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P&LIT3<=I< S;LTA= AB8;L DALIE E;FA8GAE SDAD 5:555 HITIA- <38AD E3CDA=ICAL 3=7I=33II=7 83PAITE3=T JJ50"#ENGINEERING LAB % PRACTICAL

RUBRIC

)* PRACTICAL TASK i. Tec!nical S*ill Jpsyc!omotor#(5 mar*s% CRITERIA NEED IMPRO+EMENT &)( Safety procedures )ere ignored. SATIS'ACTOR$ &2( Lab is carried out )it! some attention to rele,ant safety procedures. 3"periment need for maLor adLustment to )or* GOOD &%( Lab is generally carried out )it! attention to rele,ant safety procedures. 3"periment need for minor adLustment to )or* E6CELLENCE &-( Lab is carried out )it! fully attention to rele,ant safety procedures. 3"periment )or* properly SCORE

SA'ET$

CCCK (. > .

E6PERIMENT SETUP ? COMPLETENESS

3"periment are not )or*ing

CCC K (. > .

SCORE

ii. Leaders!ip & Team)or* S*ill #$5 mar*s% CRITERIA NEED IMPRO+EMENT &)( Inacti,e participate members. Tas* assigned indi,idually. SATIS'ACTOR$ &2( GOOD &%( E6CELLENCE &-( SCORE

TEAM:ORK SKILLS

Fe) members participate acti,ely. Tas*s are assigned to fe) members.

Eost members contribute. Tas* are assigned to some members.

All members ta*e an acti,e role. Tas*s are defined by t!e group and assigned to all members.

CCC K (. > .

PARTICIPATION

=e,er )illing to participate or ,olunteer information or opinion. =e,er able to respond to +uestions or issues raised.

Iarely )illing to participate or ,olunteer information or opinion. Iarely responds to +uestions or issues raised but often create issues.

&ften )illing to participate occasionally ,olunteer information or opinion. &ccasionally responds to +uestions and contribute opinion to issues raised.

Al)ays )illing to participate and consistently ,olunteer information or opinion. Fre+uently gi,e +uic* responds to +uestions or issues raised.

CCCK (. > .

CONTRIBUTIONS

Iarely pro,ides useful ideas )!en participating in t!e group and in classroom discussion. Eay refuse to participate.

Sometimes pro,ides useful ideas )!en participating in t!e group and in classroom discussion. A satisfactory group member )!o does )!at is re+uired.

;sually pro,ides useful ideas )!en participating in t!e group and in classroom discussion. A strong group member )!o tries !ardM Iarely arri,e late or unprepared.

Ioutinely pro,ides useful ideas )!en participating in t!e group and in classroom discussion. A leader )!o contributes a lot of effort. Al)ays arri,e on time and prepared. SCORE

CCCK (. > .

DEMONSTRATE GOOD MANNERS

&ften arri,e late and rarely prepared.

&ccasionally arri,e late or unprepared.

CC K (. > .

2* TECHNICAL REPORT #$5 mar*s% CRITERIA NEED IMPRO+EMENT &)( Presentation of t!e data in tables or grap!s is done correctly and accordingly. 7rap!s and tables are labeled and titled. All calculations are s!o)n and t!e result are correct and labeled appropriately. Analy e t!e findings. 3"plain t!e trends and oddities in t!e data. Analy e t!e findings. 3"plain t!e trends and oddities in t!e data. Conclusion includes )!et!er t!e findings supported t!e !ypot!esispossible sources of error- and )!at )as learned from t!e e"periment. SATIS'ACTOR$ &2( Accurate presentation of data in tables or grap!s. 7rap!s and tables are labeled and titled. Some calculations are s!o)n and t!e result are correct and labeled appropriately. 3"plain t!e trends and oddities in t!e data. GOOD &%( Accurate presentation of data in )ritten form- but no grap!s or tables is presented. Some calculations are s!o)n and t!e result labeled appropriately. 3"plain ,ery briefly t!e trends and oddities in t!e data. 3"plain ,ery briefly t!e trends and oddities in t!e data. Conclusions includes )!at )as learned from t!e e"periment. E6CELLENCE &-( 8ata are not s!o)n &I are inaccurate. CCCCK (.5. SCORE

DATA

CALCULATIONS

=o calculations are s!o)n.

CCCK (. 5 .

DISCUSSION &1(

=eeds to e"plain trends and oddities in t!e data. =eeds to e"plain trends and oddities in t!e data. =o conclusion )as included in t!e report.

CCCK (. 5 .

DISCUSSION&11(

3"plain t!e trends and oddities in t!e data.

CCC K (. 5 .

CONCLUSION

Conclusion includes )!et!er t!e findings supported t!e !ypot!esis and )!at )as learned from t!e e"periment.

CCCCK (.5 .

SCORE TOTAL SCORE

POLITEKNIK SULTAN ABDUL HALIM MUADZAM SHAH 06000 JITRA, KEDAH MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

LABSHEET JJ508 JJ508 ENGINEERING LABORATORY 3

MECHANIC OF MACHINE THERMODYNAMICS 2 METALLURGY 2

POLITEKNIK SULTAN ABDUL HALIM MUADZAM SHAH 06000 JITRA, KEDAH MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

MECHANIC OF MACHINE
EXPERIMENT 1: BELT FRICTION EXPERIMENT 2: COMPOUND PENDULUM 1 EXPERIMENT 2: COMPOUND PENDULUM 2

POLITEKNIK SULTAN ABDUL HALIM MUADZAM SHAH JABATAN KEJURUTERAAN MEKANIKAL

ENGINEERING LABORATORY 3 JJ508


TITLE EXPERIMENT PROGRAMME LECTURER NAME
DATE

A. STUDENT GROUP NO. NAME REGISTRATION NUMBER

B. MARKS: SCORE TECHNICAL REPORT RUBRIC PROCEDURES DIAGRAMS DATA CALCULATIONS ANALYSIS/DISCUSSION ERROR ANALYSIS QUESTIONS CONCLUSION TOTAL MARKS (%) 1 3 ! x 1.0 x 1.0 x 1.0 x 2.0 x 2.0 x 1.0 x 1.0 x 1.0 TOTAL "!0#$

POLITEKNIK SULTAN ABDUL HALIM MUADZAM SHAH 06000 JITRA, KEDAH DARUL AMAN JABATAN KEJURUTERAAN MEKANIKAL

Page Laboratory Practise Semester Programme Time

: ENGINEERING MECHANICS : : 5 DKM5A/5B/5C/5D/5E

: 2 HOURS per ee!

Code & Course : JJ 50"# ENGINEERING LABORATOR$ % &MECHANIC O' MACHINE(

)*0 TITLE Belt Friction Apparatus

2*0 OBJECTI+E, i. To determine different type of belts friction. ii. To compare different type of belts friction. iii. Influence of belt force and angle of contact.

%*0 COURSE LEARNING OUTCOME i. ii. iii. Analy e critically t!e e"perimental data in relation to t!e t!eoretical aspects. #C$% &rgani e appropriately electrical and engineering mec!anics e"periments in groups according to t!e standard of procedures. #P$% 'rite critically t!e appropriate report in group based on t!e e"periment results. #A(%

-*0 INTRODUCTION Be./ is a fle"ible band )!ic! is in po)er transmission. It is able to transfer t!e po)er from one point to t!e ot!er points )it! minimum po)er loss. T!e belt is able to )or* smoot!ly and +uietly e,en )it!out t!e re+uirement of lubrication. Be./ 0r12/134 is a term describing t!e friction forces bet)een a belt and a surface- suc! as a belt )rapped around a bollard. '!en one end of t!e belt is being pulled only part of t!is force is transmitted to t!e ot!er end. T!e friction force ma*es t!at t!e tension in t!e belt can be different at bot! ends of t!e belt. Belt friction can be modeled by t!e Belt friction e+uation. T!e e+uation used to model belt friction is- assuming t!e belt !as no mass and its material is a fi"ed composition. 01.*ose*.2 01 +#Be./ , T( . T/e '.5/ Be./ , T( . T/e )!ere is t!e tension of t!e pulling side- )!ic! is typically t!e greater forceis t!e tension of t!e resisting sideis

t!e static friction coefficient- )!ic! !as no units- and is t!e angle- in radians formed by t!e first and last spots t!e belt touc!es t!e pulley- )it! t!e ,erte" at t!e center of t!e pulley.

5*0 E6PERIMENT DIAGRAM

'178re ), 3"perimental Setup For Belt Friction Apparatus

'3r98.5, 01.*ose*.2 +#Be./ , T( . T/e 01 '.5/ Be./ , T( . T/e :;ere,

1 : convert to radian unit.

6*0 APPARATUS,

i. ii. iii. i,.

LS4/(55/4BF Belt Friction Apparatus main frame. 64belt. Flat Belt Spring scales.

<*0 PROCEDURES i. ii. iii. i,. ,. ,i. ,ii. ,iii. i". ". "i. Place t!e LS4/(55/4BF Belt Friction Apparatus on a le,el table. Fi" t!e belt brac*ets to bot! end of t!e 64belt. Tig!ten it by scre)s. Fi" bot! ends of t!e belt brac*ets to spring scales. &ne end is normal spring scale #A% )!ile t!e ot!er end is spring scale )it! scre) strut #3%. Tig!ten it )it! scre)s and nuts. &pen t!e safety acrylic door using t!e door !andle. #Do not open the door using the bottom right end as it may break the acrylic) Insert t!e spring scale scre) strut into t!e inner side !ole of t!e scre) strut !older #F%. Tig!ten it )it! )ing nut #7%. #Do not fully tighten the wing nut) 5 5 Place t!e spring scale to t!e spring scale !older #8% at desirable angle #i.e. 95 - :5 %. Close t!e safety acrylic door. Apply t!e load to 64belt by turning t!e )ing nut. ;se a !and to !old t!e scre) strut )!ile t!e ot!er !ands to turn t!e )ing nut. <eep an eye on t!e spring scale reading. Turn t!e )ing nuts until t!e load apply reac!ed desirable ,alue. Ta*e t!e reading at t!e ot!er spring scale and record it into t!e table. Loosen t!e )ing nut and repeat t!e e"periment )it! ot!er angles. #Do not repeat with the angle close to previous angle as this would not give significant difference).

"*0 RESULTS,

Angle # % $> ?5 /@5

Spring Scale / #=%

Spring Scale ( #=%

Coefficient of Friction- 0

TABL3 /: 64B3LT

Angle # % $> ?5 /@5

Spring Scale / #=%

Spring Scale ( #=%

Coefficient of Friction- 0

TABL3 (: FLAT4B3LT

=*0 CALCULATIONS,

)0*0

DISCUSSION,

From t!is e"perimentA i. '!at is t!e different bet)een t!e 64belt and Flat beltB CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC

ii.

Briefly describe your obser,ation on belts friction )it! respect to t!e position angle. CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC

))*0

CONCLUSION,

CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

POLITEKNIK SULTAN ABDUL HALIM MUADZAM SHAH JABATAN KEJURUTERAAN MEKANIKAL

ENGINEERING LABORATORY 3 JJ508


TITLE EXPERIMENT PROGRAMME LECTURER NAME
DATE

A. STUDENT GROUP NO. NAME REGISTRATION NUMBER

B. MARKS: SCORE TECHNICAL REPORT RUBRIC PROCEDURES DIAGRAMS DATA CALCULATIONS ANALYSIS/DISCUSSION ERROR ANALYSIS QUESTIONS CONCLUSION TOTAL MARKS (%) 1 3 ! x 1.0 x 1.0 x 1.0 x 2.0 x 2.0 x 1.0 x 1.0 x 1.0 TOTAL "!0#$

POLITEKNIK SULTAN ABDUL HALIM MUADZAM SHAH 06000 JITRA, KEDAH DARUL AMAN JABATAN KEJURUTERAAN MEKANIKAL

Page Laboratory Practise Semester Programme Time

: ENGINEERING MECHANICS : : 5 DKM5A/5B/5C/5D/5E

: 2 HOURS pe !ee"

Code & Course : JJ 50#$ ENGINEERING LABORATOR% & 'MECHANIC O( MACHINE)

*+0 TITLE Compound Pendulum (Frequency of the rod motion)

2+0 OBJECTI,Ei To determine the frequency of motion of a compound pendulum

&+0 COURSE LEARNING OUTCOME i ii iii !naly"e critically the e#perimental data in relation to the theoretical aspects (C$) %rgani"e appropriately electrical and engineering mechanics e#periments in groups according to the standard of procedures (P$) &rite critically the appropriate report in group based on the e#periment results (!')

.+0 INTRODUCTION ! compound pendulum( in its simplest form( consists of a rigid body suspended )ertically at a point *hich allo*s it to oscillates in small amplitude under the action of gra)ity Consider a bar suspended at point % and is free to oscillate

5+0 E/PERIMENT DIAGRAM

Centre of Suspension

Rod

Screw to tightened bob weight against the rod

Bob weight

(012 e *- +#perimental Setup For Compound and Simple Pendulum

! compound Pendulum % is the point of suspension , is the centre of gra)ity m is the mass of the body - is the angular displacement . is the angular acceleration /0 is the mass moment of inertia of the body &hen the body is gi)en a small displacement -( the restoring moment about % to bring the body bac1 to its equilibrium position is gi)en by: 2estoring moment( 3r 4 m5g5h sin 6isturbing moment( 3d 4 /0 5 . Since - is small( sin - 4 -( therefore7 m5g5h - 4 /0 5 . . 4 (m5g5h -) 8 /0 periodic 9me 4 ': 5 ; (6isplacement 8 accelera9on) 4 ': 5 ; (- 8 .) 4 ': 5 ; </0 8 (m5g5h)= Frequency of motion( n 4 >8 (periodic time) 4 (>8':) 5 ; < (m5g5h) 8 /0= From parallel a#is theorem( ' /0 4 /g ? mh ' /g 4 m 1 &here 1 is the radius of gyration

6+0 APPARATUS-

i ii

! simple compound pendulum consisting of a rod and a cylindrical bob *eight ! stop *atch

7+0 PROCEDURES

/ /f the bob *eight is attached to the rod( remo)e it // 3easure and record the diameter of the rod at least at @ locations /// 3easure and record the length of the rod to obtain the position of centre of gra)ity /A 3easure and record the distance the point of suspension from the end of the rod (close to the point of suspension) A &eigh and record the *eight of the rod A/ Bang the rod at the point of suspension A// Ta1e a stop*atch and set it to "ero Familiari"ed yourself *ith the operation of the stop*atch A/// 6isplace the rod at a small angle /C 2elease the rod and start the stop*atch simultaneously C Stop the *atch after the rod has e#cuted @ cycles of oscillations C/ 2ecord this time in the Table pro)ided C// 2epeat step D to >0 for a fe* more times to get the a)erage readings of time o)er @ oscillations C/// 2emo)e the rod and hang it at a ne* point of suspension 3easure and record the distance the point of suspension from the end of the rod (close to the point of suspension) C/A 2epeat step E to >'

#+0 2+SFLTS &eight of rod 4 1g Length of rod 4 m 6istance of point of suspension from the top end of the rod

2eading >

2eading '

2od 6iameter (m) 2eading G 2eading $

2eading @

!)erage

T!HL+ >: !A+2!,+ 6/!3+T+2 %F 2%6

No. of Oscillations

Time 1 sec

Time 2 sec

Average Time sec

5 10 15 20

T!HL+ ': T/3+ %F %SC/LL!T/%I

Plot the graph of a)erage time As no of oscillations Plot the trend cur)e (best fit cur)e) *ith equations Slope of the graph represents the periodic time Time per cycle(oscillation)( periodic time 4 sec Calculate the mass moment of inertia about the point of suspension Calculate the theoretical periodic time and hence the frequency of motion

3+0 CALCULATIONS-

*0+0

DISCUSSION-

From this e#periment7 i. What is the frequency of motion when the distance of the point of suspension from the centre of gravity of the rod is decrease? JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ

ii

Hriefly describe your obser)ation on pendulum *ith respect to the position angle JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ

**+0

CONCLUSION-

JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ 4444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444 JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ 4444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444

POLITEKNIK SULTAN ABDUL HALIM MUADZAM SHAH JABATAN KEJURUTERAAN MEKANIKAL

ENGINEERING LABORATORY 3 JJ508


TITLE EXPERIMENT PROGRAMME LECTURER NAME
DATE

A. STUDENT GROUP NO. NAME REGISTRATION NUMBER

B. MARKS: SCORE TECHNICAL REPORT RUBRIC PROCEDURES DIAGRAMS DATA CALCULATIONS ANALYSIS/DISCUSSION ERROR ANALYSIS QUESTIONS CONCLUSION TOTAL MARKS (%) 1 3 ! x 1.0 x 1.0 x 1.0 x 2.0 x 2.0 x 1.0 x 1.0 x 1.0 TOTAL "!0#$

POLITEKNIK SULTAN ABDUL HALIM MUADZAM SHAH 06000 JITRA, KEDAH DARUL AMAN JABATAN KEJURUTERAAN MEKANIKAL

Page Laboratory Practise Semester Programme Time

: ENGINEERING MECHANICS : : 5 DKM5A/5B/5C/5D/5E

: 2 HOURS pe !ee"

Code & Course : JJ 50#$ ENGINEERING LABORATOR% & 'MECHANIC O( MACHINE)

*+0 TITLE Compound Pendulum (Frequency of the rod motion with bob weight

2+0 OBJECTI,Ei! To determine the frequency of motion of a compound pendulum!

&+0 COURSE LEARNING OUTCOME i! ii! iii! "naly#e critically the e$perimental data in relation to the theoretical aspects! (C% &rgani#e appropriately electrical and engineering mechanics e$periments in groups according to the standard of procedures! (P% 'rite critically the appropriate report in group based on the e$periment results! ("(

.+0 INTRODUCTION " compound pendulum) in its simplest form) consists of a rigid body suspended *ertically at a point which allows it to oscillates in small amplitude under the action of gra*ity! Consider a bar suspended at point & and is free to oscillate!

5+0 E/PERIMENT DIAGRAM

Centre of Suspension

Rod

Screw to tightened bob weight against the rod

Bob weight

(012 e *- +$perimental Setup For Compound and Simple Pendulum

" compound Pendulum & is the point of suspension , is the centre of gra*ity m is the mass of the body - is the angular displacement . is the angular acceleration /0 is the mass moment of inertia of the body 'hen the body is gi*en a small displacement -) the restoring moment about & to bring the body bac? to its equilibrium position is gi*en by: 1estoring moment) 2r 3 m4g4h sin 5isturbing moment) 2d 3 /0 4 . Since - is small) sin - 3 -) therefore6 m4g4h - 3 /0 4 . . 3 (m4g4h - 7 /0 periodic 8me 3 (9 4 : (5isplacement 7 acceleration 3 (9 4 : (- 7 . 3 (9 4 : ;/0 7 (m4g4h < Frequency of motion) n 3 =7 (periodic time 3 (=7(9 4 : ; (m4g4h 7 /0< From parallel a$is theorem) ( /0 3 /g > mh ( /g 3 m ? 'here ? is the radius of gyration

6+0 APPARATUS-

i! ii!

" simple compound pendulum consisting of a rod and a cylindrical bob weight! " stop watch

7+0 PROCEDURES

I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. XI. XII.

Take the bob weight and weight it. Record its weight Measure and record the diameter of the bob weight to obtain the position of centre of gravity. Measure and record the thickness of the bob weight. Decide the position of the bob weight on the rod. Insert the rod through the hole in the bob weight until the decided location. Tightened the screw on the bob weigth against the rod to hold the bob weight in position. Measure the distance of the centre of gravity of the bob weight from the point of suspension Take a stopwatch and set it to zero. Familiarized yourself with the operation of the stopwatch. Displace the rod at a small angle. Release the rod and start the stopwatch simultaneously. Stop the watch after the rod has excited 5 cycles of oscillations. Repeat step 8 to 11 for a few more times to get the average readings of time over the measured oscillations.

XIII. XIV. XV.

Record the time in the Table provided. Repeat step 10 to 11 for 10, 15 and 20 oscillations. Repeat with a few more positions of the bob weight.

#+0 1+S@LTS 'eight of rod 3 ?g Length of rod 3 m 5istance of point of suspension from the top end of the rod

1eading =

1eading (

1od 5iameter (m 1eading A 1eading %

1eading B

"*erage

T"CL+ =: "D+1",+ 5/"2+T+1 &F 1&5

No. of Oscillations

Time 1 sec

Time 2 sec

Average Time sec

5 10 15 20

T"CL+ (: T/2+ &F &SC/LL"T/&E

Plot the graph of a*erage time Ds no of oscillations Plot the trend cur*e (best fit cur*e with equations! Slope of the graph represents the periodic time Time per cycle(oscillation ) periodic time 3 sec Calculate the mass moment of inertia about the point of suspension Calculate the theoretical periodic time and hence the frequency of motion!

3+0 CALCULATIONS-

*0+0

DISCUSSION-

From this e$periment6 i. What is the frequency of motion when the bob weight is added to the rod? FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF

ii!

What is the frequency of motion when the bob weight moves closer to the point of suspension? FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF

**+0

CONCLUSION-

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POLITEKNIK SULTAN ABDUL HALIM MUADZAM SHAH 06000 JITRA, KEDAH MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

THERMODYNAMICS 2
EXPERIMENT 1: VALVE TIMING EXPERIMENT 2: HEAT EXCHANGER 1 EXPERIMENT 3: HEAT EXCHANGER 2

POLITEKNIK SULTAN ABDUL HALIM MUADZAM SHAH JABATAN KEJURUTERAAN MEKANIKAL

ENGINEERING LABORATORY 3 JJ508


TITLE EXPERIMENT PROGRAMME LECTURER NAME
DATE

A. STUDENT GROUP NO. NAME REGISTRATION NUMBER

B. MARKS: SCORE TECHNICAL REPORT RUBRIC PROCEDURES DIAGRAMS DATA CALCULATIONS ANALYSIS/DISCUSSION ERROR ANALYSIS QUESTIONS CONCLUSION TOTAL MARKS (%) 1 3 ! x 1.0 x 1.0 x 1.0 x 2.0 x 2.0 x 1.0 x 1.0 x 1.0 TOTAL "!0#$

POLITEKNIK SULTAN ABDUL HALIM MUADZAM SHAH 06000 JITRA, KEDAH DARUL AMAN

Page

:4

Laboratory Practise: EXPERIMENT 1 Semester Programme Duration :5 : DKM : 2 Hours per week

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Mekanikal

Code & Course: JJ508 ENGINEERING LAB 3

VALVE TIMING (4 stroke) 1. PRACTICE: Valve Timing 2. OBJECTIVE The objectives are: i.students may know how valve timing works ii.students know how to determine the valve timing of a 4-stroke reciprocating engine iii.students able to construct the valve timing diagram 3. COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES : i. Analyse critically data of the experimental data in ralaton to the theoretical aspects. ii. Organize appropriately experiments in groups according to the standard of procedures. iii. Write critically the appropriate report based on the experiment results. 4. THEORY Figure 1 show a typical valve timing diagram and the associated terminology for example.

Figure 1

POLITEKNIK SULTAN ABDUL HALIM MUADZAM SHAH 06000 JITRA, KEDAH DARUL AMAN

Page

:4

Laboratory Practise: EXPERIMENT 1 Semester Programme Duration :5 : DKM : 2 Hours per week

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Mekanikal

Code & Course: JJ508 ENGINEERING LAB 3

A= inlet valve lead B=inlet valve lag C= exhaust valve lead D= exhaust valve lag A+D= valve overlap The sequence of opening and closing the inlet and exhaust valve is designed to increase the breathing or volumetric efficiency, of the engine, and achieved by arrangement of the valve train components, in particular the cam drive and shape of the cam lobes.

However, since the timing does not vary with the speed engine, the maximum charging and scavenging of the cylinder during a cycle are obtained only around a certain engine speed. Consequently, a racing engine with large valve leads and lags which will permit good volumetric efficiency at high speed must have a relatively high idling speed and economical fuel consumption at the lower engine speed.

5. APPARATUS: The apparatus needed are: a. single clylinder 4-stroke spark ignition engine b. dial indicator c. magnetic base d. masking tape e. pen knivel f. sciencetific calculator 6. METHOD a. Expose the flywheel and the valve by removing the flywheel cover and the cylinder head. b. Attach masking tape around the circumference of the flywheel c. Using a suitable datum on the cylinder block, mark TDC and BDC on the masking tape by observing the position of piston in the selected cylinder as flywheel is turned over.

d. Identify the inlet and exhaust valve and determine the direction of rotation of the engine. e. Set up the dial indicator with the magnetic base on the top of the block. the shaft of the indicator should rest on the appropriate valve whose opening and closing to be observed. f. Turn the flywheel clocewise slowly by hand and proceed to mark on the masking tape the point in the circle when inlet valve opens, inlet valve closes , exhaust valve opens and exhaust valve closes respectively.

g. Remove the masking tape and measure the valve leads and lags. h. Constuct the valve-timing diagram using the cardboard.

POLITEKNIK SULTAN ABDUL HALIM MUADZAM SHAH 06000 JITRA, KEDAH DARUL AMAN

Page

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Laboratory Practise: EXPERIMENT 1 Semester Programme Duration :5 : DKM : 2 Hours per week

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Mekanikal

Code & Course: JJ508 ENGINEERING LAB 3

5. OBSERVATION Calculate length of masking tape (l) : length from inlet valve open (IVO) to inlet valve close (IVC) (a) : length from inlet valve close (IVC) to ignition time (IG) (b) : length from ignition time (IG) to exhaust valve open (EVO) : length from exhaust valve open (EVO) to exhaust valve close (EVC) (e): length from inlet valve open (IVO) to exhaust valve close (EVO) (d) : Calculate the valves duration for: a) induction stroke b) compression stroke c) power stroke d) exhaust stroke e) overlap

mm. mm. mm. mm. mm. mm

6. DISCUSSION a. Draw the valve-timing diagram

POLITEKNIK SULTAN ABDUL HALIM MUADZAM SHAH 06000 JITRA, KEDAH DARUL AMAN

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Laboratory Practise: EXPERIMENT 1 Semester Programme Duration :5 : DKM : 2 Hours per week

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Mekanikal

Code & Course: JJ508 ENGINEERING LAB 3

b) Conclusion

REFERENCES:

POLITEKNIK SULTAN ABDUL HALIM MUADZAM SHAH JABATAN KEJURUTERAAN MEKANIKAL

ENGINEERING LABORATORY 3 JJ508


TITLE EXPERIMENT PROGRAMME LECTURER NAME
DATE

A. STUDENT GROUP NO. NAME REGISTRATION NUMBER

B. MARKS: SCORE TECHNICAL REPORT RUBRIC PROCEDURES DIAGRAMS DATA CALCULATIONS ANALYSIS/DISCUSSION ERROR ANALYSIS QUESTIONS CONCLUSION TOTAL MARKS (%) 1 3 ! x 1.0 x 1.0 x 1.0 x 2.0 x 2.0 x 1.0 x 1.0 x 1.0 TOTAL "!0#$

POLYTHECNIC SULTAN ABDUL HALIM MUADZAM SHAH 06000 JITRA, KEDAH DARUL AMAN
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Page

:5

Laboratory Practise: EXPERIMENT 2 (THERMODYNAMICS 2) Semester Programme Duration :5 : DKM / DMK / DJL / DTP / DEM : 2 Hours per week

Code & Course: JJ508 ENGINEERING LAB 3

1.0 TITLE: SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER 2.0 OBJECTIVES: i. ii. iii. iv. Calculate heat transfer rate, Q. Determined the overall coefficient of heat transition, U ( kW/m K ) Examine the effect of fluid exchanger rate to the coefficient value, U and heat transfer rate, Q. Describe the differences of heat transfer rate between one way flow ( co-current ) and opposite flow ( countercurrent ). v. vi. Define efficiency of heat transfer process To compare heat transfer rate for different method.
2

3.0 COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES : i. ii. iii. Conduct appropriately experiments in groups according to the standard of procedures. Analyse critically the data of the experimental data in relation to the theoretical aspects. Write critically the appropriate report based on the experiment results.

4.0 INTRODUCTION: Purpose of heat exchangers Heat exchangers are used for heat transfer between two media. The media do not come into direct contact and there is no mixing. Heat is transported from the hot medium to the cold medium by way of a heat-conducting partition. Some examples of heat exchangers are car radiators ( media : water / air ), oil coolers (media : oil / air or water ) and cooling coils in refrigerators ( media : air / refrigerant ). The Heat Exchangers Service Unit uses water for both media.

Function of heat exchangers As it flow along the partition, the hot medium emits heat to the partition and cools down in doing so. In turn, the heated partition passes heat to the cold medium flowing along the other side of the partition. This medium is thus heated. The heat transfer process at the partition can therefore can be described in term of three separate stage :

i. ii. iii.

Hot medium emits heat to the partition. partition conducts heat from the hot surface to the cold surface. partition emits heat to the cold medium.

Figure 1.1 provides a schematic view of the temperature profile at the partition. Each of the three heat-transfer stage is assigned a temperature difference T1 , TW and T2. The efficiency of a heat exchangers is determined by the level of heat transport in the three heat-transfer stages.

Hot side Medium 1 T1 TW1 TW2 T2 T1 TW T2

partition

Cool side Medium 2

s Distance Fig. 1.1 Temperature profile with heat transfer and heat conduction at partition

Temperature C 0 20 40 60 80 100

Water (H20) physical properties Density 3 K [kg/dm ] 273 0.9998 293 0.9982 313 0.9921 333 0.9830 353 0.9720 373 0.9580

Specific Heat Capacity, Cp [kJ/kg.K] 4.220 4.183 4.178 4.191 4.199 4.216

Related Formulas: i. ii. Mass flowrate, [kg/s] = vc Cp Th Cp (Th-in Th-out) Cp Tc Cp (Tc-in Tc-out) [kJ/s] = (Qh + Qc )/2

Heat supplied, Qh [kJ/s] = = Heat recieved, Qc [kJ/s] = = Average heat transferred,

iii.

iv.

v.

Tm [ C] = ( Tmax Tmin ) / ln (Tmax/Tmin) For uni-directional flow; Tmax = (Th-in Tc-in) Tmin = (Th-out Tc-out) = U Am Tm 2 U [kJ/m sK] = / (Am Tm )

vi.

Heat profile for uni-directional flow T1 T2 Tmax Tmin

T4

T3

5.0 APPARATUS: i. ii. iii. Heat Exchanger Services Unit Shell and tube Medium- pipe water

Apparatus specification 2 Heat Exchanger Type Area, Amin [m ] Shell and tube 0.0200 Tubular 0.0227 Plat 0.0400

6.0 PROCEDURES: A. Heating of hot-water tank .

i. ii. iii. iv.

Check of water level in tank and top up if necessary. Switch on master switch. Set the desired hot-water temperature at temperature controller. Switch on heater. Heating from an ambient temperature of 20 0 to 60 0 C requires approx. 20 min. While heating up start with bleeding procedure.

B. Bleeding of heat exchanger i. Set uniflow or counter-current by connecting hose with base apparatus. Only change cold-water hoses! Otherwise there is a danger of scalding! ii. Set a high cold-water flow rate with flow control valve ( 4 L/ min ). Allow water to run until no more bubbles are visible. iii. iv. v. Switch on pump. Use flow - control valve to set high hot-water flow rate. Allow water to run briefly. Carefully open bleeder valve for hot water flow and allow water to run for a short while.

C. Experiment i. ii. Set desired hot flow rates, Vh at flow-control valve same as in the table 1. Set the first rates for cold water , Vc . Wait until Thermal equilibrium is attained or stable. Take Flow rates value in the table 1. iii. iv. Take the inlet and outlet temperature readings for hot and cold flow. Repeat the step above with changes the cold flow rates at low value.

7.0 RESULTS: i. ii. Complete the result in the table 1 by using the data table given. Sketch the temperature profile for the both flow.

8.0 DISCUSSIONS: i. ii. iii. Sketch the schematic diagram of heat exchanger which its shows the directions of liquid flow. It is the outlet heat energy same with the inlet heat energy. Describes. What is the effect of the heat exchanger flow rate to heat transfer rate and overall coefficient heat transition value, U. iv. Describe the effect of flow direction changes to heat transfer operation and its relationship with the design aspect. 9.0 CONCLUSION : Conclude the short conclusion / result that you get with refers to the experiment objectives.

REFERENCES:

APPENDIX 1 Heat exchanger type: TABLE 1 Unidirectional flo *pecific Heat +apacity !+ ,ater Den-ity ,ater )a-flo rate !) Heat -.pplied ! /h Heat recei"ed ! /c A"erage heat tran-ferred Heat tran-fer coefficient! U 23,()%&56

Hot flo rate! "# $ %&' L()in

0T)

Note

No & 1 % 7

+ool flo rate! "c

Tc1in

Tc1o.t

Th1in

Th1o.t

234(3g&56

23g()76

23g(-6

234(-6

234(-6

234(-6

28+6

POLITEKNIK SULTAN ABDUL HALIM MUADZAM SHAH JABATAN KEJURUTERAAN MEKANIKAL

ENGINEERING LABORATORY 3 JJ508


TITLE EXPERIMENT PROGRAMME LECTURER NAME
DATE

A. STUDENT GROUP NO. NAME REGISTRATION NUMBER

B. MARKS: SCORE TECHNICAL REPORT RUBRIC PROCEDURES DIAGRAMS DATA CALCULATIONS ANALYSIS/DISCUSSION ERROR ANALYSIS QUESTIONS CONCLUSION TOTAL MARKS (%) 1 3 ! x 1.0 x 1.0 x 1.0 x 2.0 x 2.0 x 1.0 x 1.0 x 1.0 TOTAL "!0#$

POLYTHECNIC SULTAN ABDUL HALIM MUADZAM SHAH 06000 JITRA, KEDAH DARUL AMAN
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Page

:5

Laboratory Practise: EXPERIMENT 3 (THERMODYNAMICS 2) Semester Programme Duration :5 : DKM / DMK / DJL / DTP / DEM : 2 Hours per week

Code & Course: JJ508 ENGINEERING LAB 3

1.0 TITLE: SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER 2.0 OBJECTIVES: i. ii. iii. iv. Calculate heat transfer rate, Q. Determined the overall coefficient of heat transition, U ( kW/m K ) Examine the effect of fluid exchanger rate to the coefficient value, U and heat transfer rate, Q. Describe the differences of heat transfer rate between one way flow ( co-current ) and opposite flow ( countercurrent ). v. vi. Define efficiency of heat transfer process To compare heat transfer rate for different method.
2

3.0 COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES : i. ii. iii. Conduct appropriately experiments in groups according to the standard of procedures. Analyse critically the data of the experimental data in relation to the theoretical aspects. Write critically the appropriate report based on the experiment results.

4.0 INTRODUCTION: Purpose of heat exchangers Heat exchangers are used for heat transfer between two media. The media do not come into direct contact and there is no mixing. Heat is transported from the hot medium to the cold medium by way of a heat-conducting partition. Some examples of heat exchangers are car radiators ( media : water / air ), oil coolers (media : oil / air or water ) and cooling coils in refrigerators ( media : air / refrigerant ). The Heat Exchangers Service Unit uses water for both media.

Function of heat exchangers As it flow along the partition, the hot medium emits heat to the partition and cools down in doing so. In turn, the heated partition passes heat to the cold medium flowing along the other side of the partition. This medium is thus heated. The heat transfer process at the partition can therefore can be described in term of three separate stage :

i. ii. iii.

Hot medium emits heat to the partition. partition conducts heat from the hot surface to the cold surface. partition emits heat to the cold medium.

Figure 1.1 provides a schematic view of the temperature profile at the partition. Each of the three heat-transfer stage is assigned a temperature difference T1 , TW and T2. The efficiency of a heat exchangers is determined by the level of heat transport in the three heat-transfer stages.

Hot side Medium 1 T1 TW1 TW2 T2 T1 TW T2

partition

Cool side Medium 2

s Distance Fig. 1.1 Temperature profile with heat transfer and heat conduction at partition

Temperature C 0 20 40 60 80 100

Water (H20) physical properties Density 3 K [kg/dm ] 273 0.9998 293 0.9982 313 0.9921 333 0.9830 353 0.9720 373 0.9580

Specific Heat Capacity, Cp [kJ/kg.K] 4.220 4.183 4.178 4.191 4.199 4.216

Related Formulas: i. ii. Mass flowrate, [kg/s] = vc Cp Th Cp (Th-in Th-out) Cp Tc Cp (Tc-in Tc-out) [kJ/s] = (Qh + Qc )/2

Heat supplied, Qh [kJ/s] = = Heat recieved, Qc [kJ/s] = = Average heat transferred,

iii.

iv.

v.

Tm [ C] = ( Tmax Tmin ) / ln (Tmax/Tmin) For counter-directional flow; Tmax = (Th-in Tc-out) Tmin = (Th-out Tc-in)

vi.

= U Am Tm 2 U [kJ/m sK] =

/ (Am Tm )

Heat profile for counter-directional flow

T1 T2 Tmax Tmin T4

T3

5.0 APPARATUS: i. ii. iii. Heat Exchanger Services Unit Shell and tube Medium- pipe water

Apparatus specification 2 Heat Exchanger Type Area, Amin [m ] Shell and tube 0.0200 Tubular 0.0227 Plat 0.0400

6.0 PROCEDURES: A. Heating of hot-water tank .

i. ii. iii. iv.

Check of water level in tank and top up if necessary. Switch on master switch. Set the desired hot-water temperature at temperature controller. Switch on heater. Heating from an ambient temperature of 20 0 to 60 0 C requires approx. 20 min. While heating up start with bleeding procedure.

B. Bleeding of heat exchanger i. Set uniflow or counter-current by connecting hose with base apparatus. Only change cold-water hoses! Otherwise there is a danger of scalding! ii. Set a high cold-water flow rate with flow control valve ( 4 L/ min ). Allow water to run until no more bubbles are visible. iii. iv. v. Switch on pump. Use flow - control valve to set high hot-water flow rate. Allow water to run briefly. Carefully open bleeder valve for hot water flow and allow water to run for a short while.

C. Experiment i. ii. iii. iv. v. Switch off the pump. change the flow direction from the co-current to counter-current. Only change cold water hoses. Switch on pump and rewind step above in experiment 1. take down the flow rates and temperatures reading in the table 1.

7.0 RESULTS: i. ii. Complete the result in the table 1 by using the data table given. Sketch the temperature profile for the both flow.

8.0 DISCUSSIONS: i. ii. iii. Sketch the schematic diagram of heat exchanger which its shows the directions of liquid flow. It is the outlet heat energy same with the inlet heat energy. Describes. What is the effect of the heat exchanger flow rate to heat transfer rate and overall coefficient heat transition value, U. iv. Describe the effect of flow direction changes to heat transfer operation and its relationship with the design aspect. 9.0 CONCLUSION : Conclude the short conclusion / result that you get with refers to the experiment objectives.

REFERENCES:

APPENDIX 1 Heat exchanger type: TABLE 1 Counter-directiona ! o" ,peci!ic Heat Capacity #C -ater Den.ity -ater +a.. ! o"rate #+ Heat .upp ied # /h Heat recei$ed # /c A$erage heat tran.!erred Heat tran.!er coe!!icient# 1 23-*+'(56

Hot ! o"rate# $% & '() L*+in

0T+

Note

No ( 1 ' 8

Coo ! o"rate# $c

Tc-in

Tc-out

Th-in

Th-out

234*3g(56

23g*L6

23g*.6

234*.6

234*.6

234*.6

27C6

POLITEKNIK SULTAN ABDUL HALIM MUADZAM SHAH 06000 JITRA, KEDAH MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

METALLURGY
EXPERIMENT 1: METALLOGRAPHY STRUCTURE EXPERIMENT 2: HARDNESS TESTING: ROCKWELL

POLITEKNIK SULTAN ABDUL HALIM MUADZAM SHAH JABATAN KEJURUTERAAN MEKANIKAL

ENGINEERING LABORATORY 3 JJ508


TITLE EXPERIMENT PROGRAMME LECTURER NAME
DATE

A. STUDENT GROUP NO. NAME REGISTRATION NUMBER

B. MARKS: SCORE TECHNICAL REPORT RUBRIC PROCEDURES DIAGRAMS DATA CALCULATIONS ANALYSIS/DISCUSSION ERROR ANALYSIS QUESTIONS CONCLUSION TOTAL MARKS (%) 1 3 ! x 1.0 x 1.0 x 1.0 x 2.0 x 2.0 x 1.0 x 1.0 x 1.0 TOTAL "!0#$

POLYTHECNIC SULTAN ABDUL HALIM MUADZAM SHAH 06000 JITRA, KEDAH DARUL AMAN
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Page

:4

Laboratory Practise: EXPERIMENT 1 Semester Programme Duration :5 : DKM : 2 Hours per week

Code & Course: JJ508 ENGINEERING LAB 3

1.0 TITLE: Metallurgy Structure 2.0 OBJECTIVES: i. ii. iii. Understand the procedure for basic metallographic. Draw and identify the different material gain structure. Heat treatment may be influencing the properties of carbon steel.

3.0 COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES : i. ii. iii. Analyse critically data of the experimental data in ralaton to the theoretical aspects. Organize appropriately experiments in groups according to the standard of procedures. Write critically the appropriate report based on the experiment results.

4.0 INTRODUCTION: The science and technology of metals and alloys. Process metallurgy is concerned with the extraction of metals from their ores and with refining of metals; physical metallurgy, with the physical and mechanical properties of metals as affected by composition, processing, and environmental conditions; and mechanical metallurgy, with the response of metals to applied forces

5.0 APPARATUS: Equipment Specimen : mounting machine, grinding machine, polishing machine, microscope : steel, alloy copper, aluminium and other select materials

X1A - Less Pure Zinc base sand casting form X2 - Copper Alloy tin X4 copper alloy zinc

6.0 PROCEDURES:
1.

Grind surface of the mounting specimen follower right method by grading machine Polish the specimen by polishing machine, with polishing liquid on matron cloth.* clean the specimen with detergent liquid and after that dry at the dryer machine Etching the specimen in mixed solution agent. ** microstructure view under microscope.

2. 3. 4. 5.

gilap dengan menggunakan larutan BRASSO di atas kain metron dan jika tidak berkesan bolehlah dengan menggunakan adunan intan (diamond paste) saiz 1 mikron .

menggilapkannya **

punarkan dengan menggunakan larutan 2% Nital or alcoholic ferrit chloride ( larutan yang mengandungi 5 gm HCl pekat, 95 ml alkohol )

FeCl, 2 ml

7.0 RESULTS:
A) base on microscope visual, draw the grain structure below . Bil Spesimen Bahan , kandungan aloi & ( jenis struktur ). Zink (Zn) yang kurang tulin ( 1 fasa ) Struktur bijian boleh dilihat tanpa mikroskop Proses pemejalan atau produk. Proses pendinginan drp tuangan pasir. Bentuk struktur

X1A

X2

Aloi kuprum dgn 4% Sn(struktur larutan pepejal 1 fasa)

Proses pendinginan drp tuangan pasir. Penerasan (coring) pada bijian berlaku semasa pemejalan

X4

Aloi kuprum (loyang) kadungan 52% Cu, 48% Zn(struktur larutan pepejal 1 fasa)

Proses pendinginan drp tuangan pasir. Drp rajah fasa aloi Cu/Zn hanya fasa yang diperolehi untuk aloi ini.

8.0 DISCUSSIONS:

9.0 CONCLUSION :

REFERENCES:

POLITEKNIK SULTAN ABDUL HALIM MUADZAM SHAH JABATAN KEJURUTERAAN MEKANIKAL

ENGINEERING LABORATORY 3 JJ508


TITLE EXPERIMENT PROGRAMME LECTURER NAME
DATE

A. STUDENT GROUP NO. NAME REGISTRATION NUMBER

B. MARKS: SCORE TECHNICAL REPORT RUBRIC PROCEDURES DIAGRAMS DATA CALCULATIONS ANALYSIS/DISCUSSION ERROR ANALYSIS QUESTIONS CONCLUSION TOTAL MARKS (%) 1 3 ! x 1.0 x 1.0 x 1.0 x 2.0 x 2.0 x 1.0 x 1.0 x 1.0 TOTAL "!0#$

POLYTHECNIC SULTAN ABDUL HALIM MUADZAM SHAH 06000 JITRA, KEDAH DARUL AMAN
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Page

:4

Laboratory Practise: Experiment 2 HARDNESS TESTING ROCKWELL Semester Programme :5 : DKM : 2 Hours per week

Code & Course: JJ508 ENGINEERING LAB 3

Duration

1.0 TITLE: HARDNESS TESTING ROCKWELL

2.0 OBJECTIVES:

i. ii.

Perform properly Rockwell test methods Compare the value of Rockwell hardness of metals methods

3.0 COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES :

i. ii. iii.

Conduct appropriately experiments in groups according to the standard of procedures. Analyze critically the data of the experimental data in relation to the theoretical aspects. Write critically the appropriate report based on the experiment results.

4.0 INTRODUCTION:

Rockwell & Rockwell superficial tests consists of forcing an indenter (Diamond or Ball) into the surface of a test piece in two steps i.e. first with preliminary test force and thereafter with additional test force & the measuring depth of indentation after removal of additional test force (Remaining preliminary test force active) for measurement or hardness value 5.0 EQUIPMENT AND SPECIMENT :

i. ii.

Rockwell machine , Model : ATK F1000 Steel, alloy copper, aluminum and other select materials

LCD display

beban pertama

lampu pelekuk andas

beban utama

handle

suis

FIGURE 1 : Rockwell Machine 6.0 PROCEDURES:

i. ii.

Set the power on (lamp lights) Set the scale, type of scale, total test force values and indenters. (referred lecturer) = select the total test force. = select indenter type

iii. iv. v. vi.

To check or change testing condition, press the MODE switch to select a desired menu. MENU1 5 Replace the indenter right ( size and scale ) Total test force die is in right position Automatic measurement function. a) Place a sample onto the avail/table b) Rotate the handle slowly to make the sample press against the indenter. While applying the preliminary test force, brake is automatically. c) Sure AUTO and LODING lamp light. Waiting time d) Lording lamp goes out, various data are display or out put. e) Read indicated values, and rotate handle down. f) Repeated step a again for another sample

7.0 RESULTS:

materials Test number 1 2 3 4 5 Average

HR__ reading

materials Test number 1 2 3 4 5 Average

HR__ reading

materials Test number 1 2 3 4 5 Average

HR__ reading

8.0 DISCUSSIONS:
st

i. ii. iii.

Why that the 1 reading should be ignored? Give your reason Discuss, why the data obtained different? Short listed the advantages and disadvantages Rockwell testing.

9.0 CONCLUSION :

REFERENCES: 1. G.L. Kehl, The Principles of Metallographic Laboratory Practice, 3rd Ed., McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1949, p 229. 2. Smith, William F.; Hashemi, Javad (2001), Foundations of Material Science and Engineering (4th ed.), McGrawHill, p. 229, ISBN 0-07-295358-6 3. www.gordonengland.co.uk/hardness/rockwell.htm