetook place, Kemp suggestedthat the king bridge driven by his have the royal road passingunder a chariot along would - which in have king's link house. He intended the then to the to the stopped palace would was facilities for dismounting and parking chariots was provided with which courtyard, (fig.7 b). The king then is assumed to have passed through the doorway on foot, till he back Here there were two rooms, which the of the window of appearances. reached by been have interpreted fitting for king to the used as rooms and queenassumed are 74 them beforetheir appearance to the audiencefrom the window of appearances. Kemp noted that `The window itself openedfrom a hall which must once have beencolumned,with three or four-storagerooms on one side,three of them were fitted out with the short partition walls to support shelves.Presumablythe gifts which the king was to distribute were collected and kept in them, and then as the reward doubtless its brought by took checkedoff course,were ceremony out an official, and 75 list'. on a Particularly noteworthy in such scenes is the window of appearances, a principle feature of the palace,which appearsfrequently in depictions of the Amarna period.76 From the window, the king appearsto his subjects and officials who are usually in in differences The the the to the them. gathered court receive rewards conferred on
70Tomb of Twtw; Davies,ElAmarna VI, pl. XIX. 71Kemp,JEA 62 (1976), 83. 72Kemp,Ancient Egypt, fig 91. " Kemp,JEA 62 (1976), 98. 74 Davies,El Amarna I, pls. X, XVIII, XXV, XXVI; Kemp, JEA 62 (1976), 83. 75Kemp, JEA-62 (1976), 86; Davies,El Amarna VI, pl. XVII; the fifth row showsa group of scribes busyin recordingthe event. 76 Cf. Redford, in Hommages Jean Leclant I, 489-491. The first depiction of the window of MDAIK appearances was on the walls of the temple of Hatshepsut of Deir el Bahari. SeeStadelmann, 29 (1973), 221-'242 pl. LXXVIII.


details of the window in number of depictionsmight show that there was more than 77 one window of appearances.
The depictions of the window focus on two elements: the external portico, which shelters the window, and the area of wall framing the window, its decorations, drawing the eye to the king. Badawy notes that `All representations in the tombs at `Amarna agree in showing a vertical opening, screen in its lower half by a wall topped with the sill of the window and framed by two jambs with a broken lintel and shut by a door leaves. Above are the upper parts of four papyriform columns supporting the two with ceiling of the loggia. Sometimes a porch on two to four columns is drawn rebated in side view. A podium with two lateral'stairs stretches along the base of the structure, at 78 door (fig. 8). either side of which a opens'

The spacebelow the window is sometimes shown as painted,for examplewith a 79 flower-patterned, in design. In other tombs, a group of motif organized, geometric standingcaptivesis. depicted, tied to, lotus and papyrus plants knotted with the sm3t3wy sign. However, the arrangementsof those foreign captives were sometimes 80 Kemp argued that the different. depicted facade window's was sometimes 8' unornamented, or perhaps`the artist has not felt himself to be too rigidly bound by 82 to actuality'. Kemp statedthe purposeof the rampsor stairsthat were usedto ascend the great altar in the Aten temple, to those used to ascend to the window of He basedhis evidenceon a sketchedwindow in the tomb of Mhw, where appearances. 83 "A four motif by flight the one of wedge-shaped projectionswas replaced a steps. of 84 dw3 is king from both of r zyt shown adoring the sides. When comparedwith the Medinet Habu window, the basicfeatureswere found to be similar, those featuresthat " in depictions later remainconstant the of palaces. Hlscherdescribed the window of appearances of the temple palaceof Medinet Habu (fig.9) as follows: `The window of the royal appearances..... like was constructed a doorway, but with a wooden railing acrossthe front...., where one may still find the
77Kemp,JEA 62 (1976), 88. 78Badawy, History Egyptian Architecture III, 33 fig. 18. of 79 Davies,ElAmarna I, pl. VI; Davies,ElAmarna III, pl. XVII. 80Davies,ElAmarna II, pl. XXXIII; Davies,ElAmarna VI, pls. IV-XVII. 81Davies,El Amarna II, pl. X. 82 Kemp, JEA 62 (1976), 88. 83Davies, El Amarna IV, XIV-XXIX; Kemp, JEA 62 (1976), 88. 84 Tomb of P3-rn-nfr; Davies,ElAmarna VI, pl. IV. 85Badawy,History Egyptian Architecture III, 33. of


later jambs door. in leaves The blinds like the two sockets which were of a swung frame increase The to the the above the window width of opening.... removed faces frieze The of of serpents. rear originally was crowned with a cavetto cornice and heads, inscriptions in double A jambs bore the row of prisoners' columns. royal Negroes alternating with Libyans or Semites, sculptured in the round, appeared to in Above two the them representations on each side occur support window sill... backs, king be their the to and the same effect was appears standing upon which in In living king the window sill there the the stood window... produced when actually is a groove into which apparently the wooden railing was inserted... The king entered' the window from his palace to view activities in the court ... Reliefs portray these in On king the west thickness, the the appeared window. various occasions on which he is shown, dressed in full regalia, entering the window and followed by two fanbearers and two sunshadebearers'.86

At Amarna the king is always depicted accompaniedby his wife, queen . 90 88 89 Nefertiti,87and five daughters, their two, three, or of them The position of the king in the palacevariesfrom one sceneto another.Most of the king's representations him depicts him leaning One the seatedon scene show out of window of appearances. 9' but in him Another the seatedon' a stool a stool courtyard of the palace. sceneshows 92In one casehe is represented in the hall of the palace. in a standingposition in the 93 courtyardof the templegranary. In The headdress his from king, to the another. one scene and garment,varies of 94 is bordered it instances, he is blue hprg In the most crown. one unusualcase wearing 9SAnother scenerepresentshim wearing the red crown. by uraei around his head.

86Holscher,Mortuary Temple Ramses III Part I, 40-41, pl. III. of 8' Gaballa,Narrative in Egyptian Art, 255; it appearsthat during Akhenaten's reign the artist was free to depict, the king accompanied by his family, before the public although this was not permitted before. 88Davies,El Amarna III, 13 pl. XVII. 89Davies,ElAmarna VI, pl. XVIII. 90Davies,ElAmarna II, pl. X. 91 Tomb of Twtw: Davies,ElAmarna VI, p1.XVII. 92 Tomb of? ritw: Davies,ElAmarna IV, pl. VIII. 93 Davies,ElAmarna I, pl. XXX. 94Davies,El Amarna VI, 3. 95Davies,ElAmarna VI, pl. XVII. 96 Davies,ElAmarna IV, pl. VIII.


97 his head. that It him fitting therefore, Another shows seems, cap close upon a with
there was no special crown or headdressfor the royal audiences. Usually the king wears in his standard royal kilt. In one depiction the king is but for in is dress, not women, normal a style which represented as wearing an unusual for Egyptian men, or for kings 98 One unique example, shows him and with his family king in depictions highly is the This and of uncommon as apparently completely nude. it always seems to be for religious symbolism. Could it be due to Akhenaten's the it be human body? Could with connected the style, an artistic admiration of has `It to Janssen that Janssen Amarna argued than and reality? art, rather concepts of do with belief, promulgated by Akhenaten, in the concept of `Living from Truth', and 100 daily not with practice'.

Nefertiti is shown either in a standing, seatedor leaning position, in the same from to king. headgear The the the representation queen varies of position as 101 is She king. is often the alone or accompanying representation,whether she helmet, is to a a as referred representedwearing the so-called cap crown, which 102 head her the following fitting, is It the with of shape close skullcapor. a royal cap. typical elongation of the Amarna period, and has a uraeus decoratingthe cap at the 103 junior blue forehead. Sheis sometimes crown or wearing a as wearing a represented '4 crown with a three-dimension uraeus. The recipient promoted or rewarded is usually shown in the courtyard in a his Both jubilation16 in his hands rejoicing. and standingposition15 a gestureof raising handsare usually raised high in front of his body.107 Other instancesshow him in a kneelingposition,18 but still raising his hands straight-in the direction of the king in

97Davies,ElAmarna I, p1.XXX. 98Davies,ElAmarna IV, pl. VI; cf. Tomb of Twtw, Davies,ElAmarna VI, pl. XVII. 99Davies,El Amarna VI, 21 pl. XXIX. 10 Janssen Growing Up in Ancient Egypt, 30. and Janssen, 101 Schulman,CeremonialExecution, 117. 102 Davies,ElAmarna III, p1.XVI-XVII; Davies,ElAmarna II, pl. XLI. 103 Ertman,JARCE 13 (1976), 63: the cap crown is attestedat least as early as the Thirteenth Dynasty and in periods other than that of Amarna. It was restrictedto kings who performed ritual acts. It was then adoptedas Nefertiti's crown. Also, it is suggested that by wearing the cap-crown she acts as a daughterorpriestesseither to the god or to the king as a god: ibid., 64; Samson, JEA 59 (1973) 48. 104 Davies,ElAmarna VI, p1.XXIX. '5 Davies,ElAmarna VI, pl. XVII. 106 Dominicus, Gestenund Gebrden,61 p1.13 d-e. 107 Wilkinson, Symboland Magic in EgyptianArt, 206. 108 Davies,ElAmarna I, p1.VI.


109 him by king, bestowed honours the the and while upon salutation, while receiving loaded with collars around his neck. In one case, he is shown as being carried by his " king. He is sometimes shown as from friends, in order to receive the necklace the 11' head. Other scenes represent him with a cone of ointment on his having shaved Kemp argued that the rewarded official would `receive some instructions or head.112 "3 king'. Davies that do the to to to asserts also say of and what of what reminder `even the prayers and biographical statements put in the mouth of the deceasedare also in dockets, legends the which we might short and professional compositions; and even hope to find a personal note, generally at El Amarna show signs of being stereotyped, 114 The question that arises is, does this imply a sort of preparation and too'. king? had before the audienceswith people arrangement, which took place

For the king's audience, the recipients' dressvaries betweentwo kinds of outfit. The first kind is a full dress,where the hem of the gown falls below the calf. This It for is familiar in the was class. this middle outfit, probably way, a gown, girded up it the tie long to at tunic, used was ornamental edging sashwith and a put on over a is "' loose A is kind gown of outfit a tunic with an upper garment. waist. The second fixed firmly by ties at the throat and then a secondtunic is worn over it, organizedin bulging folds."' The recipient is shown with sandalson his feet in two instances, 11 in design, Uuy3 The 7y. with a single strap, which sandalsare simple namelyof and ' 1 between In first they are shown clearly toes. the the other scenes second passes and bare-footed. as Although the recipient's reasonfor promotion or reward differs, the main item 119 Egyptians The is him honoured he is been to called one or more collar. offered while
19 Dominicus, Gestenund Gebrden,61. 110 Davies,El Amarna I, pl. VI.
111 Davies, ElAmarna VI, pl. XVII. 112 Davies, ElAmarna I, pl. XXX. 13 Kemp, JEA 62 (1976), 87. 114 Davies, ElAmarna IV, 4.

113 Davies,El Amarna II, pl. X; Davies,El Amarna III, pl. XVI. 116Davies, El Amarna VI, pl. XVII; Davies, El Amarna IV, pl. XVII; Vogelsang-Eastwood, PharaonicEgyptian Clothing, 53-71. 117 Davies,ElAmarna III, pl. XVI; Davies,ElAmarna VI, pl. XXIX. 118 They were madeof reeds,palm leavesor leather. SeePartridge, Transport in Ancient Egypt, 83. 119Gaballa,Narrative in Egyptian Art, 225. The reason stated for either promoting an official or rewardinghim differs. For example,Mry-Re I was rewardedbecause of his submissionto the teaching of the pharaoh,doing all that was said to him, while Twtw was rewardedbecauseof his love of the king. SeeSchulman,Ceremonial Execution, 15.1. The Egyptian official always acted `according to what his lord favoured' hsi, and that it is why texts are generally say that `His Majesty rewardedme


120 Such honorific decoration. fbyw this type of collar the collar, which was part of an 121 beads. heavy, four tightly to strung gold strands of collars were made of up Sometimes, other gifts were offered such as necklaces and bags of gold that are shown . In addition, cups of gold, vases, signet rings, a pair of displayed under the porch: 122 items, There to other are references gloves and a pair of plain armlets are shown. 123 land, for in depicted texts, unguents, the example grants of accompanying which are 124 drink. food and and

125 for Civil kinds distinguish between Texts also officials, the of rewards given. 126 bravery', `Gold hswt honoured while military officials of n with nbw example,were 127 differed the The by knt `Gold with the consistently gifts of value'. were given nbw n '28 in in dignitaries typically gold or silver, objects received officials' category:e.g. civil 129 land. likely besides to receiveweaponsand soldiers, gold, were whereas is by helped is When receivinghis honoursthe recipient sometimes a personwho his fixing his body the around neck. necklaces or with ointment130 showneither rubbing

Internazionale Congressb Sesto in discussion Cf. Eyre's it before than the anything court'. about more di Egittologia II, 116. Dynasty, 120 A few . bwy have survived, e.g. one from the intact tomb of a women of the Seventeenth inner in burial including Others in Qurnah. found the Tutankhamun's coffin and another one at were on the mummy mask. SeeWilkinson, Ancient Egyptian Jewellery, 108. 121 Wilkinson, Ancient Egyptian Jewellery, 117. 122 Davies, El Amarna VI, pl. IV. The king supplied his officials with gold and silver through the rewardceremony.SeeKemp, Ancient Egypt, 259. 123 Schulman,CeremonialExecution, 117. Any award of land by the ruler to his followers could only in king by the Land land. different It a three acquired acategories: concern royal comprises fell Land bto the that his territories. through of office, specifically military action against execution been had Property had been the and which rulers of previous crown. cunder which -control Altdgypten, Boden in Grund in Shafik Allara ), by Goedicke, (ed. und accumulated the sameprocesses. 232. 124lmn-htp, the High Priest of Amun, rebuilt the Karnak temple and was then rewarded. King IX, gave personal orders for him to be decoratedwith collars and to be given splendid Ramesses 457,5. VI, 455,10KRI II, 172 (505); food drink, PM of gold and silver, unguents, see and vessels In the autobiographyof the architect Nhbw, Sixth Dynasty, the text reads (lines 4-5): 'His Majesty (7), praisedfor it in the presenceof the officials. His Majesty gave me golden-pendants(nbw-mnb) breadand beer in very great quantity'. Dunham, JEA 24 (1938), 2 and pl. II; Urk I, 220,8-13. 125 Cf. Spalinger,Aspectsof the Military Documents,222-233;Trapani, in Pirelli (ed.), Egyptological Studies for Claudio Barocas, 117-118. 126 Seethe biography of Ahmose son of Abana. Urk IV, 32-35; PM V, 176-177; Vandersleyen,Les Guerresd Amosis, 89-100. 127 Seethe biography of Ahmose son of Abana. Urk IV, 1-11; PM V, 182; Vandersleyen,Les Guerres d'Amosis, 1'7-20.Cf. Deines,ZAS 79 (1954), 83-86. 128 E.g. Sn-nfrTT 96. SeeSethe,VS 48 (1911), 145; Schulman,CeremonialExecution, 116- 119.129 Trapani, in Pirelli (ed.), Egyptological Studies for Claudio Barocas, 117. 130 For the discussionaboutthe possibility that officials in Ancient Egypt were anointed in connection with a ceremonythat took placeat their installation into office seeThompson,JNES 53 (1994), 15-25.


132 In the Schulman, Davies has described such helpers as servants131 as attendants. and 133 helps, P3-rn-nfr, them II, Twtw Hwy, Mry-R" Pntw, the one who and cases of be described dress. It tunic as a with an upper garment, can sort of particular a wearing is is by, fastened loose then tunic the throat, ties, worn, -,, a second and at, gown a 134 by is in folds. bulging This that members of the upper was adopted a style arranged was high-ranking helper it imply the that position who was of a person class, so may in engaged the public reward procession.

It In the layout,of tomb decorationsthe event is usually,depicted in the hall.. It, in hall tombs the the at of the the group southern of wall west occupies south side of 135 Amarnaandthe southwall of the hall in the northern group of tombs. There are also 136 where from the scenes one wall to another. extend somecases The people shown witnessing such events include foreign representatives, " scribes recording the event, soldiers holding standards,probably officers, ' and high fan, Bearers the the crook and the axe, and servantscarrying gifts, state., of officials of 137 decorated The their grooms are shownwaiting, royal chariotswith are also present. 138 decorated Gaballa'4 for the feathers Davies139 that this stated and' event. with support A but do belong this. to scene to the not state evidence chariots royal couple, Akhenatenstandingin his chariot. The from the tomb of P3-nhsy,eastwall, represents The queen is shown horses,which pull it, are decoratedwith plumed headdresses. driving her own chariot, which is also decorated,follows him. This is an indication that "' decorated belong the to the royal couple; therefore, when private persons chariots 142 Karnak, Also, driving decorations in the chariots such are not shown. are shown
131 Davies,El Amarna VI, pl. IV. 132 Schulman,CeremonialExecution, 116. 133 Davies, El Amarna IV, pl. IX; Davies, El Amarna III, pl. XVI; Davies, El Amarna II, pl. XLI; Davies,ElAmarna VI, pl. XIX; IV.
134 Cf. Vogelsang-Eastwood, Pharaonic Egyptian Clothing, 66-67. 135 Gaballa, Narrative in Egyptian Art, 72. 136Gaballa, Narrative in Egyptian Art, 231. 137 Davies, El Amarna VI, pl. XVII.

138Horses and chariots were introduced to the Ancient Near East from the beginning of the Seventeenth Century B.C. and, towards the end of the period of the Hyksos rule, they appearedin Egypt around 1600 B. C.: Partridge, Transport in Ancient Egypt, 100. As a prestige animal, horses for war, hunting and short distancetransport. SeeJanssen, werekept exclusivelyby the upper classes, EgyptianHouseholdAnimals, 38. 139 Davies,El Amarna II, 37. 140 Gaballa,Narrative in Egyptian Art, 73. 141 Davies,ElAmarna II, pl. XII; Janssen, Egyptian HouseholdAnimals, 42. 142 The horsesof the chariot are shownundecorated. There is an exceptional sceneshowing the horses decorated with plumes,which may due to artistic error. SeeDavies,ElAmarna II, pl. XXXV.


to horses the the talatat143 assumed plumed-headdress, show of royal chariots wearing be a royal privilege. '" The plumes are represented continuously in the Amarna chariot 145 horses. Hoffineier but irregularly from illustrations, the they were princess' absent be headdress It function to an that the the seems remains unclear. origin and of argued Egyptian characteristic since chariot horses of foreigners are not decorated by such ' dated back be horses to Depictions can of plummed-headdress wearing plumes. '47 is depiction Thutmosis III on a Berlin scarab, where the carved with three plumes.

After the reward takes place a number of additional sub-scenes continue the being from is The the received palace,and recipient alwaysshown emerging narration. by his friends and/or relatives who congratulatehim. His chariot is also waiting for 150 149 148 instances, his house. he is driving him. Then In two the recipient towards shown be it but for is to Aten. The that to the temple might clear not a reason makes visit of ls' Aten. to give gratitude 152 The Aten rays fall In Amarna tombs the sun disk Aten frequently appears. down towards the nostrils of the royal couple protecting them. This therefore king, the between illustration the, and the tie the queen, constitutesa graphic of close '5' Aten. god '54 The his honour. bestowed in The to palace, usually stands a courtyard receive Badawy its interior depiction detail, in from to another. and one varies arrangement arguesthat the depictionsof palaces`are of two types, accordingto the two groups of tombs. The southerntombs show representations with the elementspiled up vertically one abovethe other, while the northern onesadopt a horizontal composition'. He gives from the the tomb of Mry-Rr I as an exampleof the style of representations palace of the southerntombs. He mentionedthat it showsthat the `two scenes of the,palace......
X43 Hoffmeier, in Redford (ed.), TheAkhenatenTempleProject II, 35-39. 144 Schulman, JNES 16 (1957), 261. 145 Davies,El Amarna I, pl. 10; El Amarna II, pl. 13. tabHoffmeier, in Redford (ed.), TheAkhenatenTempleProject II, 40-41. 147 Newberry,Scarabs,pl. 28. no. 18; cf. Hoffmeier, in Redford, TheAkhenatenTempleProject II, 41. 48 Davies,EI Amarna III, pl. XVII.
149 Gaballa, Narrative ih Egyptian Art, 228. 150Davies, El Amarna IV, pl. XVIII. 15' Gaballa, Narrative in Egyptian Art, 228.

152 Akhenatendid not show the god in either a human or animal form but he represented it as a sun disk spreadingits rays to all the people.The rays endedeither with an enhsign or a human hand. In oneunusualand exceptionalcasethe rays end with a uraeus.SeeDavies, El Amarna VI, pl. IV. 153 Ikram, JEA 75 (1989), 101. 154 Davies,ElAmarna IV, pl. VIII.


differ mainly in their mode of projection, one being a front view and the other a lateral one. A principal gateway and two smaller ones open onto a transverse courtyard, the is faced Behind loggia is later the of with a wall which window of appearances. rear a flanked (7) four by two palmiform columns with two columns each.... porticoes with Beyond there is a hall with four columns separated by the empty transverse corridor from the rear part of the structure'. '" He gives the tomb of Twtw as an example of the other style of representations of the palace. He says that the depiction `has been designed to frame the jamb and half the lintel of a doorway, and the elements are set in form bands. front A to the columns portico on palmiform seems of the court. vertical The window of appearances,shaded by a porch on two high palmiform columns, shown in side view, precedes a loggia with four columns. Further behind is a hypostyle hall... to which two storerooms are annexed, is seen at the lower end of the second section' (fig. 10 a-b). 156

Another difference occurs between the two groups in the arrangementof the of the occasionon the wall. In the southerngroup of the Amarna tombs, the episodes is depicted level the to the main scenes of, continuing sub-scene narration on an equal the event taking place in the courtyard. In the northern group these samescenesare '" it. One below located shown as additional to the main scene, and therefore are depiction showsa foreground.It includesremainsof the palaceand two royal ships of the king and the queen, which Gaballa noted to be a feature seldom appearing in 158 Egyptian art. The text, which accompanies includes the speech scenesof reward sometimes, of the king and his reason for the bestowal of the reward. It may also include the '59 his in speech of the rewarded,which containshis gratitude reply to royal master. The rewarding scene is therefore a motif, which appears from the midEighteenthDynastyuntil the Twenty First Dynasty."" The'iconographysourcesrelated 161 to this occasionis obtained through sceneson stelae, walls of private tombs, and

iss Badawy, History of Egyptian Architecture III, 29 fig 15; Davies, El Amarna I, pl X; XVIII. 156 Badawy, of Egyptian Architecture III, 30 fig 16; Davies, El Amarna VI, pl. XVII. _History 157 Gaballa, Narrative in Egyptian Art, 77.

158 Davies,El Amarna V, pl. V; Gaballa,Narrative in Egyptian Art, 74. 159 Schulman,CeremonialExecution, 116. 160 Trapani, in Pirelli (ed.), Egyptological Studies for Claudio Barocas, 116. 161 Most of the rewarding stelaecomefrom tombs.SeeSchulmann,CeremonialExecution, 118.


162 It is a scene where the king personally bestows gifts and rarely on temple walls. his loyal in' to official, rewards yet one example the queen also rewards the wife of 7y.163Vandier notes that scenes of reward before the Amarna period are rare. The increase of the involvement in ritual gift giving to bureaucrats and soldiers under the is Amenhotep interpreted as great wish during that particular period to IV of reign 164 joined king his the ties that the to emphasize subjects. Interaction through scenes after the Amarna period A scene constructed out of blocks preserved in the museums of Leiden, Vienna and Berlin, 165 shows Horemheb, who was at that time the Great Commander of the Army, being rewarded. To the left stood large figures of the king and queen. The king is leaning forward over a cushioned balcony to listen to Horemheb. The recipient is shown as a much smaller figure, loaded with golden necklaces. He is lifting his right arm to address the king and is holding a fan in his left hand, as he is the `Fan-bearer to 166 king'. the right of the The tomb of Hwy

An event is recordedon the north side of the eastwall of the hall in the tomb of Hwy (TT 40) (fig. 11),167 his is king Hwy the the of occasion where on seen receiving appointmentas viceroy of Nubia. On the left Tutankhamunis sitting in a decorated baldachinin his palace.Its columns are ornamentedwith a frieze of uraei at the top. Tutankhamun wearsthe hpd crown and holds the symbolsof regalia:the crook and the 168 flail in one handand the rnh sign in the other. He wears sandals his feet. on On the upper register, Hwy is shown emerging from the right side. He is wearing an ornamentedgarment identified as a `sash kilti169 and is barefoot. He is

162 The Viceroy of Kush 7mn-m-iptis rewardedby king Ramesses II. SeeRicke, Hughes and Wente, TheBeit el Wali Temple,pl. 9. Also, 7mn-htpthe High Priest of Amun is rewardedeither by the king or in front of a statueof the king. SeeLefebvre,Inscriptions Concernant les grands pretres d'Amon Rome Roy etAmenhotep,pl. 2; Helck, MIO 4 (1956), 161-178;Federn,CdE 34 (1959), 214. 163 Davies,ElAmarna VI, pl. XXIX; cf. Davies, Tombof Neferhotep,pl. XIV. 164 Vandier,Manuel d'Archeologie, 669. 165 Martin, Memphite Tombof HoremhebI, pls. 110A-115. '66Gardiner,JEA 39 (1953), 3-12. 167 PM 12,75-78;Davies, Tombof Huy, pls. IV-IX, XXXIX; Urk IV, 2064-2073. 168 Davies,Tombof Huy, 10 pl. IV; Radwan,Darstellungen, 31. 169 Cf. Vogelsang-Eastwood, Pharaonic Egyptian Clothing, 68.


his is is decorated left hand, holding a fan in his around with an armband, which which by Overseer the by four is the hand. He of received courtiers while accompanied right Treasury, who is seen holding a papyrus roll in one hand and extending his other hand 170 depicted. installation lower the On Hwy. are the to welcome register, sequencesof On the left Hwy is seen often having just received a rolled-up scarf (?). He is talking to from is he the Then another the new office signet ring of shown receiving one official. be he indicated lost, fragment, that might tiny now official probably the vizier, since a by Son King's the legend `Giving the The vizier'. the of the vizier. of office seal reads: An explanatory title reads: `Handing over the office to the King's Son of Kush Hwy from Nekhen to Karoy'. 171

Hwy, depictedin a larger scale,is then seenleaving the palace.He holds two bouquetsof flowers in both handsand movestowards the right. He is followed by two is Hwy from he flowers. As holding the palace, . emerges of his sons who are also is in 172 Nubian by a viceroy, one of which welcomed the rwdw, subordinatesof the In the top the Behind row. two them on servants;all are'shown are prostrateposition. foliage the bunches to bouquets moving of and secondrow are more servants,with In Hwy. left third the look to the two the welcoming procession, while right as part of by They Hwy. king's Kush, for the preceded are son of row, marchan escortof soldiers holding is the the shown two men, the chief of the sailors and who standard-bearer 173 To bouquet. jars the fourth The right, and a and row shows servantswith standard. by followed is lute-player belonging three men clapping to the scene, a probably next joyful form that household. All Hwy's the these procession and six more servantsof Hwy from the palace. accompanied Straight from the royal audience,Hwy proceedsto the temple of Amun, where he returnsthanks for his appointmentas viceroy. Hwy is shown performing a sacrifice from North Bay tomb the the outside. as one enters on wall at the nearestcorner of the The remainsof Hwy's figure are seen,pouring myrrh from a jar onto an offering table. l'a he followed by his It also appears that was wife.

170 Gaballa, Narrative in Egyptian Art, 91; Davies, Tomb of Huy, pl. VI. 171 Davies,-Toizb of Huy, 11.

172 The rwdw were apparently individuals who performed a managerial role at some distance from Period, 6, their administrativecentres.Cf. Katary, Land Tenurein the Ramesside 173 Davies,Tombof Huy, 13 pl. VIII. 174 Davies,Tombof Huy, 14 pl. LX; Gaballa, Narrative in Egyptian Art, 92.

88 The tomb of Nfr-htn On the south side of the west wall of the hall of the tomb of Nfr-htp, (TT 49) (fig. 12),175 the king is represented receiving Nfr-htp, the chief scribe of Amun, on the his his is is honoured by (? ) King Ay the of reward, while queen. shown occasion wife leaning out from the window of appearances of his palace, which is ornamented with decorative cartouches. He is wearing the 1jpr. crown and a decorated sash with finge. from his neck. Behind him is the queen wearing, a A pectoral is shown hanging -; in is flywhisk, in her hand. king The the plummed-headdress and carrying a right hand. bestowing honour in his The feathers two an attitude of on'Nfr'-htp, as are shown text over the king is an address to Nfr-htp, praising his duties as `the "chief scribe" and 176 is king (wrh? )'his body balsam. Above them to the anoint calling on with myrrh and inserted as .a the hawk Bhdt, carrying,, the feather fan, which has probably, bbeen, , substitute of the rayed-sun disk.

Below the balcony standsNfr-htp, showing his appreciationto the king. He is shownraisinghis handsin a gestureof joy and gratitude.He is wearing a bag-tunicand " ' is kilt, feet. his head his His neck a sash with a cone of ointment on and sandalson loaded with collars, while a servant is shown adjusting his collars and probably decoratinghim. Two officials are seenanointinghis body. Higher officials are shown introducing the recipient into the royal audience.In front of Nfr-hip, below the window," three 'official fn-bearers are depicted, each' carrying a crook and a fan. Above them is a group of courtiers, who seemto be fanbearers.Two others are followed by servantswith their titles written above them: for the `Chief officer (?) of the Army and Supervisorof the Work on all Kinds of example, Monumentsmadefor the good god'. The upper half of the sceneshowsfour decorated tablesbrought in by porters and heapedwith the king's gifts. Two of them contain fillets of meat, necklaces,beads and pendants.Two others tables are piled up with 178 kinds food various of and ornaments.

173 PM 12,91-95;Davies, Tombof NeferhotepI, pl. IX, XIII, XIV; vol. II pl. I. 16 Davies,Tomb Neferhotep1,20. of 177 Gaballa,Narrative in EgyptianArt, 92; Davies, Tombof Neferhotep I, 17 pl. IX, X. 178 Davies,Tombof NeferhotepI, 21 pl. XIII; Gaballa,Narrative in Egyptian Art, 93


These ceremonies are shown as taking place in the court of the palace, led into by two gateways. When Nfr-hip's meeting with the king is terminated, he leaves from holding It is by It two the two stick. a guards, each gateways. well secured one of list be to that a since one of the marked on anyone who wants enter should seems doorkeepers has a scribe's palette in his hand. In his role as palace security, one of the doorkeepers seemsto be sceptical about a man. He is seen going out holding a jar and the porter has lifted his'stick to him. Over them is another gatekeeper who is sitting on head. his In handkerchief he has is It too over spread a a stool. apparently sunny, as front of him are two boys who tell him what has been happening out of his sight.

Nfr-htp is then shown leavingthe audience,and mountinghis chariot, driven by its charioteers. He is precededby a man running, probablyto clear the way. Nfr-htp is in by female holding band tambourines shapes of varying of musicians, welcomed a 179 Nfr-hip's hands, by dancing The towards their children. road and accompanied houseis planted with trees and a man is seendriving an ox. Another is shown in a prostrateposition, probablysalutingNfr-htp. The other smallergatewayof the court leadsto the haremquarters.The queen is standingon a balconywearing a headdress. Sheis holding a collar and offering it to the handsof Mrit-Rr, wife of Nfr-htp, who is shown standingin front of the balcony by is dress. She long her head and accompanied a with a coneof ointmenton wearing a folds be is the Among to of them arranging a servantwho appears numberof servants. her dress and perhapsdecoratingher neck with ornaments.Behind Mrlt-Re are two who seemto be presentingbouquets.The woman at the back is depicted as women drinking from a jar while her other hand is busy rattling a sistrum. The doorkeeperis . '8 Mrither The threatening the of servants shown children accompanying with a stick. Rewho carry the gift of two loads of grapes,are met by others carrying return gifts for 18' the queen. After the reward has been given Mrit-Re is seen emerging from the by her attendants. Her neck is heavily loadedwith gatewayof the harem,accompanied her forearmsare coveredwith armlets. gold necklaces and Finally, a banquetis held by Nfr-htp and his wife in the gardenof their houseto celebratethis occasion.The garden, through which servantsare bringing bread, wine
19 Davies,Tomb NeferhotepI, 23-26 XIV. of pl. 180 Davies,Tombof NeferhotepI, pl. XIV. 181 Davies,Tombof NeferhotepI, pl. XV


by is depicted be jars, left. doorkeepers The to the to the guests seem welcoming and In figs. door. is Above the them a group of servants shown gathering widely opening the garden men are sitting apart on high stools while women are sitting on low cushions. All the guests are enjoying their food and drinks. During the celebration one is being by female-guests have drunk to the too seems she much, as assisted one of of the servants. A group of women is shown playing music at the banquet and waving branches of foliage (?). 182 Discussion

In the tomb of Hwy Tutankhamunis seenenthronedin the royal kiosk, wearing the In the case blue crown and holding the usual royal insignia, the crook and the flail. 183 is king (? ) leaningfrom the balcony of the palace,strongly reminiscent Nfr-htp, Ay of blue is Amarna in kiosk. He the the traditions wearing of and not passivelyseated a by his wife who is shown with a plumed headdress and crown and is accompanied 184 flywhisk in her right hand. The decorationson the right side of the kiosk in the tomb of Hwy, and on the facadeof the balconyin the tomb of Nfr-htp, havea similar motif, the dw3rhyt standing 185 in king, king. Above the tomb the the on a nb sign,which symbolises peopleadoring inserted has is hawk Nfr-htp, feather fan, Bhdt Theban the the of artist a carrying which instead of the rayed-sun disk of the El-Amarna scenes.This decoration is totally '86 in king. for behind Hwy, the omitted the tomb of except two cartouches The recipient's gesturesdiffer. Hwy is shown standing, approachingfrom the '87 holding fan. Nfris by In He Overseer Treasury. the the right, contrast, a received of joy htp is represented in hands below balcony his the and gratitude, an standing raising influenceof Amarna art. His figure is representedin a larger scale than those of the Amarnascenes. On the occasionof Hwy's appointmentas the Viceroy of Nubia he receiveda rolled-up scarf (?) from an official. Then he receivedthe golden signetring of his office

182 Davies,Tombof NeferhotepI, 27; Gaballa,Narrative in Egyptian Art, 93. 183 Davies,Tombof Huy, 10 p1.IV. 184 Davies,Tombof NeferhotepI, pl. IX-X. 185 Davies,Tombof Huy, pl. IV; Davies, Tombof NeferhotepI, pl. IX. 186 Davies,Tombof Huy, p1.IV. 187 Davies,Tombof Huy, p1.V.


188 On the occasion of the reward of Nfr-htp, from another official, probably the vizier. he is standing within the limits of the forecourt of the palace in which he is offered a 189 Amarna from hand king, tradition. the the of reminiscent of the collars of number

In the tomb of Hwy, the event is depictedon the north side of the eastwall of 190 it in the Nfr-htp, hall, the the that of wall south side of west the occupies of whereas depicted different hall.19'Also, in the tomb of Hwy, the arrangement the on episodes of 192 in logical the wall flows a order. and comprehensible Nfr, Mrit-R Of particularinterestis the separate of wife sceneof rewarding of htp, by the queenin the harem quarters.Gaballadescribedas it as being `quite a new innovation.... (which) gave the artist an opportunity to render the harem

In the first case,straight from the royal presence,Hwy proceedsto the temple 194 his Nfr-htp his for In Amun the to returns thanks and secondcase, appointment. of 19' banquet in house to celebratethe occasion. the gardenof their wife hold a Interaction after the Eighteenth Dynasty

After the Eighteenth Dynastya series exist which reflect the relationship of examples
betweenthe king andhis people. Stela Louvre C 213

The rectangular stela of Louvre C 213,1%belonging to the Overseer of the Royal Harem Hr-min, illustratesthe king's audiencewith one of his officials (fig. 13). At the his back left, facing right is a representation Seti-Merenptah. Behind King are pair of of is he his At that the appearances, cartouches window of contain nomenand prenomen. is leaning He be to wearing the nms shown on a cushion, which seems undecorated. headdress with a uraeusattachedto his brow, a broad collar and a sleevedgarment.He
188 Davies,Tombof Huy, 11 pl. V. 89 Davies,Tombof NeferhotepI, pl. IX. 190 Davies,Tombof Huy, pl. IV. 191 Davies,Tombof NeferhotepI, pl. IX. '92Davies, Huy, pl. IV, V, VI. of -Tomb

193 Gaballa, Narrative in Egyptian Art, 93. 194 Davies, Tomb of Huy, pl. IX. 195 Davies, Tomb ofNeferhotep I, pl. XVIII.

196PM 1112664; Schulmann,CeremonialExecution, 119-121fig 22; is unknown, made provenance , of limestone,with no tracesof colour. Cf. Hermann,ZAS 90 (1963), pl. IX; KRI 1,309.


is of handingdown, with his right hand, two collars and a rectangular object. A falcon
is shown over the king, protecting him, spreading out its wings and grasping a ,fin sign

its fan claws. with and a

At the right is a representation of Hr-min standing, looking up at the king, with

joy. in in his is large He the of neck gesture a represented scale, raised with arms loaded with collars. He wears a long wig and a long garment with a wide triangular him, is depicted his feet. Two He shaven-headed with no sandals on men attend apron. fixing kilt long One is them a pleated with a shown a pleated apron. of each wearing him be Hr-min's the to neck, while seems with oil around other either anointing collar'97 dress. his or organizing In front of the man are ten vertical lines, which contain the king's speech to the his `Words by his The text to the at are reads: spoken majesty nobles who recipient. Hrharem, is Give the the the to royal overseer of much gold one who praised, side: blemish is happy, he lifetime is long, him and whose whose old age without min, fault in is the palace,whoseutterance sound,whose comingsand goings are at without 198 burial'. their place,who shallendurewith a goodly The speech of Hr-min runs: `That which the overseerof the seal-bearers, the overseerof the royal harem,Hr-min, loves justified, be Amun is beautiful, ". Your said: appearance o goodly ruler! who will has for here like forever, father, his lifetime, Re, you are o ruler who your you, making is joy [great] by his ka. has There the and me made amongmen, one who createdme happiness for the ones near you, those who hear your teaching. I am a humble man, have have be done. by have I to achieved a great man what you one whom you caused 199 happy having found (any) fault (in old agewithout a one me)'. The tomb of by

On the eastwall south side of the hall of the tomb of 7py (TT 217),20 the depiction of in between king his (fig. The 14). the contact a closer scene and people still survives 7py to be rewardedby the king seemsstrongly influencedby Amarna art. seems which
197 Schulman, -CeremonialExecution, 120.

198 Translation after Schulman, Ceremonial Execution, 120-121. 199 Translation after Schulman, Ceremonial Execution, 121.

200 PM 12 315-317;Davies,TwoRamesside Tombs,33-76 pl. XXVII; Vandier, Manuel d'Archeologie , IV, fig 368; Cherpion,$IFAO 95 (1995), 493-516.


The wall is now ruined and the published plate is determined from an earlier copy. On the left side the king, probably RamessesII, is shown leaning on a cushion out of the window of appearances. Its ornamentation is similar to that of the Amarna period, in that the tomb of Mry-Rr II, with the uraei frieze at the top and the sm3of parallel t3wy with captives.,The king is wearing the blue-crown and 'a pectoral. He is in the attitude of giving rewards to 7py.'.',

The head sculptor, 7py, is shown standingin front of the balcony extendinga fan towards the king's face. He is wearing a sash-kilt, fastenedin sashend under the 201and has sandals on his feet. He is kilt section, by the vizier, accompanied ! by his long dress,who is shown introducing the official. Behind him are recognisable two fan bearersas they, are carrying:fans. Three other officials seemto have been next day, 7py are having their dressadjustedby an the the rewardedon same as men attendant,they havethe cone of ointment on their heads,and they are wearing collars. They are raising theirs handsin ,a-gestureof joy. One could notice that their scale is larger than that used during the Amarna period'as the scaleof thesemen seemsto be 202 larger than the king himself. A fragmentarytext suggests that their positionswere as 203 scribes,soldiersandtemple servitors. reward of Pn-niwt 204 On the easternwall in the tomb of Pn-nlwt at Aniba, a similar event is recorded, is king Ramesses illustrated'receivingthe deputy of W3w3t,on the occasion VI where his VI in of reward. The reasonfor this event is that he erecteda statue of Ramesses the temple of Derr, and he also presentedcaptivesfrom the Nehsy lands at the king's 20' audience. Thereforethe king decidedto reward him with two silver vessels. On the left Ramesses VI is shown enthronedin a kiosk, wearing the crown and holding an rnh sign in one hand.In front of him standsthe king's son, extendinga fan towards the king's face. The king addresseshim: `Give the two silver vessels of ointment, to the deputy'. The viceroy is also shown standing in front of a statue of Ramesses VI, holding a stick in one hand and extendingthe other to presentthe gifts
201 Cf. Vogelsang-Eastwood, PharaonoicEgyptian Clothing, 67. 202 Davies,TwoRamesside Tombs,47 pl. XXVII; Gaballa,Narrative in Egyptian Art, 129. 203 Davies,El Amarna VI, pl. XXIX-XXXI. 204 PM VII, 76-77; KRI VI, 350-357;Steindorff,Aniba, pl. 102.
205 Gaballa, Narrative in Egyptian Art, 129; Schulman, Ceremonial Execution, 151.


larger is Pn-niwt is his On him scale. Behind the Pn-niwt. shown on a right steward. to He is wearing a cone of ointment and is lifting up his hands in a gesture of jubilation. He is accompanied by two priests, depicted on a smaller scale, who may be arranging 206 king's into him the his dress or anointing him in order to usher audience. Discussion

king's Kingdom, New the the Eighteenth Dynasty After the and up until the end of from leaning be the of window the to either same, occasions continued on such activity 208 daily dress, his in is kiosk. in He normal generallyclad or enthroned a appearances207 in Osirian depicted king dead is he in an shown as a one unique example although . feature joy, 209 in his is a arms the samegesture of outfit. The recipient shown raising larger is than Amarna the the shown the recipient scale of except period, reminiscentof of that usedduring the Amarna period, a scaleseeminglylarger than the representation 21 king himself. the

206SteindorfAniba, pl. 102; Gaballa,Narrative in Egyptian Art, 129. , 207 Schulman,CeremonialExecution, fig 22; Davies, TwoRamesside Tombs,pl. XXVII. 208 Steindorff,Aniba, pl. 102. 209 The tomj of the vizier P3-sr TT 106. P3-sr is rewarded in the aller world by the deceased and deified Seti I, who is depicted accompanied by the goddessMaat. Schulman argued that the king is shownin an Osiride form as the awarding of golden collars might be taking place during a particular See 224. deities. Schulman, Ceremonial 152 he Execution, ceremony no. appears with religious where 210 Schulman,CeremonialExecution, fig 22; Davies, Two RamessideTombs,p1. XXVII; Steindod% Aniba, pl. 102.


2.1.2. Tribute scenes 211 depicted function tribute, In addition to the main as a sort of and meaning of kind it foreigners, between of a also reflects the royal personage and transaction depictions his The between king tomb of royal of the majority and people. relationship 212 from Aniarna, but in found Thebes, also exist. tombs the attestations at tribute are

in first They Dynasty. Eighteenth appeared Such scenes were popular throughout the TT 71, Snn-mwt hall in Hatshepsut the tomb where a transverse the of the reign of of frieze however bearers by Aegean is being of only a tribute offered shown of parade 213 later Eighteenth in is the The tombs Hathor remains. of scene relatively common 214 it disappears from Dynasty,after the standardrepertoire. The tomb of lmn-ms

is a On the west side of the north wall of the hall in the tomb lmn-ms (TT 42)215 depiction of an occasion where the king is receiving people who introduce tribute decorated in kiosk, its (fig. 15). ThutmosisIII (?) is represented with platform sitting a is lmn-ms, Outside Egypt. the presenting a traditional enemiesof nine emblemsof frog, is This placed on a central pedestal, and golden vase. ornamented with a is its him by the Behind people of' of a representation surrounded marshplants on rim. four in in hands. before They registers: the north, with gifts them and their are arranged in the top register are different kinds of vasesand dishes,including the famous vase in is lion-handles. leader follow Representatives them with their a prostrating who with holding is is his in Behind A hands a a man salutation. position. man shownraising two dish in one,hand, full of lapis lazuli, and he is pulling the oxen with his other. He is followed by a man holding a bowl and a dagger. Then comesa man holding another dish full of lapis lazuli. The last man is shown holding a one handledlibation vase. All

211 The Wrterbuchoffers four basic renderingsof the word inw. Theseare `offering', `tribute', `gift' Gardiner, AEO I, 177; 'product', 69-71; Wb Cf. Resistance, I, Hasel, Domination 91,12-18. and and Lorton, Juridical Terminology of International Relations, 90-105. Cf. Bleiberg, JSSEA 11 (1981), 107-110;Mller-Wollermann, GM 66 (1984), 83-84; Galan, in Lorton and Bryan (eds), Essaysin Egyptologyin Honor of Hans Goedicke,91-102.
212 Davies, ElAmarna II, pl. XXXVII; ibid., III, pls. XIII, XIV. 213 Dorman, The Monuments of Senenmut, 92.

214 Aldred, JEA 56 (1970), 105.

215 Davies, Menkheperrasonb, 28 pl. XXXIII.


have features, Syrian typical them of wearing sleeved gowns and having a head of bushy hair.

The secondregister is also introduced by severalkinds of vases,jars and two

lion head-rhytons. Behind is a scene, which resemblesthat of the first register. It shows different kinds carrying of gifts, including cups, vases, a dish full of lapis lazuli people 216 dagger. At file is holding by its hand. The third the the end of a women a child and a in in hands his two third represents men a prostrate a register position, and who raises salutation. The gifts include a pair of horses, a dish, a jar, a dagger and a pair of oxen. The fourth register is a continuation of the gifts including horses, pads and a pocket for 217 is hall horses. On the the a south wall of a shield, a shield, a chariot and a pair of *a including: the tribute subject of presenting continuation of a vase with ornamentation, dish, a wine jar and a pair of oxen.218 The tomb of Mry Rc H On the eastwall of the hall of the tomb of Mr-Rr II is a-sceneshowing the' deceased king in the order to introduce the tribute of the foreign people (fig. 16). The meeting is king He blue larger Akhenaten drawn the scale. sceneshows crown, on a wearing sitting besidethe queen,enthronedin a pavilion that is on a platform, to receive the gifts. The pavilion is reachedby two flights of stepson opposite sides,and is supported by tripled capital columns, formed by the papyrus, the lotus (7) and the lily and superimposed one upon another. Its top is composedof two rows of the usual uraei 219 frieze. The royal pair are shown sitting on cushionedchairs, side by side, with their
feet resting on double mats. The queen passes one hand around her husband's waist and she holds his hand with the other. Within the pavilion the princesses are shown arranged in two sub-registers. They are: Nf --nfrw-Rr, Stp-n-Rr, rnh-s-n p3-7tn, Nfrnfrw-7tn and Mkt-7tn. By the side of the pavilion stand three nurses, who are depicted as bent with age. Outside the pavilion are three columns of inscriptions, now badly mutilated, which recorded the date of the event. Above is the sun disk Aten,
216 Davies,Menkheperrasonb, 28 pl. XXXIV. 217 Davies,Menkheperrasonb, 29 p1.XXXV. 218 Davies,Menkheperrasonb, pl. XXXVI. 219 Davies, El Amarna II, 38 pl. XXXVII; Gaballa, Narrative in Egyptian Art, 79; discussion by Aldred, JE4 43 (1957), 43.


illuminating the pavilion, extending its rays over the royal couple.22The tribute of the it, have brought the the north, and people, are displayed to the right and south and who to the left of the royal pavilion. On the right, on the southern section of the wall, are the gifts of the south brought by Nubian tribes. The scene is arranged in six rows. In the upper register are specimensof the tribute, including skins and tails of animals, a row of ostrich feathers, trays holding ingots (?), bags of gold dust and rings of gold, also shields, bows and arrows. The second row represents similar gifts, including ivory, ostrich feathers, leopards, a wild ox (?) and an antelope (?). They are presented by Negro chiefs from Wawat, characterised by their dress. In the third and fourth rows Negro slaves or prisoners are shown, men, women and children, as a natural item of the tribute, which is have been by Negroes A to tribes. seems a custom carried out several group of male dragged forward by ropes tied round their necks and their wrists, together with a group of women, however their hands have been left free. Each group is accompanied by a number of children, the elder ones being led by their hands. The youngest ones, is fifth in backs.. The too to row who are young walk, are carried panniers on people's by Negro men engaged in athletic games of boxing, wrestling and single occupied stick. In the first competition, two out of the eight competitors have thrown their men, who are shown lying on their backs. Of the three sets of boxers, one pair is still struggling while the victors of the other rounds are jumping for joy and triumph.

The Nubian tribute hasbeenintroducedby Mry-Rr II, who is seenbendingin a by their bag-kilts. He is followed by four officials, characterised gestureof obeisance. All are ascending the platform to presentthemselves to the king. Behind is a military escort,then a group of boys who are dancing,followed by another escort of soldiers. Justaboveandto the right of Mry-R" II, is a group of officials who surroundhim. Here he appearsto have been rewarded with double collars, and many necklaces are 221 displayed for his in on stools part the proceedings as treasurer On the left of the pavilion the tribute of the northern countries can be seen,the gifts and slavesof the Syrianswhom the Egyptianscalled Retenu. Theseare arranged in six rows. At the top are gifts consisting of bows, daggers, spears,shields and a 220 Davies, ElAmarna II, 38 pl. XXXVII; 221 Davies, El Amarna II, 40. Gaballa, Narrative in Egyptian Art, 79.


row horses. The is introduced by three young girls, and two second chariot with kneeling figures who were probably leaders of the embassy. Other presents are shown in the hands of men, among them a metal vase, an elephant's tusk, a bow with arrows and three animals: an antelope, an,oryx, and a -lion. The third row shows two vessels , followed by nine slaves or. captives led forward by. Egyptians.; The fourth row shows gifts, comprising of two young'girls, a chariot which is led by three men, its horse, and them : is fifth (among lioness lid). The row shows a vase a various vases with za . continuation of the -Syrian tribes'. 'presentation of gifts. It is introduced by the Syrian " kneeling, chieftains who are seen ;only, one prostrating himself on his belly. Other presents are in the hands of men of Retenu. They consist of vases, and two antelopes. The sixth row shows two mengprobably Egyptian officials (characterised by their bag-, kilts). They may be, introducing a file of slaves, including women and children, who almost all have bushy;hair, which they were famous for, and full beards. Others have, several hair wear times around their bodies. shaven and robes wrapped

A continuationof the tribes of the north is shown in the long registersbelow. In the top rows sevenmen are offering piles.of grain or incenseand preciousmetal that hasbeenformed into pyramid and obelisk shapes. The next row showsa group of men who, sincethey wear featherson their heads,are presumedto be a Libyan delegation. Their gifts include ostrich eggs and feathers. The third row shows Syrians offering different The remaining groups ;of men-seem to, representvesselsof, -types,!, armed ., Egyptians.The first file is dressedin Egyptian style short tunic-kilts. Each carries a battle-axeand long staff, curved at the upper end, and wears two feathersin their hair. Others wear longer tunic-kilts and carry curved staffs.,. The secondfile of men carry either a spearor a hooked staff alternately.Two statechairsare shown, decoratedwith sphinxesbearing the double crown. The sphinxesserve as armrestsand the chair is guarded on each side by a carved figure of a walking lion. In front are personal attendantsof the king, a priest, servants and the police. Two royal chariots with grooms and horseswearing plumed-headdresses, are followed by a little crowd. There is alsoa military escortand servants bringing bouquets,fowl, and three oxen (either for 222 feasting). sacrificeor

222 Davies, ElAmarna II, 42; Gaballa, Narrative in Egyptian Art, 79.

99 The tomb of Hwv3 is an occasion where the Recorded on the west wall of the hall of the tomb of Hwy3223 king made a public appearance to receive the foreign tribute of Syria and Ethiopia (fig. 17). On the left are the king and the queen, sitting side by side on a state is decorated by bearing double It the sphinxes crown which serve as palanquin. armrests. The chair is guarded on each side by a carved figure of a walking lion. They are borne by several carriers wearing the triangular skirts typical of soldiers. Akhenaten is shown wearing the red crown with a uraeus on the forehead, holding the crook in hand his flail in her The the the waist. one and queen passes other. arm around

In front of them is an inscription which mentionsthat in `Year 12, the second month of the winter, the eighth day. Life to the Father, the double Ruler, Ra-Aten, life forever and ever! The King of the South and North Nefer-kheperu-ra who gives on the and the QueenNefertiti, living for ever and ever, made a public appearance West Ethiopia, Syria (Kharu) the the tribute to great palanquinof gold receive and of and the East (Syria and Ethiopia standing for the North and the South); all the countries collected at one time, and the islands in the heart of the sea, bringing offeringsto the King (when he was) on the great throne of Akhetatenfor receivingthe impostsof every land, grantingto them the breathof life'. 224 The scenein the lower sectiondepictsthem moving from the palaceto the dais, by a man who precedes the where the audienceis held. The royal pair is accompanied procession.He is shown censing, and wears two feathers on his head. The man is followed by fan bearersand sunshade bearerswho are extendingtheir shades towards the,rays of Aten, shown illuminating over them. All are seenwalking and bowing in front of the royal couple. Behind the chair, the princesses fans. They holding two are walking, are shown followed by a woman and two nurseswho are in a bent position. Below, on a separate row, is a representationof another four princesses,who wear long dresses,each holding a fan in their right hand,and a pieceof cloth in their left. 225

223 Davies,ElAmarna III, 9 pl. XIII.

224 Translation after Davies, El Amarna III, 9. 225 Davies, ElAmarna III, 10.


By the side of the king are five rows, preceding the state procession. The depicted here be to taking place in the open air, moving from left to right, seem events in five rows. In the bottom row is a representation of two decorated chariots with their grooms. Above, a man is shown censing, and wears two feathers on his head. In front of him is a military escort, whose men also wear two feathers on their heads. They are preceded by four men who are performing a dance. Above is another decorated chariot its journey, be be for All the to to the or groom. with chariots seem return waiting used maybe are present for the show. At the top left three rows show the people of the north, notably Syria. Most of them are shown with two feathers on their heads, the lower ranking people wearing the triangular skirts typical of soldiers. They are shown presenting tribute consisting of two chariots without horses, four rectangular sacks and three different kinds of vases, probably filled with spices and unguents. On the right are two more Syrian gifts including vases decorated with animals' heads and open bowls. Below are rows of Syrian slaves each row led by one or more officials.

The processionseemsto be moving towards a small pavilion shown on the by'a flight of stepson each right. The pavilion standson a platform and is approached its four sides. Near to it are small buildings including a shrine containing: an of offering-table, two altars, magazinesfor the service of these altars and sacrificial 226 animals. The tribute of the south, exhibited on the lower three lines, consistsof Negro slaves,skins,rings of gold, elephanttusks, chairs made of ebony, spices,bags of gold dust, monkeys,leopardsand antelopes. By the side of the king standa long file of men, led by five of their officers (upper row on the left, pl xv). They are armedwith curved 227 front In by his fellow staffs. of them againHwy3 and official, preceded six soldiers. The text accompanying the scenestatesthat the king appearedwhere the chiefs of all the foreign countriesbrought the tribute to him.

226 Davies,El Amarna III, 11 pl. XIV. 227 Davies,El Amarna III, pl. XIV.

101 The Tomb of Hwy 228 introducing the tribute of the south Hwy On the south of the west wall, scenesshow his king Tutankhamun, the subjects to performed an audience with an occasion when (fig. 18). King Tutankhamun is shown sitting in a baldachin supported by lotus, is, its lower is freeze Its part of uraei whereas upper part ornamented with a columns. is king The dw3-rhyt the wearing on a sign. standing nb of a motif ornamented with hprg crown, holding the crook and the flail in one hand and the mnhsign in the other. His cartouches have been erased. Hwy is shown approaching the royal presence from the south. In his left hand he holds the crook and in his right he holds a short-ostrich feather fan that he waves before the pharaoh.

Immediatelybehindthe standingfigure of Hwy there are samples of the Nubian jasper. in bags, includes: This tied red tribute. and carnelianor up golden rings, gold Tusksof ivory and logs of ebonyare also shown.A model chariot of gold is supported by an attendantNegro. There are a seriesof shields and furniture of various sorts: decorated been the has beds A with and armchairs. pedestalcoveredwith gold stools, back-to-back, Negroes, Tutankhamun tied on each side of the sm3of and cartouches t3wy emblem.There are also palm trees, depictedone by one, with monkeysclimbing in their branches and giraffes eatingfrom the trees. In the centre standsa pyramid-like hut upon a semi-circularbowl. To the left of the tribute, at the bottom, Hwy is seen in akneeling gesture. Behind him the sceneof tribute is depictedin four rows. In the upper row the princes `Chieftans in The Nubia to person. are seen of approaching,probably presentrespect king. They kneeling in depicted Wawat', the 'top, the to are at of are respect identifiableby the leopard skins on their backs, the feather in their hair and their large lands A follows behind. her the of all earrings. princess and are princes' children diadems, ear ornamentsand collars of Egyptian style. Behind are two more wearing Nubians carrying gold, skins, giraffes and tails. Then comes the representationof a princessriding in a chariot drawn by oxen with a charioteershown nude to the waist. Sheis followed by five half nude prisonerswith their handstied together. Behind are

228 Davies,Tombof Huy, 21 p1.XXII.


by hand, leading the the smallestone two women with coloured skirts small children 229 being carriedin a sackon a woman's shoulders. The secondrow depictsthe princesof Upper Nubia and their retainers.In front
followed by heaps They are men carrying these of gold and carnelian. chieftains are of left in Further is A the to the the tribute. are men tails. giraffe seen middle of giraffes' bringing oxen. Their horns are ornamented with little heads of Nubians, while hands The in horns to the the the tips pharaoh. simulate arms raised adoration of placed on is bearers. An fan Kush shown two ox third row represents more princes of with behind them, and between his horns is a bowl with fish swimming in it and plants just has he figure Hwy. It is that it. front In seems of a tall of this row growing out of left the palace, as he is shown wearing the necklace and armlets. In the fourth row, from his home him friends household His Hwy's return on are also welcoming are seen. in branches in hand, followed by They and the palace. are women carrying menats one Hwy's door from four the Then of the other. come men, with servants emerging house2 Discussion

This.scene,depicted on the back wall of the' first transversehall in a seriesof New 231 shows a parade of tribute232offered by foreigners Kingdom private tombs, 233 A contemporarydescriptionof introducedto the royal audience by the tomb-owner. by Gardiner. is from Horemhab, Memphite translated tribute tomb the scenes, of such It reads:`And (the god) caused(the king) to seat himself upon the throne... and the brought folk, gifts of the sun patricians,the commonpeopleand all who are upon earth 234 homageandthe princesof all foreign landscame(?) doing obeisance'.

229 Davies,Tombof Huy, p1.XXIII. 230 Davies,Tombof Huy, pl. XXIII. 231 With the exile of the Hyksos,the Egyptian army pushedbeyondtraditional frontiers of Egypt into Syria-Palestine. The Theban conquersestablishedthe Eighteenth Dynasty, creating a great Empire, back historical ideas. For influences the that wasa sourceof foreign tribute, besides ground exotic and cf. Redford, History and Chronology; Nims, Thebesof the Pharaohs, Ryholt, Political Situation; James, Pharaoh'sPeople; Grimal, History ofAncient Egypt, 199-292. 232 For more tribute inscriptions see Urk IV, 951,4-7; Urk IV, 1345,9-10; Urk IV, 2087; 1210,10; 1022,1; Sayce, RT 15 (1943), 147. 233 Aldred, JEA 56 (1970), 105. 234 Gardiner,JEA 39 (1953), 7; Martin, Memphite Tomb of Horemheb, 79-83; cf. Aldred, JEA 43 (1957), 115.


f 35 (b as a inscriptions that accompany these scenes state that the sovereign appears

The event shown is that of a formal royal appearanceof the king. The :

king on the great throne to accept the gifts of the foreign lands and in turn endow the ?6 king;, life.. lands This the typically shows scene of, with the -breath., chiefs of such , 23' holding the (TT TT 86), j3pr. 40,; the and sometimes crown sometimes wearing 238 is kiosk. He within an flail enb throne a sign, seated on a sceptres" and crook and the 239 him TTY 86), (TT, '42, seated although one scene shows usually shown seated alone ,

X10 (TTY 89) Hathor besidethe goddess He receivesa high official; usually the tomb' owner; who introducesthe tribute , from Nubia, Asia, Kush and, occasionally,from Egypt itself (TT bearersand delegates `Oneof the basic elementsof the sceneis the tomb owner, who playedthe role 89).241 king is it foreigners. However, intermediary between worth the"troops the of, and of focusing on the titles held by the tomb owner, discussedthrough the following list. indicating the social and civil position This is a list of tombsthat contain, tribute scenes of the tomb owners.


Tomb No




Mry-Rt II

Amarna 2.

Royal Scribe, Steward, ' Overseerof the Two Treasures, Overseerof the Royal Harem of the GreatRoyal


PM IV, 213, (7) (8); Davies,ElAmarna II, p1. 'XXVIII.


235 For a discussion of the term h5yseeRedford,History and Chronology, 3-27. 236 Aldred, JEA 43 (1957), 114; Faulkner regardedsuch scenesas showing the aftermath of some successful campaign. Redford suggestedthat it either might representthe plunder from a foreign campaign or the arrival of the yearly tribute imposed by the Egyptians on the provinces of their Empire. For interpretationsseeFaulkner,JEA 33 (1947), 34; Redford, History and Chronology, 120; Davies, Menkheperrasonb,4; Aldred, JEA 43 (1957), 43,114; Merrillees, AJA 76 (1972), 286; Gardiner,AEO I, 177. 237 Davies,Tombof Huy, pl. XXII; Davies,Menkheperrasonb, 2-3. 238 Davies,Tombof Huy, pl. XXII.
239 Davies, Menkheperrasonb, pl. XXXII. 240 Davies, JEA 26 (1940), 134.

241 Davies,JEA 26 (1940), 135.



Tomb No




Wife Nefertiti

Amarna I

Overseerof the Royal Harem and Overseer of the Two Treasuries, Stewardof the GreatRoyal Wife Teye


PM IV, 211, (5) (6); Davies, ElAmarna III, pl I.


TT 40

Viceroy of Kush, Governorof the SouthernLands


PM I2,75, (2).


TT 42

Captain of Troops, Eyesof the King in the Two Lands of Retenu


PM 12,82, (4) (5); Wresznski,Atlas I, 168-188;Davies, Menkheperrasonb, PIS.XXXIII-XXXV.

7 3-n-ni

TT 74

Royal Scribe, Commanderof


PM I2,145, (5).

Hr-m-h? b TT 78 Royal Scribe, Scribeof Recruits
7? mw-ndh


PM I2,153 (8).

TT 84

First Royal Herald, Overseer of the Gateof Thutmosis III


PM I2,168,(5); Wresznski,Atlas I, 269-270.

7mn-m-hab called Mhw

TT 85

Commanderof the Soldiers


PM 12,172,(17); Davies,JEA 20 (1934), 189, pl. XXV.


Ti' 86

First Prophetof Amun


PM I2,177, (6); Davies, Menkheperrasonb,



Tomb No





Nn-mssw TT 89 Steward in the Hall PM 12,182 (14) (15);


Davies,JEA 26 (1940), 136pl. XXV.


TT 90

Standand-Bearer Hall of (the Sacred Bark called) `Belovedof Amun', Captain of Troops of the Police on the West of Thebes

PM 12,185 (9); Davies, Tombsof Two Officials, PIS. XXVIII, XXIX, XX.


TT 91

Captain of the Troops, Overseer of the Horses


PM 12,185 (3).

Theseexamplesshow that tomb owners were those who held high-ranking position, between varying palace and military posts. Their ranks included: Royal Scribe, Steward,Overseerof Treasuries,Overseerof Royal Harem, Eyes of the King in the Two Lands of Retenu, First Royal Herald and First Prophet of Amun. Such titles display a close associationwith the royal personagein a way or another, therefore to the king. On the other hand, their titles also demonstratetheir direct giving access contact with missions, troops, soldiers and the army. Could their transitory part betweenthe sovereignand the delegates of those diplomatic missionsmirror the role of
the `Foreign Minister' in modern Egypt?

One of the interesting points revealedby the texts, which accompany such is that the delegatesor representatives scenes of different countries are describedas `Chiefs'. For example,in TT 85 of 7mn-m-h3b the text reads: `Giving adoration to the Lord of theTwo Lands. Kissing the earth to Hr-[m-wist (Thutmosis III). Arriving by the Chiefs of Retenu], their tribute on [their] backs, consisting of [... ] wine, cloth, cattle, incense[to beg for] peacefrom [His] Majesty, that there might be given to them


242 life into breath The chiefs are then labelled as `All the chiefs of their noses'. the of Upper Retenu' and `All the chiefs of Lower Retenu'. 243 In the coronation of Hatshepsut text the wrw or `Chiefs' being delegates, were the only ones who were have to access to the royal personage. This stresses the fact therefore, that allowed only special class of people were allowed to have such accessto the king.

The tomb owner, when approachingthe royal personage,is sometimesshown in a kneelingposition of adoration,holding the fan and the crook sceptreto distinguish his rank (TT 40),244and frequentlypresentingsomeelaborategifts to the king (TT 42, has TT 86).245 The king receivesthe inw246 through personally,or who a representative illustrate this point: `I the authority to act on the king's behalf.The following examples lord its having inw Hierakonoplis, I to the spentmany years as monarchof presented 247 Two Lands'. Another example,taken from the Punt reliefs of Hatshepsut, of the 248 `Receiving `The by tnw Punt the the the great reads: prince of of royal messenger'. of Mittani come to him with their fnw on their backs in order to requestthe peaceof His Majesty andthat his sweetbreathof life be sent'.249 The texts and reliefs illustrating these business dealings always depict the as the tribute obedientto the king, and exchanges presenter of of tnw are alwaysmade 250 head' `bowed `bowing' with on the part of the giver. or with

242 Urk IV, 907,2-13; Davies,JEA 20 (1934), 189-190. 243 Urk IV, 709,2-13; Davies,JEA 20 (1934), 189-190. 244 Davies,Tombof Huy, pl. XXII. 245 Davies, Menkheperrasonb, pl. XXXIII. 246 The term inw occurs in texts concernedwith international relations or interaction between the pharaohand his subjects.For inw seeLorton, Juridical Terminology of International Relations, 90105; Bleiberg, JSSEA 11 (1981), 107-110. Mller-Wollermann formulates tnw as `free gifts irregularly deliveredand repaidby a countergift evenif the latter was somethingso immaterial in our eyesas `thebreath of life' that the pharaohgives', Mller-Wollermann, GM 66 (1984), 83-84. For the term b3kwwhich is mostly renderedin translationsby the nouns `tribute' or 'taxes', seeJanssen, SAK 20 (1993), 81-94; Bleiberg, The Official Gift in Ancient Egypt, 92; Spalinger, SAK 23 (1996), 359376. Bleiberg pointed out that tnw were usedby the king for his private expenses and becauseof the specificnatureof gift giving, gifts can usually only be usedfor specific purposes.The king used it for presentinggifts to the gods,to supporthis immediatefamily and retainersand as a personalsourceof incomefrom which he could acquirethe servicesrequired; Bleiberg, JARCE 21(1984), 156,161. 247 Early EjghteenthDynasty(Urk IV, 76,15-16). 248 Hatshepsut (Urk IV, 326,2-3).

249Amenhotep II (Urk IV, 1326,1-5); for more examples cf. Thutmosis I (Urk IV, 83,9-10); Thutmosis II (Urk IV, 138,3-4); Thutmosis III (Urk IV, 1235,3-13); Amenhotep III (Urk IV, 1693, 8-14).

250 Cf. Urk IV, 76,15-16; Urk IV, 83,9-10; Urk IV, 331,8-10; Urk IV, 688,4.


Aldred interpreted such scenes as representing `a public ceremony, following closely on the coronation rites, in which the widespread sovereignty of the new ruler by foreign his homage from reception of gifts and nations as well as the was recognised 251 facts first, his in He the two of own people' support: representatives presents . presence near the king of an inscription recording that the ruler `appears as king', and second, that native. Egyptians are often depicted presenting gifts along with the foreigners.252 This observation was made also by Davies.253

Redford disagreed that the tribute could havebeenoffered on the occasionof a in because is lack texts or visual to that there complete of reference event coronation a He considered the statementof the `king N appeared evidence. upon the great throne' is be hfy limited The to of coronations. verb couldn't used of any formal appearance the king, and is not connectedparticularly to the accessionof the king. Also, the for is in Egyptians the that tribute occasion scenes no proof existence of such 254 in for `gift' `the Bleiberg that word celebration was a coronation. pointed out P.Turin 1882is as brk (Wb I, 446,10),..... a Semiticword and not the usual Egyptian word fnw'. He then arguedthat `it seems unlikely that the evidenceof this papyruscan 255It cannot be link these scenesto the coronation gifts describedin the papyrus'. that it is a public ceremony,closely following the coronation rites, consideredcertain by but decorations, in Eighteenth Dynasty this tomb vanished since subject appeared Ramesside256 times eventhough therewere still coronationfestivals. Aldred has interpreted the sceneswhere `the Pharaoh presidesat a show of his from ideal presents various nationsas representing occasion,symbolising claims an to be ruler over all that the sun encircled,and to receive from its grateful inhabitants '257 inw could thereforebe an Egyptian business their tribute loyally offered every year? deal that demonstrated a socio-economiccontact betweenthe king and others, where foreign of chiefs countriescameto offer productsto the ruler due to his actual political authority. It could be understood as `face-to-face exchange' where products2S8 are
25'Aldred, JEA 43 (1957), 114. 252 Aldred, JEA 43 (1957), 114; he cited examplesfrom the tombs (95), (86) and (93). 253 For text seeGardiner,JEA 41(1955), p1.VII. 254 Redford, -History and Chronology, 123. 255 Bleiberg,JARCE 21 (1984), 163. 2-56 Vandier,Manuel d'Archaeologie IV, 535-536. 257 Aldred, JEA 56 (1970), 112. 258 Gardiner,JEA 4 (1917), 35-36.


259 in life' for The appearanceof the the `breath of given to the sovereign exchange motif at this date may be understood to have a similar purpose to the appearanceof 26 idea king, in For the the tomb the personalnarrative contemporary autobiographies. of being presentedgoods by membersof other nations was probably highly suitable to the distinctive Egyptian 'theological' view that the king of Egypt dominated the 261 globe

2" Brack and Brack, Das Grab des Tjanuni Nr. 74,40 pl. 31. Aldred, JEA 56 (1970), 107. 261 Janssen, S4K 3 (197$), 163-164.


2.1.3. Presenting flowers to the king At the beginning of the Eighteenth Dynasty it was permitted to depict the king in private tombs. The tomb-owner was sometimes depicted as presenting a bouquet of flowers to the king on the occasion of having royal audience.Examples from different tombs reflect the relationship between the king and his people as follows: The Tomb orDhwtt

On the north side of the west wall of the tomb of p jx"tt (TT 110)62 is an occasion when the tomb-owner met the queen and presenting her with flowers (fig. 19). Hatshepsut's figure is entirely lost, however Davies describes the scene as follows: `Hatshepsut,who sat under a simple canopy on a raised dais `making an appearance [?] on the great throne and receiving a bouquet of [Amun]', seemsto have worn the ram's horns and high feathers, and a fillet with long hanging ends bound the uraeus to her brow. She may have been bearded and have carried the crook and the flail, but her 263 be exact appearances cannot recovercd'. Before her stands Qhwtl, wearing a shirt on the upper part of his body and a short under-skirt with a long transparentover-skirt. He is offering a bouquet of unique shapein each hand: one consists of bound papyrus and lotus stems and the other bouquetresembles an mnh sign. 2" Over the figure of Qhwti, is a referenceto the offering of flowers. It reads: `Dedication of offerings before delivery dainties have the gone up and of which lord...[lord of the] thrones the Two Lands...... king of of Upper and Lower Egypt, [M3'1-k3"RrJ, by the sacrificial priest of [Amun], L)4%-t1. Oblation of all manner of offerings in the temple [of Amun] and the presentationof various flowers native to this lotuslotuses king, and pools of the marshlands namely..... of the buds, reeds and fruit [? ]fresh balsam ], Punet, the of of mandrake[? scent water of plantsand blossomsvaried and pure, native to the land of the gods and in which is joy andhealth,all that has beendedicatedto the King of the [Gods], towards the nostril of his beloved daughter, Hat[shepsut-khnemet]-Amun, who lives for ever, by the a foresaidroyal cup-bearer, [Dhwt1]'. cleanof hands,whoever doesthe pleasure ...... land, the pick of the

26,PM 1.228 (4); Davies, in Studies Griffith, 297-286; Radwan,Darstellungen, 4 p1.35,41. Davies,in Studes Griffith. 282. 264 Translation after Davies, in Studies Griffith, 282.

110 The Tomb of Nfr-rrtnt In the tomb of Nfr-rnpt (TT 43),265 is a representation of two sceneswhere the tomb owner is shown presenting bouquets of flowers to the king (fig. 20). The first scene occupiesthe right wall of the hall. It shows Nfr-rnpt presenting a bouquet before two kings (fig. 20a). The scene shows Thutmosis III and another king with unwritten cartouches, probably Amenhotep II, enthroned in a kiosk. The kiosk has lotiform columns, gathered under one Egyptian architrave, surmounted by a frieze of uraei. Both kings hold the mnl:sign in their right hand, and Thutmosis III is seenholding the flail in his left. He is wearing a wig rather than a crown. Before the kiosk stands Nfr-rnpt, stepping forward with his right leg. He is wearing a shirt on the upper part of his body, and a short under-kilt with long transparentover skirt. He is offering two bouquets of flowers to the kings. In his left hand, he holds a bouquet consisting of flowers and leaveswith a long ridged stem. In his right hand, are three lotus flowers, similar to those, which can be seen inside the kiosk.2" The other sceneoccupies the right back wall in the hall. It shows the tombowner who carries two bouquets and geesebefore the king (fig. 20b)267The king is enthronedin a kiosk, surmountedby a frieze of uraei with uninscribedcartouches.He is wearing the blue crown 43 holding is forehead, the sceptre the and with a uraeuson in one handand the rnJx in the other.26' Within a larger kiosk, surmounted by a likr frieze, the tomb-owner is shown standing,with his right leg forward, wearing a long bag-tunic with a short lilt under it,269 and offering two bouquets and geeseto the king. One bouquet is composed of three lotus flowers while the other has a long ridged stem with a three flowers and ' leaves.

265PSS 1.84 (3); Radwan, Darstellungen, 4; Ilclck, AMDAIK 17(1961), 103 fig. 3; Eastwood, Pharaonic Egyptian Clothing, 78. 266 B3Ud,Les 4essinslbauchEs, 91 Vlll; Hclck, MD.41K 17 (1961), 102 fig 3. p1. 267 PM I, 84 (4); Radiman, Darstellungen, 5. 268 11cick, AIDAIK 17 (1961). 102 fig 2. 1 fclck, AIDAIK 17 (1961), 102 fig 2; Eastwood,Pharaonic Egyptian Clothing, 79. E3aud, l es dessinsibauchis, 91 rig 39.

III The tomb of P3-rn-nfr On the backwall of the hall of the tomb of P3-rn-nfr (TT 188) (fig 24),271 the tomb is owner shown presenting different bouquets and staffs to the king. King Amenhotep IV and his wife queen Nefertiti are shown seated on a decorated royal baldachin, which has been almost completely destroyed. A double canopy is shown, the inner one being is Before them supported on a second column with a closed papyrus capital. a bouquet.

Facing them are eight or more figures of P3-rn-nfr, each standing with a
in head in first Rr-ms. The the the tomb three of Receremonial staff, as staffs end of Harakhty. The fourth seemsdifferent, and the head perhaps wears an Atef crown. The bouquet ka; damaged. first The `For text the of a rest are accompanying says, your of he life; father.... he love he favour be May may may your your you; may you; prolong give you life, stability, happiness; may your enemies be overthrown in life and death". Said by the Cup-Bearer and Chamberlain, the favourite of the Good God [the stewardP3-rn-nfr]'.

272 The Tomb of Rc-ms

is a depiction On the south sideof the wall of the hall of the tomb of Re-ms'(TT 55) 273 by king bouquets different the tombto the of an occasionof presenting and staffs owner. King Amenhotep IV is shown seatedon a throne with a hawk on its back, protecting the king with its wings. The throne's platform is ornamentedwith the nine bows or the sum total of subjectpeoples.In front of the king two fans are held by an rnh and a wassign. The king is represented hk3 holding hpri the the and the as wearing crown and flail. Behind him, enthroned,is the goddessMaat holding the triple rnpt sign (years) (fig.21a).274In front of the king, is a representation of four figures of Rr-ms (fig.2lb). 275 The first figure of him is carrying a staff, ending with the crowned Ram's headof Amun, and a little figure of the king standingon a bracket under it. R"-ms is shownwearing sandalsand the long dress typical of a vizier with. The secondfigure

271 PM I, 294 (12) (2); Radwan, Darstellungen, 10; Wegner, MDAIK 4 (1933), 134; Davies, JEA 9 (1923), 14Ipl: XXV. 272 Translation after Davies,JEA 9 (1923), 140.
273 PM I, 109 (7) (2); Davies, Tomb of the Vizier Ramose, 27 pl. XXIX-XXXU. 274 Davies, Tomb of the Vizier Ramose, 18 pl. XXIX. 275 Radwan, Darstellungen, 9.


be 27" is he to said shows him standing, but nothing remains in his hands, although bringing a bouquet of Re-Harakhty. Texts over these two figures read:

bouquet ka, `For justified: by the Overseer `Said of your Re-ms, Vizier, a the your and fatherAmen-Re, Lord of the Thronesof the Two Lands,who is at the headof Karnak. May he praiseyou, love you, and prolong your life. May he give you L. P.H. on the GreatThrone. My he overthrow your enemiesin death [and in life], while you are be life All living. lord firmly established his and prosperity throne of Horus, of the on 77 daily"'? health be like father Re yours,all yours, your 'Said by the Mouth of Nhn, the High Priest of Maat, the Overseerof the City and Vizier Rr-ms, the justified. "For your ka, a bouquet of your father, the living, Rahe May Aten. in is Shu in his horizon Harakhty,who rejoiceson the the who nameof praiseyou, love you, and prolong your life, and give you millions of years and your he lands being feet, May Sed festivals, your, overthrow and of record all under your be life be health in death in life. joy be May yours, all yours, all all enemies and yours, '278 for firmly Re the throne and ever". ever established on of while you are The third figure illustrateshim carrying a staff with a broken head (fig.21c), him Mut, the text the above records: mostprobablyrepresenting goddess since ` "For your ka, a bouquetof Mut. May shelove you and put her arms as a protection justified'279 Re-ms, behindyou". Saidby the Overseer Vizier City the the the of and

Thefourthfiguredepicts him asholdingpapyrus foliageanda staffwith stems,

Khons' symbol, a hawk's (?) head ornamentedwith the sun's disk, and a royal figure 28 benethit. The text reads: "For your ka, a bouquet of Khons-Nefer-hotep... May he grant that all joy be Ri(Said) City, by Mouth Nhn, Overseer Maat, Priest the the the of yours". of the of 281 justified' ms, the . The Tomb of 7mn-m-hat (Surerl

282 hall back On the south wall of the of the tomb of 7mn-m43t called Surer (TT 48), on is depictedan occasionof presentingdifferent bouquets and staffs to the king left the

276 Davies, Tombof the Vizier Ramose,29 pl. XXx. 277 Urk IV, 4780; translation closeto Davies, Tomb of the Vizier Ramose,29. 278 Urk IV, 1781;translation closeto Davies, Tomb of the Vizier Ramose,29. 279 Urk IV, 1781;translation closeto Davies, Tomb of the Vizier Ramose,29. 280 Davies, Tombof the Vizier Ramose,29 pl. XX U. 181 Translation closeto Davies, Tombof the Vizier Ramose,29.


by the tomb-owner' (fig. 22). The king. is shown seated on a cube throne, ornamented

(srb). it The is it has a palace-facade with podium significant as six panels,making a form not found elsewherein private -tombs. The panels show Nubian and Asiatic foreigners.The top of the kiosk is decorated`with a bkr frieze followed by,.another. . frieze of cobras.Its':columns are those'of the lotus form.',The king is shown wearing . the Atef crown, ornamented with the ram-horn of Amun. He wears a garment,which 283 his body down his knees. Surer is illustrated as a numberof figures in front to covers kiosk, the of one figure following the other. Each figure holds bouquetsand staffs to presentto"the king. .A number, of the figures show him clothed in a dresstypical of a shoulders. 'a his over The formula is assumed to be: `For sm-priest,and wearing skin your ka, a bouquet-of ,.. May,he favour you, love you, and prolong your life,... '284 as this is also the generalformula'which occurs in other tombs.No tracesof an inscription remainin the tomb if Surer howver.'.The upper,register, which is now entirely lost, 285 ' have had 'a the may continuationof sametopic. Discussion

In such a depiction; the king is usually-enthronedin a kiosk.286In one case he is 287 by is him (TT behind 50) Maat, the accompanied goddess who shown enthroned Another sceneshows two kings enthronedin one kiosk (TT 43).288 The headgearof the king varies from one sceneto another.He is shown wearing the hpr. crown (TT 50);;89'theAtef, crowri (TT: 48);, 904''normal`wig (TT 43)291' horns high and or ram's 292 feathers(TT 110). This showsthat there was not a specialcrown, which was to be by worn the king on suchan occasion.

282 PM I, 88 (4); Radwan,Darstellungen,9; Sve-Stiderbergh, Four Eighteenth Dynasty TombsI, 4041 pl. XXXI. 283 Sve-Sderbergh, Four Eighteenth'DynastyTombs1,40 pl. XL. 284 Translationcloseto Save-Sderbergh, Four EighteenthDynasty TombsI, 41. 285See Davies, Tomb Four Eighteenth of the Vizier Ramose, pl. XXIX-XXX; Save-Sdderbergh, DynastyTombsI, 41 pl. XL. 286 Baud,Les dessins 9bauches, 91 and fig. 39; Davies,in StudiesGriffith pl. 35,41. 287 Davies,Tombof the Vizier Ramose,28 pl. XXIX. 288 Baud,Les-dessins ebauches, pl. VIII. 289 Davies,The Tombof the Vizier Ramose, pl.XXIX. 290 Sve-Sderbergh, Four EighteenthDynasty TombsI, pl. XXXI. 291 Baud,Les dessins ebauches, pl. VIII and fig 39. 292 Worn by Hatshepsut cf. Davies,in StudiesGriffith, pl. 35-41.


The tomb-owner is usually shown standing in front of the kiosk on a level

293 (TT is He kiosk (TT (TT 110). 43) lower than that of the either shaven-headed 295 illustrated is (TT 43). He times, each 110)294 a number of sometimes a or wears wig 296 Save-Sderbergh bouquets figure following the other, presenting and staffs. described this action as the tomb-owner `is depicted, one figure behind the other, as the he Davies that has bouquets he to continuing; times quoted or staffs offer', as many function but for king, before of `was the each to not once only, tomb-owner, appear his or for each blessing which he mediates, there was to be a figure carrying an 97 appropriate symbol'.

The tomb-owner is often shown before the pharaoh presentinga bouquet of flowers. It is usually composedof two main essentialparts: the main part consistsof flowers, is three papyrusstemsendingwith an umbel, and the secondpart madeup of 298 fastened fruits, leavesand to the papyrus. Titles of the tomb ownersreflect high-rankingpositions, and close connections between in Their king titles vary them with the one way or another. which associated 300 299 Overseerof the Kitchen of the Lord of the Two Lands, Child of the Nursery, 30' Royal Butler, Royal Herald302 Floral Bearer the Nurse of the King's Son, of and Offeringsof Amun.303 304 flower mnh i 11 that of every plant. means is a generalword var. OINI T T 305 flowers it tied And with the determinative meansa group of or

293 Baud,Les dessinsebauches, pl. VIII and fig. 39. 294 Davies,in StudiesGriffith, pl. 41. 295 Baud,Les dessinsebauches, pl. VIII and fig. 39. 296 Davies,Tombof the Vizier Ramose,pl. XXIX; Davies,JEA 9 (1923), pl. XXIV; Save-Sderbergh, Four EighteenthDynasty TombsI, pl. XL.
297 Sve-Sderbergh, Four Eighteenth Dynasty Tombs I, 41.

298 Baud, Les dessinsebauches,fig 39 pl. VIII; Keimer, AJSL 41 (1925), 153. The practice of putting togetherleaves,flowers and fruits to form a bouquetbegan at the beginning of the New Kingdom. innumerable times, especially in the Necropolis of Thebes. An early stage in They are represented 145. AJSL Keimer, 41 (1925), Old Kingdom: their development the as appears as early 299 Nfr-rnpt TT 43. PM 12,84 (3). 300 Wsr-htTT 56. PM I2,112 (9); Uns TT 31. PM I2,431 (5). 301 Hkr-nhh TT 64. PM I 2,129 (8). 302 Dhwti 71 L10.PM I2,228 (9). 303 Nht TT 161.PM I2,275 (7). 304 The enhsymbol in its origin was perhapsone of the magical knots made of water plants such as papyrusor grass.It was believedthat it protectedthe land and animals, and helped in plant growth. It also helped in the renovation of agricultural implements. The stem was bent to form a circle with


together forming a bouquet. Also, because a name of the bouquet was mnh, which also 306 in life life, divine Egyptians the and thought that the of gathered power was meant is it king, by bouquet. by So to the the tomb-owner such a offering represented is it in bouquet. Also, in form life flowers the the a gathered of power of offering thought that by offering flowers mnh=life, wad=prosperity, and snb=health, by which 307 by king the gods, were evoked. the was protected

Scott308 that the flowers were brought from the temple,andtherefore suggested
from based be Scott's text One they might on a suggestion sacred. would agree with TT 110 of Dhwti which reads: `... Oblation of all manner of offerings in the temple [of Amun] and the presentation of various flowers native to this land, the pick of the pools fruit lotus-buds, lotuses king, of and the the reeds and marchlands of namely... of blossoms fresh [? ][? ]; balsam Punet, the varied plants and scent of water mandrake of 309 and pure'.

Rh-ml-Rr, Egypt, king Amenhotep II Upon the accession to throne as the of of him a bouquet, which-hadthe emblemof headof the priesthoodand Vizier, presented Amun of Thebes. The inscription' states that the vizier was then received with reads: His The Rh-ml-Rr `The Mayor Vizier, to text the meet gratitude. arrival of and Majesty in order to presenta bouquetto the king' 310 A unique exampleof somethingpresentedto the king by a tomb-owner is in a holding from is mnh TT 110, Dhwti two arms sign with scene shown offering an where 31 is bouquet flowers Sometimes Hatshepsut. tomb-owner the to the a of nose of shown presentingstaffs, either terminating in a crowned ram's head of Amun with a little figure of the king standingon a bracket below it, as if he is under the protection of the god Amun, or terminatingin Mut's figure [lost], or with the emblemof Khons,'a hawk's (?) headcrownedwith a sundiskandwith the royal figure below it.
intersectingends that fell parallel to each other and were fixed at the point of bending by another BIFAO 11 (1914), 135. shorterstem,set in a horizontal position. SeeJ&quier, 305 CDME, 44. 306 J&quier, BIFAO 19 (1922), 134-136. 30'Dittmar, Blumen und Blumenstrue,126-132;Radwan,Darstellungen,4; Schoskeet al, "ANCH" Blumenfair dasLeben.Pflanzenim alten gypten.
308 Schott, Das schne Fest vom Wstentale, 48.

309 Translation closeto Davies,in StudiesGriffith, 282 p1.35-41 310 Upon the death of the king Thutmosis III, the heir to the throne was residing in the north (Memphis)and Rh-ml-Rrat once left Thebesby water to meetking AmenhotepII. They cametogether at Het-Sekhem: see,Davies, TombofRekh-mi-Re at Thebes,64, pl. LXX.
311 Davies, in Studies Griffith, p141.


The tomb-owner'sdressvariesfrom one scene He is eitherwearing to another. in much the same thelong kilt typical of a vizier,"' dressed way as a sm priest with a 313 his skinover shoulders, or wearinga shirt on the upper partof his body and a short 314 long transparentoverskirt, or a long bag-tunicwith a short kilt under-skirtwith 315 it. It is obvious thereforethat there was no specialgarmentthat the tombunder ownershouldwear to suchan occasion. The formula accompanying for eachfigure in the the tomb-owner, is repeated tombsTT 55 and TT 188: `For your ka, a bouquet of May he favour you, love ..... 316 life'. The sameformula is also employed you,andprolong your when a tomb-owner himself receivesa bouquet. With an exampleof a man offering a bouquetto Nb-7mn the words read: `May he favour you and love you [For your ka! A bouquet of 317 Amun]'. This meansthat by presentinga bouquet to a normal man or a king, the power of life existed in the bouquet itself not ' in the personwhom the bouquet was to. presented

Aldredargues that suchscenes of musthaverecreated occasion an individual

for the ' He connects these scenes the tomb-owner. significance those great of with from after the jubilee rites. He gives an exampleof Rh-ml-Rc' travelled appearance who Thebes to be formally receivedfor the first time by AmenhotepII, and he presenteda bouquet(of 'Amun) to him.318 He notes also that 7mn-htp-s3-s, the SecondProphet of Amun, offered a bouquet of Amun to Thutmosis IV on the occasion of his 319 bouquetsto AmenhotepIII on the occasionof, coronation, and also Surer presented 32 his jubilees. bases He his opinion on the scenein TT 55 where the vizier of also one Rr-ms offered a bouquet of Re-Horakhty to Amenhotep IV, probably on the first king, the illustrated is appearance figure in the samemanner of youthful public whose his father's depictions of reign and who is enthronedin the kiosk with Maat rather as 321 his queen. than with

312 Davies, Tombof the Vizier Ramose,pl. Xxix. 313 Four EighteenthDynasty TombsI, Sve-Sderbergh, pl. XL. 314 Helck, MDL4K 17 (1961), 103 fig 3. 315 Helck, MDL4K 17 (1961), 102 fig 2.

318 Aldred, JEA 56 (1970), 112. ; 19Davies, Tombsof Two Officials, pls. XI, XII. Four EighteenthDynasty TombsI, 320 Save-Sderbergh, pl. XL. 32' Aldred, JEA 55 (1969), 73-76; Davies, Tomb of the Vizier Ramose,Pls. XXIX,

316 Translation Four Eighteenth to Save-Sderbergh, close DynastyTombs I, 41 p1.XXXI. Four Eighteenth 317 Translation afterSve-Sderbergh, I, 23. DynastyTombs



The offering of bouquets occasionally interchanges with the presentation of 322 in Theban Such emblems are usually 48,55 188 tombs no. standards, as and

standards of the gods,chiefly Amun, Mut, Khons and Re-Horakhty, as well as martial that all such standard of hry pdt in TT 90 of Nb-7mn.Aldred, therefore,suggested 323 had his be by symbols to consecrated the monarchat accession. religious be It seems the bouquet king to that presenting on to the considered a not was For level tribute. same as other occasionssuch as promotion, rewardingor offering the king did not wear a specialcrown for such an occasion, example and the recipient formal dress. different The of not wearinga specific styles was presentation consistsof differ bouquets, which widely from one anotherin the mannerof their compositionand in particularin their size.The bouquetcan also include flowers or staffs.The formula is the samewhen offering a bouquetto a normalman, and not the scene accompanying Also, king. do attendants not apparently a witnesssuchan event. Finally, it is possible that such depictions were planned to guarantee the in his before it king; the tomb-owner the of official capacity was actually a performance kindof appreciation offeredby the official to his king during suchaudiences.

323 Aldred, JEA 55 (1969), 76.

322 Davies,Tomb of the VizierRamose, Four EighteenthDynastyTombs p1.XXXI; Save-Sderbergh, XL. I, pl.

2.1.4. Presentation of the New Year's Qifts The presentation of, New. Year's gifts was another occasion when the king interacted ) TT (? in be 7mn-htp A such his the tomb of seen gifts can people. parade of with 73.324 The Tomb of 7mn-htn (?l :, , On the north west wall'of the hall in the tomb is an interesting scene depicting the to (fig. The 23). New Day queen Year's Hatshepsut scene runs on presentation of gifts back wll'of the wall. the the northern on covers and also outer room part of one along entrance todepiction the To the right of the the supposed queen of passagewas a of. be seated on a baldachin,' which is now entirely erased.

Outside the.,kisk 7mn-litp is shown offering a necklace with a number of . for bracelets include' behind, him; These wrists and anothersmallerpectoral, and objects , `and he has is him behind Above that text given preciousgifts a mentioning upper arms. 32s to the queenas `New Year's'gifts'.. The gifts are arrangedin four registers.In the top registerthe gifts compriseof (? ), bed-like follows. heaped linen (? ), There tables shape two a up with and a chair. back, lion it. lying is Also stepping on shown a seatwith a probablywith someobjects human hands depicted, foreigner. Two cnh with each and w3ssignsare on a prostrated lid, is large dd Behind, 'sign. the ornamentedwith the, a a supporting vase with and 4 he In '. jars head Amun. Other second, of and-a chariot';are also,represented. ram's.. ; . the first object is a statuegroup in which Sekhmetis shown seatedopposite in betweenthem. The scene Amun, perhaps with the queenas a royal child represented The is in is followed by a decorated. Thot, third register-writing., seen, shrine which figure the a group statue of queen,whose and name are erased,two pairs of shows the fans,followed by two chariots.Below is a statuegroup in which Khnum embraces dd below he lap his Symbols Anuket. the are of a of companion royal child as sits on 326 flanked by the sm3-t3wy symbol. emblem The fourth register shows two fans, a number of arrows, a bow and a group between Hatshepsut Atum Amun The Re. of rest of the register showsthree and statue
324 PM 1,100 (1), (2); Radwan,Darstellungen, 11; Habachi,JNES 16 (1957), 92 pls. IV, V. 325 For text seeUrk IV, 456-458. 326 Sve-SSderbergh, Four EighteenthDynasty TombsI, pl III.


flanked by heads first is decorated The Hathor cartouches, a royal one with shrines. Hours protected by a sacred eye, mnh,4d, was symbols on a nb sign and four sundw3-rhyt has handles. The the a shrine second representation of shadeswith symbolic in heads, is Hathor The third shrine ornamented with motif shown on a nb sign. 327 mnh, cld, was signs. addition to The Tomb of Sn-nfr In the tomb of Sn-nfr (TT 96),328 the deceasedoffers four registers of New Year's gifts to Amenhotep II (destroyed), who was shown enthroned in a kiosk (fig. 24). The text informs us that the gifts are made to the king on the occasion of New-Year. The text 329 reads:

`Bringing a present of the New Year, the beginning of eternity and the end of Majesty His he to together the on offered good monuments which with all everlasting, behalf of all L. P.H. by the nobleman,great confidant of the Lord of the Two Lands, favouredof the good god, who does what is useful for Horus in the course of every day,the mayor of the southerncity, who doesthe duties of Thebes,the Overseerof the beautifulbulls of Amun, the Overseerof the Two Granariesof Amun, the Overseerof the Orchardof Amun, Sn-nfr, the justified'. The gifts consistof statuesand temple furniture arrangedin four registers.The
first register includes a stela, vases, a sphinx statue of Thutmosis III, and a statue of Mrit-Rr in a standing position, a flywhisk holding in one hand. Also shown are four king includes The the second register vases, and a group statue combining standards. king is The Thutmosis III a god. shown enthroned, wearing the white crown and and holding the rnlz sign in his hand. Behind him is a figure of the god Amun, wearing a high-feathered crown, sitting on a similar throne and probably embracing him. Another two statues of Thutmosis III are shown. One of them is enthroned, wearing a nmsheaddresswith uraeus on the forehead. The other statue shows the king in a kneeling position wearing the bprS crown and holding two vases in his hands. A censer with an head in human hand, holds is bowl, terminating and a animal a also shown. The which third register shows another statue of Thutmosis III, in a kneeling position, wearing the

327 Sve-Sderbergh, Dynasty Four Eighteenth Tombs I, pl IV.

328 PM I, 198 (6); Radwan,Darstellungen, 12; Davies,BMMA 23 (1928) 46 fig 6. 329 Urk IV, 1417,5-13.


is figure ) (? is headdress. to He which a seated offering a ritual making shown nms in mnh handles in is lost. Behind, signs the and c1d of an shape a mirror with now
in is is a Behind one this pair of statues, of representation a sign. standing on nb display both the They in is the position. other enthroned a seated standing position and fourth king. The has the king the pre-nomen of although only one nomen of the 330 flail. holding hk3 the the and a statue, enthroned, shows register The Tomb of Thenuna Tn-n3

331 King to (TT 76), Tn-n3 the gifts In the tomb of owner was shown presenting ThutmosisIV. The depiction of the tomb owner is entirely lost and only fragmentsof his legs,and a pectoraloffered by him, are now remain(fig.25). In the top register Thutmosis IV is censing to a royal statue standing on a is followed This IV. Thutmosis Tia, beside queen wife of a statuerepresenting podium by another statue, presumablydepicting Thutmosis IV. Behind this group are two illustration is In there of the an secondregister goldenpendants,a mirror, and a stool. between The third a royal them. shows two register a mace and pectorals with vase a is is below. To holding A the Atef a vase right a vase. censer crown sphinx,wearingan bowl fourth The four frog, decoratedwith a vases. and a pendantpositioned over a is jars it. below There two also a necklace,a vase registercontainsa sphinx as well as 332 hawkheads jars huge decorated ibexheads,


with on a standanda pectoral The Tomb of 7mn-m-h3t

is (TT 48), Surer On the right, back wall of the first hall of the tomb 7mn-m-h3t called deceased king held the depiction in the the on with an audience of an which a event is king displaying (fig. The New Year's 26). the shown seatedon a gifts occasionof in Theban (srh), decorated type throne, the as same a palace-facade with cube-form is is decorated It 226333 120. the tombs no also =3-t3wy emblem, which with and

330 Davies,BMMA 23 (1928) 46 fig 6. 331 PM I, 150(5); Wreszinski,Atlas 1,46 (a). 332 Sve-S6derbergh, Four Eighteenth Dynasty Tombs I, 50 pl. LXXII; Wegner, MDIAK 4 (1933), 130. 333 The ownerof this tomb held the titles: Fan-Beareron the Right of the King, Overseerof all Works of the King, Chief Nurse of the King's Real Son, King's Scribe, and Door Keeper of Amun and Master of the Thrones of the Two Lands. He was clearly an important man who lived in the reign of AmenhotepIII, seeHbachi,in Helck (ed.), Festschriftfitr Siegfried Schott, 61-70.

found in tombs no 57 and 192. Its arm-restsshow a form of a sphinx,walking over her him Maat is with protecting two Nubians and an Asiatic. Behind him the goddess
The form. top its in bows is list base traditional On the the common of the nine wings. Its frieze by are frieze followed is by bkr columns kiosk of cobras. a the a adorned of king hawk is the with king, lotus Behind throne, the protecting type. the a the above of its wings.334 is Right, King's himself Fan-Bearer shown A man, probably Surer the on the

This in him before he a king fan the wears man towards the portico. as stands wavinga is Surer, figure by is followed his feet. He who long dress,and sandals of another on is He here shown ascendingthe steps of the podium, adorned with a royal sphinx. holding a staff in one hand, in the other a pectoral, decorated with two snakeis he figure In shown wearing probably to protect the royal name. each goddesses, is base At the he is but stairs a differenttypes of clothes of alwayswearing sandals. the `Bringing Surer lion The text reads: above on a podium. statuerepresentsa sitting [good] by inspection for into (them)] the godi335 [monuments the presence andputting The gifts were organizedin five registers.The first register shows the remains is zirp this first is king bases. The sceptreand staff, and of a with a on several statues of " by followed two statues of queens? To the right different types of furniture are 337 from the boxes. few beds, biers Only remainsof statuesremain and a shown:stools, 339 be lower In two the seen. the third can stools parts of registeronly register. second The fourth and fifth registersshow a processionof statuesconductedby groups is himself. Behind is by Surer It a the official an official, escorted probably men. of The of three the consists statues part of of of seated vases. second procession group in followed king, Tiy by the three a standingposition, carrying a the statuesof queen flywhisk andwearingthe feathercrown with doubleuraei and the vulture headdress. The left part of the fifth register shows two statuesof hippopotamusgoddess, 339 Khons. Bes At the two two the the the and of god as of god of end well right as

334PM I, 89 (7); Sve-Sbderbergh, Four Eighteenth Dynasty Tombs I, 37 pl. XXX; Radwan, Darstellungen, 15. 335 Four Eighteenth Dynasty TombsI, 39 pl. XXXVI. Translation after Sve-Sderbergh, 336 Four EighteenthDynasty TombsI, pl. XXXVI. Sve-Sderbergh, 337 Four EighteenthDynasty TombsI, pl. XXXIII. Sve-SBderbergh,

338 Four Eighteenth SSve-Sderbergh, DynastyTombsI, pl. XXXVIII; Wegner,MDAIK 4 (1933), 132.
339 Four EighteenthDynasty TombsI, pl. XXXVII. Save-Sderbergh,


himself, is Surer340 large figure, offering a royal there a scene presumablyof erased sphinx.

chamber, Onthe left and right of the portico on the rear wall of the first transverse king, in depictions the offering of remain which show the tomb-owner, the presence 342 341 NewYears' gifts. The king is usuallyenthronedunder the greatbaldachin of state 343 is The is Hathor. He sometimesenthronedwith the goddess tomb-owner shown .
types king the and queen, and offering a parade of gifts, mainly composed of statues of 344 includes beds, boxes, dishes. It furniture, pectorals, a royal also stools, vases and of 346 34s bracelets, tables



and a chair.

day of the king in Gardiner arguedthat suchan event was not the accession 347 display however, New Year's Aldred was the that gifts out pointed question. king his the the re-coronation,which most probably coronation of at or at presented 348 For example,Hrw f is shown presenting followedthe festival of Sokar of Memphis. 349 in jubilee in in Amenhotep And tomb Year's III. of 37 the New the third gifts of year is III jubilee in Surer the scene reveals a progress and Amenhotep ceremony has been interpreted that as an annual a show as presiding over of presents represented 35 Year's New displayof gifts.

in For the tomb-owner, depicts for the scene a themeappropriate memorial had is king `god themapproaching the who theirtombs,showing who regarded as a
it is king, his the For displaying inspection them'. the of a motif yearly made

management. government

340 Four EighteenthDynasty TombsI, pl. XXXVIII. Save-Sderbergh, 341 Vandier,Manuel d'Archeologie IV, 544-61. 342 Vandier, Manuel d'Archeologie IV, 544-61; Save-Sderbergh, Four Eighteenth Dynasty TombsI, XXX. pl.

343 Wegner, MDAIK 4 (1933),130;Save-Sderbergh, FourEighteenth DynastyTombs I, pl. XXII. DynastyTombs 344 Four Eighteenth SSve-Sderbergh, I, pis. I-VI.
Four EighteenthDynasty TombsI, pl. XXII. 345 Sve-Sderbergh, 346 Habachi,JIVES16 (1957), pl. IV, V. 347 Gardiner,JEA 31(1945), 26-27. 348 Aldred, JEA 55 (1969), 73. 349 The Epigraphic Survey,Tombof Kheruef, pl. 50; Fakhry, ASAE 42 (1953), pl. XX(IX. Four Eighteenth Dynasty TombsI, pl. 3GCCVI-fix. Sve-Sderbergh, 350


2.2. Overall discussion ;

include'thefollowing points: Previousdiscussion

2.2.1. Basic elements of narrative

illustrating the interaction betweenthe The basic pictorial elementsof the narrative3s1 . king and his peopletypically dealswith the following aspects:the king's attitude, the witnessing the event. After the reward takes place, a recipients' attitude, and people and is 'tableauxThe the fsub-scenes recipient seriesof additional narration. ,continue and palace frequently. from, being receivedby his friends (and/or, the shown emerging who 352 is him is' him. for He His ' shown congratulate relatives) chariot, also waiting : : . 353In driving his house. towards, then two instances354 the recipient also makesa visit to for this is not clear,.but ' it may be to give thanks to the temple of Aten.,The reason"
Aten ass

2.2.2. Preparations before meeting the kinn

The official to be rewarded entered by the north gate on foot, keeping his chariot between the pylons,which involved passingthrough the avenueof and entering outside 356 in treesset the great courtyard. In sometomb scenes chariotswere displayedwithin the courtyard, however, suggestingthat the official reached the courtyard by his 35' Kemp chariot. points out that the king's houseplan showson the north side, a small horses. for the set of rooms for perhapsthe guardsin charge, entourage's or possibly He therefore suggeststhat outside the rooms `might have served as a dismounting One imagine that this would'also have been an appropriatepoint for: might point...... the official to receivesome instruction or reminder of what to do and what to say to the king, and he may have waited, perhapswith others, to be called by a Herald..... Meanwhile a member of his, household might be supervising the collection of the 358 distribution'. supplementary

351 Gaballa,Narrative in Egyptian Art, Hermann,Die altagyptischeKnigsnovelle. 352 Davies,ElAmarna III, pl. XVII.
353 Gaballa, Narrative in Egyptian Art, 228. 354 Davies, EI Amarna IV, pl. XVIII.

355 Gaballa,Narrative in EgyptianArt, 228. 356Davies, El Amarna VI, pl. XVIII; The scene shows the officials leaving their chariot before enteringthe gateof the courtyard. 357 Davies,ElAmarna VI, p1.XVIII; Gaballa,Narrative in Egyptian Art, 73. 358 Kemp,JEA 62 (1967), 87.


2.2.3. The king's appearances in the audience hall Pictorial evidence shows the king either enthroned in a royal baldachin3S9 or leaning from king's headdress The the one window of appearances. and clothes vary out of 360 it instances In he is blue hprS In to the one case crown. scene another. most wearing is unusually, bordered by uraei around his'head.361Another scene represents the king 363 fitting It him the cap. red crown'362 a close while another shows wearing wearing by king be headdress the therefore, that there to worn no special crown seems, was or during the royal audiences. He is sometimes shown holding the crook and the flail 364 mnh sign. sceptres and an

2.2.4. People responsible for the ushering in

In the tribute scenes, the tomb owner is the one who introducesthose bringing tribute. Could their intermediary role between the sovereign and the delegates of those diplomaticmissionsmirror the role of the `ForeignMinister' in modernEgypt?

2.2.5. People's attitude

The recipient who is promoted or rewarded is shown in the courtyard in a standing him instances his hands in joy Other show position, raising a gestureof and gratitude. in a kneeling position but still raising his hands in the direction of the king in 365 salutation.

2.2.6. Greeting

One scene,appearingin the tomb of P3-rn-nfr, shows a man, probably the vizier,
standing very close to the balcony. He is stretching out his hand as if touching the king's hand in greeting.366

359 Davies,Tombsof Two Officials, 8, pl. XIII. 360 Davies,ElAmarna VI, 3.

361 Davies, ElAmarna VI, pl. XVII. 362 Davies, -ElAmarna IV, pl. VIII. 363 Davies, ElAmarna I, pl. XXX. 364 Davies, Tomb of Huy, pl. XXII.

365 Davies,El Amarna VI, pl. XVII; I, pl. VI. 366 Davies,El Amarna, VI, p1.IV.


2.2.7.Court entertainment

Visualevidencesuggests took place beforethe king. In the that court entertainment interesting doorway, tombof Hrw.f TT 192,367 an on the west portico south of the before the dancers jubilee ceremonies sceneshows and musicians performing first The into Amenhotep falls (fig. III 27). The shows two registers. enthroned scene bending dance. They dancers be three are to acrobatic who seem performing a special to touch the ground with their handsand their hair is falling in front of them. The before two the The female flutists text second registershowsa group of and a singer. 368 in into king's `Ushering to perform the the order reads: registers presence women in front (jubilee] ceremonies of the dais'. Also, music played a vital part at the court of Akhenatenduring the Amarna Amarna is interesting It the the that of musicalrepresentations on monuments period. largely the is that There to the to relate royal sphere. some evidence suggest period 369 In familiar Amarna the a royal at court were princesses with musicalentertainment. 7 front in from band banquet is Hwy? of tomb the scene of court of a representation high Akhenaten Nefertiti, and who are shown sitting on chairs. The band consistsof four femaleperformers,a harpist, two lute playersand one lyre player. Another scene 71represents from the tomb of Mry-Rr 11,3 king Akhenatenenthronedon a pavilion and of the harem,using stringedinstruments,are diverting the king with music. musicians The word hnr, when first used in the Old Kingdom, meant female dancers and 372For instance, Nfr. s-rs of the Fifth Dynasty hnr imyt-r n' nswt singers. was an 373 King, hnr Overseer of the of the and also an imy (t)-r 1b3wn nswt Overseerof the 374 Ny-m3rt-rr, the courtier with whom she shareda tomb, built it King. Dancesof the for her sk s (y) m hnw m ipt-nswt `while she was in the residence,in the private 375 Their king'. imply titles the that they supervisedleisure time activities of apartments latter king's behalf. The imy-r the official shmh ib nb m hnw 9t3w pr-r3 was on

36'The Epigraphic Survey, Tombof Kheruef, pl. 34. 368 The Epigraphic Survey,Tombof Kheruef, 46. 369 Manniche,Music and Musicians, 84-96. 370 Davies,ElAmarna III, pl. V.

El marnaII, pl. XXXII. 3" Davies, Studies ), 372 Nord,in Simpson (eds. Dunham,137-145. et al II, fig. Giza 373 Hassan, 226,pl. 78 (2,3). Excavations at
374 Hassan,Excavationsat Giza II, fig. 228, pl. 79. Hassan,Excavationsat Giza II, fig. 226, pl. 78 (2,3). 375


376 in Secrets Palace. Overseer of all the Entertainment the Residence and of the of the Nfr. s-rs claimed a similar title lmy(t)-r shmh ib nb nfr n nswt Overseer of all the fine Entertainment for the King. 377 Ny-m3ct-rr was also lmy-r hst pr-f3 Overseer of Singing 378 Nfr. in Although her Palace. the the tomb the spalace, singing of partner supervised is dances. in It imyt-r ib3w therefore n nswt was evidently rs as charge of palace by bar king for the that the certain means of amusement were provided evident king's indicate The direct to the the titles this their of court. charge attached of couple sparetime activities.

2.2.8. People witnessing these events

Pictorial evidence shows that the people witnessing such occasionswould include: holding foreign soldiers palaceescorts,royal servants, military escorts, representatives, officers, scribesrecordingthe event, and high ministersof the state.Bearers standards, fan, the crook andthe axe, and servantscarrying gifts, are also present. of

376 Hassan, Excavationsat Giza II, fig. 231, pl. 77. 377 Hassan, Excavationsat Giza II, fig. 228, pl. 79. 378 Hassan, Excavationsat Giza II, fig. 231, pl. 77. 379 Davies,ElAmarna VI, pl. XVII.


2.3. Interpreting

pictorial narrative

Gaballa argues that `The problem of narrative in Egyptian pictorial art is closely his in his general and with world connected with the Egyptian's conceptions of both in That that understanding were conception and particular. understanding of art 3 0 factors'. historical by and psychological conditioned In Egyptian pictorial art two methods of depiction were employed to express the `culminating first describes Perkins"' the where scene', the method as narrative.

the by focusing occasion of to moment on a momentous present a story artist chooses in be important Examples this seen officials' private method can of character. and an tombs,it having beenusedto representa number of rewarding and promotion scenes. thereby depict the story, The secondmethod382 to of episodes sequences of used was displayingthe story in more than one scene.The Ramesside provide a good war scenes land' king illustrates frequently the capturing exampleof this method,where the scene 383 defeating foe. a or a placeor The problem of pictorial narrative is how can pictures be used to reconstruct been have the in buildings the to might the the of where question of palace order solve interactionbetweenthe king and his subjectstook place.In practice,using thesescenes logical find intended help to that the a researcher solve a number of questions can from involved for the Evidence the them. that procession a preparation answer by by is house king's the tomb scenes. to the partly palace chariot suggested official's The scenesgive us substantialclues about the attitude of the recipient upon being his king's king, in in front attitude regarding and also about the of the ushered them is in in for hall. Evidence took the order which events place appearance the audience also revealedon the walls of private tombs. On the other hand, there are questions, which cannot be solved by purely information derived is It to the with that necessary combine pictorial scenes. examining information in from to about the of order complete our other evidence sources gleaned has how long For to wait the recipient examplequestionsremain as overall narrative. beforebeingusheredin, his attitude before the moment of usheringin and who speaks

380 Gaballa,Narrative in Egyptian Art, 138; cf. Frankfort, JEA 18 (1932), 35. 381 Perkins,AJA 61(1957), 55. 382 Moscati,Historical Art in theAncient Near East Rome,75-76. 383 Gaballa,Narrative in EgyptianArt, 138-139.



him inform him to as with with the instructions. The location from which the recipient is ushered in is also "a problem. For example, during the tomb of Mry-Rr d an the tomb period, both dating P3-nhsy, Amarna to the of contain depictions, which can be used to reconstruct ,parts ;of the palicebut' is place not clear. stillt the,;exact ,place ;in which "the audience took,,.


, 1.


2.4. Appendix I: The dw3 rhyt Motif The Wrterbuch384translatesthe term rhyt as `mankind', `subjects of the king' and, `common folk'. The origin of the term rhyt is unclear and has cause a certain amount 385Attempts to define a prehistoric origin for rhyt as a people are purely discussions of in iconography in helpful term the the or use of understanding speculative, and are not the New Kingdom.

The earliestevidenceregardingrhyt comesfrom a fragment on the slatepalette

deck illustration is the Cairo No. 14238,386 there of of a ship with a an on which 87 is display base King Djoser; Also, lapwing on top. there the of a on of a statue of 388 bows, is birds king bows The the three shown standing on seven of and rhyt nine is his feet facing The in front three three an right. number of are rbyt-birds and indication of plurality. It is interesting that the rl.iyt birds are shown with their wings To from from flying but 'together them twisted also walking. not only which prevents have their wings in this position would also mean that the birds could not stand, so inis in lying legs This the their they are usual way a position of absolute subjection. on birds Egyptian the reliefs and paintings, represented on ancient see rhyt which we 389 being totally obedient. therefore they appear to symbolise the rhyt people as

iconography A number of representations the are characteristicof using rhyt the New Kingdom. For instance, in a scene from the temple of Deir el Bahari, is shownenthronedin order to receiveofferings. Six rbyt birds with human Hatshepsut They in lying depicted below throne the sign. are a on nb are one row, each royal arms in a gestureof adoration for the queen and the signs mnh w3l' snb are written at each 390 (= by) `Adoration The the the throne text all the of royal row. under reads: end of 391 live'. rhyt, that they may

384Wb II, 447,9.

385 SeeGardiner, AEO I, 100-108; Nibbi, DE 9 (1987), 79-96; cf. Nibbi, Lapwings and Libyans in Ancient Egypt; Hodge,DE 2 (1985), 13-23. 386 Quibell,Archaic Objects,233.
387 Gunn, ASAE 26 (1926), 184-187.

388A Predynasticmace-headshows an association of the rhyt and the nine bows. See Quibell, Ifierakonoplis I, pl. 26 c. 389 Gardiner,AEO 1,102-106. 390 Naville, Deir el Bahari IV, p1.110. 391 Naville, Deir el Bahari IV, pl. 85; Gardiner,AEO I,, 102-103.


At the northern east wall, in the tomb of Hwy, Tutankhamun is shown seated The blue throne flail holding baldachin, the the crown. the and wearing crook and on a in dw3 both the by birds sign is adorned on the rhyt standing on a nb sign with sides 392 front of them, which is to be read: dw3 rhyt nb `Adoration of (=by) all the rliyts. is It homage. in leading dais quite Steps various attitudes of up the show courtiers interesting that the gesture of the first courtier resembles that of the rhyt bird, in that 393 in their hands. human The the both are shown with rhyt, of adoration raised is human regarded as a common motif, which may position, raised with arms squatting indicate that `they may live each day'.394

An inscriptionwithin the HypostyleHall at Karnak refersto the hall as `a place 395 hall The Majesty'. His was also wherethe common people rhyt praisethe name of in Teeter this is `in Amun to the, the to populace'. place manifest which alluded as is `this temple the also ability of the common man to enter that area of respectsaid 96 Also, folk king] by dw3 `RN [of the the praise'. common rhyt nb whom all attested into Doors the first Luxor the there temple, area. court, within was a public audience at Upper King `the bit dw3 Wsr-Mart-Re of rbyt nb' stp-n-Re court were called nsw live'. The Lower Egypt that they the pillars on may common people praise whom and the east side of the court were adornedwith the dw3 rbyt nb motif, referring to the 397 into the area. right of the public to enter The gesture of the rhyt indicatestheir submissionand subjectionto the king. The questionarising is doestheir presentationunder the king's throne meansthat they had access to this private areaas in Karnak andLuxor halls?

The coronationtext of Hatshepsut betweentwo categories distinguishes of

398 have The h3t-rhyt. the the upper class normal rhyt and normal rhyt could not rhyt: inner to the rooms where the throne was, whereasthe upper class rbyt could access It is therefore possibleto suggestthat the depictions of the rhyt havehad suchaccess. in king king kind the by throne the representeda the of of propagandaused under
392 Davies,Tomb*ofHuy, pl. IV. 393 Davies, Tomb of Huy, pl. VIII, left. In the tomb of PI-rn-nfr representationsof two rbyt birds decorateboth panels of the window of appearances, each standing on two nb signs. Cf. Davies, El Amarna VIzp1_IV. 394 Hlscher,Mortuary Templeof Ramese III, pl. 43. 395 KR! II, 559,7-8. 396 Teeter,Presentationof Maat, 4-5. 397 KR! II, 610,7-8; Teeter,Presentationof Maat, 5. 39' Urk IV, 259,1-260,13.


by in his dominion'and to the order ensure power, rhyt, one way or another, control of depictingthem in a format like that of the royal audience,and defining the protocol of I would suggestthat for this reasonthe rhyt as a relief was used as a royal audience. in theme the decorationof the throne. standard


2.5. Appendix II: The Heb-Sed festival

The Heb-Sed celebration depictions mark the earliest representationsof the public 39 from Archaic is depicted king. Sed-festival the The period the of appearances from the sun-templenear Abu Gurab, of King Neuserre of the Fifth Dynasty Scenes 400 Sed-festival. Old Kingdom the an of record most extensive pictorial provide This series of sceneshas more than one episode, which depicts the public
These foundation illustration king. begins It started the rites. of with appearanceof the by the construction a building for the Sed-festival e.g. the palace or robing-room. The by followed inspection the opening ceremony the survey, cattle and stage was second the is king msw and priests the shown walking along with various attendants, where be king legs in Here the seen can of only the nsw royal children seated palanquins. destination The to in be the to procession. participating whereas the queen seems not be it to is is proceeding towards the might not obvious, yet procession moving which lion-furniture following The sequence the to ritual. the temple or chapel undertake follows. Coming next are two sceneswhich depict the king, enthroned on each side of Egypt. Lower Upper from double and the representatives of pavilion, receiving respect In the final scene the king is shown on the palanquin, the procession moves on, 401 probably returning to the palace.

402 During Evidenceof the Sed-festivalcelebrationcontinuesinto later times.

kings for the is depicted, the festival New Kingdom of this all the attested, not yet
EighteenthDynasty. The most completeillustration occurs in the reign of Amenhotep,

399 ), Ancient Egyptian Gohary,Akhenaten'sSed-Festival,6; Baines,in O'Connor and Silverman (eds. The Sed-festival displayedon the Narmer macehead Kingship, 129; scenes the to ritual. are connected king is depictedwearing the red crown, with a long robe, sitting on a platform, with a chapel placed him is Before in fan-bearers. it form He is by followers a cow and a a of a canopy. attended and upon calf with four standards.Beneath is a representationof a female figure. The earliest textual and doubledepicting from First Dynasty, Palermo from the the the stone architectural evidencecomes by a text. It runs: `Appearanceof the King of Upper Egypt, appearance of throne dais accompanied the King of Lower Egypt: Sed-festival'. See Schfer, Ein Bruchsatck altgyptischer Annalen, 19; Kuraszkiewicz,GM 172 (1999), 63-64; Kuhlmann, Der Throneim alten gypten, 50-61 400 317-318;Gohary,Akhenaten'sSed-Festival,7 PM 1112 , 401 Kaiser concludedthat not less than twelve parts of the festival rituals were shown. He mentions them as follows; 1- Foundation rites, 2- Inspection and cattle census,3- Start of the procession,45- Homage sceneI, 6- Homage sceneII, 7- Min sequence,8- Wepwawet Lion-furniture-sequence, 12109Driving Bringing 11Mounting the the palnquium, cattle, palanquin, sequence, Terminating palanquin procession.SeeKaiser, BABA 12 (1971), 87-98, pls. 4, top row and third row 5,2-3-4 row; Gohary,Akhenaten's Sed-Festival,10-11. 402 Gohary,Akhenaten'sSed-Festival,7-9.


403 face located `on is in in his Soleb This the III, Nubia. of the north templeat west between the face the the the gateway of north side, pylon,and on the north of wingof illustration 404 is hypostyle'. On there the an the north wing of pylon courtandthe outer hf in tnt3t, is first bottom On the the the ceremony, two. act ceremonies. register, of h,,, throne `illuminating took=. the or determinative) (with fire Wilson to ; mean where : : Sedbeen before the introductory to kind have 'of baldachin', rite an some which,semis 40S kilt tail the hprg festival. The king is depicted, the with short and a crown, aswearing Chief the is by,: varius bull. He the sm priest, accompanied priests and'courtiers: of a together with other Lector Priest and the SecondPriest, 'of:Amun and a council d3d3t; 406 the is`, The, `striking; the'city where a-ceremony gates', second+. ceremony officials 'The the from door, his king to king strikes a of gate then, gate passes macehead with 407 doorpost his mace. with city, striking the 'of first gateway, f face is the to On the north the a seriesofreliefs, attributed -Sed 408 bottom from in, the festival of Amenhotep. III: It is ? shown eight registers, running in festival, the displays first', The the the 'openingof top. register and,continuing16 his king is from the palace,on the wtst palanquin,on the shouldersof carried whichthe 409 bearers. In front of him is the standardof Wepwawet, and priests carrying divine in foot Following the their them the queen on are children palanquins, royal emblems. Tiy andthree princesses. At the left of this register, the king and the queen are shown approachingon foot; from -the right; towards'the -palace.They are,accompaniedby the Chief Lector',

f. At the left,,the king and the queen,with the Priestandthe Royal Scribe,Nb-mnt. is depicted followers A female the outside palace. rangeof maleand are royalchildren, them.' accompanying shown in its lower king in The second front of a smallshrine the register, part, shows
inside. In king is depicted besidean offeringthe the a standing statue upper part, with in front (fry him. is Attending Chief Court ' the table and a sm priest censes also of the
403 pM VII, 170 (5) (6); Giorgini Soleb I, 96-99. Other evidence comes from a few scenesin the his funerary temple in Western Thebes and scenes in the tomb of from Luxor, blocks temple at Khereuf. SeeGohary,Akhenaten'sSed-Festival, 11. 404 Gohary,Akhenaten'sSed-Festival, 11. 405 Wilson, JL40S56(1936), 293-296. 406 Wilson, JAOS 56 (1936), 294.

407 Breasted, AJSL25 (1908),90; Giorgini,SolebI, 99 fig 79; Gohary, 12. Akhenaten's Sed-Festival, 408 PM VII, 170(5) (6) (7). 409 AJSL25 (1908),94; Naville, TheFestivalHall of Osorkon Breasted, If, pls. VII, XX, MV


friends Priest (smrw), Chief Lector the the of and palace,groups of courtiers wsht), king's king blessing (htp di Osiris. Then to the a offers goes to another nsw) who by by king followed The two then to the moves palace shrine, accompanied priests. separatestandardsof Wepwawet, the Lecture Priest and other priests with divine At the left, the king and queenare shown standingoutsidethe palace. emblems. The third register depicts the king offering to Horus. The fourth register kneeling him before fifth displays Ennead. The the represents register prostate and figures paying respect to the king. Above them are more kneeling and prostrate figures.Behind are two groups of men shown running. The register below shows men kneeling,andbehindthem are three pairs of women with flower-patternedheaddresses. The king is shown againwith the Lector Priest, his destinationis probably the (, include They the palace,and officials and priests are also shown. vizier t3ty), the sole friend (smr wrty), the Friend of the palace,the sm priest, the priest of Serket (hm-ntr Srkt) and a numberof courtiers (smrw). The sixth register shows the king and queen by king Amun-Min. last The the to and the attended priests, offering register shows queenproceedingto the palace. The depiction of the Sed festival of AmenhotepIV is useful in reconstructing The majority of the blocks in this scenewere taken out from the ninth the Sed-festivals Karnak. into falling The three talatat at scene runs over eleven pylon coursesof and, 41 (flg. in 37a) registers,showsseveralscenes the upper Egyptian palanquinprocession The bottom register depicts the king in a standingposition wearing the white crown festival Sed the and robe, and holding the crook and the flail, accompaniedby the queen,shown emergingfrom the palace gate which is decoratedwith the sm3 t3wy union. Before him is a representationof four chamberlains(imy jnt) prostrating betweenthe columns of the portico. The accompanyinginscription above themselves figure runs: `kissing the ground by the chamberlains'.The king then seemsto be each beside his to stand moving palanquin. He is followed by two fan-bearerswho are holding shown semi-circular fans. In the centre, the king is depicted seated on his palanquin,carriedby kneelingbearerswho appearto be about to standto move. They are wearing bag-kilts and are barefooted. Another four pairs of 1my bnt prostrate themselvc in front of the king with the phrasesn t3 Imy lint `kissing the ground by the
410 Gohary,Akhenaten'sSed-Festiva!,40-43, pl. I.


divine Three follow hm-ntr, title the a chamberlian'. each carrying priests with standard.
In the upper two registers the palanquin procession seemsto be returning to the palace. In the middle register is a representation of the queen, accompaniedby the royal children, following the king's procession to the palace. In the centre, the is She be in her its is The to procession seems palanquin. on way. queen shown carried hand. long in her feather is fly right wearing a wig and a crown, and carrying a whisk She is followed by three royal children, who are also on their palanquins. The queen and the royal children are then depicted standing in front of their representative palanquins outside the columns of the palace portico. They are met by bearers of the palanquinswho are bowing in respect.

In the top register is an illustration of the king's processionreturning to the king is bearers depicted fan his by followed the and palace, on palanquin,precededand bowing officials. Facing towards the palanquinis a depiction of three kneeling men holding staffs. At the left, the king is illustrated standing on a platform before his before him and the palanquinbearersbow in a gesture palanquin while a priest censes of respect. Behind them are shownthe columnsof the palaceportico. The second largest Sed festival illustration covers nine courses of talatat (fig.37b).41 It is shownin two registers:the first runs from left to right. The depiction starts with three rows of kneeling men, each with one hand extended to the left, towards anotherdepiction of the king on his papalnquin.Behind, is shown the perhaps king's procession.The king is seatedon his palanquin, wearing the red crown, and holding the flail and the hk3 sceptre. Above him is Aten spreadingout its rays. The king is carriedby bearers,who are shownbarefooted.Attending this occasion are four fan bearerswho are holding semi-circularfans behind his head. A priest is shown before king, by the inscription: `censingbefore His Majesty in the accompanied censing (accordingto) the rites of every Sed- festival. The lower register shows the queen wearing the feather her in crown, seated Behind the queen's palanquin is a row of ladies carrying stands and three palanquin. officials. The three royal children are shown seatedin their palanquins followed by theseofficials.

41 Gohary,Akhenaten's Sed-Festival,43-44,

p1. II.


The procession seems to be moving forwards; it is preceded by four men, bag-kilts, in has bending first The these the title imy-r niwt f3ty a position. of wearing Overseer of the City and Vizier and is holding a staff, as well as the second and the fourth. The third is holding a bouquet of flowers over his shoulder. A priest again is before before king figures bowing the shown and parts of other are also shown censing behind the palanquin. and There is inscribed evidence of the Sed festival in the Nineteenth Dynasty for kings. For the Twentieth Dynasty, there is evidence for the celebration of a> the most of festival by Ramessess 111.412

2.5.1. Discussion

Comparingthe program of the scenesof the relief depicting the festivals held at the of Neuserre,at the Soleb temple of AmenhotepIII, and at Karnak temple sun-temple by from built Amenhotep Aten IV, the missing aspectsof of processionare sometimes event in Scenes to another. one are somesectionsin a bad state of preservation,which in bear have festival. Also, that the means we cannot a completeversion of we must festivals Egyptian that mind scenesmay not always be depicted the sameway so we 413 be illustrated Also to not able on the may make an accurate comparison. scenes walls of the temples entirely depend on the amount of spaceprovided on the wall, be its importance. instances In to was probably a ritual might which according other 414 depictedin connectionto a particular temple and not to others. We, however, are festival the about concerned as a whole and its importance as one of the elementsof 413 kingship. the public showingof the early The king is represented either walking on foot, born within a pavilion, or seated his is He throne. on wearing either the red crown, or the white crown dependingon is be the to rite performed whether related to Upper or Lower Egypt. In one case,at Solebtemple,he is shown wearing the 1Cprg crown, probably it was a preparatory rite. In the first Sed festival sceneat Karanak, as he begins his procession,he is depicted his out of emerging palace.The final processionalways returns to the palace. Only in
412 Gohary,Akhenaten'sSed-Festival,8. 413 Kemp,Ancient Egypt, 59. 414 Gohary,Akhenaten'sSed-Festival,16. 5 Kemp,Ancient Egypt, 58. 41


but destination his Sed-festival Amenhotep IV the the second palace, not of was be building in Sed to temple the performed. rites were a probably or a complex which
The queen in the first example presentedhere was absent,but the royal children the in festivals In with two the present she was were present such a procession. other in their foot depicted seated they or royal children msw nsw and either walking on were joined by The various attendants, priests, event palanquins. was and witnessed Chamberlains, officials, and fan bearers. Their attitudes vary between standing,

kneeling and a prostrateposition.




3.1. Palace layout

king's king: the the place of Palace' is simply the term for buildings associated with function and living. One may differentiatebetweentwo basic types of palaces:the so2 `residential is `temple the palace' temple, to so-called palace' which attached a called king? built the as a residence of which was

3.1.1. Residential and administrative


In Kingdom. from Middle the few the The archaeological survive palaces remainsof a back dates found I, Amenemhet Ezbet Rushdi, Delta, which was a palaceof at eastern its finished, have Although Dynasty. Twelfth construction to the not yet excavations includes: long rectangularcourt a aflankedby two chambers b- a largehall with a 'columns 5 (or chamber)(destroyed) c- a court Another palace,from the Delta, was found at Tell-Basta (fig.29)6.Its structure composes: a- a columnedhall b- two smallerhalls (flanking the columnedhall) c- an ofd axis corridor d- a court
I pr-nswt literally means 'House of the King of Upper Egypt'. For discussion of palace terms see Doxey,Egyptian Non-RoyalEpithets, 121-124;cf. Goelet,JARCE 23 (1986), 85-98. 2 Badawy,History of Egyptian Architecture III, 35. 3 Lacovara,Royal City, 24; One of the requirementsof kingship is a place from which the king can sit ), Proceedings of the International and rule his country. See O'Connor, in Bleiberg et al. (eds. Symposium the Great, 171. ofRamesses Archaeologicalevidencehas not beendiscoveredany royal residencedating to the Old Kingdom, yet from the various parts of Djoser's funerary complex there is a structure, which imitates the king's This is the so-called`entrancehall'. Cf. Goedicke,MDAIK 47 (1991),139-140fig. 1; royal residence. Ricke, Bemerkungen zur gyptischenBaukunst desAlten Reichs I, 66,71-77; cf. Lauer, La pyramide h degres,113-129. 5 Adam,ASAE 56 (1959), 218-129;Lacovara,Royal City, 38. 6 Farid, ASAE 58 (1964), 85; Lacovara,Royal City, 128 fig. 35.


e- storage magazines f- two suites of rooms, g- a stairwell

',but more Its structure seems to be similar, to. that, of the Ezbet '.Rushdi palace, '' it has since additional' rooms. substantial
Recently, at'.Tell-Dabs, ' a Thirteenth Dynasty palace has been uncovered. Its 8:'': includes (fig. 30): structure .

hall E- entrance V1, V2, V3- vestibules H- court Ml- centralhall S- bedroom A- robing room andbathroom(?) Ma- magazines St- staircases I

buildings. W- subsidiary
However, a dais within a throne room is absentfrom the structure. This meansthat 9 be interpreted, is hall as an audience visible on this plan. nothing that can obviously The building has two phases.It developedfrom a large mansion by the addition of and courtyardswith columnedgalleries,entrancebuildings with, a portico, magazines 10 `' added was A later, to the east. gardens. secondpalaceunit In the New Kingdom more palaceshave been investigated.In the Eighteenth built Dynasty,a set of two palaces, the namely north and south palaces, at Deir El were Ballas south of Dendera.Both plans show a rectangulardesignwith columnedhalls at " front the of the main structure. The north palaceconstructionconsistsof: a- a rectangularenclosure b- hypostylehalls forming the receptionquarters The southpalacestructureincludes: hall a awith wooden columns
7 Lacovara, Boyal City, 38-39. 8 Eigner, in Bietak (ed.), Houseand Palace, 75 fig. 1. 9 Eigner, in Bietak (ed.), House and Palace, 75-78. ' Bietak, BASOR281 (1991), 27 fig. 6. 11 Badawy,History of Egyptian Architecture III, 47.


flight lateral b- a broad staircase with a secondary

12 (a c- residential quarters multi storied-complex) Examples of other palaces are also known: e.g. the palace of Amenhotep III in Memphis (Malkata), the Merenptah Thebes unique as the as well at palace of western 13 Although Amarna. Amenhotep El IV Tell excavated palaces are poorly at palaces of 14 because they were mainly of mud-brick, the plans of royal palaces of preserved Amenhotep III at Malkata and Merenptah at Memphis" provide the most

examples. representative The Malkata Palace

16 O'Connor (fig. that bank 3 1). lies Thebes The Malkata palace the argues of at west important have been Thebes the the most the placeof original and near must palacesat Karnak, Amun-Re Thebes, Theban temple the and specifically at of of settlement Akhenaten it. based his He that argumenton archaeologicalevidence, north-west of had a palace at the sameplace, in addition'to textual evidence,that the Coronation 17 Karnak. The located Inscription of Horemhabsuggests that the palacemight be near format of the structureconsistsof. architectural A- an entrancecorridor

floor B- a smallchamber with raised

Y- a large court with raiseddais and approachflankedby tree pits D,E,E1- a chamberand its anti-room F- a large court (hall) with a decoratedthrone baseat the end G- a room with paintedfalse-doorniche and front stairway H- a centralhall N,N1,N2,N3- bathrooms(?) K- a room with two columnsby the sidesof a raiseddais
12Smith,Art andArchitecture ofAncient Egypt, 278-281. 13 Lacovara,Royal City, 24. 14Information basedon pictorial and textual evidencefrom palacesis insufficient, yet architectural evidence which remains might supply us with more knowledge e.g. doorways and columns: O'Connor, QRIPEL 11 (1989), 77, 15 Lacovara, Royal City, 24. 16Stamped bricks were found in the place called `The House of Amenhotep III'; Winlock, BMMA 7 (1912), 185; Griffith, JEA 5 (1918), 63; O'Connor, in Bleiberg et al. (eds. ), Proceedings of the International Symposium the Great, 276; Lacovara,Royal City, fig. 22. ofRamesses 17O'Connor et al. (eds. ), Ancient Egyptian Kingship, 277.


L- a bedroom(7) P- a decoratedanteroom
M- a room with series of columns running down the centre In addition to nine rooms, in regarding to their situation and plan, Lacovara suggested for the palace property, and a the role of storage supplement that they might play 18 buildings. number of support The architectural plan indicates there were two large halls, room [Y] [F] and a dais, had king. Each throne [E, D] the a at the north end of the palace of small one by that hall [Y] largest halls. The corridor a wide was entered which suggestsaudience 19 led in from the west and formed the main entrance of the palace. The central hall [H], its dado, is decorated by which runs around with a pair rows of columns, supported is decorating king illustration the the throne south wall. of a seated on an walls, while for hall be it it is likely large [F] has that a And since the might a throne, court bows base decoration the The motif nine shows captives and of the throne audiences. 20 it. flying vulture representation painted on a canopy above with

On the west wall there is a partly preservedrepresentationof a lady wearing a formed of flowers. Behind the throne the wall was decoratedwith a hunting headdress ceiling desert. bull The including the was painted running across animalsand a scene, 21 in hall [Y]. flying vultures similar to that the audience with The smallroom [E] is supportedby four pillars and a basefor a throne. Its size 22 ducks intimate The pavementshowed more private and probably audiences. suggests 23 birds. flying bordered by fish in swimming a pool pattern of papyrus with and According to Tytus' report, the room [M] is said to be the room where the palace 24 both the for in. Lacovara that to notes ushering entourageused wait, probably and the wall paintings gives us a complete,preservedexample architecturalessentials 25 Egyptian royal palace. of an

18 Lacovara,Royal City, 26. 19O'Connor noted that in the palace a large roofed audiencehall with columns has substitutedthe court: CRIPEL 11(1989), 76. 20Lacovara,Royal City, 27.
21Smith, Art and Architecture ofAncient Egypt, 284-285; Lacovara, Royal City, 27. 22Smith, Art and Architecture ofAncient Egypt, 286-287.

23Daressy, ASAE 4 (1903), 165. 24Tytus, Palace ofAmenhotep111,22. 25Lacovara,Royal City, 27.

142 The Palace of Merenatah The plan of the palace of Merenptah at Memphis consists of a- an opened central colonnade court with a stone pathway b- a throne room with a decorated dais

through a sequence c- an entrance of off axis corridors The mud brick walls of the palacewere decoratedwith paintings, and filled suchas doorways.The throne room, reachedthrough with stonearchitecturalelements dais is The the of the a vestibule, situatedat south end of colonnadecourt. rectangular throne with a ramp in front is paintedwith tied captive motif as well as the namesand titles of the king. Theseare borderedby patternsof rhyt birds and nb signs similar to that existing at Malkata palace.The ceiling is supported by six pillars. The walls are decoratedwith a compositionof symbolscomposingmnh and w3ssigns,together with papyrusand lotus plants.The columnshaveopen lotus capitalsthat are paintedand the 26 display No Ptah. king foes to the scenes shafts of slaughtering and making offering other rooms exist aroundthe throne room, where private apartmentsand storageareas be between design Nevertheless, Lacovara the the expected. would noted similarity of Merenptahpalaceandthat of AmenhotepIII at Malkata. This led O'Connor to suggest that Merenptah'spalacewas ceremonialin function rather than residential.He stated that there is no evidencein its plan of rooms for the queenor eventhe family members. Also there is no catering servicearea similar to that situated in the residentialpalaces for exampleMalkata palace.He assumes, therefore, its ceremonialnature leaning on 27 large its halls. the scaleof courts and Palaces The archaeologyof the New-Kingdom Palacesis best illustrated by four examplesat El-Amarna. Their unique representations provide us with more understandingof the depictionof the royal palace.

26Badawy, Egyptian Architecture III, 54; Lacovara, Royal City, 28; Fischer, The Museum Journal 12 (1921), 30. Lacovara mentioned that `fragments of what seems to be a Window of Appearance were found in the northwest corner of the court': Royal City, 29. 27 O'Connor, in Bleiberg et at. (eds.), Proceedings of the International Symposium of Ramesses the Great, 178.

143 The North Palace The north palace (fig. 32)28was excavated in 1920. Lacovara29describesit as `planned courts large leading halls two to a throne room'. central around with smaller pillared The palace seemsto be provided with animal keeping services since the plan shows a large for court with a and spacewith stone mangers stalls, and number of magazines 30 altars are present. The wall decorations include, paintings of birds, fish and animals Recent excavations in the north palace described by Spence investigated `the remains dividing huge built into the the the wall stone structure screen of a of mudbrick centre Entrance Court from the sunken Central Court'. 1Whittemore argued that this specific is is likely be location to the construction of one of the window of appearances,which 32 in significantly the tomb decorationof the Amarnaperiod. The North Riverside Palace

An enclosurewall surrounds the north riverside palace, which includes-a series of 33 halls (fig. 33). The palaceprovided privacy and protection, and columned magazines being detachedfrom the rest of the city.34The complex probably included separate 35 for king, palaces queen,and queenmother. Kemp interpretedthe palaceas a principal 36 family lived. the complexwhere royal royal residence The Great Palace

lies to the west of the royal road.It is a complexbuilding, (fig.34)37 Thegreatpalace

is divided into severalsections.The north sector consistsof. which a- opencourts

b- magazines houses by of rows surrounded walls c-

28Lacovara,Royal City, 30 fig. 26; for its report seeNewton, `Excavationsat E1=Amarnah, 1923-24', JEA 10 (1924), 289-298. 291. Royal City, 30. acovara, 30Lacovara,Royal City, 30; Smith, Art and Architecture ofAncient Egypt, 218-219. 31Spence, EA 15 (1999), 14. 32Whittemore,JEA 12 (1926), 4-9; Spence, EA 15 (1999), 14-16. 33LacovaraCRoyal City, 31 fig. 27. 34Kemp,Ancient Egypt, 276. 31O'Conner and Silverman (eds. ), Anceint Egyptian Kingship, 278. 36Kemp, Ancient Egypt, 276. 37Lacovara,Royal City, 29 fig. 24.


The south sector is known as `the north harem'. Lacovara describethis sectionof the `situated between as a complexof columnedhalls and large courts on the north palace Suites block... the the the south aswell as a corridor running along easternend of and a hall grouped are around rooms central, opening onto a columnedportico with a of pool surrounded 'a Additional by depicting of suites ; marshes.... painted pavement . . bridge 'rectangular leading flank to the the garden rooms, magazines,and a ramp by bordered Royal Road. the 'T6 the statues northwestwas a vast open court crossing , small king the the chapel, and queenwith remainsof a stone structure, possibly a of situatedstill further to the west.-Appendedto the southernend of the palacewas a vast 38 location hall flanked by halls' The the of main six narrow rectangularpillared pillared . he be in by Kemp to the although was suggested great palace, window of appearance 39 is also noted that there another,,, smaller one. O'Connor stated that this palace held. functioned in religious occasions' formal where audiencesand ceremonieswere He then argued that it lacks the essentialresidential elements and is more likely . 40 in ceremonial nature. The King's House

The King's House (fig.35)41is a much more complex building, in which lies the small king's house.The complexconsistsof hall a- main ;

b- a courtyard(providedwith placesfor parking the chariots) c- a smallset of rooms d- vestibule

(suggested by Kemp) e- two groups of smallhouses

house(behindthe main building of the king's house) f- a separate isolated set of rooms (behindthe main building of the king's house) g- an h- on the east,a group of storehouses 42 in additionto a garden,pool, and group of storagemagazines.

38Lacovara,Royal City, 29. 39Kemp,J 162 (1976), 81-99. 40O'Connor and Silverman (eds. ), Ancient Egyptian Kingship, 286. 41For the pr-nsw seevan den Boom, Duties the Vizier, 48-49,314-315; for of more interpretationssee Lorton, SAK 18 (1991), 291-309;Helck, SAK 3 (1975), 93- 96; Lacovara,Royal City, fig. 25. 42Kemp,JEA 62 (1976), 83 fig. 1; Lacovara,Royal City, 30.


The structureof the smallking's houseconsistsof "a3 a- a centralhall b- columnedante-chamber c- a vestibule

d- a columned hall f- two similar suites on each side g- window of appearance

h- a group of rooms i- a suite interpretedby Kemp as `one might recall that an alternativereward sceneis inside in the palace, a columnedhall, and this suite may perhapshavebeenset aside set 44 for suchoccasions'. is provided with storage rooms, which Kemp argued The window of appearances be for keeping the bestowments, might which the recipient hasbeen offered. But once the ceremonyof the reward is over, a royal official takes out the gifts, probably to be given to the-honoured official. However, the existenceof the window in the king's housewas not enough evidencefor Kemp, who believed that this was not the main 45presumablyas it lacks the facilities king's residence, required for their permanent stay. Depictions of the Amarna Palaces

Among the few depictions of the royal palaces,the Amarna tombs supply us with 46 from from the tomb of Mry-Re and representations of palaces the tomb of P3-nhsy. The palaceillustration in the tombs show: large a- a gatewaywith two open courts on either side b- a kiosk with a window of appearance with two smallerhalls on either side c- a large centralhall borderedby storerooms d- in the rear sectora representation of bedroom,bath and storerooms A seconddepiction of the palacefrom the sametomb shows: facade a a- walled

43Kemp,JEA 62 (1976), 83-86. 44 Kemp,JEA 62 (1976), 87. 45Kemp,JEA 62 (1976), 87; Kemp, Ancient Egypt, 286-287. 46Davies,El Amarna I, pl XVIII; Davies,El Amarna II, XIV; Lacovara,Royal City, 34. pl


flankedby two columnedhalls b- a centralkiosk with a window of appearance hall both with magazines on sides c- a central d- the rear sectionshowsbedroom,other private rooms and storeroomsbelow. This depiction is suggestedby Lacovara to be another artistic concept of the same 7 house. king's illustration from different it be of the an probably or might view, palace,
The palace depicted in the tomb of P3-nhsy shows the following elements:

by court surrounded outer a wall ahalls b- a kiosk with a window of appearance two on either side columned with hall by surrounded stores c- central d- the rear portion shows private apartment, bedchamber, storerooms and a 48 bathroom. Lacovara stressed the similarity in the plan of the royal palace in the illustrations of the palace in the tomb of Mry-Rr and the tomb of P3-nhsy and the is Amenhotep feature III Malkata. The the palace the walled at main of actualpalaceof in kiosk depicted the centre with two the court, appearance outer with a window of by bordered halls banqueting hall columned on either side, usually with a central of These comprisea standardarchitecturalplan of the royal palace,especially storerooms. during the Amarnaperiod. -49 The palaceas reconstructedon plansof the palacesdepictedfrom the tombs of Mry-Rc andthe P3-nhsyconsistof the following elements: facade the ab- the vestibule hall the cd- anotherhall e- rooms f- store-chamber g- store-chamber with ante chamber h- a corridor with closeddoor i- a hall with two columns j- a grandbedroom
47Lacovara,Royal City, 34. "$ Davies,ElAmarna II, pl XIV; Lacovara,Royal City, 34. 49Lacovara,Royal City, 34.


k- a room 1-a store-chamber

m- a saloon with two store-chambers n- a similar set of roomsso

3.1.2. Temple Palaces

" at least from The so-calledtemplepalacesare identified from the EighteenthDynasty, The designof the upper terrace of her mortuary templeat Deir the reign of Hatshepsut. is Bahari attachedto a window of appearance, el an open court and a set of small 52 rooms. No similar exampleseemsto be recoveredbefore that date. Badawy noted that `the appearance of the palaceadjoining the mortuary temples in western Thebes in Egypt Lower then the to the transfer the to correspond would of royal residence funerary NineteenthDynasty' 53 However, suchpalaces the of were situated south west . 54 Karnak. Traces of these palaceshave been found in temple and not northwest as at Qurna56 Seti I Merenptah Qurna55, the temples association with mortuary at old of at 57In addition similar palacesare connectedwith and Ramesses II in the Ramesseum. the mortuary temple of Ay/ Horemheb at Medinet Habu58 and the Hwt-7tn at 59 Amarna. Two temple palaces also, were associatedwith the mortuary temple of III at Medinet Habu.60 Ramesses The templeof Ramesses The III is the fullest publishedof thesetemple palaces.
building underwent two phases of construction. The first phase was completely flattened before the construction of the second one. The initial plan of the first phase 61 (fig. 36a) : consists of

a- a columnedcourt locatedin the centre b- vestibules

50Davies,ElAmarna IV, 36. s' Stadelmann, MDAIK 29 (1973), 221.
52Stadelmann, in Bietak (ed.), House and Palace, 229. 53Badawy, History of Egyptian Architecture III, 35.

54O'Connor, CRIPEL 11 (1989), 81. 55Stadelmann, MDAIK 29 (1973), 233 fig. 5. Ibid., 232 fig 3. 57Ibid., 233 fig 4. 58Ibid., 231 fig 2. 59 Lacovara,Royal City, 33. 60Hlscher,Mortuary Temple Ramses 111,37. of 61Lacovara,Royal City, fig. 29 a.


c- a window of appearance d- a throne room with raiseddais situatedsouth of the court bedroom/ vestibules/storerooms a eg- haremsuites its construction on the samebasic plan of the The plan of the secondphasesuggests first one, yet someelements are added: a- additionalseveraloff-axis entrances b- the window of appearance was expanded from the central court the throne of separation room a cLacovara noted that the main architectural elementsof the temple of Medinet 62 form. in but (fig. layout 36b), Malkata Habu resemble the a reduced place of in He been have Stadelmann that use. residential argued suchpalaces would not basedhis evidenceon an analysiswhich concludesthat they contain only the state hall for king; the the the and the throne room and reception appearance of rooms used but the the side and at the window of appearance situated other rooms existing, were back were not large or elaborateenoughto be used for the living of the royal family. He stresses that these were all, with the exception of those of the secondpalace of Medinet Habu, left uncompleted and not decorated. There was no water supply 63 in Medinet Habu. He the addsthat there were no except second palace of recovered, leftoversfound, or even any indicationsfor the place of a kitchen; literally an area for his king is because for the courtiers and even short visits cooking which essential, 64 be He to therefore, that the temple palacewas provision supplied. suggested,, needed his based for dead king in He the the the evidenceon the use of exclusively afterlife. large falsedoors shownon the rear wall of the throne room, found in the first palaceof Medinet Habu and in the temple of Seti I at Qurna. He assumes that their use was to help the king enteringthe palacewhen he camefrom his tomb situatedin the Valley of 6' Kings He also arguedthat the living ruler also used such palacesduring festivals the . funerary have beentaken place the temple, that the and rewarding ceremonies would at 66 67 in function. Lacovara there similarly arguesthat suchpalaces were ceremonial
62Lacovara;Royal City, fig. 29 b. 63Stadelmann, in Bietak (ed.), Houseand Palace, 225. 64Stadelmann, in Bietak (ed.), Houseand Palace, 225-226. 65Stadelmann, in Bietak (ed.), Houseand Palace, 228. 66Stadelmann, MDAIK 29 (1973), 221.


is An essentialbasic element both the appearance,. of palaces window of , - . . in feature first is the the the temple, the 'court of central overlooking -which normally 68 is facade. in Kemp that temple palace a residential palace, a window pointed out He in be located in hypostyle hall facing the to the trees the garden. avenueof suitable 69 the designof the mortuary temple palacesat WesternThebes. basedhis argumenton
3.1.3. Comparison between residential and temple palaces

Comparing the depiction of. the, residential palaces,and the temple palaces,a basic . 7 formula buildings be ofsuch can seen.The elementsconsistsof: architectural wall a- an enclosure b- an off-axis entrance and foredooms c- a vestibule,anterooms d-' a centralhall or:court e- a throne room : .. ' f- a royal ante-chamber bath with and additionalprivate rooms. Other private rooms, magazines and a window of appearance were also essentialparts both is beneath The the window of the tied palaces. motif of captives of often shown bases Within throne the palaces, and stairways, same. appearance, which was always the method of ornamentationis also connectedwith the functions and use of various " in, this respect that the decoration> of :l of the palace. Lacovara:notes,, areas/rooms. Egyptian palaces may shed some light on room function, comparing the betterpreservedexamplesof the Assyrian palaceswhere the reliefs were clearly fitted and' to the function of eachroom. For instancethe figure of the enthronedking; associated

73 that, the motif the areaof the throneroom. It seem therefore wasrepresented outside
of royal throne, with the baldachinabove it and the pedestalare themesthat influence 74 the whole palace. O'Connor argued that the king on his throne managing the
67Lacovara,Royal City, 33. 68Stadelmann, MDAIK 29 (1973), 221. 69 A discussion betweenKemp and Weatherhead. SeeWeatherhead, JEA 81 (1995), 95. 70Lacovara,Royal City, 35.
71Robins, Egyptian Painting and Relief, 54. 72Lacovard7Ryal City, 25.

73Tytus, A Preliminary Report on the Re-excavation the Palace Amenhotep III, 21 fig. 17. In of of another example from Malkata temple, the storage magazinesare painted with stands of food or fattenedcows:Lacovara,Royal City, 35. 74O'Connor and Silverman (eds. ), Ancient Egyptian Kingship, 291.

government affairs resembles symbolically the creator god standing on the primeval 75 fish initiating illustrating Paintings the creative mound process. scenes of pools with flying in decorated birds front Also, the the throne. are shown of and pavements were is depictions lotus The together ceiling or palm columns. with marsh and water with painted with birds or stars, of which the best examples are illustrated in the palaces of Merenptah at Memphis and Amenhotep III at Malkata. O'Connor suggested that such likely be to more are seen as pictorial remains of the hymns to the sun-god, scenes king illuminate it. from In the the the rays of rising sun and emerge other words, where is his throne appearing like the sun god rises in his horizon, and both are providing on life to the world. 76

The window of appearance was a standardfeaturefound in most of the palaces. It represents the point of interactionbetweenthe king and his subjects,and so it was a focal point of both the residentialpalaceandthe temple palace.The differencewas that in residentialpalaceit was situatedin a sidewall at the opposite end of the central hall from in depicted in But the throne the the the temple across room. window palacewas the facade forecourt itself the the temple the centreof since of substituted palacecourt " could gather. wherethe audience

75O'Connor, CRIPEL 11 (1989), 77. 76O'Connor and Silverman (eds. ), Ancient Egyptian Kingship, 292. 77Hlscher,Mortuary Templeof Ramses III, 44; Lacovara,Royal City, 35.


3.2. Terms indicating halls within the palace architecture 3.2.1. The d3dw The d3dw is a term usually translated as `audience-hall'. In Old Kingdom texts this 78 false Also king. in leather Stela Wt3, a the term occurred the worker of of who was a door79 presented to Hwfw-Cnh, The Overseer of Singers of the Great House and Overseerof Flutists, bears an.inscription emphasising the fact that this false door was inscription for him by king his The the on the the order of made supervision. and under d3dw, beside `made king himseli the while the the southern post reads: pg3 of upon His Majesty, looked daily in the course of every day'. 8' On the northern post the text Majesty, His before `His did for him in his Majesty im3h this reads: state of relation of he his feet'. was alive on while

The d3dwis also mentionedin the reign of Sahureon the falsedoor of Ny-mnhThe by king. him Shmtfrom Saqqara,Cairo 1482,82 to the speech given which was 83 reads: ka, `The chief physician,Ny-mnh-shmt before His Majesty: "May this your spoke belovedof Re, commandthat there be given to me a false door of stone for this my tomb". His Majesty causedthat there be brought for him two false doors from Tura (R"-3w)of stone, that they be laid in the d3dw of the house (called) `Sahure-shinesbe `great with-crowns', and that two chiefsof craftsmen' and a workshop of craftsmen king The himself. beside done The stonework them. them the on on work assigned was happened every day. There was an inspectionof that which was done on them in the in had daily. His Majesty had painting-materialsput on them and them painted stp-s3 blue'.84 The d3dw,then, is referred to as part of a place called if wrrt S3hwRr`Sahure-shines 8S 86 Junker be the nameof the city residence. with crowns'. arguedthis to or appears
Urk I, 22; Urk 1,14; Junker, Wetaund das Lederkunsthandwerk, 5-33. 79PM III, 129. 90The royal sealing of documentswas introduced during the Fifth Dynasty. The document, issuedby identifies the context of the document with the words irw r-gs Shepses-kaf, in the ds f `made nswt Goedicke, king'. JARCE the 3 (1964), 35; cf Urk I, 160. of presence personal 81Reisner,Giza Necropolis, G 4520. 82Borchardt,DenkmlerdesAlten ReichesI, 172. 113 Urk I, 38,1-4. Ancient Records I, 108-109. 84Translation after Breasted, 85Urk I, 38. 86Junker, Wetaund das Lederkunsthandwerk, 29.


The d3dw is also mentionedin the building inscription of SenwosretI, called

his 87 for king The the (P. Berlin 3029). Leather Roll of assembly calls the Berlin happens the There found desire his hall, him in hear temple. to to a express courtiers, a 8 king before his The text the reads: courtiers of appearance Upper King day Majesty inundation, the 8, of `Year 3, third month of the of under the he live justified, Senwosret I, Re, the Egypt, Kheperkare, may Lower the son of and in 'sitting the double in king took The place the forever and ever. a crown; appeared d3dw, a consultation with his followers, the friends of the palace, L. P.H, and the for hearing, their Commands their consultation a the at private apartment. officials of
instruction'. 89

Also, a graniteportal, consistingof two jambs and a lintel, calledd3d3wch 7mnindicates inscription (Tell Qirqafa). The found Ezbet Halmi the stone on at was m-har 90 it A III later Senowsert building I renewed and on, that Amenemhat constructedthis fragment,belonging to this building reads: `the doorway, which belongs to the in (I)'. Szafranski Amenemhat the translated statement of the palaceof audience-hall 91 hall'. `audience d3d3w he basis the the that as this way on accepted meaningof The word d3dw also appearedin the New Kingdom in the stela of Ahomse I further king's determination Tetisheri to mortuary the erect which records and 92 for his The buildings text reads: grandmother,queenTetisheri. `Now, it cameto passthat his Majesty sat in the d3dw the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Nebpehtire,son of Re, AhmoseI given life, while the hereditaryprincess,great in favour, king's daughter, king's sister, great divine consort, king's wife, Ahmose 93 his lives, Majesty' Nefertiti, who was with

discuss her the preparations In year nine QueenHatshepsut to met courtiers

Punt. The throne the to the on a sitting queen shows scene purposes of expedition and in hand hq3 is holding kiosk; is 3tf the the sceptre one crown, and she wearing within a
87The original text was carvedon a stela or a wall of the temple of Atum at Heliopolis. The version that hassurvivedis a hieratic copy on a Leather Roll madeby an Eighteenth Dynasty scribe. 8$De Buck, Studia Aegyptiaca I (1938), 48; Stern, ZAS 12 (1874), 85-96; Parkinson, Voicesfrom Ancient Egypt, 40-43. 89Translation following de Buck, Studia Aegyptiaca I (1938), 49,1-4 and Parkinson, Voicesfrom Ancient Egypt, -40. 90Habachi,ASAE 52 (1954), 448-458,pl. II-IV; Szafranski,in Egypt and the Levant 8 (2000), 101. 91Szafranski,in Egypt and the Levant 8 (2000), 104-105. 92Gardiner,Abydos III, pl. LII. 93Breasted, Ancient RecordsII, 15.


94 The is in text front her long In three the of men. representation a stick of a other. and 95 reads:
`Year 9: a sitting happened in the d3dw. The king appeared in the Atef crown on the his 1'h-palace. (dsrw) inside the of throne of white gold, special apartments great Ushering in officials and the courtiers of the stp-s3, in order to listen to the conduct of the command'. The word d3dw has a determinative UUUU that represents a columned hall. Betro

fixed to the `the top tenon room's the that a on columns, with shape of argues light, have been first the that a sort of pavilion at structure must covering, suggests 97 hall. it describes Uphill In as a columnedgranite columns'. contrast with wooden 98 hall'. Erman and Grapow `audience Faulkner and Meeks translate the term as describeit as a hall for the king to sit in, which could be a room in a temple'9 Ward ' be pavilion is it This `the temple'. room could also of a and others suggestthat located inside a palace, however, as a text describing the royal audienceof queen Hatshepsut mentions the d3dw as being m-hnw dsrw nw rh f `inside the special location is determine his it difficult h'. Berlev the to of that exact argues of apartments 101 the room within the palace. In the depiction of the promotion of the vizier Wsr the text reads: hpr swt hmsit nswt m [d3dw n] imy-wrt nsw-bity (Mn-bpr-RC) di llnh `Happened the sitting of the king in [the d3dw ofi the west, King of Upper and Lower In the coronation text of Hatshepsut; the king Egypt Menkhepera,given life'. 102 ThutmosisI crown his daughterand put her in his place. This takes place in the d3dw, 103 is in which situated the west. The palaces' architectural plans reveal that there was more than one throne room, giving the possibility that there was also more than one

94Naville, RT 18 (1896), 103pl. III. 95Urk IV, 349,9-14. 96Betro, Hieroglyphics, 192. 97Uphill, Tempelof Per-Ramesses, 154. 98CDME, 317; Meeks,Annee LexicographiqueII, 438. 99" V, 527,12-14. 100 Ward, Index, 61 no. 498; Hein and Satzinger,StelendesMittleren ReichesII, 68; 'Adam, ASAE 56 (1959), 222, who followed Habachi's opinion, `the portal of a temple or a palace', seeHabachi,ASAE 52 (1954),456-458. 101 Berlev, intActs theXXVth International Congressof Orientatists, 143-8. 102 Urk IV, 1380,12-13; Dziobek, Denkmler des Vezirs User-Amun, 1-6. For the d3dw n Imy wrt cf. the text of Thutmosis III to Amun in gratitude for his great victory at Megiddo, Gardiner, JEA 38 (1952), 9 pl. IV. 103 Urk IV, 256,17- 257,3.


d3dw basis Hatshepsut's hall. Chaban the that text, of argues,simply on the audience 104 it hall describes Also, Junker the the of a palaceor as a palace. right side of was on '5 hall, It Kees throne, that which or a council argues was a sort of a residence.
106 belonged to a.palace.

In Old Kingdom texts the term d3dw appears three times. In the inscription of for business worker, be ' leather: d3dw Wt3 the chief royal the a place of seems to `like leatherwork he fact Wt3 the that which was produces emphasises everyday work. 107 doors false by king. In cnh-shmt's the text, the was the work on 'Ny commanded'-

done in the presenceof the king, andwatched in the course of every day. In 15wfw, mnh's text, the work was carried'out andwatchedeverydayin'the pg3 of the d3dw. It appears took place in the presence thereforethat"a,specialand'daily business business it in took king d3dw. In this the the third text that the of sort mentions of The is, something like in d3dw., the the pg3,of -'open', which place. :root pg3,means 109 translatedas `open', `entranceof a building"8or `openingof a building or a valley'. hasthe housedeterminative,which might allude to an open place in the The term here, d3dwor the entranceto the d3dw.It could be the place for workmen who, following king king, In the this the the orders of way whenever producedspecialpiecesof work. left and enteredthe d3dwhe must havepassed them. In the Middle andNew Kingdom texts',, the d3dwhall playeddifferent roles: The, d3dw Sand for for hall similar councils example, as reception area acted, columned At in a great number which possibly of people participated. the sametime, occasions "' hall. in hold king the and queenwere ,able to sit and an -intimateconversation this Also the vizier Wsr's ceremonyfor his appointmentwas in the d3dw.

There may have beenmore than one possiblefunction of the d3dw. In the Old Kingdom, its initial use may have been as a work centre, attached to the royal daily in kinds business took of royal place as well as a residence, which certain
104 Chaban, ASAE 8 (1907), 212-223. 105 Junker, Wetaund dasLederkunsthandwerk, 31 and note 27. 106 Kees,MDAJK 18 (1962), 2; cf. Bietak, Houseand Palace, 37. 107 Urk 1,22,12. 108CDME, 96. 109WiI, 562. 110 Urk IV, 26. .


have Kingdoms d3dw king. New Middle During to the the the seems and audience with been a room/hall of appearancesas well as a room/hall of audience. It was described as front in it `inside `place takes the place palace', where a sitting of privacy', and was a `companions the palace', of comprising; stp-s3 class of people smrw nw special a of

'officials the the royal of members sometimes and of private apartment', st wt srw family. Its function had changedto be only a sitting audiencehall of the king for talk, been have is d_ Another 3dw that the a great could also possibility advice and counsel. including in hall take than craftplace, one royal activity could which more columned is d3dw the term of a plural work activities and audiences, especially since " indicating more than one room or corner within the d3dw hall. Junker construction, 112 is by There it to no that openedonto a courtyard or an areaenclosed walls. suggests doubt that its main role, which had not changedsincethe Old Kingdom, was as a place between king his interaction the and public. of for d3dw; There are also examplesof titles, which are associated term the with instance,the title hry #hwhnw p3 3dwn Rrmsw mry 7mn `Overseerof the Stableof in found Hwy's Audience Hall Ramessesmeryamen' Residence the the was of of of 113 Janosi's'14 leading from Aswan This Philae. the to supports on military road graffiti have building d3dw the that which might was somesort of an administrative argument beena part of the palace. Ward mentions another title, try-rt n d3dw `hall-keeper of the audiencehall 115 d3dw'. Quirke16 notes that at least four officials from the Middle Kingdom bear the title iry rt n d3d3wyn ch `Keeper of the Chamberof the d3d3wyof the Palace', and 117 have been the more general thesemenare thought to palaceofficials. He also classes

I" Wb V, 527,11; CDME, 319; Gardiner, Egyptian Grammar, 603. In the late Middle Kingdom the term had the dual ending-wy.The dual numberof this term fits the idea of the dual nature of Egyptian kingship. SeeSzafranski,in Egypt and the Levant 8 (2000), 103. 112 Junker,Wetaund das Lederkunsthandwerk, 31. 13 The title seems to connecthim with a stableperhapsin Piramesse, the Delta city not far from the site. Habachi,Kush 8 (1960), 222-223;for the sametitle seeHabachi,Kush 5 (1957), 28. 114 Janosi,in Egypt and the Levant 4 (1994), 27; cf. Szafranski,in Egypt and the Levant VIII (2000), 101. 15 Ward, Index, 61; for the sametitle cf. Martin, Egyptian Administrative and Private-name Seals, 475. 116 Quirke, RdE 37 (1986), 120. 117 Hein and Satzinger,StelendesMittleren ReichesII, 68-74. Sth, attestedon a scarabno. 30541 in the British Museum: seeMartin, Seals, 127 no. 1663, pl. 38.3. Stwy, attestedon a scarabno. 1954757, in the AshmoleanMuseum: seeFischer, ZS 80 (1961), 22, note 1.


118 titles, between Chamber', two `Keeper iry-'It, regular of groups of the palacetitle Labour. in Organisation Treasury the those of and namelythose of

118 Quirke, RdE 37 (1986), 120-121;Quirke, Administration of Egypt in the Late Middle Kingdom, 89-90,98-99.


3.2.2. The w3hy 119 first in In the Westcar Papyrus the Middle-Kingdom The term w3hy texts. appears king proceeded to `the w3hy of the great house' to meet Ddi. This implies that there inside his hall king the the of one subjects, special place, room met a or where was 120 Sinuhe, house, In the courtiers the the the story of great called w3hy. apartments of 121 basis into king. On have Sinuhe the the the to of an audience with w3hy usher Sinuhe's text, Stadelmann concludes that in the Middle Kingdom this hall in the 122 it. in front have had king's Of sphinxes a wmt portal with the palaces seems to Opposite the entrance, there was the throne of the king where walls shown covered hall d3dw Sinuhe Berlev the through that states was probably passing with white gold. 123 inner his text Kuhlmann the to the the translates same of apartments palace. way on in hall in hall led if Sinuhe the that to which the corridor of a another was standing as '24 halls king was enthroned. He supposesthat the two were on the same axis. In orders given to the vizier Rh-ml-R" read: `Regulations presented to the vizier

125 Here into hall House'. Great the Rh-ml-rr.Introducion the w3h the of the council of
it imply the is introduced into hail'26 house, the was council of great w3hy which might hill for royal audiences. another Does this term ever actually refer to a `columned forecourt' or a great hall `columned Faulkner127 takes term translates this a an audience as place? where forecourt', whereas Meeks gave it the term `porticoed-hall'.128 Stadelmann'21 it as `flood hall', due to the decorationshowing plants on the pillars carrying translates the ceiling of the hall.Betro translatesit as `atrium of the flood', due to a kind of lotus shapeof columns, which was raising the ceiling. She a papyrus or descriptionof the room for audiences, in it Dynasty, have been Twelfth the as would based on the autobiographyof Sinuhe. She noted that it was `precededby a wide

119Wb I, 259,12-13. 120Westcar 8,10. 121 Sinuhe B 264.

122 Cf. Borchardt,ZS40 (1903), 48-49.

123 Berlev, in Acts the XXV th International Congress of Orientatists, 145. 124 Kuhlmann, Der Thron im alten gypten, 29-30.

125 Urk iv, T096,10-11: The Ramesside manuscriptsuse r-hnwty, not ch. 126 Cf. van den Boom, Duties of the Vizier, 92-93. 127 CDME, 54.
128 Meeks, Anne Lexicographique I, 80. 129 Stadelmann, LA 1 (1975), 554.


king's in in front the of which were enthroned stone sphinxes portal with niches, likeness. In a niche and under a canopy entirely covered with electrum..... was the 130 kings description is by Her the the of the the of palaces plans of supported throne'. 13' is depicted. Borchardt suggested New Kingdom where an equivalent sort of room from them, that the the together rose columns plant that some of with motifs, indeed landscape inundated Egyptian this the perhaps one aspect and was represented despite being they this were called them, audience-halls and explains why, of 132 halls'. Quirke argues that the w3hy was an audience chamber where the `Inundation 133 building inner met. sectors of the main palace outer and

Matching this information with the architecturalplans of the palaces,there are It in hall Malkata location for the the could the palace. three possibilities audience of havebeenthe large court (F), sincethe throne basewas ornamented with captivesand the nine bows motif. It could be the small room (E), since the throne was also hall bows. The decoratedwith bound prisonersand representations the central of nine (H) is another possibility. This lies in the south of the palace area. The two rows of bases, by lotus-bud column are supported sixteen wooden columns ornamentedwith If11]'34 This determinative be the term to those the central of of w3hy and could akin hall is decoratedwith a dado which runs round its walls. A depiction of a seatedking 135 light is (fig. This 31). throne on might shed some paintedon the southernwall on a the function of this room. In Merenptah's palace at Memphis the throne room lies to the south. Its decorationrevealsthat the daiswas decoratedwith bound prisonersand the namesand king killing depictions titles of the king. The columnsare ornamented enemies of with by Ptah. The to six columns, which ceiling was supported and making offerings 136 its function have been hall (room). to an audience suggests In both of thesepalacesthe throne room was situated in the south section. A similartype of room, also with plant pillars, can be found in the New-Kingdom palaces

130 Betro, Hieroglyphics, 192. 131 Lacovara, Royal City, 28; Fischer, The Museum Journal 12 (1921), 30. 132 Borchardt, ZAS 40 (1902), 36-49.

133Quirke, TheAdministration of Egypt in the Late Middle Kingdom, 40. 134 O'Connor, CRIPEL 11(1989), 76; CDME, 54. 135 Lacovara,Royal City, 27, fig. 22. 136 Lacovara, Royal City, 28.


floors III El Amarna. The Ramesses Medinet-Habu, the 'also are of palacesat at and is in fish. This trees, a pools,, plants, of which stand water and also scenes paintedwith 137 decorated halls that the audience of manypalaces. standardmotif had;its -. It seemsthat this hall; also., own staff. One Middle Kingdom stela of' 138 13,9 Keeper Hall Ward Sikhentkhet translates the title 'l as y records which ry-fit n w3 y; , Spss, inner Forecourt. Another the'Columned the palace,and of of stela of governor 140 his family, includesthe'record'of the title iry-c3 n w31iy, which Ward14'translatesas h11: Door Keeperof the audience

_., .,


13'Stadeln=n, IA I (1975), 554. 138 CG 20065;Quirke, Administration of Egypt in the Late Middle Kingdom, 50,98. 139 Ward, Index, 58 no. 460. 140 BM 249; Quirke, Administration of Egypt in the Late Middle Kingdom, 50. 141 Ward, Index, 62 no. 501.


3.2.3. Ist and is 142 dictionaries `council but `tomb', ist 'palace', The standard translate the term as also 143 '44 'workshop'. There is apparently confusion between the two similarly chamber' or is ist. terms, and spelt

In the biographyof Hr-bw f the text reads:`I haverecognised the matter of this letter, which you have sent to the king in the ist'. '45Here, ist seemsto allude to the in is is house determinative. The translated term term the the written with palace,since 146 be letter it `the king', is Wb likely that the the the sent would as palaceof and more to the palacerather than to a council chamberis. In the Middle Kingdom the term appearson the right hand wall of the outer hunting A Dhwti-htp, Hermopolis. Nome tomb the the prince of of of chamberof inscription is is leaning Dhwti-htp The over portrayed, shown where on staff. a scene him runs: `.....Chief of the Secretsof seeingalone.......the palaceof Dhwti... in the two 147 houses". In this text the term ist refersto either a palaceor a house. In the New Kingdom, the term appearsin the coronation text of Hatshepsut. The text reads: `The living (ones) have been placed in her.arms in the Ch,(she) the beloved one of the ist' or `in the loved ch of the Ist'. 148 The expression'h n ist is in follows: the text same as repeated `My Majesty ordered to be brought to him the royal officers (. psw-nsw), noblemen (s'16w), the chief of the rbyt, so courtiers(smrw), the entourage('nyt) of the residence, that they might do <my> commandat taking this Majesty of my daughter within his 149 in his eh ist'. n arms Clearly in this context I'h and ist must refer to different buildings or concepts, both be they cannot and simply translatedas `palace'. Since Chmay also meanpalace, the translationthen would be `the palaceof the palace' which does not make sense.In it is plausiblethat the living ones (the people) have been the first of these sentences, in her arms,which meansthat, as king, shehastaken responsibilityfor the living placed

142CDME, 30; WbI, 127,7. 143 CDME, 29; WbI, 127,1. 144 CDME, 29. Meekstranslatedit as a chamberor atelier: Annee Lexicographique I, 44. 145 Urk I, 1Z8, b. 146 WbI, 127,7. 147 Newberry,El BershehI, p1 VII. 148 Urk IV, 256,8-16. 149 Urk IV, 256,9-16; translation after Breasted, Ancient RecordsII, 96-97.


from her in is beloved ch the She the then to the of referred residence palace. as people ist council chamber, in which they will be assembledwith her. However, the mr sign in be be is' `in Ch the the the as a mistake, and correct reading could of might simply the second sentence. Here particular classes of officials (the royal officers, noblemen, in front brought the the the of residence, and chief of riiyt) are courtiers, entourage of her in the palace. They are terms used in general for royal courtiers. It is plausible that they would then gather in a place, which would be the Ist council chamber. Does this imply that it was an area for a more private, restricted, audience? In other words, was it an inner area from which announcementswould come out from the palace?

The title imy-is is common in both Old Kingdom and Middle Kingdom texts.
For instance, the titulary of Wni includes the term as follows: 43ty C Imy r JmC1my-is Egypt, Upper hry-tp Nhb Im3hw hr Wsir `The Overseer Nhn of smr-wrty governor, saw Imy-Is, the guard of Nekhen, chief of El Kab, sole companion, honoured by Osiris. '5 Wni'. In his tomb, No. 14 at Beni Hassan, ,f nm-htp Foremost of the westerners, held the titles: r -pct 43ty-Cprince and governor smr wrty sole companion, rh nsw mal, true royal acquaintance, hry tp 33n Mahd Great Chief of the Oryx Nome, 43ty-Cn Mnrt Hwfw `governor of Menat Khwfw', iri-nhn `He who belongs to the city of Nekhen', 151 Chief His Nhn Nekhen is in hr-tp the chamber'. of the city of and im-is, `he who titles highlight his high rank, and association with the king. This might indicate that is have Imi-Is holders the title that, the might apartment within palace, and an of be duties inside Alternatively, this serving might one of maintained such an apartment. 1s2 honorific for king. titles that were the those who could serve the

Keestranslatesimi-is as `who is in the palace'. He arguesthat holders of such title were involved in the Sed-festivalcelebrations,specificallythe royal ornamentation holders beside imy-dint-. He the the title that they with of waited also notes -together 1S' king feet. his Helck contradicts Kees's the at the entranceof the palace to wash in indicates Sed-festival. is He that they the the term that sharing opinion were argues '54 kind inside the of room, probably some palace. Quirke pointed out that the title Imy-

'so Urk I, 98,8-10. 's' Newberry,Beni Hasan I, 81. 152 Helck, Beamtentiteln,30. 153 Kees,RT 36 (1914), 15. 154 Helck, Beamtentiteln,30.


'55 Is alludedto the official who carried out administrativeduties within the palace. Bartaarguedthat the official heldthe titles imi-is Nhn, whichis connected with '56 looked king's theofficialswho after the privateaffairs. Keesstatesthat the bearersof suchtitle were attachedto the serviceof godsin '57 thetemples. The title seemsto be a honorific, first attestedby the Fourth Dynasty by Dynasty K3-nfr, Hm-7wnw,Ni-k3w-R",S,m-k3-Rc, Fifth then nobles: attested and '58 In The be for the title was transferredto the the viziers. provinces. nobles of used MiddleKingdom the title beganto be usedfor the temple priests.In the New Kingdom "' is found it amongthosewho are in chargeof the ornamentation of the royal palace. To sumup, it seems that the holdersof the titles imi-is were involved in a kind of businessattachedto the king or a god although it is unclear whether this was business. attendance, ceremonial personal or administrative

dE 37 (1986), 126. iss Quirke, 1? 156 Brta, VS 126 (1999), 83. 157 Kees,Re-Heiligtum, 21.
158 Helck, Beamtentiteln, 30-31.

159 Gauthier,Le personnel du dieu Min, 62.


3 2.4. n imy wrt .

imy wrt is a term translated as starboardof the ship, the west, or a priestly phyle 160 The term occursin texts as follows: designation. In the Old Kingdom a text mentioningthe titles of Hw-wl-wr, a priest'during Side Western Great `Overseer the Nefer-ir-kare, Menkawre of the reignsof reads: and 161 `Inspector follows: In of Giza Plateau'. the term text the as the occurred same of
162 The Residence'. Western Hwt-wrt the Scribes of the phrase stir-imi-wrt of `the described in letter dated Sixth Dynasty, western to the as and mentioned a is 163 srb'.

half is imi-wrt Saqqara, the to of 3hti-htp In the tomb of the term western, attested at 164 implies imi-wrt basis Nome. Roth a the Harpoon that this use of the argues on "' temple. demonstrating `western' location a the or structure part of a geographical Phylesare also mentionedas follows: in the tombs at Saqqara private phylesof Dynasties, Sixth From 1my-wrt. to the the early mid-Fifth mortuary priests are named the nameiml-wrt was used in phyle systems connectedto the mortuary rites of private 166 The 1my-wrtis used as a phyle namein five mastabas individuals. at Saqqara.These bearers, in labels, mnh-m-hr in Mrrw-k3 to the tomb of mark offering storeroom are: the 167 in the tomb chapelof Ni-hft-81, in the tomb of Pth-htp I and in the tomb of 311tl-htp. In an example from the tomb of Htp-n pth at Giza the term occurs as follows: 168 implies boat'. This ka-priest, that the imi-wrt `Steward,Overseer the the side of of The into title this perhaps tomb side. and port separated a starboard of was priesthood 169 inscription in r31my-wrt. Twelfth Dynasty the of a web reoccurs In a New Kingdom text, Thutmosis I, in order to announceHatshepsutas his heir to the throne, sat enthronedin the audiencehall n imy-wrt of the courtyard. The

text reads:`Then,My Majestyorderedto be broughtto him (sic) the royal officers

160 CDME, 18; Wb 1,73,8-10. Phyles were groups of peoplewho servedpart-time in temples. They during high in kings the took officials of and crews part mortuary work and rituals performed Pharaonicperiod. SeeRoth, Egyptian Phyles, 12. 161 Urk I, 47,16. Reisnerpointed out that gs Imy-wrt occurscontinually in quarry marks on the granite Reisner, Mycerinus, 257. Mycerinus temple: the of pyramid casing 162Urk I, 47,8; for an example which is derived from the Old Kingdom of 1mywrt denoting the `west', cf. Davies,PtahhotepII, pls. 13,15. 163 Grdseloff,ASAE 48 (1948), 510-111;Wente,Letters From Ancient Egypt, 42. 164 Jacquet-Gordon, BdE 34 (1962), 388-389;393-394. 165 Roth, Egyptian Phyles, 12. 166 Roth, Egyptian Phyles, 10. 167 Roth, Egyptian Phyles, 18. 168 Roth, Egyptian Phyles, 19. 169 Cairo No. 20339; Murray, Index, pl. 17; cf. Fischer,JAOS 76 (1956), 107-108.


'courtier`s (smrw), the entourage(, nyt) of the residence, (pssw nsw), noblemen(s"hw),, that they,might do (my).command,taking the Majesty of this my the chief of the rljyt, -. daughterwithin his armsin his palaceof ist'. A `sitting' took place, of the king himself, 1 According, in the d3dw of the west.,Thesepeople were upon their bellies in stp-s3'. . called place his d3dw Imy Thutmosis I; to the to the text courtiers and with went wrt, n his heir by, identifying his daughter Hatshepsut to the as near officials who assembled

i in :an inscription where Thutmosis III is describedas,, The term, also' occurs, he in hall, d3dw ' imy the the announcesa wrt, when audience., n seatedenthroned . . building schemeand promotes a -vizier ' in office.'7' In the inscription of 7mn-msw, AmenhotepIII orders an expeditionto be sent to Sinai while he is in the southern of Thebesin his palacen imy wrt. offhebes. The text reads: `Year 36, month 2 of Peret, day;9 under the Majesty of King -of Upper,and Lower Egypt Nb-m3rt-Rr,the Son of in his hlife for, Now,,, Majesty His Re, Amenhotep;ruler of Wist,,, was ever. given , 172 A Sn-nfr in from (imy-wrt) hall Thebes'. the tomb the the of scene of palace'on west holding is Abd by his Sheikh Sn-nfr Qurna the el accompanied shows wife, who at in hand menat one and a sistrum in the other. The text reads: `Giving adoration to .... by the Overseerof the Granariesof Amun, the Overseer of the Bulls of Amun, the Overseerof the Garden of Amun, he who satisfiesthe heart of the king on the west (imy-wrt) of the city, Sn-nfr, true of voice'. 173 Redford -remarksthat-the d3dw n Imy wrt is a phrase frequently cited in the 174 He formal Eighteenth `the Dynasty king texts audience'. early, as placewhere a gives describes it in the palaceof the throne as,a place of `royal appearance also upon great "' is in Heliopolis'. describes His the text audience southern evidence a a royal which d3dwn imy wrt, and mentionsthe king as `resting in the gate which is at the `northern' lake of the temple (scil. of Amun)'. He pointes out that n fmy wrt may simply mean that the palaceis located on the east bank, west of Karnak, between Karnak and the 176 hall Breasted is indication imy that the phrasen river. argues of an audience wrt. an
10 Urk IV, 256,7; translation closeto Breasted, Ancient RecordsII, 96-97. 171 Gardiner,JEA 38 (1952), pl. IV-col. I; Urk IV, 1380,12. 172 Urk IV, 48911,6. "' Virey, RT 40 (1898), 215. 174 Redford,JARCE 10 (1973), 88. 173 Redford,JARCE 10 (1973), 89; cf. Lefebvre,Histoire desgrands pretres d'Amon de Karnak, 48. 176 Redford,JARCE 10 (1973), 89.


177 both O'Connor hand `on that the suggests starboard/right side'. or a palace is intended, bearing `simultaneously for boat to the a reference a sacred are meanings divine image which passesin front of the palace,moving westwards and having the 178 its hand, starboardside'. palaceon right
In the Old Kingdom, therefore, the term imy-wrt involved a geographical term

indicatingthe `western' part of a building or a temple. It also alluded to phyles.In the New Kingdom the phrasen imy wrt normally indicated some sort of place where the king held formal audiences, althoughthe orientationof this place remainsuncertain.

177 Breasted, Ancient RecordsII, 97 178 O'Connor and Silverman (eds. ), Ancient Egyptian Kingship, 275.


3.2.5. sty-s3 `to is The term stp-s3 apparently composedof two units, a verb stp which means 19 Literally, the `protection'. `to cut up' and a noun s3 which means choose' or 180 is translated The be as `select term to as a whole a protection'. seems meaning '8' duty'. `do `protect' or escort The term occursin numberof texts through different periods as follows. In the Old Kingdom it occurred in the autobiographyof an administrator WnI dated to the Sixth Dynasty. He explains that his duties are connected with stp-s3, an activity four (ny) `I The his hnytw-9 imy-r text reads: replaced pr-r3. role as attached to His I before'. that had been hntyw-9 there so Overseersof the acted of pr-c3 who Majesty praisedme, by performing stp-s3,in preparing the way of the king m trt wit Majesty His I in in that might IIhrw. acted entirely so m nsw and performingattendance 192 me here is to the The favour term than corresponding stp-s3 anything', more literally king's way, along with carrying out audiences arrangingor the clearingof the `standing',which seems to havebeena form of attendanceon the king's person,most 18' biography in Wnf's The of term tasks. to again occurs attached ceremonial probably because His Majesty Sandal-bearer, `When I 3tw me praised and was a similar context: (m in did because I the place of attendance of my stp-s3which and of my watchfulness his. Never (b3k) his, (sr) rhrw), than than of of more any servant more any official st 184 The term is here before'. has this office been performed by any servant (b3k) family, his king for by Wni, the which and with a private service,performed connected '85 is to be Goelet term that the or the to equivalent argues performedat stp-s3. seemed includes rsw `guard', and that the business called phew should be translated as He thereforeconcludesthat the stp-s3and chew `attendance'. activities were associated king's to the personalservice. attached The term appearsin an inscription from the tomb of two Memphite high priests (wr hmt hmww) calledPth-. pss and S3bw:The text reads: `I stp s3when he (the king)
179 WbIV, 340,11. 180 Goelet,JARCE 23 (1986), 85-86. 181 " IV, 339,16 f; CDME, 254. 182 ), UnbrokenReed, 111; cf. Lichtheim, Urk I, 100,8-10; translation after Eyre, in Eyre et al. (eds. Ancient E&Vtian Literature I, 19. ' Goelet,JARCE 23 (1986), 86-87; cf. Eyre, in Eyre et al. (eds. 18. ), UnbrokenReed, 110-111. 184 Urk 1,105,17- 106,3; Lichthem, Ancient Egyptian Literature I, 18; translation after Eyre, in Eyre ), The UnbrokenReed, 113-114. et al. (eds. 185 Eyre, in Eyre et al. (eds. ), The UnbrokenReed, 111-114.


festival in Egypt Upper ch-ntri of the the every of roads of entered upon 186 appearance'. Again stp-s3 seemsto be one of the activities that took place during a ceremony in which the king participated. As in the text of Wni, the arrangement of the king's be function to a related to stp-s3.187 appears route

from the reign An inscription of the Fifth Dynasty of the official Ny-mnh-shmt,
`The his king's for The Sahure, text tomb. the reads: gift of stone elements records of (? ) king himself, in done taking the them the stone-work of presence upon was work (in) in inspected done be day, the them stp-s3 might so that what was upon place every 188 indicating it day'. Goelet `in translates the a place, or the course of every as stp-s3, `in supplying stp-s3' referring to a service. She also pointed out that the two sentences `m king' `in the the and presence of stp-s3' corresponds to each other, which r-gs nswt therefore indicates that there would have been a relationship between the stp-s3 and the 189 king location king: either an activity or was connected. with which the

1 known as Mml, in his In the inscription of the Sixth Dynasty vizier, K3-gm-n. The tomb nearthe pyramidof Tti at Saqqara,severalpeople are associated with stp-s3. text reads:`Then,the Majesty of Teti, living forever, proceededto the bnw.... knowing their namesin the stp-s3,while his Majesty commandedevery thing which his Majesty 19 wished'. The biography of W3 pth specifically associatesstp-s3 with several officials family members. The text reads: `when the royal children and the and royal (smrw) hearts in in heard (it), their more than who were stp-s3 respectwas companions 191 it denote location, instance Here for the a residence,or might stp-s3may a anything'. refer to attendance and servicein a placewhere royal debateis held. In the biography of S3bni,dated to the Sixth Dynasty, the text recorded in his tomb at Elephantineruns: `This humble servantwas praisedin the Majesty of the stp192 humble describes [gave king'. This this to the when servant a royal praise] s3,

186 Urk I, 52,4-9; servedunder the kings Menkawre and Nyuserre. 187 Goelet,JARCE 23 (1986), 88.
188Urk I, 38.15-19,1;

jS9Goelet,JARCE 23 (1986), 90-91; cf. the biography of R"-SpssUrk I, 179-15 and the biography of K3-m-tnntUrk 1,183,12-1. 190 Urk I, 194,12-14. 19'Urk I, 41,16-17. 192 Urk I, 139,8-9.

translation close to Goelet, JARCE 23 (1986), 89.


have before taken attendance consisting of the royal which might place audience, family and high officials rather than a private audience,and stp-s3is identified with the 193 king's carrying out of his duties. In Middle Kingdom texts the term stp-s3is rarely mentioned,yet it occurs in
texts as follows: an inscription of the Twelfth Dynasty of an administrator of the favouring in desert, than `Great Hnm-htp the any more stp-s3 my reads: was eastern his I in front king) distinguished (tnl) (smr-wIrty). (the He schw, of me out courtier being placed in front of those who had been in front of me. The council of the palace favouring bowed The I took to place give accordingly. praise accordingly. assembled in the presence, upon the command of the king himself. Never had the like happened for any b3kw, whose lord had favoured them in the past. I am one Im3b before the king; his before is in his (. favouring the courtiers entourage nwt); my charm presence of my 194 (smrw).

from Abydos A stela of the Twelfth Dynasty of the chief priest Wpw3w3t-c3 195 in in having been favoured beloved `I ch-palace, the stp-s3'. came out reads: In New-Kingdom texts the term occurs as follows. In a royal audienceof queen Hatshepsut, the text reads:`Usheringthe officials (srw) and the courtiers (smrw) of the in hear to the mannerof order stp-s3 196 Also in the coronationtext of queen Hatshepsutit reads:'A sitting took place of the king himself, in the d3dw of the west 197 In both texts, stp-s3 (tmy-wrt). Thesepeople were upon their bellies in the stp-s3'. From location the same to takes place. represent a or a placewhere an audience seems text the term occurs again: `It is the gods who fight on her behalf. They provide their 198 do (literally behind her day'. The `they their their gods stp every protection s3') in be to the therefore the a protective escort queen, service protecting stp-s3 seems duty being performedby the gods for the queen. It is therefore an upper duty, since thosewho perform it could be the gods, although they do it by surroundingthe queen in the sameway as a humanescort.

193 Goelet,JARCE 23 (1986), 91-92. 194 Newberry, Beni Hasan I, 25,100-120; Urk VII, 30,5-18; Eyre, in Eyre et at. (eds. ), Unbroken Reed, 113-144: 195 Sethe, Lesestcke, 74-17; Lichtheim, Autobiographies, 79. 196 Urk IV, 349,9-14. 197 Urk IV, 257,1-2. 198 Urk IV, 258,3-4.


In the Annalsof ThutmosisIII, the term stp s3 occurs when he reports what he battle his before the to + the council of Megiddo. The text reads: of , ,officials said What was `Repeatingthe report concerningthat plan which had previously discussed. king. Goelet, by '. is followed by in Majesty, This; the the the speech of. a stp-s3%! said . ' borders Egypt, ' battle happened,: Magiddo, the the,,. that :: of. of c' outside since notes therefore it meansthat,the stp-s3'cannotallude to the palace.The council then might `describingthe stp-s3 as;non-permanentor movable,, have taken place within'ia-, tent, , . in king his debate the the, : 1 country's, place council which, and courtiers, could royal : : 200 affairs. Discussion

The stp-s3seemsto. be a royal: businesslocation in which both the king and other members; discuss his They family, the ', to, appear or participate. persons; officials,,. involved. ; the also and aspects of ceremonialnature of palacewere country's affairs,,, The stp-s3may, then, be a council'room, or audiencechamber,but neednot be located became Doxey the that the with the palace. argues within stp-s3 eventuallyassociated 201 determinative, is building the term residence, since also stp-s3 written with a royal in institution. It may `palace' to to the a general way -like pr-s3- refer and used as an simply refer to the activities inside suchroom. It may also refer to the occasionof the is be The the audience,and may not name of a particular place. expressionstp s3 ;'with' the'.performance of 'royal ' duties, and the escort and consistently.associated associated audience, with the king as he carved out business.

199 Urk IV, 651,1. The phrase''nb-wad-snb ` life, prosperity and health' is frequently added after the by the beginning of the Twelfth Dynasty. word stp-s3 200 Goelet,JARCE 23 (1986), 95-98. 201 Doxey,Egyptian NonRoyal Epithets, 125.


3 2.6. rrryt or Sat .

The buildings. in is found rrryt202 a term usually the context of palacesor governmental Ptolemaic it during Dynasty, the first Fifth the term and was used until occurred 203 in two den Van Boom term, aspects. this the particular meaning of explains period The first aspectdescribes the term as `the areain front of a religious or secularcentre 204 The building'. integral including its that part of main gate, as an of authority, function of the area is rendered as `department', `entrance-area', `meeting - or his based He (for `audience on evidence area officials)'. or or waiting area', reception first erryt this Vizier Duties aspect as the term the text, supporting the of where follows: 1- R29-R30, `all [] 205 In this brought to the rrryt, everything offered to the frryt'.

two Connecting the rrryt. this to the next the with sentence products are presented den litm, imy-r is the to open the pr-nbw and van where the vizier supposed sentences, 206 ). (to Boom arguesthat the erryt can be interpretedas `entrance-area' the pr-nsw? 207 It rryt'. 2- R27-R28,`It is he who appointseveryonewho hasto be appointedto the indicatesthat one of the duties of the vizier was to control the,promotion of officials in 208 indication rryt that the the rryt, an was an organizationor sector. 3- R11, `It is his message that takes the mayors and the leadersof settlementsto the 10 209 rryt'. Van denBoom takesthe rryt to be `entrance-reception- and audiencearea'. 4- R36, iry-9 n rrryt `door-Keeperof the erryt'. This might imply that the erryt as an function has its from The rrryt as an can other sources own staff. apartmentor area in a nonjuridical context, with ships are said to be attachedto institution/department 212 it, it it,21 different officials associated with and can also play the role of reception 213 hall for oflicials. areaor audience
202 The noun rwt is usually taken to mean 'gate'. Other sourcesindicate that rwt refers to a room or a de funeraire du bounded See Wb II, by 404,6; Posener-Krieger, Les temple a archives gate. place 457-458. Neferirkar@-Kakai, 203 Spencer, TheEgyptian Temple,147-149. 204 Van den Boom, Duties of the Vizier, 81. 205 Translationafter van den Boom, Duties of the Vizier, 284-285. 206 Van den Boom, Duties of the Vizier, 82. 207 Translation after van den Boom, Duties of the Vizier, 278-280. 208 Van den Boom, Duties of the Vizier, 82.
209 Translation-after van den Boom, Duties of the Vizier, 88-89. 210 Van den Boom, Duties of the Vizier, 83.

211 Van den Boom, JNES 44 (1985), 9-10. 212 Cf. Helck, Verwaltung,65-70. 213 Gardiner,ZS 60 (1925), 64; van den Boom, JNES 44 (1985), 9-10.


Van den Boom explains the second aspect as `a place where the august
inhabitant(s) of the enclosed world -i. e., the god, the pharaoh, or their representative(s) 214 in large'. He functions themselves their to the argues official public at present can that one of these functions was the giving of justice. This idea can be explained as follows. The Decree of Horemheb mentions that the ruler has chosen judges who 215 cry be follow the palace announcements, which can t. taken as the regulations of the Van den Boom explains saying `words spoken in the palace by the pharaoh become laws to the outer world through the rryt functioning as the transitional area between 216 The promoted judges are supposed to act as the ruler's agents in the two regions'. king his into deeds (law). 5, XIX, In P. Berlin 3049 the the words verso, executing health it be done `in rryt the the the that of the of country, so would proclaimed 217 i. Through rryt the the as god's place, e. a temple, the king passesthe will of god'. the god to the outside world. Also, the text of the Duties of the Vizier states: R32, hr 219 issue (juridical) R9, rrryt `with rrryt', to the where the regard every and n of mdt nbt cryt functions as the area where the vizier is in charge of punishing the guilty 219 in is bounded by Therefore, cryt the a room/hall a gate, which plays a role officials. juridical affairs.22

is that the eryt It is obviousthat for both theseaspects the main issueaddressed linking between instance for the world, a point acts as enclosed a palaceor temple, and 221and the rrryt would be then recognisedas a `channel' between the outside world, both. In support of this conclusion,in the Middle Kingdom inscriptionsthe rrryt is first in is rrryt, found New Kingdom the title then whmw n attested which also among 222 titles. The title whmw n rrryt focuses on the function of the rrryt as a palace management and communicationarea.The text of 7n-tf, the Great Herald of the King, indication before the that take an of arrangements gives place a royal could

214 Van den Boom, JNES 44 (1985), 8. 215 Urk IV, 2155,18; Pflger,JNES 5 (1946), 265 p1.4; Cf. van den Boom, JNES 44 (1985), 9. 216 Van den Boom, JNES 44 (1985), 9; Cf. Goedicke,Knigliche Dokumente, 88; Hayes, JEA 32 (1946),6. 217 Vernus,Orientalia 48 (1979), 176-184pl. 1. 218 Van den Boom, Duties of the Vizier, 286-288. 219 Van den Boom, Duties of the Vizier, 88-89. 220 Van den Boom, JNES 44 (1985), 8-10. 221 Helck, Verwaltung,65. 222 Spencer, TheEgyptian Temple,152.


2 He would greet the courtiers outsidethe entranceto the palace,and guide audience be to rrryt, the command them to the reception room, the where they would wait inner into the apartments. ushered 224 Faulkner translatedit as `gate,leaf of a 'gate' Wb The translates the term as .
5 judgement, the home'. Helck that dwelling double door, lintel, hall of argues and be to building door front obtained through rrryt was a the could access which of a at 226 in rrryt, kept documents He the and also that were also noted the royal palace. officials could receive their appointments there. In identifying the 'Irryt

den Boom Van erryt the was situated. archaeologically, the question arises of where been have it the Vizier, basis Duties entrance the that the the must of of on argued, 227 Wpw3wtr3 In the official a private stela of area of a secular centre of authority. describing his audiences, the text reads: `The seal-bearers who are in the palace, the 228 highlights the rryt, to the the which place', see my admittance people who are at function of the erryt from the Middle Kingdom as a government department. The mnhw in the in here be to to the this term `people' might soldiers refer of use of guards, view Middle Kingdom. In the biographical inscription of Rh-ml-rr from the New Kingdom back I bowing door `I rrryt, their and the courtiers were the text reads: reached the of 229 h3yt found the smsw clearing the way'.

According to the Duties of the Vizier, the vizier used his own office for listening(RI, R13), inspectingaffairs (R12, R28) and consideringjudgement matters (R9). As head of the rrryt, he used the area for receiving local officials (RI I) and den (R8-R9). Boom Van therefore the argues punishment of guilty officials exacting have is be located i3. This rrryt to the the office must that expected near vizier's office been situatedin the pr-nsw, where those entering the gateway were managedby the is Vizier in himself Duties (R8). He the erryt the that the the of suggests vizier its This (erected including front the the main gate). on pr-nsw area receptionarea of
223 Urk IV, 966,4-969,14. 224 The apparentlyrelated term eryt, presentsan equal evolution in writing: 'Irt, rrwt, errwt, eryt and Cf. Gardiner,JEA 37 (1951), no. 2; Helck, Verwaltung,65 no. 2; Wb I, 209,6; 13-14; 210,12"erryt. 17; 211,8-14. 225 CDME, 45.
226 Helck, Verwaltung, 65; cf. van den Boom, JNES 44 (1985), 8-9. 227 Van den Boom, Duties of the Vizier, 83.

228Sethe, Lesestuck, 74,14; Lichtheim, Autobiographies, 77-79; translation after Spencer, The Egyptian Temple,153. 229Urk IV, 1073,3-6; translation after Spencer,TheEgyptian Temple, 154.


be:. it. have Their titles to to to msw appear officials who are attached area seems
rrryt, saw rrryt, s rrryt and imy-r w n'rryt. 30 It can therefore be concluded that the rrryt was a place which functioned as a

transition point and may be also have been in a position where the right of entry was be to the public. to addressed and pronouncements controlled, were made

230 Spencer, TheEgyptian Temple,152.



4.1. Titles and epithets

Titles, epithets and a series of other associated phrases in the narrative known have high the supplied much of ranking officials autobiographies' of information regarding the relationship between the king and his officials and the describe between Such balance the two. and epithets words, phrases, of power variable for the text, the the characteristics personresponsible commissioning and attributesof The term `titlei3 is understoodand definedin various ways by different writers. Edgerton arguesthat `titles may not always mean exactly what they seem to us to 4 From denotes `inscription/label'. this Latin Goedicke titulus that the an notes say'. basis-two applications developed, namely the expression of - ownership and the 5 it defines designation dignity Quirke `a of a man's position as of or rank'. appellation in the structureof statewhich does not dependsolely on that man's existence,but has item in title Therefore independent the the regular manner of an of property. status an does not ceaseto exist at the death of the incumbent, but instead passesto a new holder' Quirke assumes that there is a particular connection between function and .6 his from `mirror Egyptian titles" the that point of might not view of responsibility it in be determined is highly likely It the title through that context which a could view. 8 be In title to the the could person's name. addition, official appeared next 9 Quirke remarks that the ancient Egyptians observed the distinguishedby its use.

1 The main point raisedin the Ancient Egyptian private autobiographies is status: the occupation,the lived. how These features the the actually activities person and reflectedthe social, moral and events, Sorensen, in deceased: Englund Ancient Egyptians, (ed. ), The Religion the the of status of religious 116. 2 Doxey,Egyptian Non-RoyalEpithets, 1. 3 Fischer referred to `Pseudo-titular epithets', whereas Franke referred to 'Epitheta'. Fischer, Supplementto W. Ward's Index, 1; cf. Franke, GM 83 (1984), 124; cf. Ayalon, Mamluk Military Society,99-150. 4 Edgerton,JNES 6 (1947), 154. n Allara (ed. SGoedicke, ), Grund und Boden, 227. 6 Quirke, RdE 37 (1986), 107. Quirke, RdE 37 (1986), 108. $ Quirke, RdE 37 (1986), 108. 9 Quirke, in Der Manuelian (ed.), StudiesSimpsonII, 671.


difference between the `nominalized and participle' titles, where the holder of a by in for (identified form title their the received payment of salary career participle Quirke with the word 13twhich means`office', `work' or `profession') while those holding the nominalizedtitle did not. He adds `the generalizedphrasingthat might be to describea personwithout indicating whether he receivedmaterialreward generated Berlev definestitles as `all the offices, positions,ranks, designations for the activity'. 10 indicators in in it is that and of social acceptable professions, status, of other words all between the title and epithet, stating Egyptology to term titles'. " Baer distinguishes that `a title is a term indicating a specificoffice, function, or dignity; an epithet, though in form,, stereotyped simply makesa general statementabout a person equally equally 12 in in life'. Doxey observesthat epithets to applicable a man all walks and stations " in biographies appearnext to namesand titles appear of the tomb owners. In this context I havegatheredtogether a numberof epithetssuchas: `eyesand king', in freely `stepping the to themselves also of phrasesas people referring ears as the sacred place' and `one who can approach his lord' which refer to people's * king. These displayed different the relationshipwith epithetswere monuments.In on quoting the relevant official's, epithets, titles and phrases,that seem to reflect the important feature of a person's status and career or activities, I have not presented but have texts, to examinethe degreeof his associationwith the endeavured complete king, in way or another. In an epithet such as the `eyes and ears of the king', the problem was to work out what the bearersof this epithet really did; in other words, how their genuine role was and closewas their connectionwith the king. what A seriesof examples occurs as follows: 4.1.1. Eyes and ears of the king

Document I
Monuments References

Stela - Louvre C 273= E 12974 Urk IV,, 1372- 3; Helck, bersetzungsprobleme im

frhen Mittelalter, 65; Boreux, Cataloguedes

10Quirke, in Der Manuelian (ed.), StudiesSimpsonII, 671. 11Berlev, TrudovoeNaselenieEgipta v epokhuSrednegoTsarstva, 5. '2 Baer,Rank and Title in the Old Kingdom, 4-5. 13 Doxey,Egyptian Non-RoyalEpithets, 1.


antiquites egyptiennesdu Musee du Louvre I, 78, pl. 7; Zivie, Giza au deuxiPmeMittemire, 55.


Reign ofThtitmosis`H1

rprt h3ty=r`sd3wty-bfty bity, (n) trwy, cnhwy n smr wrty, nsw iniy-r. prwy; (Zivie; kit tmy-r hd tmy-r" nbw, prwy. nbt nt nsw .

Giza,-, 56`57)'o:, '`'


(pr'--Wand His mainfiinct ions were`Overseerof Works and Overseerof the Treasuries prwy-nb).

Document II Monument

R"-ms ia A graffiti of Rlr-ms. An inscription from his tomb TT 55. S


Urk TV, 1791;de Morgan, CataloguedesMonumentsI, 90 no. , 79; Davies,Egyptian Historical RecordsV, 7 (Graffiti); Davies,, The Tombof Ramose,pl. 39-,. 40 (His Tomb TT! ',


Graffiti from Sehel., His tomb at SheikhAbd el Qurneh.

Date Titles

Reign of AmenhotepIII h3ty-r' frwy nsw m t3 r- &f rprt (Graffiti)

rprt h3ty-rr shrr m t3 dr.f, sm lire 9ndyt nbt sd3wty-bf ty, imy-r (TT 55) nfwt 3ty His mainfunction was as a vizier.

Thegraffiti shows him before thecartouches III andthe local goddess of Amenhotep Anukis.


Document III
Monument References

15 H3b#. A graffiti of , Urk IV, 1793; de Morgan, Catalogue des Monuments I, 28 no.

8; Lepsius, Denkmler IV, 119; Davies, Egyptian Historical Records V, 8. Provenance Date Aswan Eighteenth Dynasty.

Titles Other information

Mn-nfr h3ty-r irwy 43ty-r n nsw m mhw rsy, snsw m311, rprt The text highlightsone of the duties of ff3by, who organised
his he bark Majesty His journey on was while the of north of the first campaign of victory.

King's Real he title the is; Memphis, Mayor also claims His ,main functions and of Scribe.

Document IV Monuments

AmenhotepSon of Hapu A fragmentof a block statueBM16 103 StatueCairo" No 36498 IncompleteCairo statue'sNo 29251


Glanville,JEA 15 (1929), 2, pl. II; HTBM, VIII, pl 12; Davies,Egyptian Historical RecordsV, 20; Urk VI, 1830 (Fragment statueBM 103); Newberry, ASAE 28 (1928), 142; Davies, Egyptian Historical Records V, 21 (Cairo No 36498); Borchardt, Statuenund Sttuettenvon Knigen und (Cairo No 29251); Leuten Museum Kairo 551 in II, private von Varille, Amenhotep,Fils de Hapou.

ISH3byis portrayedin a kneeling position beforethe cartouches of AmenhotepIII. 16 The figure is depictedwith cross-legged, and wearing a skirt. The text is inscribed on a papyrusroll its indicates It front back lab, figure's the the surface, on upper sides and of pedestal. and resting on that it wasan honour from the king, which was placed in the temple of Amun at Karnak. 17This dark granite statuewith a missing head,belonging to Amenhotep son of Hapu, was found in 1903in the templeof Mut at Karnak. The statueshowshim in a scribal form. '$ An unfinished granite statuefound in the temple of Khons at Karnak.


Provenance Date

Eighteenth Dynasty
Irwy h3ty-r imy-r hr-tp h3ty-r n pr-wr sat-nsw rprt rsy mhw, s nfrw rprt h3ty(BM 103) hr 43ty-r bity, cnhwy rpet wnmt nt nsw s nsw rpct n nsw

hr bw (nsw bitt' ' faywnmt nt m3l, smr wety,r shrr n rhyt, s. sd3wty
Sm Hr, hm-ntr imy-r hb 7mn, k3wt imy-r n n n nbt nt nsw, s9m nsw, hwt-nbw (Cairo No 36498) (Cairo No 29251) (m) h3ty-r rh n nsw mh-ib r shr(r) rprt

His main functionswere Overseerof all the Works of the King, the one who conducts House Overseer the Horus, High Priest the Overseer Amun, festival of of of of the of GreatKing's DaughterandSmpriest of the House of Gold.

Document V. Monument:

Mr-n-Pth is in Egyptian half Stela19 the the two parts: upper with Collection of the Rijksmuseum in Leyden No.. 124. The lower half is found in the Egyptian Collection of University College UC 14463. London, no. of


Boeser, Stelen, Tf 15 no 27; Anthes, ZAS 72 (1936), 65, p1.1; Bosse-Griffiths,JEA 41(1955), 56 f, pt XIV; Davies, Egyptian Historical Records V, 56; Stewart, Egyptian Stelae I, 26- 27; Urk IV, 1910-1912.

Date: Titles:

Reign of AmenhotepIII ledge the upper of the frame: on hwt hm-ntr 1my-r h3ty-c bity, irwy "nltwy t3 n pr n nsw n rpet Nb-M3rt- Rr, smr wrty, mh lb n ntr nfr

Family and functions: Mry-Pth is the Chief Stewardof the Mansion (temple) of AmenhotepIII, and his brother Pth-ms is a High Priest of Memphis.
19The two parts of the stela were examinedby Bosse-Griffiths, in which they were found matching. The stela is of a rectangulartype with raised frame and a cavetto cornice. The stela is divided into three parts. The upper part is in the form of a naos containing five human figures. The middle part bottom The is for two the prophet, the chief steward offering portion a prayer scenes. with represents Merptah. III, Amenhotep Mansion the of of


Document VI:
Monument: References:

Inscription from TT 74. Brack and Brack, Das Grab des Tjanuni. Theben Nr. 74,36 (Texte 25), 25 (Texte 58).

Provenance: Date:

Theban Necropolis. Eighteenth Dynasty


Inscribedon the frieze of the Southernwall:

Hr bity, h3ty-r lmy-ib irwy mnhwy C3 n m rp"t smr n mrt, nsw n f, pr. s nsw mar, imy-r s m9cn nsw

His main function is Overseerof Scribesof the Army of the King. He also adoptedthe title of Real Royal Scribe.
Document VII Iouiya

Monument References

Inscription on the secondcoffin of Iouiya.20 Davies, The Tombof Youiyaand Touiyou, 6- 7;

Urk IV, 1894-1895; Davies, Egyptian Historical Records V, 49.

Provenance. Date

Coffin found in the tomb of Iouiya and Touiyou at Thebes TT Eighteenth Dynasty


lmy-r ssmwt idnw n hmf m tt-nt-htrw imy-r ihw n Mnw, hsy f, rn nsw rnlhwyn bity, imyw lb n ntr nfr, welb n nsw nn snnw. ntr nfr mrr nb t3wy,m4-lb n nsw m t3 r-drf

His mainfunction is Overseerof the HorsesandDeputy of the King in Charioty.

Document VIII Monument References

Nfr-shrw Inscription from his tomb No 107. Helck, MIO 4 (1956), 13,15,18,20A; Urk IV, 1881-1883; Davies,Egyptian Historical RecordsV, 43.

Provenance Date

WesternThebes:SheikhAbd el Qurnah. Reign of AmenhotepIII

rprt fry wgibw wsht, h3ty-r m pr-wr, sd3wty-blty smr tp, hnn Hr hnw chf, iry rdwy ity m pr f, rprt h3ty-r smr tkn % hr ch, rprt m

20 On theleft side,theinscription givesthenameandtitlesof Iouiyaanda prayerto Nut..


h3ty-r sdwty-bity 13m pr-nsw r.w. s. 43tyw n wrw ch, mh rnbwy d3wty-bity smr wrty, irwy n nswt m t3 rHr m m3ct, rprt 43ty-s! dr.f, hrrwy hr ir[rt. f ] [sdm] mdwt dd bw mar [mnhwy] nswt m c Zf, [ems] sw hr li3st nbt fmy-r ihw n 7mn, 9s nsw s9 wdhw , imy-r pr n T4n-7tn

His main functionsare in the administrationof temple finances.

Document IX ul*-m-hat

Monument References

Inscriptionsfrom his tomb at West ThebesNo 57. Wreszinski,Atlas zur altgyptischenKulturgeschichteI, Tf 189; Urk IV, 1841-1853;Davies,Egyptian Historical Records,V, 26.

Provenance Date

Western Thebes. Nb-M3rt-R r


f, Irwy n nsw m niwt rsy rpet h3ty-l'mh fb n nsw m t3 r-cir. Mhw "nhwyfm spatmhw snsw imy-r gnwtynw gy`m'

His main function is Overseerof the Granaries.

Document X Hr-m-hab


Inscribedpanelfrom the tomb of Horemhebnow in the British MuseumNo. 550; Martin, TheMemphite Tombof Horemheb, I.


HTBM, VIII, pl. 27; Urk IV, 2099-2102; Davies, Egyptian Historical RecordsVI, 61.

Provenance Date

South Saqqara Reign of Tutankhamen

hr imy-r l' 3y-liw ; 13wy m. wr wnmy nsw, rpr-t nb s nsw s nfrw lit dr. f, f ldbwy frwy 13wt 33 t3 shrr m ns m r m s116 n nsw wr m Imy lb n Hr m "h f, mh-lb n nsw m mnw nb, lmy-r kit m dw n b13 idnw n nsw linty t3wy

His mainfunctionswere Great Overseerof the Army and the Deputy of the King.


Document XI What monument' References

Kn-7mn His 'tomb' at Western Thebes TT 93 , Urk IV, 1385-1400; Davies, The Tomb of Ken Amon at Thebes; Cumming; Egyptian Historical Records II, 98;, , Reign of, Amenlitep II! ` ' Ref: Davies, Ken Amon, pl. IX ', nsw h3tyr Irwy, bitt' rnhwy rprt n n hr, Inn nb' t3wy,k3f t3y: -bw wnmy nsw,'

Date Titles

sdty Hr. mrf Imy-r nfrt n [7mn] , imy-r m thw-`mS`Nlhw

Imy-r pr,-wr, n [nsw] Kn-7mn pl. IX ,: '

#rwyn nswt mnhwy n bitt'; ' XLIV. pl,, dd.twofnttmib. srr martr rh
pr Imy-r



Urk IV, 1401-1404

wr n nsw Imy-r pr n prw-nfr

lmy-r ihw n 7mn ' imy-rprhd, imy-r pr, prwy,wbw "n Imy-r hd imy-r kit nbt Imy-r 3ht rpwnnblbf irw [mnbwy] Hr, hr tnt3t P1.LIV, B smr tpy n Snytnisw m hat nsyw Document XII Monument References Min-htp calledHwtwtw Rectangularstelaof Min-htp, now in Cairo. Urk IV, 1512-1514;PM III, 201; Daressy,ASAE 19 (1920), 127-130;Cumming,Egyptian Historical RecordsII, 194195.


Date Titles

Eighteenth or Ninteenth Dynasty f, hr ib (3 bitt', enhwy s n nb t3wy m smnb rdyt m n mh rn nswt (i)ry kip, I'd, hrd wdb wsht, s, nsw sl rpet n nsw s nfrw s, pr 9mr zirp Mhw m wsbt n 3b n nsw pr-14,

His main functionsare Royal Scribeand Scribeof the Treasury Document XIII

Inscription from his tomb No 97.


Urk IV, 1408 ; Gardiner,ZS 47 (1910), 87- 98; Cumming,Egyptian Historical RecordsII, pl 114- 116.

Date Titles

WesternThebes:SheikhAbd el Qurnah
lb bity, f, h3ty-r Irwy rnhwy n ntr t3 mh n r shrr m r-dr. nswt rprt lmy-r lmn, hm-ntr bity r. (3 tpy n m pr-nsw w. s. nfr, sd3wty hmw-ntr nw Smr Mhw

His mainfunction was High Priest of Amun.

Document XIV Monument References Provenance Date


TU The tomb of T13. Martin, The Tombof Tia and Tia, p1s.21,26. South Saqqara Period Ramesside
Hr Imy tb bity h3ty-r fry m n sd3wty st3n pr-nsw rpet smr wrty, f f, 13t r3 irwy mnhwy bity, m n wr m pr nsw n w" mnb n ntr-nfr srh f sr m-hat riiyt s nsw imy-r pr-4d

II. His mainfunction was Overseerof the Treasuryof Ramesses

183 Discussion late from king' the `eyes to In practice, the epithet of exist seem and ears of the smr Eighteenth Dynasty. The examples appear after the honorific epithets rp"t h3ty-C-21 22sd3wty bity, but before titles that carry an identifiable function. Exceptionally, in wrty Document VII, Iouiya's epithets appear after his job functions, which seemto be more like epithets, describing the role and status of their holders, rather than specific jobs. Zivie considers that `eyes and ears of the king' could possibly have been honorific intermediaries holding it jobs, those to as seem carry out certain especially epithet and between the king and his subjects23 Holders of the rank/function of smr wrty seem to have typically served as royal envoy or plenipotentiary. The title is not departmental, but might allude to a degree of delegated royal authority. 24 However, if we examine Iouiya's titles and his epithet `mouth of the King of Upper Egypt, ears of the King of Lower Egypt' which appears after his function of Overseer of the Horses and Deputy in Chariotry, King to that a the refer one could argue possibly such an could epithet of job job functions. Since the needed a official undertook which such a with other real high level of confidential trust, it often appears after the honorific epithets rpet h3ty-r, held directly bity. and People sd3wty who such epithets were associated with smr wrty the king in one way or another and held high ranking functional offices.

In DocumentI, Bnr-mrwt was imy-r prwy-W, imy-r prwy-nbw25and imy-r kit Overseer Treasuries Works King: Overseer the titles the the of nsw and of all nt of nbt held by the highestranking officials. The treasurywas the economicarm of the palace, He involved in tax collection, and the redistribution the the control of vizier. was under of raw materials and revenues according to. economic needs of state, including Such Bnr-mrwt with public works, public finances, titles associate works. construction
Z' During the Old and the Middle Kingdom, the epithet of h? ty-r was held by Egyptian provincial by and a number of officials. During the New Kingdom it was also attestedto high officials governors Strudwick, Administration `nomarch', to see equal of Egypt in the Old Kingdom, 157 f; Quirke, RdE 37 (1986), 122;Flammini, GM 164 (1998), 49. Feucht refersto it as a title with no particular meaning in the EighteenthDynasty,but which is still inscribed in the title seriesof high ranking officials: see ), Pharaonic Egypt, 40. Normally in the New Kingdom it referred to local Feucht,in Israelit-Groll (ed. `mayors': Trigger or see et at., Ancient Egypt: a Social History, 211-214. governors 22smr-wety,is a court position which was sometimessubstitutedby rh-nswt The King's Confidant in the Middle Kingdom in which there was no difference in rank betweenthe two. SeeFranke, in Quirke (ed.), Middle-Kingdom Studies,59; cf. de Wite, CdE 31 (1956), 89; also see Gardiner, AEO 1,20 No. 74. 23Zivie, Giza au deuxiememillenaire, 58. 24Eyre, in Eyre et al (eds. ), The UnbrokenReed, 110. 25For the title imy-r pr-6d seeGardiner,AEO I, 26 No. 90.


`the bity (n) held rnhwy irwy He of the eyes n nsw materials. also epithets precious and him Lower Egypt' King Upper Egypt King associating of the of and the ears of the intermediary. the royal personage as with

In Document II, R'-ms's main function was as a Vizier, and as such he had
Controller hrp held . He of the titles ndyt nbt also sm priest and accessto the monarch. described is king. He imply in function Kilts, the as connection with a ritual which all being trwy nsw m 13r drf `the eyes of the king in the entire land', and r shrr m t3 dr.f

`the mouth which contents the whole land'. These might fit his duty as a vizier, a role in which he kept an eye on what was happening in the land and then reported it to the king. 26A textual comparison would be based on the Duties of the Vizier text, where it describeshow the vizier entered to the king's house to report on the affairs of the Two Lands.

In DocumentIII, H3by the Mayor of Memphis also held the epithet sl nsw m3e' Real Royal Scribe.His autobiographyhighlights one of his duties, which involved him his first journey for king's bark he the the campaignof on north while was organising a directly held high He the sovereign with associated ranking office, and was victory. through his function of Real Royal Scribe. He held the epithet Irwy nsw m mhw rsy `the eyesof the King of Upper andLower Egypt'. In Document IV, 7mn-htps3 n H3by Amenhotep Son of Hapu, was described Works Scribe, Real Imy-r k3w Overseer Royal the the of all of nsw mal' nbt nsw s nt as King, s9mhb n 7mn `the one who conductsthe festival of Amun', Imy-r pr n wrt sat hwt Priest Overseer Sm Great House King's Daughter the the sm of of nbw and n nsw Golden in House. Amenhotep's his titles the the administration of stress role of finances and personnel, particularly for royal buildings projects and ceremonial Such him king. held Irwy He titles the the associate with epithets n nsw practices. rnhwy n bity `the eyesof the King of Upper Egypt and the ears of the king of Lower Egypt', r shrr n rhyt `the mouth which makeshappiness to the common people'. He is described `confident indicating his king king', the that as n of nsw an mb-lb epithet also 27 him. trusted

26Van den Boom, TheDuties of the Vizier, R 5. 27Doxey,Egyptian Non-RoyalEpithets, 225.


In Document V, Mr-n pth was hm-ntr `Priest' and lmy-r pr n6 hwt Nb-m3rt. Re a Steward of the Mansion of Amenhotep III, a position which implies a personal king's finances in king. the He the of ritual and charge of was relationship with the bity `the the held rnhwy irwy He of the eyes temple. n also epithet n nsw mortuary King of Upper Egypt and the ears of the King of Lower Egypt'. And inscribed as smr further implies `confidant 1b `sole the good god', of n ntr nfr companion' and mh wety king. the to the person of closeness In Document VI, Tnn3's main function was imy-r s. We n nsw Overseer of the

Scribesof the Army of the King. He held the epithet Real Royal Scribe that seemsto with the king outsidethe palace,for examplethrough campaigns. It him also associate 28 imy-ib described is letters. being honour Tnn3 bearer its the as also a man of of gives irwy in house'. held his He is in heart Horus `who the Hr nsw the epithet of m prf n rnbwy n bity `the eyesof the King of Upper Egypt and the ears of the King of Lower Egypt'.
In Document VII, Iouiya held the titles imy-r ssmwt idnw n hmfm ti-nt htrw

Overseerof the Horsesand the Deputy of the King in Charitory, a title that highlights his direct delegatedof authority from the king. He held the epithet rn nsw rnhwy n bity `the mouth of the King of Upper Egypt and the earsof the King of Lower Egypt'. f `the only one of the heart of the He is also describedas being we lb n nsw nn snnw. king, with no like' and mh-ib n nsw m t3 r-drf literally `one who fills the heart of the the king'29rendered`confident of the king in the entire land'. In practice, this stresses his fact that the official has earnedthe king's trust through the successful of execution It the capability of the official as responsibilities. or military expresses administrative king. his the much as relationshipwith

In DocumentVIII, Nfr-shrw is involvedin the administration of the temple

finances. He is s wdhw The Scribe of the Offering Table and Imy-r pr n Thn-7tn Steward of Thn-7tn. His titles associate him with the king. He is described as hnn Hr m hnw inside his his `who Horus description to if approaches palace', a alluding

be is him king. he described as '3 in In to the near other contexts position permitting `the in foremost r. h3tyw 'h L. P. H, the the great w. wrw one palace, s n of the pr-nsw

28 Habachi, Kush8 (1960),25.

29This is a common epithet in tomb inscriptions of the Old and Middle Kingdom. Urk I, 68-16; Newberry,Beni Hasan I, p1.17;II, pls. 14,30,36; Cairo Cat. 28129.


30 the the epithet irwy n nswt m t3 r dr f `the eyesof the palace.. He obtained; chiefs of They king in his `the king in the entire land' andimnhwy, rhf the nswt m earsof palace'. for his stress role as a private agent the king both insideand outsidethe palace.
descriptional phrase mh %wy, Hr m mart `filling the ears of There is a similar,, Horns with Maat', an exampe' of which comes from the autobiography of the Chief Steward Snn-mwt of Hatshepsut: The text reads: mh''nhwy Hr m mart wstn nmtt m pr-

'Who fills the ears of Horus with truth, who . t3`r-dr f.? nswt r mdw n nbt t3wy,r shrr'm13'r. in freely for the themouth that, palace,, speaks the lady,of the Two Lands so as to . steps in land!,.,,, is This la however the whole standardphrase and often appears the content implies his Eighteenth' Dynasty. Lichtheim the this that of states phrase autobiographies ' king in the to than merely address confidentilly, an advisory rather attitude ability " , . 32 involved focus have The his jobs,, phrase could', on; one of reporting. which could listeningto what lipperied'inside the palaceand'mentioningit to'the king; especiallyas he is describedas hvhig free 'access'inside the palace.Snn-mwt's epithet `the mouth that speaksfor the lady of the Two Lands so as to content the whole land' highlights his role in receiving orders from the queen and publicising information all over the country so that the peoplecould rejoice about it. He would thereforebe then described intermediary between (queen) king inside the palace and the people outside the as an the palace. In Document IX, Khaemhat1 f-m-hat was the Overseerof the Granaries.He held the epithet irwy n nsw rri niwt'rsy I 'ihe eyesof the king in the southerncity' and ' rnliwyf. m sp3wtmhw `his earsin the districts of Lower Egypt', and he is also referred to as mh-lb n nsw m ,t3 r drf `confident of the king in the whole land'. His main

functionwasOverseer of the Granaries of UpperandLower Egypt.

In documentX, Hr-m-h3b's main function was !my-r mf wr33Overseerof the Army, but he also hasthe unique function as the Deputy of the King. Attributed to him is the epithet irwy n nsw m ht idbwy `the eyesof the king throughout the Two Banks'. He is describedas ns shrr m t3 r d-r. f `the tongue which causescontent in the whole land', wr m 13wt f 113 m sl'h !my 1bn Ur m c4f `great of rank, great of dignitary, who is
30Helck, MIO 4 (1956), 18 b. 31Urk IV, 456,15 457,1; for other examplessee Urk IV, 961,10-13; Caminos, Semna-Kumma 11. The Templeof Kumma, 12. 32Lichtheim, Maat in Egyptian Autobiographies, 50. 33For the title imy-r f' wr seeGardiner,AEO 1,21 No. 76- 77. m


king `confident in his the heart Horus in the of palace', and m4-ib n nsw m mnw nb of
in every monument'. In Document XI, Kn-lmn was High Steward of the King's House34 and

main functions, his however Amun. Cattle These to although Overseerof the seem of by a wide variety of additional titles, suchas Overseerof all the his titulary is expanded Works, Overseerof Fields, Overseerof Treasury, Overseer of the Two Houses of 36 is king His Silver" the Gold, Overseer of recorded and sm priest. relation with Egypt, Upper king bity `eyes mnhwy irwy the of of through phrasessuch as n n nswt 37 `the f Hr king fb Irwy rnhwy the Egypt', Lower tnt3t of mouth the n rn nb of earsof 38 chf fw dais', irwyf Horus heart, his lord of the the eyes and ears of m nswt pw on 39 king `eyes is in his 9 king Irwy is his the `He the of palace', nsw r w3wtpdt eyeswhen 40 bows, `who r4 truth to Egypt Upper the the to cause nine of ser mart r roads of 42 41 heart', is in dd. 1b. `to the the tw to s says what palace'. nf ntt m whom one ascend king's is head `first hat the the elite' of courtier one who called at nsyw smr tp nis m 3 important in first He the man, was an a council or audience. presumably man called inside both and outsidethe palace. a role who played These statementsreflect his intimate relation with the king. Davies describes whisperings king Kn-7mn, as `a confidential emissary,reporting to the secluded only 44 frontiers'. This his the things the the and situation, state of on policy, public against `by in is king by `attached' to the the or place' every phrases relationship also stressed land andwater' and `through every foreign country'.45 In Document XII, Min-htp's main functions were s nsw Royal Scribe and s is by him describing king Scribe His Treasury. the the shown relationship of with pr-6d himselfasrn nswt 'nhwy n bity `the mouth of the King of Upper Egypt and the earsof by the phrasemh-lb '13 the King of Lower Egypt'. The relationshipis stressed n nb t3wy
34 Davies,Ken-Amun,pl. IX. 35Davies,Tombof KenAmun, 13. 36Davies,Ken-Amun,pl. VIII, col 31; which confersa priestly rank. 37Davies,Ken-Amun,pl. IX. 38Davies,Ken-Amun,p1.LXV, A. 39Davies,Ken-Amun,pl. XLIV. 40Davies,Ken-Amun,p1.LVII, B. 41Davies,KenAmun, p1.XLIV. 42Davies,Ken-Amun,p1.XLIV. 43Davies,Ken-Amun,Pl. LIV, B. 44Davies,Ken-Amun,pl. LIV, LX. 45Davies,Ken-Amun,p1.XXXVIII, E.


into in king Lands Two hrf `great effect the the putting of confidentof m smnhrdyt m him'. been has enjoinedupon what
In Document XIII, 7mn-m-43t's main role was hm-ntr tpy n 7mn High Priest of Amun and, Imy-r pr n 7mn Steward of Amun. He described himself as r shrr r dr f `the `the the bity land', mnhwy irwy of eyes the n and nswt whole mouth which contents king of Upper Egypt and the ears of the king of Lower Egypt'. He emphasis his king by `confidant the the to of the good god' and phrase, m4-1b n ntr nfr relationship 9m pr-nsw `magnate in the palace'.

In Document XIV, 4' Ti3's47main function was Overseerof the Treasury of II. He also held the title hry-st3n pr-nsw Overseerof the Secretsof the Ramesses King's House, which can be connectedwith the description irwy n nsw rnhwy n, bity `eyesof the King of Upper Egypt and earsof the King of Lower Egypt'. He stresses his relationshipwith the king by describinghimself as 1my-lbn Hr m pr.f `favourite of f9m Hornsin the palace' and wr mnh n ntr nfr `devotedto the perfect god', wr m 13t `prince in his in in his dignity' f `great to addition sr m-hat rjiyt rank and mighty srh 8 first into has divided The leads Martin Ti3's two titles categories. mankind'. who includeshis real executivetitles, denoting offices held by him during his career. The honorific his honours him bestowed titles, comprises category reflecting upon second by the king and laudatory epithets which affirmed his moral status and which often the the as same so-called autobiographicalor self-laudatory texts. phraseology used Martin adds that although it is often difficult to distinguish between these two in from Ti3's they tomb are clearly eachother. set apart categories, `the eyesand the ears of the Starting with the honorific titles Martin discusses king'. If the definition of a title is `an office which is held during a man's professional honorific laudatory definition the the `honours titles of and and epithets are career',

46For later examples:enh-Nr I tomb in Asasif, seeBietak and Reiser-Haslauer,Das Grab des Anch gor, 5; Meeks,AnneeLexicographiqueII, 73; an inscription from TT 128 of Ns-hr-badt, seeVittman, der Sptzeit, 65; also, N p3-k3-! wti had the same epithet see Beamte Theban im Priester und Vittmann, Priester und Beamtentum,155; Meeks, Lexicographique, 73; statue Cairo No (36662); an P3-n-bs Priester from 279) (TT tomb Vittmann, the of und Beamte, 119; Meeks,Annee. inscription see Lexicographique II, 73; see inscription on the statue of Horiraa (Cairo CG 807), Perdu, RdE 48 (1997), 166- "' His namedoesnot appearon any of the various administrative documentsand letters of the period. TI began his career during the reign of Seti I and after his death, RamessesII organized Tia's his Tia Tia, Martin, 53. to and sister. marriage 48Martin, Tia and Tia, 53.


be king' by king', `the the the bestowed to the official then the would ears of eyes and honour epithets bestowed by the king, but still denoting a special office. In other it. job, hidden have had holding would possibly a such epithets would words, the people be watching and hearing what was happening inside the palace or outside the palace, by in by have been the king. it They trusted to the and confided could and reporting "' king. had king. They therefore also accessto the

A text datingto the NineteenthDynasty and referred to as `a letter of adulation (= One is letter health. life, This that `In to cause prosperityand to the pharaoh',reads: informs (eh) One Mery-maat.... knows, king) the you about the condition palace the at in hear (eh). You the of all speeches palace rest your while you country of each brightly have Your the the than of stars shines eye more of ears. millions you countries; it in is if if better the You than a cavern, sun; one speaks,even mouth at seeing are sky. 50 it'. is if it done, is hidden, if to your ear; something even your eye sees penetrates The text stresses the fact that the king `has millions of ears' with which he inside he happened the listen the to palace. rested palace while. outside. what could king', holding `ears Could the the to the whose this of epithet people refer apartments. s' king? informing happened be listening the the to outside and palace what role.would the fact that the king's eye `beamsmore brightly than the starsof The text emphasises happened literally his heaven', so eyes can extend everywhere,visualising what the inside behind his back. Could to the this the the refer actually palace palace and outside king informed function like the to king's messengers was act more spies,who whose inside Could information happened the palace. about what outside and with complete king'? described be `eyes the the as thesemessengers oneswho were of The epithet irwy n nsw mnhwyn bity, appeared with different additional in Nfr-Sijrw Document II VIII, Rr-ms For example, and and respectively statements.
49The reconstruction by Cruz-Uribe of a model for the political structure of Ancient Egypt during the Persianperiod indicates that the people who had a direct relationship with the king were the `privy Cruz-Uribe, in Silverman For his `the king's Ka, 47. Kemp (ed. ), eyes'. and and ears notes council' the king's cars, that during the Persianperiod, the imperial intelligence servicemembers,identified as Ancient Egypt, 333. Kemp, present. always were
so Gardiner, Late-Egyptian Miscellanies, 15-16; Caminos, Late-Egyptian Miscellanies, Assmann, in Hommages drJean Leclant I, 57. 48-49; cf

s' The text-might also allude to the king's divine authority. However, deities were thought. of as having numerousearsand eyes.For examplethe Harris Magical papyrus mentions a form of Khnum in 77 So king 77 text the to the ears and could refer one or another eyes. way as a god who posses with See Edgerton, JNES 6 (1947), 153; Lange, Der magische Papyrus Harris, eyes and ears. numerous BIFAO 73 (1973), 56. 59-60; Wagnerand Quaegebeur,


in land', King their `the to described the wide the alludes which entire of eyes as were information from in the whole their obtaining power or probably authority of ranging land of Egypt. In Document III, H3by has ascribed the epithet `the eyes of the King of Upper and Lower Egypt'. In Document X, Hr-m-hab is referred to as `the eyes of the king throughout the Two Banks (Egypt)', a statement alluding to his controlling the In happening. keeping land Egypt through an eye on what was of affairs of the is `he dais' (ears) has `the Horus the Kn-7mn XI, and the epithets on Document eyes of to in his is These king related the were statements particular palace'. the eyes when in investigating the highlight Kn-7mn's They the around affairs position each other. heard. He he has in king informing the the king and then seen and palace of what dais. his he he king free had to the the sat on reached until place where access probably A high level of confidence and intimacy probably existed between Kn-7mn and the king. His epithet `eyes of the king of Upper Egypt as far as the roads of barbarians" king barbarians in investigating his that the the would so matter about role reflects know how to deal with them.

Obviously all the officials discussedhere held high ranking positions, which duties king. Their to-the them were those of state administrationoutside access gave interest, direct but of royal requiring personalreporting to the palace, administration in land. happening They keeping by king the were whole was eye on what the an is king. There the notable connection with royal projects: therefore associated with building, military, and finance, and the office of Vizier. In two examplesthe officials king in land, described the the a position which could of as confidants whole were allow them to gain other epithets. Epithets such as mryf `his beloved' and hsi n nb.b52`favoured by his lord', basic define, in intended to a very manner,the monument owner's relationship were 53 demonstrating king's high for king the that the as as regard official. well with Referring parts of the king's body to themselves, e.g. eyes,ears, and mouth of the king, indicated their closenessto the royal personage,and the king's trust in

52Janssen,Traditioneele egyptische Autobiografie I, 86.

53Doxey arguesthat the repetition of theseepithetsmost likely dependson the scribe who just copied the inscriptions of the predecessors without changing the context. She notes that epithets appearsto locations, in in her believe this the tombs that they were and same makes and other sequence occur 'conceivedas an integratedgroup of stock phrasesessentialto the Egyptian' self presentation:Doxey, Egyptian Non-RoyalEpithets, 126.


them.,They adopted,, a "certain,level of royal. responsibility. Literally, these people formed 4 bridge have between king in his to, the palace and the people outside seem with provided'the in king happening the the palace,and a '. Wide view of what was show,the administration., of the state defined using, country;as awhole. These titles , metaplhor' Viand as king' a in ofit; demonstrate parts the therefore particular of physical ',-' his facultiesof perceptin'andaction:


4.1.2. People referring to themselves as "stepping freely" in the sacred place Official's private epithets, mentioned in a number of autobiographies, are a source of 54 as well as suggesting information which, suggest general barriers to access, illustrate in Examples this the royal personage one way or another. associations with as follows:

Document I


Monument References

An inscription on the inner wall at his tomb No 8. Newberry,El BershehII, pl. 21 top.
El Bersheh


Middle Kingdom
sd3wty bity smr wnty ck m wstn nn hry tp m shrt sbiw m33shtp ntrw, tmy-r sg m pr-mnh wb3 nf dsrw nb s ikr n wb3 nf lb, hst n 113t n mrr f nb f hry-tp n pr mntywbtm stpw ndmw gpswt, st3 linrwt hr f spd rhrw hmsw hr sbr.f, n 13tn mb f lb im mry nb f m3en st lb f imy-r ipt nsw im3hy 7hy, wstn hr st tat -m33 gibt m dsrw smr wnty . f, sdm mdw m ww, tmy ib n nbf m311 n wn snw.

btm hr hkrt imy-r tpt nsw im3hyThy His mainfunction is imy-r Ipt nsw Overseerof the Royal Apartments.

Document II Monument References

Montuhotep Son of Hapy A limestonestelafrom the FlindersPetrie collection UC 14333 Griffith, PSBA 18 (1896), 195; Stewart, Egyptian Stelae II, no. 86, pl. 18; Caminos,Late-Egyptian Miscellanies, 70; Goedicke, JEA 48 (1962), 25-35.

Date Titles

Middle Kingdom hmw-ntr dd f ink mit rd mdd mtn rdi. n <n f> rprt h3ty-r imy-r
f f nb mrwt ink 113 n [st] t3t tw3 w3h-Ib 9w m nhrhr n k3hs (1) bft wsr mrwt(. i) m ht nt smrw wrw ch hfw im ck hr nb f wrw hr ph f

54Leprohon,JSSEA24 (1997), 77-91.


irw sbht hamr ph bw my hm.(f) Im prr(. 1) Im ib(. i) w39hswt(.O bw hr f nn n b3kfn 33tn mdd(.i) mtn m n nb ir. n [hm].
His main function was h3ty-r local governor fmy-r hmw-ntr `Overseer of the Priests'.

Document III Monument References Provenance

Dhwti His tomb No. 11. Urk IV, 420,16; 426,5,13. Dra Abou el Naga

Date Titles

Hatshepsut-ThutmosisIII. h3ty-r rprt

imy-r prwy hd, imy-r prwy nbw, mh-ib '3 n nb t3wy, rpet h3ty-r m4-lb Hr nb ch, wstn rd m stp-s3

His main function was imy-r prwy-hci and imy-r prwy-nbw Overseerof the Treasury andFinance. Document IV Monuments
References Provenance

Chief Stewardof Hatshepsut-Name destroyed His tomb at TT 73

Urk IV, 456,3-5; 9-10; 456,14 -457,1. Sheikh Abd el Qurna


Reign of Hatshepsut
rpct h3ty-r smr tkn m hew ntr, hry tp n t3 dr.f, mh-ib (3 n nbt3wy......... imy-r kit hr n3 n thnwy m pr-lmn, imy-r pr-wr Hr m mart, wstn nmtt m pr-nsw mh mnhwy

r mdw n nbt t3wyr shrr m8 dr.f, His main function was a Chief Steward and the Overseer of the Works on Great Obelisksof the House of Amun.


Document V

An inscription of a statue of the vizier Amenhotepss now in Museum No. 1068.


Naville, Bubastis 1887-1889, pl. 35 E; HTBM, VIII, p1 11.

Provenance Date

Bubastis Reign of Amenhotep III


On the centreof the dress,in one vertical column. h3ty-c Nhn (iOr(y) mit#w wdbw wsht, rprt
hrw nmtt m st dsrt, imy-r niwt t3ty 7mn-htp

His main function is Vizier.

Document VI

Gardiner, Late-Egyptian Miscellanies, 20,11-12; 21,56; Caminos, Late-Egyptian Miscellanies, 69-73.


33 k3 9t3t, > <hrw> rd <.... st sgr m wslit nmtt m st fw. tw....

(hr) fm [3y-lbw t3wy..., > <.... wnmy sgmw ns n nsw }], [idnw n t-nt-h]tr nswt ktn tpy n [hm. His mainfunction was Deputy of the King's Chariotry. Document VII Monument References Kn-imn His tomb at WesternThebesTT 93 Urk IV, 1391,7-11, Davies,Ken-mutt, LXIII; Cumming, Egyptian Historical RecordsII, 98,99-101. Provenance Date Titles WesternThebes. AmenhotepII hntyt wr wrw srh smrw imy-r 13wt

ss A grey granite statue is representedin the cross-leggedposition, with the hands placed palm downwardson the knees.The text is inscribed on the front of the right shoulder and down the centre in back. dress, the the cartouche the on and also carved of


b(w)hr hr rh rg hst tmy Ir r nfrwt m4-lb n nswt n wn m3r hsw re nb nswt prr

Document VIII



British MuseumStelaNo. 623

Urk IV, 1486,16-1487,2; HTBM, VII, pl 34; Cumming, Egyptian Historical Records II, 173.

Provanance Date

Wadi Halfa Mid EighteenthDynasty

bity, (3 h3ty-r m pr-nswt sd3wty rpnt wr 1nwnw T3 St(i), mh pr-hd m cirm % hr pss r bw hr nswt . Mr-tm hsw imy-r pr n mrw prrw s3 nsw imy-r h3swt rsy Wsr-S3tt

South. Lands Governor Kush is the function Viceroy the His main of of of and

Document IX


Monument References

No. 274. StatueHeidelberg56 Ranke,in MelangesMaspero I, 361-362; BIFA0 81 (1981), 29-31; Helck, Habachi,Supplement Historische-Biographische Texte der 2. Zwischenzeit (48); Feucht, Dynastie, der 18. Texte 37-38 und neue VomNil zum Neckar, 64-65.

provenance Date Titles

Originally from Karnak. Thirteenth Dynasty. rprt h3ty-chry s. t3 m pr-cnh

smi nf hrt t3wy imy-r niwt t3ty

His mainfunction is Overseerof City and Vizier.


56 A grey granite statue with missing head, presenting the vizier as a scribe. He is depicted with is been his The legs lap. favour, roll of statue a papyrus stretching on and commissioned, as a crossed by the king to be madefor the vizier.

196 Discussion

fficials have accessto the s. t3 hidden and dsrw sacred In most of the examples; ; in to the specific administrativeresponsibilities, references palace possible with places 913 king.; The have direct the 'them, to, words relationship with a which would enable as', and s, t3 -are :traditionally; translated,; `secret/s'; 98 is, found. with the meaning. `names, `inaccessible'; `hidden', `concealed'or,, manifestations gods, concerning when , 58 in detail is besides discussed This likes the through the places. and of gods following examples. In DocumentI; 7h3'smain function was as imy-r ipt nsw Overseerof the Royal' He held'two, others Apartments.. titles:;Imy-r sg,m pr-mnhOverseerof Writing in the House of Life, where he is 'definedlas a person to whom all dsrw are opened, and He knowledge be than t`o access. royal the rather one of ritual context seeming where is also hr-tp n'pr, ntyw.Chief of the House ofIncensewhich seemsto be concerned; material f `entering himself described ck for He tw. with as smi. m wsrn nn rituals: with king free being to the ri and private referring access proclaimed', -to strides without 59 free `having hr l. bt dsrw to It3t the access st also m33 m palace, and wstn of parts in dance hidden the sacredplaces', which might refer to a ritual the the place, seeing function, but perhapsis more likely referring to royal entertainmentsuch as that by brought in dancing dwarf Hr-bwPepi II to the the to of see enthusiasm referred f6o 7h3is alsothe one who `introducesthe bnrt women', who seemto havehad a role " , hears `one die' dancing In 'entertainment., vaddition' ! who and was sdm mdw.m ww of (people) in hmsw hr f, `one 'hcw stand shr under whose counsel speech privacy' and lord'. down'. f is his `the in heart imy lb He the one who was n nb of up and sit His biography highlights his, access,with ,no :restrictions,.inside the palace . in it his has free He the that access seems private places and main apartments. function, of imy-r ipt nsw, can be characterised as him having responsibility for the including inside the palace, rituals, entertainmentand royal ceremonies. organisation

57Rydstrm,DE 28 (1994), 56-57. 58Cf. slt3w n pr 7mn`what is concealed/inaccessible/secret in the temple of Amun'. SeeGaballa,JEA 63 (1977), 122-126;Hoffmeier, Sacredin the VocabularyofAncient Egypt, 180. 59 For later examples for the expression rb Jt3w m srw ? ht see Jansen-Winkeln, gyptische Biographien der 22. und 23. Dynastie, 396,4.3.33 and for the epithet rb Jt3w m stp-s3 ibid., 318, 1.1.13and 1.1.14. 60UrkI, 128,1-130,15. 61Reiser,Der knigliche Harim, 12; cf. Roth, JEA 78 (1992), 140-144.


This gives him more freedom in moving inside the palace, even in the sacred places, both his free He to wb3 nf stresses approach, as one whom which require privacy. hearts, lb These places, and nf are opened. wb3 phrases seem to raise a cisrw sacred him, between to the the opening of sacred places which probably needs comparison how king's heart him, the the to trust, opening of and which stresses confidence and in by king. Since he Life, Overseer House he the the the of was of was confided much he had acquired a high level of education, and this enabled him to be responsible for functionary, He ceremonials. essentially a and the extent and royal was palace rituals his for work. of accesswas necessary In Document II, Montuhotep son of Hapy's main function was h3ty-r imy-r hmw ntr Nomarch and Overseer of Priests: a provincial governor. He asserts that in bodies ht hfw `love f) ch im the of me was of the courtiers and mrwt(. m nt smrw wrw ones of the palace and the one enthroned there', giving an indication that he was great known inside f he hr ck He the that wrw was well palace. nb. who added was someone hr phf `one who entered the presence of his lord with the great ones behind him', an

high head his him be to to the of the great ranking position, enabled which at allusion king's Doxey the audience. argues that such epithets stress an official's entering ones 62 indicates his him. It He that to peers. also among others were obedient stature ham (i) bw low irw hm. bowing (t) doorkeepers Im `the that sbht r ph. my were stressed (His) hswt I Majesty lb He im the that place where m reach w39 was'. added prr until hr n bw-nb ir. n [Hm]. f sw n b3kfn 3tn mdd(. i) mtn `whenever I went out from there heart favour did in face His Majesty the was exalted, and my was my of everybody. these things for his servant on account of my obedience'. He is also described as mit rdwy mdd mtn rdi. n <nf> nbf mrwt.f `steadfast and obedient, one <to whom> his

lord63 gave his love'. He distinguishes himself by ntk 33n [st] . tat `I was a great one of the privy chamber'. This is an allusion to his high ranking position in being among those who were responsible for such private places. It also indicates a close between king his the and official, relationship by high level of surrounded a

illustrates The scene whole a man who has a high position, great ones understanding. follow him to enter to the king, who is probably enthroned in his audience chamber,

62Doxey,Egyptian Non-RoyalEpithets, 169. 63nb means`lord', `master' or `owner'. Wb. II, 227-228; CDME, 128. In biographical texts nb.i often as a synonymfor the king; cf. Goedicke,JEA 48 (1962), 25-35. understood


he for him bow low he doorkeepers the the the of until reaches place enters, and as king. He stressesthat his role was as the king's trusted administrator of the Armant Nome. He emphasisesboth his loyalty: meid mtn `One who-trends the path of, and his is His manner of access own personal ability and political authority as governor. honorific, marking his personal and political importance. In Document III, Dhwti `s main function was as fmy-r prwy-hd Overseer of the

Two Houses of Silver, that is Overseer of the Treasury, and imy-r prwy-nbw Overseerof the Two Houses of Gold, titles which define his control of precious His the government. state official of central and resources as a materials in he list for largely of royal projects, was charge of a which autobiographyconsists he formula dd l fry iw tr. t In the tp-rd the s. m. n. craftsmen. suchsections repeats r of hmww r in litf kit `I acted as chief mouth, who gives instructions (tp-rd), and I 64 described He to to the the once as m4craftsmen work'. act according was guided 1b33n nb t3wy `great confident of the lord of the Two Landsi65 and once as mh-ib n `confident of Horus the lord of the palace'. He also describedhimself as Hr nb 114 his foot in `free Possibly the the of moving stp-s3',probably palace. wstn rd m stp-s3, Overseer Gold him House Treasury to move unrestrictedly and allowed as of career insidethe palaceas a financial officer, but it is more likely that the range and variety king for brought him into he the controlled regular contact with of royal projects in instructions, his indicates interest king the the and access of and personal reports thoseprojects. In Document IV, the Chief Steward of Hatshepsutwas also the fmy-r pr-wr Overseerof the Great-House,a function that may be classedas the administrationof king, the. the `privy purse'66 concerningfinancesand the property of the palace.He of was also imy-r kit hr n3 n thnwy n pr 7mn Overseerof the Works of the Obelisksof the House of Amun. He describeshimself as mh rnhwt Hr m malt `one who fills the earsof Horus with truth', and wstn nmtt m pr-nsw `steppingfreely inside the palace'. It is highly likely that he carried out more than onejob either inside or outside of the held high He ranking position which allowed him to step unhinderedinside a palace.
64Urk IV, 420,17; 421,8; 421,17; 422,7; 422,15; 423,7; 423,15; 424,7; 424,15; 425,6; 425,14; 426,6; 426,14; 427,4; 427,13. 65Urk IV, 426,5. 66Cf. Bleiberg,JARCE 21 (1984), 155.


his functions in doubt barriers, connection which were essentially with the palace no house, finances the the the of the and royal projects of royal those of administering queen.

In Document V, 7mn-htp's main function was Imy-r niwt t3ty Overseerof the in himself dsrt `happy hrw describes He Vizier. City and of step the as nmtt m st duties Duties Vizier, basis the On the the the the vizier of of one of of place'. sacred him for been it have king, to step to the to necessary means which would report was in the sacredplaceswherethe king was. In DocumentVI, the scribe'smaster'smain duty was idnw n try nt htry Deputy `of described his He Chariotry. ft3w King's wide stride accessas wsbt rdwy m of the in the secretplace'. He stressedhis ability to approach,which probably reflects his in freely to the the alluding sacred place, presumably stepping about confidence king's himself `the that tongue ' He to t3wy show as ns nsw smw m referred palace. description highlights his in Lands', Two the a role as an envoy of the which the way direct contact king who gave the king's orders to others, which presumablystresses king. The behalf for king the the of necessary someonespeakingon which seems with. implication is that he would have performed a role as a close military advisor of the king. In DocumentVII,, in addition to Kn-7mn's other titles which we have dealt with before there is an emphasis on the fact that he has accessto the palaceup to the the literally `sacred his He king the relationship with places'. stresses was, place where the king by the phraseswr wrw `great one of great ones', schw smrw `dignitary hntyt Superintendent Departments, fmy-r rt Foremost the courtiers' and of all among king in description `true truth'. the the of of n nsw n confidant mh-fb m3et adding In Document VIII, Wsr-S3tt'smain function was Viceroy of Kush and fmy-r h3swtrsyt Overseerof the Foreign Lands of the South. He describedhimself as r3 n ir_ inw in from land Palace, Sty `great Magnate T3 the tribute the of wr nw pr-nsw bw br Nubia', and nk hr Spss r nsw `Who enters,carrying riches, to the place where 67 his face-to-face is', king king. the relationshipto the which stress
67In the bigrphyof Tti, he says:di. n f wl m st hrt ib fm `6f n wKw `He took me into his confidence in his palace of privacy'. Blackman suggested that 'the palace of privacy' must have been a holy issues, discussed king the confidential probably with a trusted person. Blackman, where apartment JEA 17 (1931), 55-61, pl. VIII; HTBM I, pls. 49f; Budge, Egyptian Sculpturesin the British Museum, 19,46-49. Autobiographies, Lichtheim, VIII; no. pl.


In Document IX, 7i-mrw has the usual titles imy-r niwt thy Overseerof the
City and Vizier, which was his main function. More important are the epithets given Lands Two `the the hrt the are to him: affairs of t3wy whom that of smi n .f one to in is `one is his the He to privacy as who referred position. stresses which reported', in House Secrets Master the king' hry-sgt3 of of the the and m pr-mnh68 of palace of Life. The dignitary, who was incharge of this, the `head of security' so to speak, may 69 directly he high Therefore, integrity been connected have was rank. and a person of intimate had king by the delicate and tasks performed subjects who worked near with who had him the king. His titles the as a person the show person of contact with

king's confidenceaswell asthe capacityfor keeping secrets. A text is inscribed on a statue of Snn-mwt a vizier from the reign of
his behalf functions Snn-mwt's The titles of on Hatshepsut. text mentions many and he `to in dsrw ch how the line he of In part sacred tells ushered r was six sovereign. 70 Imy-r in lmn-htp, the dsrw denoting the pr. the that palace. the palace', was a place did The how he text Memphis III the Amenhotep Steward High same. relates at of wr (even) f `I Hr dsrw %. to'the 1 ch while palace entered ti sw m m pr pn r m33 r reads: 71 in in Eighteenth his'. in house Later the dsrw Horus he was this the to see of Dynasty Dhwti-ms, a vizier mentions a parallel declares himself rprt h3ty-r <k hr dsrw in W. L. P. dsrw `the the r. the palace prince and governor who enters at m stp-s3 w.s72 A reasonable interpretation for the term dsr would be room/hall or section of the have been therefore throne called the apart set room, which might palace probably, dsr. The people who claim to be entering into the dsr(w) are of high rank. Their high between They steward. were therefore a special class of and vary vizier positions honour. have been The for have them a great must access, which people who could had by declaring that they access position of people who claimed extra social status to secret and confidential matters varied: they include a steward of the royal apartments, a provincial magnate, an overseer of the treasury controlling craft

' From the Fourth Dynasty onwards hry st3becamea title attached to the royal court and court administration:Rystrm,DE 28 (1994), 63. 69During the reign of Senwosret 1, the prince Mntw-htp held the office fry sit? n pr-enib`he who is in held by life': Gardiner, JEA 24,160. For Mry-lb-Rc in House the title thethe same of secrets of charge cf. Cairo CG 20457. 70Hoffmeier,Sacredin the VocabularyofAncient Egypt, 180. 71Urk IV, 1794,14. 72Urk IV, 1913,13.

They high finances, official. a man of military production;, a controller of royal direct functionaries. Most full them contact of require of official range representa inside have been have for king, the to they, the allowed access would which with described `confident Some the themselves them of a of. as restriction: without palace one : i'o: who king, fills the ears of Horus with truth', `the `the king', tongue!of 1the ' descriptionswhich reinfrce the fact that they,could approachthe king and deal with . him, probably at personallevel sincethey also have accessto the sacredplaces,free king indicates degree level'of Their the that the access of personalcontrol of strides. high It his knowledge his had over government,, officials. gives an personal of and with power and wealth; but implication that he :was :not isolated;'purely ,concerned'. happening in his of was country. aware what greatly was actually had inside if free The questionarises, the sacredplacesof these people access , access have had inner, to the they., the palace,,, also part of the palacewhere the would ,. king'and the royal family,lived?.StephenQuirke, in his study,of PapyrusBoulaq 18,73 inners in the the the company of the royal' that, of palace, who were, people argued , family, were mentionedin five lists in that text: -(S1,11,18,38 and 72). They include h3yt, following rt,. Sm", titles: the those with rb-nswt, official smsw r nhn, wr mctw
imy-r'hnwty n kip, Imy-r st, try-smyw (?), sl n linrt -wr and sh wr n sdm Inr (?). He holders h3yt declared rt74, (me that the title were those r nhn, wr and mdw smsw also first, family., had inner This the particularly close contact with royal group who of an

functionaries., belong thatUfor, the titles to most partevidently, palace group consistsof In cases suchasr nhn and wr mdw . mr, however, there is no obvious palacefunction, likely be honorific, He to titles the titles. seem more ranking, courtier's argues and that a, second'group, which includes those with the title rb-nswt and imy-r 'hnwty but belong did to this not enjoy the sameconsistency sector of attachment-tothe also family. royal Those with the title imy-r rhnwty, were more likely to have been attached in family. In fact, the Wb translated the the or another, with royal personally a way


7; Quirke, TheAdministration of Egypt in the Late Middle Kingdom, 87- 90. 74Reisner argued that the title et might be a local abbreviation of try-rt Keeper of the Chamber. Simpson,P.ReisnerIV, 34. Ward supplied a full form of the regular title try-It n kip Keeper of the Chamber,of the Inner Palace.Ward, Index, No. 493. Quirke arguesthat since servantsoften had their master'sname,it is more likely thereforeto acceptthat each member of the royal family has his own Quirke, Administration Egypt, 90. of servant:


`Cabinet' the rhnwty the to to of as referring a part of palace part either or word is (Wb It I, 226,16). the compound of probably a word consisting administration In bnwty `inner' `interior'. `part' hnw `region' connected with and an adjective word belonging Overseer Palace, CG 2057 175 to the the the owner of the stela, of a stela his his in `known King's House, to truth to the text the raise place who caused reads: lord, reporting to him the state of the Two Lands'.

Also, a number of officials' epithets and phrasesindicate their accessto the inner palace area or even to the king himself. These phraseshighlight unhindered 76 into inner follows: hnw-9h `one f', 'It the the entered section of as r who access 77 (whose) in ?] `one Fh ''h linty st m placewas advanced the palace', [linty st m] pr 79 in lord's house', his `foremost f of place sn nb weyw `man of the private
80 in linty `foremost st m pr-f3 of place the palace. apartments'79and

Other phrases alludeto a specialrelationshipbetweenthe king and his officials, in which they are allowed free access as follows: rk hr nbf m ww `one who entered before his lord all alone',8' mdw hnr nbfm ww `one who spoke with his lord in 83 82 in king `one privacy', smr tkn n who reported to the private', smi n nsw m wr'wt nb ems f `one fr `a ity the could companionwho approach sovereign's' and nmiwt 8S his lord journeys'. his on who accompanied Regardingthe previous examples,I assumethat such title holders might have had free accessand untied movementto the innermost places in the palace, which is degree There them to their enabled accomplish of a certain work. possibly depended how by to the trusted the royal personage, which on person was closeness the king, andthe type the job demanded.

's Blumenthal, Untersuchungen zum gyptischen Knigtum, G 7.28. 76Janssen,Traditioneele egyptische Autobiografie, 110 13.

77Urk IV, 1072,12. 78Couyatand Montet, Ouddi Hammmt, 113. 79CG 20539Abydos. 80 Montet, Kemi 6 (1936), 140.
81Janssen,Traditiorieele egyptische Autobiografie, 110 20; Urk IV, 1430,9. S2Janssen,Traditioneele egyptischeAutobiografie, II Bb 3.

83Fischer,JNES 19 (1960), 267, note (z). 84Urk IV, 118,12. 85CG 20538Abydos


4.1.3 Approach ability to the royalty It can be accepted that if a person had accessto the sacred places, he could also have had the ability to come near his lord. There are several examples where people

lord', follows: being `able describe to their themselves comenear as as

Document I Monuments References Hrw. f TT 192 The Epigraphic Survey, Tomb of Kheruef, pls. 8,64,65; Davies, Egyptian Historical Records V, 39.

Date Titles

New Kingdom (AmenhotepIV) Titles of Hrw.f on the door-postsof the entrance:

rprt h3ty-r s9 nsw, imy-r pr n hmt nswt wrt Ty, m6-1b n nb t3wy, hat nyt hrp ch .

f, hr(w) nmtt m pr-nsw, mnh ib n rprt h3ty-rsmr wrty, tkn m nb.

From the ceiling inscription:
h3ty-r f, %r dh tkn smr wrty, m rpet nb. pr hr hswt, hr. tw hr prw n rf whm- nsw tp(y), tmy-r pr n hmt nsw wrt m pr 7mn, Hr hry-s. h3ty-r imy-lb t3 n pr-nsw, wpn nf rprt mdw m wwt ibf

His mainfunction is Overseerof the House of the Great Royal Wife Ty.

Document II Monuments

Nfr-Shrw The Tomb of Nfr-Shrw No. 107.

Helck, MIO 4 (1956), 13,15; Records V, 43. Davies, Egyptian Historical

Provanance Date

West Thebes New Kingdom

iry-wcibw wsht, rprt h3ty-r m pr-wr, sd3wty bity tpy smr wrty hn. n Hr m hnw "h.f, iry rdwy ity m pr. f, rpet h3ty-r, smr tkn ck hr "h, mit hpw m ski


His main function is iry-wdbw wsht. Document III Monument References

Royal Tutor, name not preserved Inscription from the TT 226 Habachi, in Helck (ed.), Festschrift fair Siegfried Schott zu seinem 70. Geburtstag Am 20. August 1967,65; Urk IV, 1877-1879; Davies, Egyptian Historical Records V, 41.


reign of Amenhotep III


imy-r kit nbt nt nsw, t3y-bw hr wnmyt nswt

h3ty-rsmr rpet wnty, tkn nb f, Irwy n nsw rnhwy n bity Imy-r pr n nsw, Imy-r mnet n s3 nsw, s nsw m3c hs mrw m-bah 4Mf tkn st...., Irwy n nswt f, % jr nfrwt r bw Or nsw pr hs re-nb imy-r pr n hm. , dd. tw nf ntt m ib, imy-rpr n hwt 7mn Mn-bpr-R' fry-C3n 7mn nb-nswt-t3wy, sb3 n hm f ds f

His-mainfunction is Overseerof all Works of the King.

Document IV Monument
References Date Titles

Nn-m-hat called Surer British Museumstelae, No. 123

HTBM, VII, p142; Davies, Egyptian Historical Records V, 50. Amenhotep III rprt iry-wclbw wsht, rprt h3ty smr wety, tkn m nb f try rdwy n nb t3wy, s nsw, hry-tp nsw

His mainfunction is imy-r try wcibwwsht.

Document V Monument References Provenance Date lmn-htp Inscription on his tomb. Urk IV, 1213,15-1214,4. Sheikh Abd el Qurnah Reign of Thutmosis III



bitt' hrw bity hme 63ty-r it tkn ntr nswt m ntr mry sd3wty rprt rwy hr m st nbt, n nsw mnb mh-ib nf sr3. n nswt smnh
2 bity hm-ntr 7mn 7wnw-. nw n mrw sci3wty m

His main function is The Second Priest of Amun.

Document VI Monument References Date Titles

73mwncih Inscription on his tomb TT 84. Urk IV, 956,14- 962,12; Virey, RT 7 (1885), 32-46. Reign of Thutmosis III. hsy zirp k3wt h3ty-r lb t3wy, n ntr nsw nbt nt mh mnh n nb rprt nfr mh Ib (3 n nb t3wy, imy-r tp rwty whm nsw gms nsw hr h3swt nbt, f, "h f Imy lb f 13wt (3 m st nb. m schw. sr m-hat rijyt, wr m hrrwt nsw hr Irwt.f,

bity, rnbwy hrw Irwy lb t3wy, tkn n nsw smr m ntr wr mnh n nb smr wrty tkn m nbf,
r. nb wnwt m pr-nsw w.s., !my lb n Hr m pr f, % hr nfrwt pr hsyw ntswi tnwnwt,

hap hr brt Hr mnhwy m mart, r nsw, mh fry lb rdwyf mnh n nsw mh His mainfunction was the First Herald of the King.

Document VII Monument and References


Urk IV, 983,17 -984,12 (first inscription); Urk IV, 985,6 -10 (an inscription of Nhy in a temple in Wadi Haifa). Time of ThutmosisIII rprt h3ty-r sd3wtybity smr wnty, mh !bn nsw hr wpn t3, hn m b3k h"w ity, rn 36 n nbf mh prf m nbw, rdl tkn m ntr smr m nsw

Date Titles


hd hr n.... b3k nw h3strsy, pr hsw m bah nrb f s3 nsw lmy-r .fm h3swtrsw Nhy

His mainfunction is Viceroy of Nubia.


Document VIII, ,; Nameunknown . .. An inscription in his tomb south the tomb of Sn-mwt. Monument .!
References Urk IV, 455,9 - 457, L

Date Titles

SheikhAbd ei Qurnah;
` Time of queen,Hatshepsut. ' . ,. ' rprt h3ty-I*`snirtkn m hrw ntr hr tp n t3 dr.f mh lb 13n nbt t3wy hsy,n;ntnnfr;. lmy-r k3wt hr n3 n thnwy_wr"m pr 7mn fmy-r pr wr , .

lb kn 4. dd'm Ir-`m f; tr. cwy 3ht ' ;rf n" nsw, m-hat mh n nsw; n::: : ! " , , ,. [rhyt];... ', m -mh.mnhwy'Hr. m.,mart; wstn nmtt m pr-nsw ': w.s:,"r mdw n nbt t3wyr shrr m t3 r dr f of the 'Work of the Two Great,Obelisksin the His main function ,is.The, Overseenr , Houseof Amun.

Document IX '

P.wImRf . .

Monument Mut References


An inscription on his black granite statuefound in the temple of Museum in Karnak, Cairo Cairo no. 910. at now Urk IV, 520,15 - 522,10.
63ty-e rprt . r. shrr, m t3 r dr.f mh lb n nsw m kit nbt, nlsw hr sp mnh sd3wty bity hm-ntr 2 nw n 7mn PwlmRr,

imy-r lhw, lmy-r 3hwtn 7mn schikry tkn m b3h`i' His mainfunction is as SecondPriest of Amun.

207 Discussion Great is hmt-nswt The Steward duty imy-rpr 's the f I, Hrw. Document of In as main Royal Wife Ty. He was also the imy-r htmw nw pr-nsw Overseer of the Treasurer of is btmw he Overseer the Scribe. But Royal the House of King's of also the and s nsw Vizier, in Duties is the the the House of King's passage reminiscent of a title that being btmw time. the htm86 the Imy-r right at closed the opened or on reports where He is also `controller of the c4-palace" and whm-nsw tp(y) First Royal Herald, a job 87 King, Great Herald the 7n-tf and of that who was whm-c3 n nsw of which resembles it is in `public `public duty relations', and charge of orator' was as a whose main highly likely was also a part of Hrw.f s job.

He describeshimself as hry-s6 n pr-nsw `who is over the secrets of the hat lord Two Lands', gnyt `confidant the the and t3wy of of palace', mh-ib n nb f `who has accessto his lord' or `dignitary at the head of the courtiers', tkn m nb. `who can approachhis lord', hr nmtt m pr-nswt `one free of stride in the palace', r favours', imyw-ib, rh pr hr hswt `who enters the palace and comes out possessing in favourite f f `the Hr ib to whom and who speaks confidentiality wp n. m wwt mdw Horus openedhis heart'. Hrw.f was clearly an important man who was in charge of is but he he has Ty. Not house to the the palace, the only access of great royal wife his According head to the the the palace. of other courtiers within also a chief and him description he had the chanceto that titles and gave acquired a great position have his lord. have He king the the trust could confidence and of and approach his intermediary between king his the titles subjects, since one of a role as and played his Royal Herald, First therefore entering and exiting was also unhinderedand was unrestricted. In Document II, Nfr-Sbrw's main function was iry-wdbw wslit, a title, which Gardinerargued,would be `closelybound up with the notion of feastingand with the 88 defined function for feasting'. He iry-wcibw the the of generally as `Maitre supplies d'Hotel'. He then argued that the title might refer to the servant who changedthe the interpretation based his He from of menu. courses upon pictorial evidence various
86Van den Boom, Duties of the Vizier, R6- 8. 87Urk IV, 967,6. 88Gardiner,JEA 24 (1938), 85; Junker, Giza 1165; for wdb see Fischer, MDAIK 47 (1991), 127Other officials claimed the sametitle as the Vizier Tmn-htp,BM no. 1068 seeHTBM, VIII, pl. 11 133. 123 BM HTBM, VII, Nn-m-hat 42. (Surer), called no. see pl and


'approaches hnw 1'hf `who Horus himself Hr described tin Nfr-Shrw tombs. as m n inside his palace' and Iry-rdwy ity m pr.f `one at the feet of the sovereign in his house'. Considering Gardiner's opinion, and his description, Nfr-Shrw's position highlights his closeness to the king, not only in one place but also when the king king's he he be feet the the strides. at palace, as whenever will about within moves He also described himself as `a friend who approaches and enters the palace and one duty dimension his laws', than to adds, one relationship a which more maintains who king. the the and palace with

In Document III, the royal Tutor's main functions were Imy-r kit nbt nt nsw
Overseer of all Works of the King and imy-r mnrt n s3 nsw Chief Nurse of the King's Son and imy-r pr n Mn-hpr-Rr 7mn Steward of Amun's Temple of Menkheperre, ' Two Doorkeeper Amun 7mn Lord Thrones fry-33 the the t3wy of of of n nb nswt and Land. He described himself as sb3 n hmf dsf `Pupil of his Majesty himself and tkn n beloved his lord' hmf hs `favourite `one of and and who can approach mrw m nbf His Majesty'. He was one who was close to the king and his duty demanded working both inside and outside the palace.

In Document IV, lmn-m-h3t's role was as iry-wdbw. He describedhimself as tkn m nbf `who can come near his lord' and fry-rdwy n nb t3wy `who is at the feet of in king his lord Two Lands'. Both the the titles the point out real associationwith of jobs from king. his He to the the the needapproach ensures closeness which eachof king by committing himself to the king's feet when he moved about. One of his jobs would requirephysicalcontactwith the king regardinghis clothes. In Document V, 7mn-htp's main duty was as Second Priest of Amun. He describedhimself as it ntr mry sd3wtybity m hrw ntr `beloved god's father, Sealbearerwith the divine body'. He is also tkn bity `one who can approachthe King of hr f `one Lower Egypt', sr3. nsw smnb n n. whom the king promoted becausehe was beneficentto him'. He was also, mh-ib mnli m st nbt `confident and trusty in every he Consequently his played role as irwy nsw m 7wnw-lmrw `eyesof the king place'. in Thebes'.7mn-htp'sreligious duty, as SecondPriest of Amun, connectedhim with the gods as well as connectinghim with the king. His religious authority enabledhim to be nearthe king and also watch what was happeningin Thebes.


The inscription of 73mwndhis of special interest. He is a high rank official,

his in inside to the duty palace, addition or outside was carried out either whose king. him the had a man with a special relationship with made personal qualities that Inside the palace his main duty was whm tp nsw First Herald of the King. He inside is f `who the ch himself the imy-lb trusted describes of place nb. m st as also Controller is k3wt he hrp the lord'. his Outside of all the nbt nt nsw palace, palace of in king follows `one hr 63swt the King ums all the Works of the who nb and nsw foreign lands'. His description implies his role in liaising between the inside and the indicating Gates is Overseer duties imy-r his the One of asl rwty89 of outside world. his engagement in controlling the entering and exiting, probably of the palace gates. He referred to himself as Irwy nsw mnhwyn bity `eyes of the king of Upper Egypt, fills `who enhwy Hr the king Egypt', Lower ears the m m3ct also as and mh of of ears listen keep duty to His to things, then, Horus truth'. what was an on was eye with of happening, and to inform the king of it. He is also nb wnwt m pr-nsw Time-Keeper90 in the King's House, as which he was presumably in charge of watching the time. .

It seemsthat his personalqualities allowed him to be highly connectedto the `confident king. He -describeshimself as mh-ib mnh and mh-tb 113 t3wy and n nb f 13wt lord Two Lands', 113 the the m sCV of and wr m of confident great and efficient `one great in his office, great in his rank'. This is one of the most common formulaic 91 It to references a person's position among peers and official responsibilities. he how in duty, to the other words, official's real administrative probably refers 92Janssen half in living. his the that the second of the observes preposition m earned instrumental in how be the official great as explaining understood can phrase 93 forefront be 'official hat-rhyt the became 73mwndh to of the of sr m also claimed his the that subordinatesand official's control over expresses commoners',a phrase 94 leaders is in inscriptions by local is found frequently He also commissioned which imy-ib n Hr m prf `favourite of Horus in his house'. Giving these reasons he

89Seediscussion of van den Boom, JNES 44 (1985), 5-10. 90For this title seeDaoud,JEA 79 (1993), 261-265. 91This epithet occurredon inscriptions on tombs, votive stelae, and expedition texts. For the list of Autobiografie I, 15-16. Janssen, Traditioneele egyptische see examples, 91Quirke definesthe 3t as a position for which paymentwas received. SeeQuirke, in Der Manuelian (ed.) Studies SimpsonII, 671.
93Janssen,Traditioneele egyptische Autobiografie II, 20-21. 94Doxey, Egyptian Non-Royal Epithets, 193-195.


h"w by king, his the the tkn m and statements smr close relationship with explained ntr and smr tkn n nbf `companion who can approach the divine body', and

`companion who can approach his lord'. The interaction is greatly described, where he supplies the king with information on what is happening and in return he is is in hrrwt hr irwtf described This two statements: nsw praised. `who contents the

king with what he does', and % hr nfrwt pr hsyw `one who enters carrying goods and favourite favours'. description His trusty, of a and as confidant comes out possessing the king are all qualities, which caused him to have a strong relationship with the king.

In Document VII, Nhy's main duty is as Viceroy of Nubia. He described f `a servant himself as "n m hew ntr `pleasingof the divine body' and b3k 3h n nb. beneficialto his lord'. He is mh pr.f m nbw `one who fills his house with gold', is his He Overseer Countries. King's Foreign the also of position as connectedwith These Lands'. `confident lord Two the the t3wy and efficient of of mh-lb mnh n nb his him `a ity smr tkn m companion who can approach personal qualities made in is by `kissing This the the t3 ground statementsn n ntr nfr reinforced sovereign'. front of the Good God', indicatinghis ability to physicallyapproachthe king. In Document VIII, the official's main duty is as Overseerof the Work of the Two Great Obelisksin the House of Amun. He describedhimself as mh-Ib 113 n nbt is by `great Two Lands', My `one the t3wy confident of all who praised and n ntr nfr the good god'. Also he adoptedthe description of kn n nsw `an official brave of the king'. The statementdd mr it m rwyfy `one who sayswith his mouth and makes .f his is indication his his fitting of arms' an practical close connection personality with king. is implied by `one This the the sentences; who travel wstn pr-nw with nmtt m freely in the king's house', and mh mnhwy Hr m m3et`one who fills the ears of Horus with truth' probably to accomplishhis duty in informing the king personally with is happening. him This made smr tkn m h1wntr hr-tp n t3 dr.f `companionwho what body, divine the chief of the whole land'. can approach In DocumentIX, PwimRr's relationshipwith the king is highlightedthrough his duty Second Priest of Amun. He describeshimself as mh-Ib n nsw m The as religious kit nbt `confidentof the king in all the works'. Probably through his work he is r shrr


is land'. He `an #kr ` drf the t3 srh mouth who contents whole excellentofficial', m r in which he tkn m bahk'whocan approachthe presence'of the king. in king lists There are phrases the these that the stress way spoke which -in,
function fs `Steward Hrw For the of main and confidentially' example was personally ,, Great' Royal Wife ,Ty': 'He'claimedlthe epithet, imy-ib mdw m wwt wp n Hr lb .f .f `Favourite who speaks in confidence, to ,whom Horus opened his heart'. In practice, , kind intimate king implies between ; the a of, special relationship epithet an such -. ,, , enabled' ; the ' royal -personage to speak, privately and towards his official, which ; secretly.

One of the, epithets,that;.is continually, repeated; is, the epithet- mnb. In , 'Nhy are describedas m4-lb mnh `confident and DocumentVI and VII; 73mwndh' and, , 95 he is in described Abydene Shtp-lb-Rc, the as mnh m st also stela of and efficient', in his Abydenestela cht'efficient in the place of the palace', while.Wpw3w3t-c3,96claim , mnh is is because he is be ff hab `one The to sent, mnb n. who. efficient'. word . . 97 'efficient'. it, `effective'., defines Lloyd 'mnb translated or, saying and conventionally

its cognates that a person, conveythe idea of `efficiency'in the sense or thing to
be it is is it in divine for him to the the applied playing role appointed stated or which 98Therefore, it describesthe skills as well as particular attributes of the plan (m3ct)'. owner.

95CG 20538 96For more examplesseeDoxey, Egyptian Non-royal Epithets, 44-46. 97"II, 84-86; CDME, 109; Janssen, TraditioneeleegyptischeAutobiografie II, 35. 98Lloyd, JEA 61(1975), 57, n. 18.


4.1.4. The king's acquaintance

Wo translated the term (title) rh-nsw as The King's Faulkner and '01 its but it is is The Acquaintance. title a conventionalranking title, worth examining its implications biographies in the to texts meaning. of consider and use a seriesof

Document I

7mn-m-h3t (Amen)

Monument References Provenance

Date Titles

Tomb No 2. BH I, 2 Beni Hasan

Twelfth Dynasty bity, 43ty-r smr wety sdwty rpet

m gme rh nsw, rh nsw mar,rh nsw m3C hr tp r3 n Mahd, im-is, iri Nhn, hry-tp Nhb His main function was Governor of the Oryx Nome.

Document II Monument References Provenance

Hr-lb Her husband's tomb no 23. BH II, 27, p124 Beni Hasan

Her husband's Titles

The Twelfth Dynasty

imy-r smt i3btt, imy-r hm-ntr n Hr hwi rhyt

Her Titles

hm-ntr Ht-Hr m rryt m swt.s nbt, nbt-pr, rustnswt

Document III


99CDME, 152. 100It is not yet agreedwhether rh nswt is a title or an epithet. Helck, Beamtentiteln,26- 28. 'o' The verb rb means `know' or `recognise'. CDME, 151; Wb. II, 442. Lichtheim took it to mean `knowledge' in the general senseof learning, understanding,competenceand skill. See Lichtheim, Shupak indicated that `Knowledge' in Egyptian epithets can refer to skill in Moral Values, -3-4. be be knowledge The to could extended reading meaning of correct behaviour and writing. speaking, knowledge She knowledge future. is usedto describea king, it could that the also argued since of and be more likely to link the official in someway to the king: Shupak, WhereCan WisdomBe Found?, 218-219.


Monument References Provenance Date Titles

Tomb no 3. BH I, 41. Beni Hasan Twelfth Dynasty bity, h3ty-r, smr wCty scl3wty rprt rh nsw, rb nsw m3c 43ty-c m Mnrt Hwfw, 43ty-c m pr-wr hry-tp Nhb, sm hrp . ndt nbt

Document IV


References Provenance Titles

His tomb chapel(D, No 2).

Blackman, The Rock Tombs of Meir, IV, 2. Meir lift hr imy-r. r imy h3ty-r, s nsw nwty, rpet -is (m hwt hry-tp bpr. wrt) nsw edit, sm

fry st3n wdt mdw nbt nt nsw imy-ib n nsw m stf nbt, rh-nsw

Document V Monument References

lntf-ikr from Aswan. A stela102 Fakhry, Theinscriptions of the AmethystQuarries at Wadi el Hudi, 1952,No 16, fig. 28; Sadek, AmethystMining Inscriptions, 37.


Reign of SenwosretIII
rh nsw mal' mry fn lb-st f

mit tbw hr nmtwt w34-ib, mnb tsw nb gfyt

hrw i3g,sawn hd hnenbw btm r km3. t(w) m st hmwt, 1my-rdhnwty7ntf-ikr

102 A rose-granitestelaewhich was given to the Antiquities department by the commandant of the frontiers Administration at Aswan.


Document VI
Monument References

from Aswan. A Stela103 Fakhry, Wadi el Hudi, No. 18, pl XV; Sadek, Amethyst Mining Inscriptions, 40- 41.

Date Titles

Reign of Senwosret III (?) f f, hsst f Ir rh nsw mar n st-lb. mrr. nbt rc nb S ms nb.f r nmtwt.f nbt re nb b3k mdd w3wt nt smnh sw

f f..... hnty 43tyw i3t. Htp shnt n nb

103 A badly damaged, stelae. re-usedsandstone

215 Discussion In Document I, 7mn-m-h3t's main function was Governor of the Oryx Nome, the Sixteenth Nome of Upper Egypt. He held the titles hr tp C3n MahdGreat Chief of the Oryx Nome. He also acquired the titles iml-is He who is in the Chamber, a title which City Nekhen belongs his He irl-Nhn to the and the of to who access palace, reflects hry-tp Nhb Master of the City of Nekheb. He held the titles rh nsw and rji nsw mar '4 Smc) (in Egypt). This Upper Royal Acquaintance and True Royal Acquaintance (m he had fact in high King Senwosret I, that the the a and court of official official, was a direct relationship with the king is indicated by his title Real Acquaintance to the King. In Document II, Hr-lb was the wife of Ntr-nht, who held the titles fmy-r smt

i3btt Administrator of the EasternDesert and imy-r hm-ntr n Hr hwi rbyt Overseerof the Priestsof Hours, Smiter of the Rekhet.His wife's titles were hm-ntr Ht-Hr m rryt, in her Mistress in rryt Priestess Hathor the of the all places, and nbt-pr of m st.s nbt had gained, It seems House aswell as rht-nsw Royal Acquaintance. that her husband a high rankingposition and shehad also acquireda high ranking position which enabled her to havea direct relationshipto the king.
. in Menat-Khufu. He also held the titles fry tp Nhb'os Chief of the City of Nekheb, he in hrp h3ty-r Great Prince House . nclt nbt sm priest, the also and sm m pr-wr was Master of every Kilt. He obtained the titles rh-nsw and rh nsw mar Royal. In Document III, Hnm-htp's main function was 43ty-r m Mnllt-1Iwfw Nomarch

Acquaintance and Real Royal Acquaintance.

In DocumentVI, Pepionkhheld a seriesof titles such as imy-r . nwty Overseer in Granaries bft hr Scribe Presence King's Records r the the of sm lirp indit s nsw of in Controller king Kilt hr f `favourite Priest the tp and of every of nsw m st nbt nbt his' job Acquaintance. Royal His place of and rh nsw as the king's record every his direct king: he hry-s. the t3 n wdt mdw nbt nt allowed contact with was also scribe Command. in Secretary Royal First The King titles the of every other as nsw under the Great House of the Great One and Favourite of the King in every Place of His, highlight his associationwith the king, and the fact that he had acquired the title
104 Seeargumentof Barta, 7S 126 (1999), 79-89. 105 For the title hry-tp seeGardiner and Sethe,Egyptian Letters to the Dead, 14; CDME, 204; Gunn, JEA 27 (1941), 144;Helck, Beamtentiteln,60; Baer, Rank and Title in the Old Kingdom, 186.


' His wife Htyc'h, had, also obtained the titles King's Royal Acquaintance. . Her, main(function was as Prophetessof, Hathor, Mistress of Cusae, Acquaintance... , gave `the position her king. Her have direct Musician. to the chance contact with and His daughterMrt-it;; "alsoheld'the *title Royal' Acquaintance.Other female relatives , Mrt=and well:, such 108 It g: as because e. held Ppit1106 Hml. titles , ` that of seems his "as and, well'as wife's, ` Pp-cnb's position', 'position, most of the membersof his
family, they -were closely ' associated with the king, and consequently, held the title; , Royal Acquaintance.

Petrie argued that,' such a, title, was an individual grant from the king to an 109 whose duties Wilson officials in them argued'thatthose official. put closestcontact royal and, king Emily, king'. be 'known Doxey the the to the to : claimed with : nswt mac in ' ' reflected his king ` that the way ' rj the regarded concluded' which " examples'shwed'that 'Several women., by held both was thiis title and official. men' . inner formed During,the Old`Kingdom, Royal,Acquaintances ' sphereof officials an t '', king: have in They friends the to' their to surroundin9 seem . equal smrw -been associationwith the king. Their function might have been in assistingthe king by l "' on various mattersconcerningthe country's affairs. giving their opinions'


., r



106 Blackman,Rock TombsofMeir, 6-10, pl. XV. 107 Blackman,Rock TombsofMeir, pl. XV-right. 108 Blackman,Rock TombsofMeir, pl. XV. 109 Petrie,AE (1924), 109. 110 Doxey,Egyptian Non-RoyalEpithets, 126. 111 Wilson, Peopleof the Pharaohs, 194.


4.2. Narrative with special statements reflecting the king's interaction with his subiests Autobiographies are the histories of the officials' careers. They state the attributes of the high ranking individuals and note special occasions related to their offices. Such have typically the form of spoken narratives. Self-descriptive biographical records illustrates his the official's qualities and narrative examines ability to interact with the king and his peers.112

4.2.1. The autobiography of Tti on his stela BM 614 The tall rectangular limestone stela of Ttt, 113now in the collection of the British Museum, belongs to a Treasurer of the Kings Intef II and III. It is inscribed with a biographical text consisting of fourteen horizontal lines and five vertical columns. The space remaining on the left is occupied by Ttl, who is shown standing, accompanied by two attendants. He faces right toward a pile of funerary offerings arranged in The text reads: rows. several `His true servant whom he favours (n st-lb fl, one front-ranked in the house of his lord; an official great. of heart, who knows the heart's wish. bf his lord; who follows him in all his strides, truly alone in his Majesty's heart. Head of great ones of the king's house, foremost sealer in the secret place, which his lord hides from the Who heart the grandees. gladdens of Horus with what he desires, favourite (imy-lb) lord, his his beloved, chief of the treasure in the secret place his lord loves, the of Chief Treasurer, The Royal Chamberlain (mr sd3wt hry tp nswt), the honoured Tli who says: I am one beloved of his lord, his praised one in the course of each day. I have spent a long period of years under the majesty of my lord Horus Wahankh, King Upper and Lower Egypt, Son of Re Intef, while the land was under his care (stof hr; f) south of Elephantine, north to Thinis in the Thinite nome, I being his personal his in chamberlain servant, every truth. He made me great; he advanced my rank; he took me into his confidence (st hrt-ib. j) in his palace of privacy (ww).... I was indeed his Majesty's true favourite (imy-lb), an official great in heart, cool in temper

113 PM I2,596; Blackman,JEA 17 (1931), 55-61, pl. VIII; Clere and Vandier, Textesde la premiere periode intermediaire, no. 20,15-17; Schenkel,Memphis. Herakleopolis. Theben, no. 75,103-107; Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature I, 90-93; Lichtheim, Autobiographies, 46-49.

112 Lichtheim, Autobiographies, 5-10.


in his lord's house, who bent the arm among the great ones.... Then, when his son had acceded to his place, Horus Nakht Neb-tep-nefer, King of Upper and Lower Egypt Son of Re, Intef, born of Nefru, living forever like Re, I followed him in all his for because delight, he heart's my me anything and never rebuked of good places the I time of as personal chamberlain all on earth great.... spent my was competence king and was wealthy and great under his Majesty. I am one who made his reputation the 114 in day'. by his lord (kd), one praised course of each

in an advanced literary form. Lichtheim arguedthat this biographyis expressed It is a reflection of the end of the First IntermediatePeriod and the beginningof the is basedon the idea of an exchange Middle Kingdom. The point addressed where the 115 is by king's faithfulness to the trust. corresponded official's
4.2.2. The autobio2raphy of 7n-it-f son of Tfi On a limestone stela in the Metropolitan Museum of Art No. 57.95,7n-it. f and his 116 front is in In them of shown seated an offering table and two are a position. wife `His in front The them text runs: above and of rows of attendants carrying offerings. true servant whom he favours (n st-lb. ), the Overseer of the fortress of the great 11 (imy-r linrt Trusty (mh-ib) of the king in [every matter]. My doorway nw r-9-wr), lord had placed me in the nome of Heracleopolis as [Overseer of the fortress in] it behalf king himself. (sm(w) Great Leader Treasure-house of the on of wr) and by (pr-hd king, his knower time the tpyt) gift of of things, a n pat confidant, a earliest is door for is (ntt '. `One lwtt), that that as who acts not which and which wise one.... in in foremost functions the royal domain, of earliest times since the time of the one (imy-ib) king in his in keeping distant Favourite the of commoners ancestors. palace, from him, to whom the great ones come bowing at the gates of the palace. Manager "8 head (hk3 hwt), personnel of officials, one who the great ones greet, one of estate who precedes the great ones approaching the palace, who knows [what is secret] on the day courtiers speak..........who reports to the king in privacy (ww), one whose

114 Translationafter Lichtheim, Autobiographies,46-47. 115 Lichtheim, Autobiographies,48. 116 PM 12,810; Fischer,JNES 19 (1960), 258-268; Schenkel,Memphis. Herakleopolis. Theben,no. 380,236-238;Lichtheim, Autobiographies,49-51. 117 For this title seeLeprohon,JSSEA24 (1994), 78; Ward, Index, no. 303. 118 Fischer,JNES 19 (1960), 261; Ward, Index, no. 1118.


his king (s3), day (him) is to the one whom reveals of assembly on the place near lord,........ his for it.......... I in the to am unique one of speech order act as a gate way his beloved, his lord's lord. I for filled being heart truly am with straightness my my 119 born honoured 7n-it. f, Tfi'. he favours (n of st-ibj), the praisedone whom In this inscription there are two main epithets of special interest. The first is is is Here for is door the that that `one who acts as official which not. which and
defined as the 'door' denoting his role as an intermediary between the king and the '120 be by king to the the In the the official of might carried words other words, people.

king be `One This the to the whom phrase connectedwith might outside world. for it'. in This his to clearly meansthat the gateway order act as a speech, reveals his words to In-It f that In-It f may in turn divulge them to the public. The king passes `door' implies protection or defence.However, in this context it refers to the public king linking between the the the and point gate of palace,which servedas a court at follows diagram illustrates between following The them the as the people. relations (Fig.37): .
Gate hall Outside

Inside Palace




Officials : -*announce, II

People/ World into Deeds/ put

The secondepithet is iw nf wrw m ksw r rwty pr-nsw `One to whom the great ones king's house'. for bowing This the the to of a at gates gathering probably refers come into `one in front The to whom the the epithet of entrance palace. a ceremonialevent 121 his bowing' denotes the official's rank among the great ones come colleagues. It indicates that he was highly esteemedby them since they approachedhim in an be It also a referenceto actual administrativeresponsibilities. manner. could obeisant Parallelstatements may be comparedas follows:

"9 Translation after Lichtheim, Autobiographies, 50.

gyptischen 120 Knigtum I, 320; Franke, SAK 11 (1984), 213; Cf. Blumenthal, Untersuchungen zum Archiv Orientalni 20 (1952), 442-445; Gardiner, ZS 60 (1925), 65. Janssen, 121Janssen,Traditioneele egyptische Autobiografie I, 39; II, 60; Doxey, Egyptian Non-Royal Epithets, 169-171.


in faces bending inquired, the health their `One the arm, great ones about whose ahim; for forehead Two Lands, Horus the touching who the ground upon of earth of he bellies [him].... behind into their the until the palacewith upon great ones entered 122 (His) Majesty the was'. place where reached
doorkeepers him, behind his lord before the the `One bgreat ones with who entered 123 bending arm, until I (?) reached the place where (His) Majesty was'. in house king's the the `The the at were people who and chancellors who were c124 house'. king's forward being drawn beheld to the me gateway

Theseepithetsare a referenceto controlling accessto the king. Other epithets include: `one whose place is near on the day of assembly'which is referred when a he be is (7n-itf for together as close s position would an audience called gathering `one `one the and who the ones' great who greets presiding speaker),and also was the palace'. the great onesapproaching precedes
4.2.3. The Quarry inscription of the Steward Hnw In Wadi Hammamat 114, Hnw gives a description of an expedition through the 125 The bring from to Punt. desert from Koptos Red to the myrrh sea coast eastern text reads:

`<His> true servantwhom he favours (n st-lb; ) who does all he praisesin the course is is Overseer day, [Sole] Companion, Seal-bearer, Royal the of what and of each Overseer Overseer Overseer the the two treasuries, temples, of and of granary of not, horn and hoof, Overseerof the six great houses..... The eyes of his lord in every for being close to his truth; there is no lie in it. Fearedby the great onesand headmen nature is is knows (sm) lord's person.......... the of what and not, with nothing who is his lord day him... One to the on of petitioning, who gives as useful escaping in knows Who `what to that counsel the circle of plannedcomes pass'. spoken,so lord in knows his for the time with privacy, who every project, who speaks officials,

122 Cldre and Vandier, Textesde la premiere periode, no. 32, lines 6-7. 123 Griffith, PSBA 18 (1896), 195; Goedicke,JEA 48 (1962), 25; Stewart, Egyptian Stelae II, no.86, pl. 18. _ 124 Lichtheim, Autobiographies, 52-54. 125 Hayespointed out that this Hnw is the same as the 'Great Steward' Hnnw of TT 313, who held high rank position during the reign of MentuhotepII. SeeHayes,JEA 35 (1949), 43-49; PM VII, 331; Couyatand Montet, Ouddi Hammmt,no. 114,81-84; Schenkel,Memphis. Herakleopolis. Theben, no. 426,253-258; cf. Lichtheim, Autobiographies, 59-60.


in doorway, king (m4-1b) in its Trusty, the the time..... of southern who saysa word., . Overseerof the treasury,of, gold:..... Storm that overwhelms the northern peoples, <to whom> the Two Lands come bowing, to whom every office reports: the Royal Treasurer,the Sole Companion,the,StewardHnw (d3wty-bity smr wrty mr-pr Hnw) ;. followed from All 'offices town and and country were assembled royal who says:....... 'before t four 'police the z me, smiting any who cleared way of companies,. me, and body-, deserts, king Hunters, the the as : were employed ' natives of rebelled against'. . (st-hr), his, to , councillors were placed control majesty's,, guards, and all commander did I these the to obey.... whom millions announcemessengers me,. sole , he loved me much, as one who acts things for the majesty:of(my 'lord',because' forcefully, who is watchful 'of his servicefor his lord, one whom his offices advanced, house land. his' his May in the even above officials of one whoseplacewas advanced, his, lord Lam be done fr. by the ; this than me! me power.of my who made more .:.. 126 day'. in does he j), who, favourite servant(n st-lb. all praises" the courseof each Hnw's personal'authority.In one instance,the inscription calls The text stresses him smiw nf t3 r-dr f. `one to whom the entire lands report', and in another, he is is `to This 13wt probably an whom every office reports'. nbt called one smi(w) nf delivery is to take of reports. early exampleof an epithet where an official assumed '27 duty high be This seemsto connectedwith ranking officials, such as the vizier, inferior delivered by to ones. superioradministrators where reportswere

4.2.4. The two stelae of the Chief Priest Wnw3w3t-g3 Leiden V 4= No. 5

A rectangularlimestonesteladecoratedwith cavetto cornice in which the upper third' is occupiedwith inscription in thirteen lines. In the central register Wpw3w3t-e3 and his wife are shown in a seatedposition in front of an offering table. They are facing family membersand attendants,who are illustrated in three rows. On the left of the is standing opposite an offering table and two rows of bottom register Wpw3w3t-r3 The namesof SenwosretI and AmenemhetII are also inscribed.The offering bearers. text reads:

126 Translationafter Lichtheim, Autobiographies,52-54. 127 Van den Boom, Duties of the Vizier, 311-313;cf. Doxey, Egyptian Non-Royal Epithets, 175.


`The Prince, Count, Royal Seal-bearer, Sole Companion, sm-priest, Leader of all the Osiris; Great Priest Overseer Maat, Priest Nekhen, Keeper of of...., kilts, of of Overseer of Linen in the Sanctuary, front-ranked in the treasure chamber, privy to the in in Abydos, Chamberlain Great privacy, silence of master alone, seeing of secrets is beauty; his lord's in in hidden to hand entrusted whom seeing places gloved with Count Prince, is his is for the is the recognised; efficiency worth of and not, what is I Wpw3w3t-c3 said, Priest whom Chief says:... am one silent among speakers, of deemed because is his heart his `await sent affairs, who conducts coming', whose (mh-ib. t) his before Two Lands, king honoured trusty the One whom the worthy. before his subjects; one truly straight toward the people, an official who unties the 128 )'. (t) (sr U3t knotty tss

Wpw3w3t-r3here recites a metaphorical self-laudation, detailing his early high standingat court. and nobility Munich GL. WAF 35

before is figure Wpw3w3t-c3' depicting A round-toppedstela. who shown seated of a has table a text, which reads: an offering majesty, his the `WhenI had gone north to offer salutationsat the great residenceof being in the Seal-bearers the the saw me portal persons at palace and who are An being into I to the ox was slaughtered made enter unannounced. palace, ushered for my meal;........ As one praiseddid I come forth from the palace,one beloved of been by had house. king's For the conferred on me the palace,namelythat of office Chief Priest and Great Chamberlain in Abydos. Every rank of mine had been before. fathers had been His to (those granted me majesty of) my who over advanced 129 in Abydos'. in Osiris Khentamenthes Thinite the temple of oxen slaughter journey to the royal residencewhere he has The text describesWpw3w3t-113's been promoted to the office of Chief Priest and Great Chamberlainin Abydos. It high has as official position who accessto the royal palacewithout a ranking reflects figure in is him being being questioned. the palace to -There a reference a well-known
Piehl, Inscriptions III, XX-X3; Sethe,Lesestricke,no. 15a, 72-73; Simpson, The Terrace of the Great God at Abydos, 20.1, pl. 30; Spiegel,Die Gtter von Abydos, 84; Lichtheim, Autobiographies, 75-76. 129 Lesestucke, Sethe, no. 15b,73-75; Simpson,The Terrace of the Great God atAbydos, 20.2, pl. 30; Spiegel,Gtter, 99; Lichtheim, Autobiographies,77-79.


has been fed he from but familiar Not the that, palace only personality. and in is indication he that very welcome this place, and also probably an provisions: an indication of his relationshipwith the king.
4.2.5. Stela of the Chamberlain Semti the Younger

A round-toppedpaintedlimestonestelawith a twenty-two lines of inscription, which has lower left for the the the corner which on a space surface except entire covers his St-fry, figures Smti Younger the reads: mother and of standing
`His true servant whom he favours (n st-lb j), privy to the secrets of the king's his Smtf His Majesty Smtf fmy-hnt Chamberlain at the me placed says: adornment, feet in my youth, and my name was called before my peers. Then, his majesty would daily behaviour. indeed I someone who grows, and was address me, and observe my his had become Friend King's I true today than when a more yesterday. was praised in being their stations, office was the placed officials majesty accepted my services: bestowed on me in their presence, that of Chamberlain and Privy to the mysteries, Priest of the South-Crown and. North-Crown, Khnum-servant of the king's

in lifts Crown Per-wer, fashions White Great Magic, the the up of adornment, who is in Crown Per-nu...... Red Nekhbite the one whose coming and servant of chief lord in Crown, Adorner Horus, the of the making appear-in--glory with awaited as palace'. 130

This text revealsthat the official who had personalcontact with the king must be trustworthy, and that this might have required that he would be brought up under the control of the royal palaceto be sure of his loyalty to the royal person.The text then states his career and a description of the duties of a Royal Chamberlainand Master of Ceremonies, whose main function was the robbing and crowning of the king.

130 Sethe,Lesestucke, no. 16,75; Gardiner, JEA 39 (1953), 26; Edel, ZAS, 87 (1962), 102; Spiegel, Gtter, 127; Lichtheim, Autobiographies,96-98.


The autobiography of Shtp-lb-Rr on his stelal31 Cairo No 20538, originally 4. _2.6. from Abydos132 Shtp-lb-Rr' served under the King Senwosret III and Amenemhet III. He erected a funerary stela at Abydos for himself during Amenemhat's reign, inscribed on both . sides. The text reads: `The Prince, Count, Royal Seal-bearer, beloved Sole Companion, Great one of the King of Upper Egypt, great one of the King of Lower Egypt; Magistrate at the head by is tell to the people whom the courtiers; awaited coming people, ..... whose of their affairs; ...... Master of secrets in the temples; Overseer of all the works of the King's House..... effective in counsel; who says what is good, repeats what lord distinguished his in listening, excellent speaking...... whom pleases;....... good at before millions...... who follows his lord in his strides; his intimate before courtiers. Who attends his lord alone; companion of Horus in the palace; true favourite of his lord; to whom secret matters are told. Who solves (loosens) the knotty, easespains, Chief SealOverseer, Deputy best. Seal-bearer, Temple for Royal The the acts bearer'. 133

Shtp-lb-Rr'is an official of high rank. One of his epithets is sr whl, Isst `official V (Leiden inscription in his Wpw3w3t-r3 Abydene knot'. The loosens the stela of who 13" have (official knot). includes These It 4), the the epithetsr Isst epithets who unties been interpreted as metaphorsfor the capability to resolve complicated and knotty 135 problems.

I" The recto side of the stela depicts Osiris in a standing position, holding his emblems, and On the receiving homagefrom King Amenemhat III, who is identified by his cartouche-prenomen. III, who is identified by his cartouche-prenomen. Lange VersoOsiris is shownadoring King Sesostris Grab des Schfer, Denksteine mittleren Reiches, 148-150no. 20538. und und '32The stelawas discoveredat Abydos,in the northern enclosureof Kom es-Soultan,by Mariette, who transferredit first to the Museum at Boulaq, now in Cairo Museum No. 20538. Kamal, ASAE 38 (1938), 265.
133Lange und Schfer, Grab und Denksteine des Mittleren Reiches, 148-150 no. 20538; Sethe, Lesestucke, 68-70; Kamal, A&4E 38 (1938), 265-283; Kamal, ASAE 40 (1940), 209-229; translation after Lictheim, Ancient Egyptain Literature I, 126-127.

134Cf. the stela of Mntw-htp CG 20539 Lange und Schfer, Grab und Denksteine des Mittleren Reiches,no. 20539. 135For example, Breasted, Ancient Records I, 256, `loosening the difficult knot', Lichtheim, Autobiographies,76, `who unties what is knotty'.


4.2.7. Discussion 136 have been Arguments raised as to what exactly the officials expected these epithets in inscriptions. include do Lichtheim to them their they and made an effort why would build to tombs, and the that only members of royal administration could afford notes their the their the of show status relationship with royal personage would recording 137 lives, Doxey the argues that we may answer, part of question. and which careers due interpretation to more the epithets are presented. and probably cannot rely on one 138 influence. What we can agree with is that these epithets in a way indicate than one how close the official was to the royal personage.

inscriptions are mainly constructed using two themes: a The self-presentation behaviour, from directly the tomb and career, a man's with evidence given man's indicating The those the official's status and epithetsstated are owner's occupation. his relationshipto the gods, the king and the people around him, either his colleagues his The Middle Kingdom epithetswas not only to of or relatives. aim most at work direct him king but through such to their the state association with also mention honour Doxey to them their their added peers. among society and epithets,which with is be frequency king `the that to to the which epithets refer partly argued by fact the that the ancientEgyptianssaw the king as ultimately responsible explained for virtually every inscribed monument constructed on behalf of a private individual' 139The the king are: Irr hsstf `one who to epithets alluding most regular . does what he favours' and mh 1b n nswt `one who fills the heart of the king' or `king's favourite'. Theseepithetsdenotethe seriousduty of the individual to fulfil the king's desireto be pleased,and it required that the official to be near the person of by forms of the verbs mrl, `love', the king in order to achievethis. Phrases addressed hsi, indicate `favour', that the official received the assistance and of the king, who determinedand proloned the official's situation, either emotionally or financially. A highly ranked official was likely to work for the advanceof his society. In order to achievethis, he had to have a high level of knowledge, eloquence,and an ability to fulfil the wishesof the king. To gain his colleaguesadmiration he had to behavein a
6 Baines,in Shafer(ed.), Religion in Ancient Egypt, 140-141;Eyre, in Groll (cd.) StudiesLichthelm 13 50. 137 Lichtheim, Autobiographies,5-7. 138 Doxey,Egyptian NonRoyal Epithets, 203-234. 139 Doxey,Egyptian NonRoyal Epithets, 225.


be in, In and other precise skilled and reporting. respectful manner; scheduling ; by is heart described king'. So htp-lb `pleasing the the an official as of n nsw, epithets functions, he become fills `one the carrying out official could mh-Ib who successfully he become a'trusted person and' one who is heart of the king, or, Horus', in that sway; , in. '. by An his'"high 'sometimes official notes position among other officials confided I great'ones, fact, m him bowing down' f iw the that the'. approach n. wrw mentioning

ksw. The position,of, these epithets,: usually.occurs after,the name and titles of the ; before the verbalnarrative, of the official's occupation. official and
To sum -up, the previous discussion,,,epithets as, a, whole highlight excellent career of a privileged administrator,,and" show -he was competent to taken on the burdens " of, his official' :responsibilities. He, was, well informed' of the necessary information relating to his governmental duties, and was capable of carrying out these jobs! efficiently . He was+tolerant and ; helpful: He addressed' the -issues' well, and . `matters'., 'precisely. These essential - qualities enabled him to reported carefully, a where bridge between, king, him. his degree of loyalty was the construct and' 140 in his the translated extent of closenessto the royal personage.


. e.

10 Doxey,Egyptian Non-RoyalEpithets, 77- 80.


In this chapter I will address three main issues. Firstly, to what extent was the king isolated in his palace. Secondly, I will attempt to reconstruct the scene of a royal based his king between Thirdly I the the people and relationship will consider audience. idea the of exchange.' on 5.1. To what extent was the king isolated in his palace? In Cairo stela no. 34183, of Tutankhamun concerning the restoration of the temple at Karnak, the text reads: Ist hmfm chf imy pr c3-hpr-k3-Rr ml Rr m hnw pt wn. fn 6Mf hr in slirw nw t3w pn hrt-hrw nw idbwyl

`Now his Majesty was in his palace,which is in the House of Aakheperkare;like Re in the sky and His Majesty carried out the businessof this land and daily needsof the Two Banks'. Clearly,this text stresses the fact that the king ruled the stateaffairs while he is intermediaries in if his So, there palace. were people who played a role as sitting betweenthe king and his subjects,doesthis imply a complete isolation of the king in his palaceon one side, and strict orders for common folk to not have accessto the have To to examine the the this side? other answer question, we palace on Duties den Boom's the to the of of study palaceplan according van reconstructionof the Vizier and StephenQuirke's study of Papyrus Boulaq 18.

is In theDutiesof the Vizier,the architectural bnw the complex rendered within

2 It was provided with a wall, gatewaysand guard by van denBoom as `residence-city'. 3 in its front is The rryt. With referenceto R3 area of easterncentral gate called posts. from the sametext, it is argued that the term htmw is used in its broad meaningof `enclosure'includingvarious types of rooms, housesand spaces that have to be closed 4 (R3-R7). Some identified by times these the at certain unlocked of are elements and hall b3 `the `pr-nbw' `Gold House' and i3n t3ty `the the g e. of n pr-nsw pr-nsw' name 5 functions, In it the the of of vizier'. view vizier's office office seemsto be a building
Lacau,Stelesdu Nouvel Empire, 227; Urk IV, 2025-2032;Bennett,JEA 25 (1939), 8-15. 2 Van den Boom, Duties of the Vizier, 49. 3 Van den Boom, Duties of the Vizier, 67 fig. 5. For the eryt seeprevious discussionin Chapter Three. 4 Van den Boom, Duties of the Vizier, 44-45.
5 Van den Boom, Duties of the Vizier, 309-331.


it institution As with a numberof rooms/hallsand a mainreception or audience-hall. an hasits own personnel.The pr-nsw, was the administrativeheart, a place from where the king ruled his country. This building was under the personal control of the its description in The R3, that the of charge of vizier was clarified sovereign. by director-manager, his duty the assisted and operation and management was as a 6 The pr-33 was the private living Overseerof the Treasury as his assistant-manager. ' king, from of the the pr-nsw. which was a separate compound residence According to Stephen Quirke's study, 'based.on the evidence of the day into Papyrus Boulaq divided 18,8 three sectors the palace was summaryaccount of (srw) (linty), by to the the officials at the regard personnel: outer palace served with front of the main palacebuilding andthe wdpww linty Cup Bearer of the Outer Palace; 9 building, inner (k3p), the the the the palace private quarters at main palace rear of servedby the rmt pr mnrwt People of the House of Nurses; and the serving area " (ne), 1 servedby rkyw 113literally translatedas `people with access'.Although the involved in rkyw r93were employees who were meal preparationfor the palace,as they also described `people it denotes limited that as with access', entering was were for domestic and servingstaff" possible He providedthe following sketchplan of the palace:


o, V, ,<
no one


l' :: -___F


(fig.38) Schematic layout of the palacein P. Boulaq 1812

6 Van den Boom, Duties of the Vizier, 278-279. 7 Van den Boom, Duties of the Vizier, 59; the lay out reconstruction is clearly illustrated in: den van Boom, Duties of the Vizier, 67, fig. 5. 8 Quirke, Administration of Egypt in the Late Middle Kingdom; cf. Spalinger, SAK 12 (1985), 179241. 9 Feucht concludedthat the kip is locatedsomewhere in the living quarters of the king. SecFeucht,in ), Pharonic Egypt, 38. Israelit-GroIL(ed. 'o For pr-Jn" in the Old Kingdom seeAndrassy,SAK 20 (1993), 17-35. 11 Quirke, Administration of Egypt in the Late Middle Kingdom, 116-118; cf. Blackman, JEA 5 (1918), 148-165. i2 After Quirke, Administration of Egypt in the Late Middle Kingdom, 41, fig. 1.


that The w3hyis one of the featuresmentionedin P Boulaq 18. Quirke assumed inner the main `audience-chamber, of the sectors outer and it was an point where at 13 being to the discusses crryt the Quirke Again the building entrance as meet'. palace '4 linking is the the world. exterior with palace a path as regarded which palace, Although the king is not mentionedby namein these accounts,there are some
ckw his The imply n nb Quirke account of provisions features which presence. argues for issuing ', H. Master L. P. the orders of the `the and C. of of provisions account s w. fk3w. The king such the `rewards' who would offer fk3w supposes to the presence of `in Medjay `in m w3h-tp lift-hr the people the of and arrival presence', royal expression 15 king. indicate likely the the of presence which all evidence obeisance', are

how help The procedureof giving orderswithin the palacecould us understand `rewards' fk3w for discusses Quirke in his king the giving orders palace. was accessible clcw the individuals standard be or groups of people, along with to presentedto following based the entries: on supplies,
(wpwt) iit. n s' n linty snby hr. s m prt. n wdpw Hk3-ib hr. s

(the being Snby Outer Palace (commissions) the came, The upon which the scribeof 16 forth'. had Hk3-ib Cup-Bearer the come which upon commission)
n hr. hr. f-m-lb kip Rn fmy-r rhnty iit. (wpwt) s m prt. nf s n

`The (commission)upon which the interior Overseer of the Inner Palace,Rn f-m-lb " he had being the commission come out'. upon which came, in involved been has it formula, first two that According to the persons seems it from Cup Bearer The the takes where was order transforming the orders. wdpw issued from the inner place and passesit to the s n linty the Scribe of the Outer Palace,who transmitsit to the scribein chargeof palaceaccounts.The secondformula Palace Inner Overseer Interior 1hnwty imy-r the the can alone that of n'k3p18 signifies different in his both then carry official would non-attendance, a while, stages, achieve is kt based by Quirke, This the sentence wpwt on conclusionsuggested out eachstage.
13Quirke,Administration of Egypt in the Late Middle Kingdom, 40; cf, previous argument in chapter three. 14 Quirke,Administration of Egypt in the Late Middle Kingdom, 50. is Quirke,Administration of Egypt in the Late Middle Kingdom, 120-121. 16Quirke,Administration of Egypt in the Late Middle Kingdom, 103. 17 Quirke,Administration of Egypt in the Late Middle Kingdom, 102. 18In the Middle Kingdom this title was linked with an official who was associatedwith the living Pharaonic Egypt, (ed. ), 38-39; in Israelit-Groll Helck, Verwaltung, Feucht the see of palace: quarters 252.


19 functionary hr. `Another iit. n sr pn commission upon which this came'. In other s inner from kip has imy-r c1inwty to the the the n sector admission of palace words, issued, he from instructions are and conveys orders to the outer sector of where where the palace. He can therefore function in both areas. According to the context the s n linty has no right of entry to the inner palace where instructions are ordered, and from functions he barrier the takes to accessand order as a a who wdpw, consequently 20 inner has himself admission to the sector of the palace.

Quirke illustratedhis interpretationby the following diagram:


Issue of orders

Scribe of accounts


s n linty

(fig.39) Palacesectorsin the order for supplies21 Quirke adds that in this case the inner palace is referred' to as the w3by `audience , which located in between is the palaceprivate rooms and the administrative chamber' is kip held by imy-r rhnw in The P. Boulaq 18 those are: Rn-f-lb title two ,n men area. (S1-11) and Kiki (S6-S22, S48). Quirke arguesthat both have equivalentand identical functions,and they substituteone anotherwhen one of them was absent.For instance, (S6-S22, KIkI S48), the them tasks the out one of carried outside palace, e.g when (namely him, Rn-f-m-lb) covered as a sort of co-operation betweenthe internal other 22 fulfil duties and completethe required. and externalpalaceofficials to The text of the Duties of the Vizier gives a clue about the vizier's reporting to
the king about the conditions of the state. The same issues are addressed in the palace in king `the two the entire land', which was held for instance by R17the of eyes epithet One was a vizier as well. of the tasks of the vizier seems to have been treating ms who and managing all the communications of the compound with the exterior world. He in institution he rrryt, the charge of an was received officials. It was the main where
19Quirke,Administration of Egypt in the Late Middle Kingdom, 102. 20Quirke,Administration of Egypt in the Late Middle Kingdom, 102-104. 21After Quirke,Administration of Egypt in the Late Middle Kingdom, 104, fig. 4.

22Quirke, Administration of Egypt in the Late Middle Kingdom, 40, fig. 41,105-106.


his between Among tasks the the of communication outside and world. channel pr-nsw his intermediary between In this the the role' as outside and an world palace. was he for king. Sectionthree of the acts as a, personal'assistant or representative respect, the Duties of the Vizier.shedssomelight.on the vizier's function in daily supplyingHis information on the , situation of the state. Majesty, with all current (up ' to . dte)'?, Although, there may,have'been other;courtiers,providing the king with data, the text of the,vizier and does not mentioning any functions of other only focuseson the duties, 23Van den fcuses is Boors He that the the three. section on vizier ", assumes officials. -, information king. his all He to the source, and sole-means, supported of supplied only is king to the assumptionby , R21), which'i states,that ", appeal made whenever, an f it. is himself, his listen, the; to the vizier who,. and written personally, -. petitioner "must . 4 request. Here the the private assistantmediatingbetweenthe king and those accepted is;, is is It. king; he deputy that. the, the . since also one vizier, a with, )requests. of .,. important. the, assistants, of. the king, the one -who could inform him of what is of happeningoutsidethe palace., This`is aided by'a -statement from the biography of the 23 Mntw-htp: brings (causes `who 114 to rise) truth to the palace'. sermartr vizier Also, the tasksof the vizier Wsr are summarised by his scribeand steward7mnin (TT 82), i Imy-r ntwt t3ty Wsr isst k3 nswt ennui brt-hrw which runs: fw Er. m-hat m re f 4m fr f nbw mnhw trwy nis tnw wnwt hr spw. m3et n n s smr. nb. mrrt nb

`The Overseerof the City and Vizier Wsr, did what the living ka of the king favoured truth, rise.up to its lord, which His Majesty loves, in the courseof.every,day;;He,made, . 26 being hour because his continuously, summoned, every,, of valuable,contributions'. The text of the Duties of the Vizier focusesattention on the activities and tasks -, of the vizier only and the fact that it lacks information about other courtiers or directly magistrates supplying the king with data does not absolutely mean that the vizier was the only personproviding the king with information. It is likely that it would have beenthe king's policy to have information provided to him from more than one able least be to to check the information with other sources of data to source or at

23Cf. Hayes,Papyrusof the Late Middle Kingdom, 135-136. 24Van den Boom, Duties of the Vizier, 193. 25CG 20539Ib 14; Blumenthal, Untersuchungen gyptischenKnigtum I, 382 G 7.26 zum 26Urk IV, 1044,17- 1045,2.


biography in is by This the opinion reinforced a statement,appearing ensureaccuracy. Overseer Palace Rmni-Wnh the the text reads: of of his to f f hrt `who truth to to t3wy reports and master, rise causes smi nb n. ser mart n 27 him the affairs of the Two Lands'. 29 `messengers', A series of examplesalso highlight the role of the wpwtyw
in king those the their concerning aspect, especially of every assistance stressing interpreter, the they of messenger as or a acted a guide, where operations, military king. Autobiographies of New Kingdom texts include:

29 in king is `One, every mission'; who confident of the m4-lb n nswt m wpwt nbt is king `One hr the the t3 affairs of concerning confidant of who wpwt n n nsw mh-ib 3o land'. the
f (reign of Amenemhat I) at Wadi Hamamat, his In an inscription of 7n-7n. beside include titles: that titles r prt religious other noble and of a wpwty-nsw, personal h3ty-r sd3wty-bity smr wrty wpwty nsw imy-r hm-ntr Mnw

`Hereditary prince and governor, Seal-bearer of Lower Egypt, sole companion,royal 31 Overseer Priests Min'. of the of messenger, had It seemsthat the messengers accessto were a group of people who also the palace,and they are mentionedwith other high ranking officials. In a stela of the (reign 0 Senwosret I) `0 Mntw-htp(w) the text of reads: all governors all royal vizier 32 (reign Kumma friends 0 In 3hty-Ntp(w) the of palace'. at graffiti of messengers.... all f f try-rt 3lztyIII) Amenemhat 114 text the reads: riz nsw mar mry rlt-st rdwy wpwty of Htp (w) `The Real Royal Acquaintance,his beloved, who knows the place of his legs, 33 Guardian Hall Palace, 3hty-htp(w)'. the the the messenger, of of the A seriesof texts from the New Kingdom highlight the continued role of the 34 in different (reign For Punt the to aspects. of Hatshepsut),the expedition messengers text reads:. spw tnw n wr n Pwnt to wpwty nsw `Reception of tribute to the king of 35 by Royal Messenger'. In a graffiti of Ty at Sehel(reign of Hatshepsut),the Punt the
27CG 2057 la 1-2; Blumenthal, Untersuchungen gyptischen Knigtum I, 382-G 7.28 zum ' Valloggia, Recherchesur les messagers Wpwtywdans les sourcesegyptiennes. 29Maspero,RT 4 (1883), 125-127(SteleTurin 1456,6). 30Urk IV, 984,1. 31Couyat-Montet,Ouddi Hammmdt,101. 32Langeund Schfer,Grab und DenksteinedesMittleren Reiches,153. 33Cf. Valloggia, Recherchesur les messagers Wpwtywdans les sourcesegyptiennes,84. 34Seethe stelaof Huy British MuseumNo. 17332:Habachi,Kush 9 (1961), 219-220. 35Urk IV, 326,2-3.


inscription records a passage of a military expedition to Nubia. The text reads: rp't h3ty-r sd3wty-bity smr wrty imy-r htm bJ Ty jd f iw bms.n.i Hm-ntr [... ] t(i) wi m bearer Seal Egypt, ddt Lower irw `Hereditary sole of prince and governor wpwty nsw God he followed Good (the "I Seal, Overseer Ty, the the says, grasp) of companion, [... ] for I am the royal messengerwho does what is said". '36 One of the functions of the wpwtyw was the allowing of entry and exit, from in Thebes instructions his The Rb-ml-Rr tomb the the to at of vizier palace. and highlight one of the roles of the wpwtyw. The text reads: it grt ckt nbt prrt nbt r s3tw n leaves f ddi `As in ck thing thing bnw 7k. to pr every enters and every sn pr. sn wpwtyw. leave. is his They It the they messenger who the area of residence. will enter and will 37 allows entering and exiting'.

On a funerary cone belongingto the captain of the police (reign of Thutmosis III and AmenhotepII), the messenger mentionsthe reasonof his being bestowedwith gold. The text reads:
fry f hr h3swt rat hr-lb dd hr knt fm "Sew hst sp nbt n n mnh nf nbw n wpwtyw nsw md3y DyDy

`The Royal Messengerin all Foreign Countries,by the greatnessof his being pleasing to the heart (of the king), (there'was) given to him gold as reward for his valour on 38 DyDy'. the captainof the police numerousoccasions, In an inscription of the chapel of Gebel Agg (end of the EighteenthDynasty), his the messenger stresses association with the king. The text reads:gmswn hmf Mniw 39 follower `The His Majesty Mniw of royal messenger'. In the stela of wpwt nsw Dhwti-htp, he highlightshis direct contact with the king through his position as a royal fkr The l: ). f tin 3st text reads: we mty mac n wpwty r nsw r nbt rdwy n nrb(? messenger. `Unique Royal Messenger 'In truly to every and excellent, m-b34f accurate, nbf Foreign Countries at the feet of his lord (?), who can approach his lord, who is 40 beautifulin his presence'. It is implausibleto describethe king as always being isolated, sitting in his his for him. instance, For to Dbhnl's to agents come waiting and report palace

36Habachi,. JNES 16 (1957), 99-101. 37Davies,Tombof Rekhmireat Thebes, pls. 26,28; cf. van den Boom, Duties of the Vizier, R4. 38Urk IV, 995,13-15. 39Weigall, A Report on theAntiquities of Lower Nubia, 125 pl. 66. 40Murray, AE 4 (1917), 64-68.


inscription describes how the king visited the Giza cemetery to inspect the work on his 41 family pyramids. In W3 pth's biography, the king, his family and the court were inspecting a new building in course of construction. 42 The king, according to these texts, left his palace to inspect, for himself the course of construction. In other words, he did not just sit in the palace and listen to news of what was happening without investigating matters himself.

To sum the previous discussion, the king had more to do than he could handle himself the land's affairs. However, to accomplishhis tasks, he surroundedhimself in help him to and ministers officials: agents managingthe affairs of the country. with Thesepeoplewere probably chosenby him, people he confided and trusted to be able to supply him with truthful information. He did not isolate himself within the palace, however,but from time to time he showedhimself to the public visiting cemeteries or inspecting the progress of his instructions. The purpose of these visits could be interpretedas political propagandathe way in which the king is addressing the public by his physicalexistence as a machineruling their country. In the decreeof Pepi I to the city of the pyramids of Snefru in Dahshurto the imy-r s. ' nsw, the decreeendsby mentioningthat it was nsw ds.(f) r-gs btm `sealed beside the king himself, 43 showing that business was carried out during a royal in decree In his king Pepi II the the the of ritual of and relatives44 statue of audience. Abydos temple,the-decreeendedby the statementthat it was btm r-gs nsw dsf 3bd4 king 8 himself `sealed beside S the on the fourth month of the summer, the mw sw day'. his Even described agents so, were as his eyes, ears and mouth, people eighth for him, listen for him see could and talk on behalf of him. who

41Urk IV, 19,7-16. 42Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature I, 19. 43Urk I, 209-213;cf. Helck, AItagypticheAktenkundefor the generaltheme. 44Urk I, 279-280.


5.2. Reconstruction of a royal audience.

based together, Pulling all -typesof audience on textual, pictorial and archaeological is build here to attempt an up a'view of a royal audience: evidence,
5.2.1. Barrier of the'roval 'palace`

45 number is in illustrated Kingdom New text. to the royal residence Barrier to access of
For instance, in the Duties of the Vizier, R4; R8 the vizier's messengers(wpwtyw) are ; the ones responsible fr,'any; traffic coming ,in: or out of the hnw-residence area. Also regarding in be delivered himself to the vizier traffic R7 states that a report -should any 46 pr-nsw. 'Accordingly, is it likely'that the pr-nsw was an area with the actual or out of high level of security, and for this reason the entrances of the pr-nsw was' guarded by 47 (mnnww) 'southern' 'northern'. In the autobiography of `one two guard-post and one of, account' a& is' how:,he .gained 'access:to the royal' palace. In this'; Rai-mi=Rf's; there,

he reached door he Portal Elders 'the, the the the of sates of gate where' -that; section (smsw h3yt) summonedhim in after they 'cleared''the 'secret road' sdsr wit . tat for him.48 Textual evidencealludesto a classof peoplewho have access to the king. They include, at different periods: . msw, smrw, knbt nt hnw, . psw-nsw, . nyt nt bnw, F3ty, imy-r hnti- pr-s3, whm-r3-n-nswand others. Pictorial evidenceshows that the people involved in sucheventsinclude palaceescorts,, royal servants,military escorts,foreign officers, 49 representatives, and'fn-berers. "scribes; soldiers;

5.2.2. Purifying before entering

Texts'allude to purification, taking place directly before undergoing an,audiencewith the king. In the story of the Shipwrecked Sailor, the attendant (msw) continues his himself his fingers, before to master wash and pour water upon encouraging justifying himself before the sovereignand telling him in a favourable way about the ineffective expedition. Could this be evidence that a sort of purification should be before king the took place?It is reasonable to argue that audience an with undertaken
45Van den Boom, Duties of the Vizier, 43,55. 46Van den Boom, Duties of the Vizier, 55. 47Van den Boom, Duties of the Vizier, 46-47. 48Urk IV, 1073,3-6; Gardiner, ZAS 60 (1925), 63. 49Davies,El Amarna VI, pl XVII.


that took place before entering being purified had a centralrole amongthe preparations to meetthe king. In the stela of the Nubian King Pi-mnhy,that describeshis victory againstthe Delta princes, the inscription line 150-151 states the arrival of the northern and have king. They faithfulness to the their could not southernrulers who cameto express but fish, because they they to the were eatersof palace were uncircumcisedand access for exampleNermtwas admittedto enter the palacebecausehe was clean and did not SO be due fact `fish fish. Blackman to the that that this were evidently might suggests eat " be them those to ate who made possibly an abomination', which supposed king's The into the therefore they royal presence. and were not admitted contaminated king be the to temple, to was as a a sacred place, similar palace was considered Access therefore the to the the palace representative of gods on earth. as regarded before the to that took those entry place of purification rites a parallel amount required 52 A similar requirement is mentioned, for instance, in a Ptolemaic into a temple. inscription of-the Isis temple at Philae, where it prohibits those who have eaten to the temple. forbiddenfood andwho havenot beencircumcisedfrom having access Pictorial evidencesometimesshows the recipients of royal favour wearing a imply heads. fastened Does this their another sort of purification on of ointment cone before their audiencewith the king? Most of the scenesrepresentthe recipient barefooted before the king, and the regular.depiction of people being rewarded without be implies form to the to that to royal enter able of cleanliness a was needed sandals 33 in A Mry-R" II, shows a group of men presence. particular scene, the tomb of feet, for first is He their the sandals except shown wearing only one on man. wearing boundary into his bare-foot is foot, his left, the the steppingover right while sandal,on before is king is in king. his bare-foot That to the the the and say, area where courtyard foot is outsidethis area. is while his sandaled 54was also associatedwith At least from the Middle Kingdom, a shavedhead " for duties. Amarna rites persons attested executing priestly reliefs at purification

50Urk III, 147-153;Grimal, La Stele Triomphalede Pi(ankh)y au Musee du Caire JE 48862 et 47086-47089,176-179,251-252,265-269;Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature III, 80. S' Blackman,in Hastings (ed.), Encyclopaediaof Religion and Ethics 10 (1918), 482. 52Galpaz-Feller, RevueBiblique 52 (1995), 509. 53Davies,ElAmarna II, 36 pl. XXXIII. 54Arnold, in Arnold (eds. ), Royal Women ofAmarna, 55.


bareheaded illustrate Amarna, in temples the a number of Karnak and tombs and of besides including also sometimes temple servants who are royal officials, cult and men, S6Serving the king was deemed a ritual task; for instance, the Royal bareheaded. shown His Lands. Two Hands Pure Priest the the title Re-mss-m of of Butler pr-Rc' attested is food to supervision, which attached servant private as a was responsibility main held he Since Hands. title the Pure rwy the also of epithet wrb probably associatedwith 57 in direct it is Majesty, His that Herald association Royal persons First suggested of hands including having level have king and clean to of purity, a certain needed with the heads. shaved

5.2.3. Waiting for the ushering in

58 in his found Great Herald King 7n-tf, tomb no. the the The stelaof whm-c3-n-nsw of he how indication III, Thutmosis from Naga, Abu Dra the time gives an 155 at of el in In in the a the palace. of ceremonies organisation and management role a played follows: be his to the as of eventswill sequences royal audience, role according in be the Calling they audience to them waiting a sitting position might as standup, aS9 arrangements. 6o b- Counting companions. 61 Arranging to their them rank. according c`silent the them d- Silencing their speech62 place'. entering preparing 63 e- Escorting them.

ss Mller, LA III, 291-292; Grieshammer, LA V, 212-213; Blackman, in Hastings (cd.), Encyclopaediaof Religion and Ethics 10 (1918), 476-482. 56Redford,TheAkhenatenTempleProject I, pls. 36-37. 5' Schulman, JARCE 13 (1976), 120; Schulman,CdE 61(1986), 198. 58PM I, 145. 59Urk IV, 967,6. 60Urk IV, 966,7. 61Urk IV, 966; 10-14. 62Urk IV, 967,12. The mention of silencein the presence of the king in his palaceis most interesting in the Israelite religion: `SinceYahmeh is in his temple, silence for this motion is also expressed beforehim, all the earth'. Habakkuk2:20. 63Urk IV, 966,6.


5.2.4. The moment of ushering in in is described in have a the Ushering people to meet or royal person an audience with Great Quban from for New Kingdom, the the the texts: stela; and example number of Abydos Inscription, and from the Middle Kingdom the prophesy of Nfr-ti. The person King `Seal-bearer in htmty-bity for the of the of people was ushering responsible Lower Egypt'. Although this function was typically the responsibility of the btmty-bity, the procedure of ushering in were also assumed by other officials such as whm-33-nnsw, palace officials or royal relatives.

from Armant (?) probably from the reign of NebhepetreA limestone stela64 Mentuhotep, belonging to Montuhotep Son of Hapy, refers to a code of behaviour: `He says,I was firm of foot, loyal, obedient,one to whom his lord gave his love. I was disrespectful ) free from tremor(? the not privy chamber, attentive, a great one of towards a powerful man.Love of me was in the bodies of the courtiers, the great ones him (I the there. presence the entered was) one who enthroned and who was palace, of low I bowing him, doorkeepers behind (with) lord his the the until great ones of (His) Majesty was'. the reached placewhere Montuhotep son of Hapy's main function was h3ty-eimy-r hmw ntr Mayor and Overseerof Priests.The text illustrates a man with high-ranking position. He leads in in his is he introduces king's them to the enthroned the great ones and audience,as bending in doorkeepers behave hall. their Upon the manner, a polite entering audience bodies in respectuntil the gathering reach the king's place denoting his that he was, highly respectedamong his peers.It is might also be regarded as a sort of protocol, involved in king's to the people upon ushering audience. was which

5.2.5. Attitude of recipients upon ushering in front of the king

Comparingtextual evidencewith pictorial evidenceit is concluded that the people's between; king's bellies, hands their to the their on stretching are raised attitude varies ka, praisingand kissing the ground in front of him 6' Also standingin the courtyard in . in joy hands kneeling but his their gesture a of and gratitude, or a still raising raising

64 The stela was purchasedby Petrie, it is now in the collection of University College, London numberedU.C. 14333; see Griffith, PSBA 18 (1896), 195; Goedicke,JEA 48 (1962), 25; Stewart, Egyptian StelaeII, no.86, pl. 18. 65Helck, Nfr. ti., 6; KRI II, 355,10; Ibid., II, 326,6-9.


66 instructions have been to in It king that, given hands towards the seems salutation. king. Bleiberg that before have the they asserts reasonably, audiences with the recipient , it is safe to assumethat no one ever approachedthe king without the appropriate 67 in details'. In the these general though understood rituals are not ritual gestures, described temple: those to purification, a entering of similar seem closely procedures limited access, gesturesof adorationand obeisance.
5.2.6. Place of ushering

in hallstrooms both d3dw two Three the Chapter the that In and w36yare we concluded how far Here throne the room took was rise a question we place. audiences which from better for A this to a comes to question answer example one? any access available Medinet is Ramesses III's temple at mortuary palacethrone room, which preservedat 68 follows: `Just having describe Hoffmeier the throne to to Habu. room as entry right inside the great pylon, to the left of the large court we find a small palace,which the In Thebes. in his the to to approach order western visits occupied usually monarch throne room, one would first have to passthrough the outer gateway, then proceed large Osirian into the the that the statues of the seven contains through court pylon, king, turn left and pass through a door. Once through this door one finds a smallBut lies Behind the throne this the room. court wall of southernmost pillared court. had So that the to this chamberwas via an entranceon one room. west side of access in left hallway left then through the again and a to turn right out of pillared court and 69 isolation is `segregated', That this this also room was to the throne room'. why holiness. it probably supplied with more privacy and Another question, which occurs, is how many people can get in the throne is described be In P. Boulaq 18 the to occupied with a group of officials w3hy room? 70 is be It they that also mentionedthat sixty personsor can given specialprovisions. so " in have In the time to the addition, offerings to assembled at same eat w36y. over
66Davies,ElAmarna VI, pl. XVII; I, pl. VI. 67Bleiberg,JARCE 21 (1984), 159. 68Holscher,Mortuary Templeof Ramses 111, pl, 2, fig. 22.

69Hoffineie4 Sacred in the vocabulary ofAncient Egypt, 179.

70 S 36,60, and 74 in Boulaq 18 Papyrus; Quirke, Administration of Egypt in the Late Middle Kingdom, 40. 71 S 60 and 74; cf. Fischer, GM 143 (1994), 47-48; Quirke, Administration of Egypt in the Late Middle Kingdom, 40.


72 in This Horusthe the gives picture of a chief w3hy. and are also offered gods -Montu Also, how does the throne room appearin pictorial hall of huge size and;significance., The Depictions show a raised platform with stairs, a chapel and a canopy. evidence? function of a daiswith a pavilion upon'it was to make the appearance of the ruler more, noticeableand magnificent: 'which we raise, is how things done r-gs the king does fit in The last question;, Old turn 4s The the the throne of end clause the r-gs. nsw occurs regularly at room?. Kingdom official 'document" The words ds nsw have been placed from the endingto ,: " is honorific ds for beginning the, a noun which the purposes. of clause,,, probably? mean 'which is `person', `himself ' and Faulkner" translate as, and which probably beside be `sealed the the the statement pronoun,, so: could read suffix` without written 76. is formula king'. denotes It the that the the the of presence physical argued of person king king"'orit'might of to the the meant ssert'that a' person -hascheckedand permitted Kush. The his decree',, decree in Amenhotep is King II to that, of viceroy sent a what hands his decree `Copy His Majesty to two the own text reads: of preparedwith which in Pharaoh His Majesty the of the Viceroy Wsr-S3tt. apartment private which was L. P.H., sitting drinking and making holiday'." The text is an obvious evidencefor the king decree by himself. the the presence of who wrote physical The questionfor royal audiencesis also one of scale and privacy. Were there large halls where public audiences take place?And a smaller `hall' where much more take `place? f `Y limited' audiences ' sort semi-private or confidential-business'. -could is between That contrast, a., more public -places of appearance,and more audience. in for large huge Were throne-rooms. there audiences courtyards,public places, private in 'audiences there real private rooms, which really private, personal public/army,were by d3dw to two categories referred not and w3hy? are

72 S 16,24 and 65. 73Goedicke, Knigliche Dokumente,12-13;James, Egyptian Stela I, pl 31; cf. Urk I, 172,11; 283, 18; 278,13. 74Gunn,ASAE 27 (1927), 230. 75CDME, 324. 76Edel,AltgyptischeGrammatik, 178. Cf. Helck, Altagyjtische Aktenkunde, 15-17. 77Goedicke, Knigliche Dokumente,12-13.For the formula in letters seeWente, Lettersfrom Ancient Egypt, 20-21. 711 Wente,Lettersfrom Ancient Egypt, 27-28.


5.2.7. The King's appearances in the audience hall Textual and pictorial evidence illustrate the king enthroned on the great throne79Here is king is between 1iry. The distinguish the two verb st3 used when verbs: st3 and we introduced is in his to the the are are ones the one who people who sitting place and him. A good example is the Westcar papyrus where the king proceeded to `the w3hy of king hall implies house' Ddl. This the there that to the great where was a special meet from in be for Another Ddi. the stela of the to comes example ready ushering of went . 8 in (schw)'. (st3) 7n-tf, `who ushers the nobles

8' in basically forth, "to The verb jf y means to appear glory, to arise', and shine
82 king The the as a god was also associated mythologicaly sun. primarily of was used to the sun, to `appear in splendour' on certain celebratory occasions. For example the is III Ramesses temple the situated at the centre of the eastern palace of window of face of this palace. It is designed with set of stairs behind is descending into a hall. hall III Ramesses through this come and ascend the stairs, would columned 83 denote in bry The the the the Y regularly as. rising sun. verb window appearing `His festivals. king At tribute: the the at ceremonies and reception of appearance of Majesty appeared in the midst of Thebes on the great dais to [receive] the marvels of 84 [this] army'. On the battlefield, `The king appeared early in the morning-His Majesty 85 in At king `The audience, appeared on the great a chariot electrum'. an of rode 86 seat'.

The questionwhich arisesis that, when it comesto a meetingbetweenthe king king does his into his his be for take the the people, place and ready st3 of people and is he is h5y has his There the taken or everybody no one who when else place. audience it between is king Itcy the two that the on verbs: acceptable appear would contradiction his throne and then people are introduced st3 to him. At the same time, when he

79Urk IV, 349,9-14; Davies, Tombsof Two Officials 8, pl. XIII; Davies, El Amarna VI, pl. XVII, VIII. 80Urk IV, 966,8-9. $" For translationsand discussions of hl"y,seeBadawi and Kees,Handwrterbuchder gyptischen Sprache,175; Cerny, VS 72 (1936), 109, n. 2; CDME, 185; Redford, history and Chronology, 3-27. $ZGardiner;Egyptian Grammar,489 (N 28). 83Holscher,Mortuary Templeof Ramses IN, p1.III. 84Urk IV, 1345. 85Urk IV, 657. 96Urk IV, 1022;cf. Urk IV, 1210.


he in front during his his of great number of people as army or coronation appears is for his after everything ready appearance. appears

5.2.8. The last stage before leaving In the stela of 7n-tf the text refers to him as one `Who guards (bwi) the foot from the 87 `who duties I (irt. then take this to their silence', and of guides everybody sn)'. place to mean he controls the movements where the king is. Possibly after the audience he 83 from king's the place. guides the audience out

Pictorial evidenceshows that the recipient, when receiving his honours, was helped by is a or person who seeneither rubbing his body with ointment89 sometimes fixing the necklacesaround his neck. Finally pictorial evidence sometimes shows following the recipientcarryingthe royal gifts. servants
5.2.9. A continuation of the narrative

being After depictions the tableaux of officials rewarded, continue a series of additional
is The by from being the recipient always shown emerging received narration. palace, his friends who congratulate him. His chariot is also waiting for him.90 Then he is 9' his house. shown going towards

S' Urk IV, 967,16. 88Urk IV, 967,14. 89Thompson, JNES 53 (1994), 15-25. 90Davies,ElAmarna III, pl. XVII. 91Gaballa,Narrative in Egyptian Art, 228.


5.3. Relationship based on the idea of 'Exchange'

It is acceptedthat the relationshipbetweenthe people and their king was built around 92 the actuality of exchange According to visual and textual evidence, one might distinguish between two categories of offerings; spiritual offerings and material offerings.
5.3.1. Spiritual offerings

In New Kingdom tombs, the tomb owner's posture in relation to. the king can be king. his him Examples donation from towards as. a person as a spiritual recognized 93 bowing kneeling but Texts between arms positions raised standing, and with vary homage different `paying through this t3 or relationshipaswell, phrasessuch as sn note kissingthe ground', where the tomb owner is expressinghis feeling as well as action of be before king. Personal the can offered to qualities as a spiritual offering obedience the king when they offer themselvesand their good activities as things that might himself b3k king. introduces For the tomb the owner as sometimes example, please 94 for help idea his his the the of subordinationand so need of servant, which stresses his ruler. One of the most important attributes is personal righteousnessand justice delight M3rt,9S to their king. The importanceof m3! t appears as a spiritual offering able followed by `justified', the the namesof through common use of epithet m3f-1zrw also the official. Tomb owners are also eagerto state the rights they have obtained,mainly due to their relationshipwith the king. The favour of the king is frequently expressed with the term hs1.96

5.3.2. Mattrial


The offering of materialthings is a basic feature of the relationshipbetweenthe people kings. In kings the the' gift-giving ceremonies, and established politically useful
I For the relation betweenthe peopleand their gods seeSadek,Popular Religion, 199-244. 93Dominicus, Gestenund Gebrden,61 p1.13 d-e. 94Seethe autobiography of Ttl on his stelaBM 614: PM 12,596; Blackman, JEA 17 (1931), 55-61, pl. VIII; Clere and Vandier, Textes de la premiere periode intermediaire, no. 20,15-17; Schenkel, Memphis.Herakleopolis. Theben,no. 75,103-107; Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature I, 90-93; Lichtheim, Autobiographies,46-49. 95Urk IV, 1997,13-16; Urk IV, 1999,3-9. 96Janssen, Traditioneeleegyptische Autobiografie I, 86; Schulman, CeremonialExecution, 116-149; Internazionale di Egittologia II, 116. Eyre's discussionin SestoCongresso


frequently their they communications officials, and relationships where with personal in festivals worthy officials public and sequentiallyreceivedNew Year's gifts rewarded
from officials and institutions.

for It is well understoodthat theseofferingswere madeto the king in exchange

97 life'. `breath The Gebel Barkal stela is a good example stressing this point, the the of text reads: `Once they brought their tribute to My Majesty, they were standing upon the walls, praising My Majesty so that the `breath of life' would be granted to them. My Majesty then allowed that their loyalty oaths be taken, by saying: "Never in our lives we will carry on a rebellion against Menkhepperre, our lord, since we have seen his might and he has given us breath according to his will". i98

Finally, we can say that the king was basically the ultimate source of authority in war and in peaceas all official actionswere basedon the power of the king and also by king. His relationship with his subjects, based on titles, textual, the approved pictorial, and archaeological evidence, reflects this social, cultural and political relationship.

97Brack and Brack, Grab des Tjanuni, pl. 31. 98Urk IV, 1235,13- 1236,1.


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