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What Makes a Poem?

Defining Poetry
A Blended Learning Module

Goals Students will learn the main elements of poetry, and they will write and recite poems using these elements. Objectives Without reference materials, students will be able to define 9 out of 1 of the following elements of poetry! allegory, alliteration, assonance, consonance, imagery, metaphor, meter, repetition, rhyme, simile, symbol, tone. "i#en a list and definitions of elements of poetry, students will be able to create and recite a poem using at least two elements of poetry. "i#en e$amples of how emphasi%ing words in poetry changes their meaning, students will be able to identify and e$plain which words to emphasi%e in their own poems in order to create meaning. Discipline and Topic &his lesson will be the first in a unit on poetry for twelfth grade 'nglish (onors students. &he lesson re#iews elements of poetry that students ha#e been introduced to in pre#ious years. Students will use these elements of poetry to create their own found poems. After this lesson, students will engage in annotating and critically analy%ing poems based on these literary elements. Target Population &his lesson is designed for fifteen twelfth grade 'nglish (onors students in a rural school district in )pstate *ew +or,. All students spea, 'nglish as a first language. *one of the students ha#e an -'. or /01 .lan. &he ma2ority of the students are reading at a twelfth grade reading le#el. All students in this class plan on attending a 3 or 13year college ne$t year. urriculum !lignment "#tate and ommon ore$ &his lesson satisfies many of the reading and writing standards of the 1 th grade 'nglish Language Arts 4ommon 4ore. 5irst the lesson addresses W%&'( of the 'LA 4ommon 4ore which states that students will be able to! 6"ather rele#ant information from multiple authoritati#e print and digital sources, using ad#anced searches effecti#ely, assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the tas,, purpose, and audience7 integrate information into the te$t selecti#ely to maintain the flow of ideas, a#oiding plagiarism and o#erreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation.8 Students will engage in gathering information from sources as they complete their two blog posts on their assigned elements of 1

literature. Students will write blog posts incorporating their research that shows a deep understanding of the concept they ha#e researched and without plagiari%ing. )*%&'+ of the 'LA 4ommon 4ore states that students should learn to! 6Analy%e how an author9s choices concerning how to structure specific parts of a te$t :e.g., choice of where to begin or end a story, the choice to pro#ide a comedic or tragic resolution; contribute to the o#erall structure and meaning as well as its aesthetic impact.8 <uring this lesson, students will learn about different te$t structures and poetic choices = such as the choice to use meter, rhyme, alliteration, etc. &hrough researching these elements of poetry and reading poetry that includes these elements, students will build the foundation they need to analy%e the choices of different poets concerning structure later in the unit. *e$t students will practice W%&'%%d of the 'LA 4ommon 4ore. &his standard states that students will be able to! 64reate interpreti#e and responsi#e te$ts to demonstrate ,nowledge and a sophisticated understanding of the connections between life and the literary wor,! 4reate poems, stories, plays, and other literary forms :e.g. #ideos, art wor,;.8 Students will read articles and then transform them into poetry. &hrough doing this, students will show an understanding of the article as well as an understanding of how the written word can be changed to create a different aesthetic appeal. 5inally throughout the lesson students will be engaging in W%&', which states that students will be able to! 6)se technology, including the -nternet, to produce, publish, and update indi#idual or shared writing products in response to ongoing feedbac,, including new arguments or information.8 &his lesson uses internet research and blogging throughout as students gather ,nowledge in order to define and create poetry. &his is an important s,ill for these college3bound students as some of their classes will most li,ely be either blended classes or wholly online. Students will become comfortable with using the internet as a form of research and communication throughout this lesson. *esson Plan Students will wor, on this lesson in the computer lab in 1/3minute sessions. All wor, will be completed independently or in pairs on the computers, e$cept where noted. >n <ay 1, students will be directed to the 1 th "rade (onors blog. &he 1 th grade (onors blog contains a post e$plaining what students need to do o#er the ne$t eight class days. &he teacher will be present in the classroom to answer ?uestions as necessary, to clarify instructions when needed, and to otherwise assist students as they complete their wor,. &he blog directions are included below :with comments describing teacher duties and responsibilities;! What is poetry@ >#er the ne$t eight school days, you will discuss the elements of poetry with your peers in order to create your own definition of poetry. What ma,es a poem@ What elements are important@ What separates poetry from prose@ We will del#e into these ?uestions through internet research and blogging.

&he schedule for this unit is posted in the chart below. 'ach day when you come to class, you will log onto our class blog and use the chart to determine what you need to complete. - ha#e noted which acti#ities will be completed independently, in pairs, and as a class. <eli#erables for each day are noted in the right3hand side of the chart. -f you do not complete these deli#erables in class on the day they are due, you will need to complete them for homewor,. Student pairs ha#e been assigned by me. 'ach pair is responsible for defining two literary elements. &hese assignments are listed below! Student A A Student B! allegory, consonance Student 4 A Student <! alliteration, imagery Student ' A Student 5! assonance, metaphor Student " A Student (! meter, tone Student - A Student B! repetition, rhyme Student C A Student L! simile, symbol Student M, Student *, A Student >! allegory, meter

D!<A+ 1

*!##WO). With your partner, use your bac,ground ,nowledge and research to together create two blog posts = one blog post for each of your assigned elements. -n each blog post, you will e$plain what one term means and pro#ide two e$amples using poems from .oetry1D0 :http!EEwww.loc.go#EpoetryE1D0Ep1D03list.html;. '$plain how each piece uses the poetic element. +ou must include at least one credible reference in each post. +our e$planation should be detailed enough to teach the definition and use of the element to someone who has no prior ,nowledge of the element. -f you need help defining the terms, you can start here! http!EEbcs.bedfordstmartins.comElitglossE.
NOTE: You are creating two blog posts together, not two blog posts independently.

D/*01/)!2*/ "due by the end of class$

>n day one, the teacher will circulate the classroom to help students as they research and begin creating their blogs. Students are familiar with posting on the blog, so they shouldn9t need too much assistance with the logistics of blogging. <A+ With your partner, continue wor,ing on your blog posts. &wo : ; blog +ou will need to complete these by the end of the day. posts completed with your partner

>n day two, the teacher will continue circulating the classroom to ,eep students on trac, and to answer ?uestions and pro#ide assistance as students complete the research and the two blog posts. Between day two and day three, the teacher will write comments on each blog post, correcting any misunderstandings. <A+ >n your own, read your peers9 blog posts. 4omment on &wo comments F two blog posts by either as,ing a clarifying ?uestion :i.e. on peer blog posts are there any other words that indicate a simile other than 6li,e8 or 6as8@; or pro#iding another e$ample of that Gesponses to element in a poem. &his should ta,e about 0 minutes. HuestionsE 4omments from When you are done, go bac, to your original posts and .eers answer the ?uestions or respond to comments of your peers. &his should ta,e about 0 minutes. >ne sentence definition of >n your own, use the last t3o minutes of class to answer poetry the teacher3posted blog prompt in a comment! After re#iewing these elements of poetry, pro#ide a simple definition of poetry in 1 sentence. >n day three, the teacher will continue circulating the classroom to ,eep students on trac, and to answer ?uestions. &he teacher will tell students when the first 0 minutes ha#e gone by and the students should mo#e onto loo,ing at their original posts and responding to their peers. &he teacher will then gi#e students a warning when two minutes are left of class so that they can create a one sentence definition of poetry. <A+ As a class, we will watch http!EEwww.youtube.comEwatch@ 5ound .oetry 1 #I0c%.l?h1<'o. "raphic >rgani%er With your partner, read a found poem and the article it came from at http!EElearning.blogs.nytimes.comEcategoryEfound3poem3 student3challengeE. With your partner, complete the 5ound .oetry "raphic >rgani%er to analy%e your found poemEarticle. >n day four, the teacher will play the +ou&ube #ideo for the class and host a brief discussion centered on the following ?uestions!
Did your definition of poetry match the definition of poetry presented in the video Do you agree with this definition of poetry !ave you ever heard of found poetry before "hat are your thoughts on found poetry

&he teacher will then hand out the 5ound .oetry "raphic >rgani%er and direct students to read one poem and the article it came from at the lin, abo#e. &he teacher will circulate and help students na#igate to the website, find a poem, and complete the graphic organi%er. <A+ With your partner, create a 00 = F00 word blog post 00 = F00 word / e$plaining what the writer of the found poem you chose blog post does to change the article prose into a poem. -f the writer 1

uses any elements of poetry, be sure to include that in your postJ &his should ta,e no more than 0 minutes. -ndependently, find a *ew +or, &imes article and write a found poem using at least two elements of poetry. Write which two elements of poetry you included :and want to be graded on; at the bottom of the poem. &he teacher will circulate the room and assist students with ?uestions and posting blogs. &he teacher will tell students when they should be done with the blog post and mo#e onto writing their own poem. <A+ -ndependently, continue writing and re#ising your poem. 'dited found K poem, incorporating at least two elements of poetry and with these two elements listed beneath your poem &he teacher will circulate the room and assist students with writing their own poems by referring them to the sample found poems at the *ew +or, &imes site, the graphic organi%ers, and the #ideo about found poetry. <A+ As a class, we will listen to 6.unching Words8 .oem with four L http!EEwww.poetryoutloud.orgEpoems3and3 :or more; performanceElisten3to3poetry. 6punched8 words circled -ndependently, listen to 3F other poems from the website abo#e and listen to how other poets 6punch8 words. 5our 13F sentence e$planations for -ndependently, circle at least four words you want to four chosen 6punch8 in your recitation of your poem. .ic, four words 6punched8 words and e$plain why you circled them. 'ach word should ha#e :one e$planation a 13F sentence e$planation. for each; )se the rest of the class time to practice reciting and re#ising your poem. +ou may also use this time to study for your elements of poetry ?ui%. &his ?ui% will as, for the definitions of the 1 elements of poetry discussed in this blog. &he teacher will play the 6.unching Words8 audio trac, for the class. &he teacher will then lead a brief discussion about the audio based on the ?uestion 6What does it mean to Mpunch9 words@8 &hen the teacher will direct students to complete the acti#ities for the day and circulate to help students as needed. <A+ &oday we will recite our poems during class. &hen you will .oem recitation D ta,e a ?ui% on the 1 elements of poetry discussed in the blog. Ma,e sure you ,now the definition of eachJ 'lements of /

poetry ?ui% &he teacher will ha#e a list of students and will call these students one3by3one to recite their poems. >nce all students ha#e recited their poem, the teacher will hand out the ?ui% which the students will complete independently.

#upplemental Materials4*inks 1. .oetry1D0! http!EEwww.loc.go#EpoetryE1D0Ep1D03list.html . What9s a 5ound .oem@! http!EEwww.youtube.comEwatch@#I0c%.l?h1<'o F. &he Learning *etwor,! &eaching and Learning with &he *ew +or, &imes! http!EElearning.blogs.nytimes.comEcategoryEfound3poem3student3challengeE 1. .oetry >ut Loud! http!EEwww.poetryoutloud.orgEpoems3and3performanceElisten3to3poetry /. 5ound .oem Gubric :1 per student; K. 4lass Blog :http!EEelaL1 .edublogs.orgE; L. 'lements of .oetry Hui% :1 per student; D. 5ound .oetry "raphic >rgani%er :1 per student; 9. 'lements of .oetry Blog .osts Gubric :1 per student; !ssessment of #tudents /lements of Poetry 2log Posts )ubric5 2 Literary Element 1 Student defined the Explanation literary element using a scholarly resource. The definition and explanation was in the students own words and conveyed a deep understanding of the term through detailed description. 1 Student defined the literary element using a scholarly resource. The definition and explanation were mostly in the students own words. The student showed only partial understanding of the term y omitting important details or including some incorrect information. Student provided two poems that used the literary element ut the explanation of how the poem used the literary element was missing 0 Student did not define or explain the literary term! or the explanation"definitio n was incomprehensi le or incorrect.

Literary Element 1 Examples

Student provided two poems that used the literary element as well as a detailed and accurate explanation of how the poem used the literary element.

Student did not provide any examples. #$ Student provided examples that were incorrect! incorrectly K

Literary Element 2 Explanation

Student defined the literary element using a scholarly resource. The definition and explanation was in the students own words and conveyed a deep understanding of the term through detailed description.

Literary Element 2 Examples

Student provided two poems that used the literary element as well as a detailed and accurate explanation of how the poem used the literary element.

important information or was inaccurate or unclear. #$ Student provided one poem example that met the criteria for full credit. Student defined the literary element using a scholarly resource. The definition and explanation were mostly in the students own words. The student showed only partial understanding of the term y omitting important details or including some incorrect information. Student provided two poems that used the literary element ut the explanation of how the poem used the literary element was missing important information or was inaccurate or unclear. #$ Student provided one poem example that met the criteria for full credit.

explained! or not explained.

Student did not define or explain the literary term! or the explanation"definitio n was incomprehensi le or incorrect.

Student did not provide any examples. #$ Student provided examples that were incorrect! incorrectly explained! or not explained.

6ound Poem )ubric5 Literary Element 1 in %ound &oem 2 Student accurately used an element of poetry within the poem in order to create language with sensory appeal. Student accurately used a second element of poetry within the poem in order to create language with sensory appeal. Student circled at least four words to (punch) in the poem and provided a sound explanation for why each of these four words should e (punched.) Student recited poem and (punched) important words. 1 Student used an element of poetry within the poem! ut understanding and use of this element may have een somewhat flawed. Student used a second element of poetry within the poem! ut understanding and use of this element may have een somewhat flawed. Student circled 1*+ words to (punch) in the poem and"or student provided a partial explanation for why these words should e (punched.) Student recited poem! ut did not (punch) appropriate words. 0 Student did not use an element of poetry within the poem.

Literary Element 2 in %ound &oem

Student did not use a second element of poetry within the poem.

&unched 'ords

Student did not circle any words to (punch.)

&oetry $ecitation

Student did not recite poem.

7ui8 on /lements of Poetry <irections! <efine each of the following elements of poetry. Allegory Alliteration Assonance 4onsonance -magery Metaphor Meter Gepetition Ghyme Simile Symbol &one D

/valuation of *esson - will ,now this lesson has been successful if 90N of the students score an a#erage of K or higher on the 5ound .oetry Gubric and can define 9 or more elements of poetry on the 'lements of .oetry Hui%. &he aim is for 90N success because these students ha#e been introduced to most of these literary elements at some point during their 2unior high and high school career. &hey should be somewhat familiar with these terms. &herefore, with some research and re#iew, most students should be successful in incorporating a couple literary elements into their found poetry and in defining them. Some students might struggle with 6punching8 words. Although students are familiar with poetry, many students ha#en9t engaged in professional recitation of poems, and this will be their first e$perience. Cnowing this, - am considering a K out of D to be successful as some students will li,ely still recei#e 19s in the 6punching8 words section of the rubric. - will also gather student feedbac, on the lesson using a ?uestionnaire with the following ?uestions! 1. <o you feel that you ha#e gained a deeper understanding of poetry during this lesson@ Why or why not@ . <o you feel confident that you can identify the elements of poetry in poems you may read in the future@ '$plain. F. Are there any elements of poetry from this lesson that you don9t feel you completely understand@ -f so, which one:s;@ 1. -s there anything you thin, should be impro#ed in this lesson@ &he lesson will be successful if students answer :1; that they ha#e gained a deeper understanding of poetry during the lesson and can e$plain why :i.e. learned more about performing poetry, learned more about how poems differ from narrati#e te$ts, understand some of the elements more, feel confident writing poetry now; and : ; that they feel confident they will be able to identify elements of poetry in poems they read in the future. Huestion three :F; should ha#e a #ariety of answers. -f many students say they don9t understand the same one component, then the instruction for that component needs to be re#ised. Huestion four :1; should also ha#e a #ariety of answers. Student input from this ?uestion will be used to re#ise the lesson for future classes. )ationale for using the medium According to the 4ommon 4ore Standards for 'nglish Language Arts students are e$pected to use the internet to engage in academic research and discussion. As such, they should be gi#en ample opportunity to use the internet for research and communication within the classroom. &his lesson will pro#ide students with the opportunity to practice those s,ills through researching literary terms on the internet, using the internet to find poems and articles, and blogging. <uring this lesson, students will use the computers e#ery day and the class will imitate a blended class. By using this medium, students will be better prepared for both college and the wor,place where they will often face situations where they must use the computer as a communication, publishing, and research tool. 9

&his lesson see,s to gi#e students opportunities to wor, at their own pace in an academic community where they will research and build ,nowledge with their peers #ia digital communication. Gesearch from .ro2ect &omorrow shows that 6Students are already #ery effecti#ely implementing this student #ision of socially3based, un3tethered and digitally3rich learning on their own, in and out of school, with or without the assistance of their teachers or schools8 : 011, p. F;. &his lesson tries to emphasi%e that student #ision of 6socially3based, un3 tether and digitally3rich learning.8 Although this lesson is ?uite structured with a detailed schedule and instructions and deadlines for deli#erables, students will still get a digitally3rich and socially3based e$perience that escapes the lectureEte$tboo, format. Many of the acti#ities students will participate in during this lesson are partner acti#ities. Some opponents of computer3based education argue that computer3use limits face3to3face interaction. (owe#er, by wor,ing in partners, the opportunities for face3to3face interaction increase. -n research conducted by Ce#in Lar,in, a 1! ratio, with two student wor,ing together on one computer, enhanced the 6sharing of ideas and collaborati#e learning8 : 011, p. 111;. &hrough wor,ing in partners on the computers intermittently, students will ha#e many opportunities to share ideas face3to3face before publishing those ideas to a larger audience online. *o3 Tech Modifications *o low tech modification is a#ailable as students will be engaging with computers through multiple acti#ities including blogging, #iewing #ideos, researching online, and commenting on peer blogs.

)eferences 'ngage*+. : 01 , >ctober K;. ,ew -or. State &*12 common core learning standards for EL/ and literacy O.<5 documentP. Getrie#ed from http!EEwww.engageny.orgEresourceEnew3 yor,3state3p31 3common3core3learning3standards3for3english3language3arts3and3literacy Lar,in, C. : 011;. +ou useJ - useJ We useJ Huestioning the orthodo$y of one3to3one computing in primary schools. BG&', 11. , 10131 0. Getrie#ed from http!EEwww.eric.ed.go#Econtentdeli#eryEser#letE'G-4Ser#let@accnoI'B9KLD L .ro2ect &omorrow. : 011;. &he new '9s of education! enabled, engaged, empowered = how today9s educators are ad#ancing a new #ision for teaching and learning. Getrie#ed from http!EEwww.eric.ed.go#Econtentdeli#eryEser#letE'G-4Ser#let@accnoI'</FK0KD

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:ame"s$5 ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

!naly8ing a 6ound Poem versus its Original Prose !rticle


Article &itle! QQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQ 5ound .oem &itle! QQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQ

Original Prose !rticle


(ow long is the wor,@ What is the tone of the wor,@ What ideas does the wor, emphasi%e@ :What is the ma2or message of the piece@; <oes the wor, include any poetic elements that contribute to the sound of the wor, :assonance, alliteration, consonance, rhyme, meter, repetition;@ '$plain. <oes the wor, include any elements that contribute to the meaning of the wor, :repetition, simile, metaphor, allegory, imagery, tone, symbol;@ '$plain.

6ound Poem

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:ame5 ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; /lements of Poetry 7ui8 Directions5 <efine each of the following elements of poetry. Allegory Alliteration Assonance 4onsonance -magery Metaphor Meter Gepetition Ghyme Simile Symbol &one