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Diploma in TESOL 2012

SECTION B QUESTION 4 For questions A, B,D and F the IPA is used in the phonetic transcriptions. The following websites were referred: www.antimoon.com/ipa www.lexilogos.com

A. 1) Knife 2) Mythology 3) Island 4) Queue 5) Humorous 6) Acquire 7) Crumbs 8) Examination 9) Unique 10) thatch B. 1) 2) m - thumb wr-weather

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3) 4) 5) 6) 7) dzrv-deserve najts-knights wkt-walked stupd-stupid hawsz-houses

8) wt-watching 9) ules-shoelace 10) junajtd stets v mrk-United States of America C. Phonology is the study of the sound features used in a language to communicate meaning. They include phonemes, word stress, sentence stress and intonation. Phonology is concerned with how sounds function in relation to each other in a language Phonetics is concerned with how sounds are produced, transmitted and perceived .Phonetics is about sounds of language, phonology about sound systems of language. Phonetics is a descriptive tool necessary to the study of the phonological aspects of a language.

D. Alice was beginning to get very tired of sitting by her sister on the bank ,and of having nothing to do: once or twice she had peeped into the book her sister was reading ,but it had no pictures or conversations in it, and what is the use of a book , thought Alice without pictures or conversations.
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Diploma in TESOL 2012


F. msz tr flu t nu jrk t hv tks w prezdnt regn is t reegan r rayganba we? G. 1) a. faze - vase b. fan - van c. fine vine d. fail - Vail

e. file - vile

2) a. three-free b. thread-bread c. thin-fin d. 3) a. Cat-kite b. Lamb-lime fail - Vail

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c. Tap-type d. Van-vine

H. Well , I would teach my elementary class both these words as they both have the same meaning. The word Bucket( bkt) is used in British English as compared to Pail (pel ) which was mostly used in new American English .The word bucket can be taught in reference to everyday use , and pail can be taught by using nursery rhymes such as Jack & Jill. So for young learners it will not be problem as they can relate and understand through context. For visuals pictures can be shown. As far as phonetics is concerned the word pail is easier to pronounce .It is pronounced with a consonant p + a long vowel (dipthong ae) + consonant l.

I. 1) One speaks English here - it should be English is spoken here, the person who put up the sign might not be aware of the passive voice or how to put up a sign board.

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2) No one of them answered my letters-None of them answered my letters, When 'none' and 'no one' are not followed by 'of', they mean 'nobody' . The differences are: (1) 'none' is more formal than 'no one' or 'nobody', (2) 'none' is usually treated as a plural noun, while 'no one' is always a singular noun. 3) Hes used up all what I gave him- Hes used up all that I have given him. 4) After lunch we went to shopping- After lunch we went for shopping. We mostly use to + verb when there is exchange or transfer, but we use for to do something good or for someones benefit .It also shows that the action began in the past and continues to the present. 5) I have finished the composition this morning.-I finished the composition this morning, the sentence should be in the simple past tense. The learner may be confused with the present perfect .In the sentence it says this morning which means that I finished my work at a specific time in the past i.e morning. 6) Please take your dinner with us- The learner might not know how to use requests in conversation .Therefore the use of - Would you take your dinner with us ?-would be better . 7) I didnt ate it because I am not eating pork.-I didnt eat it because I am not eating pork. Here- I+ didnt, should be used with the bare infinitive of eat-which is an irregular verb. 8) We enjoyed a lot at the beach 9) In the accident ,three passengers were badly injured, wounding one whereas the driver s arm was injured

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10) She leaves in an apartment There is only a vocabulary mistake here ,leaves it should be lives. J. A morpheme is the smallest unit of linguistic meaning .Every word in every language is composed of one or more morphemes. Morphemes can combine into fixed forms we call words. Most of these words are fairly transparent,whereas others do not. 1) Firework: it has 2 free morphemes , fire & work. And can be broken down into smaller meaningful parts. Fire (to shoot or go up in flames) when forming a lexical set with work gives it a different meaning(exploding objects, followed by noise and smoke etc) ,but not too difficult to understand. 2) Lamp post :it has 2 free morphemes-a learner can work out the meaning by looking at the words lamp (something that gives light),pole(a pole of wood or metal fixed in the ground in an upright position).The two free morphemes when put together lamp post are easy to guess in meaning if the learner already knows the meaning of the two words as both are nouns. 3) Right-hand man : it has 3 free morphemes .It means a person who is like an assistant or helper. Even though all 3 words are easy to understand as free morphemes ,but when it forms a lexical word it has a different meaning.So this word can only be understood with reference to context .For eg; How will hw cope without his right-hand man? 4) Half-heartedly :it has 1 free morphemes-(half) and 3 bound morphemes (heart+ed+ly).Here the lexical word set means something that is done with no

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enthusiasm or interest. This word set can be fairly easily understood both if taught as separate words or with reference to context.For eg;She did her homework half-heartedly. 5) Left-winger:2 free +1 bound morpheme,the mening here refers to ones political views.This might not be as transparent. 6) Birthday card: Fairly easily transparent , with 3 free morphemes. Birth+day card 7) Leave out :it has 2 free morphemes but is a collocation ,here it implies to leave someone or something behind.Some learners could find it difficult. 8) Good-looking :1 free +2 bound morhemes 9) First class: 2 free morphemes ,it can be an adjective or adverb depending on the usage .Its not that transparent ,some learners may find it difficult. Here it means a very high quality service on the plane or train or hotel. 10) make off with: 3 free morphemes ,the meaning here is to steal something .It is a phrasal verb, therefore its difficult to guess the meaning only by looking at the words separately. K. Queen of spades The manner in which the word queen is pronounced is Stops or Plosive. The tongue dorsum is elevated and retracted to contact the back of the hard palate. For lip configuration ,they never meet .With reference to place it is Lingua velar ,voiceless. The velopharyngeal port is closed.

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As for spades ,the manner in which it is produced is Lingua-alveolar and the word is voiced out .In terms of place the word is Fricative. L. Alice was just beginning to think to herself, Now what am I to do with this creature when I get home ? when it grunted again ,so violently , that she looked down into its face in some alarm. We can see that the Alice passage is a highly complex sentence. It has 3 main sentences with 2 doubly embedded sentences. The three main things to look for are : 1. the number and length of words 2. the number and type of embedded sentences 3. the verb phrase

Alice was just beginning to think to herself+ Now what am I to do with this creature when I get home + when it grunted again , so violently + that she looked down into its face in some alarm. Alice was ING [Alice just began TO (think to herself)]+ Now what am I to do with this creature when I get home + when it grunted again , so violently + that [PASSIVE ( she looked down into its face in some alarm)]. M. Reading the passage below from The History of Mr Polly various clues can be drawn .

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For eg : pandon could refer to warning ,intimidation or an argument to influence the person through a note. Insollerable - could mean that Mr Polly was not convinced or puzzled about the situation. Lunner could possibly refer to a part of the body Furdor /wainds might refer to the experience or struggle that they faced during the journey to the island. Morriers of the island it could be a physical structure possibly a water body on the island as it says struggled into the clutch of the overhanging morriers on the island ,and so got out of the water. Plodentive - covered with something filthy, grimy or unclean, as also in the next sentences he swears By Gaw! which obviously means that he is angry for being in the present situation. N. i) She read the letter which upset me She read the letter, which upset me. Sentence A has rising intonation , the stress here is on read Sentence B has falling intonation , the stress is on upset

ii) He keeps his canary in the bathroom.

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He keeps his canary in the bathroom ? New information- Sentence -A stresses on the noun canary ,the person listening to would understand that canary and not something else is in the bathroom. Whereas in sentence B, the stress is on the word bathroom which tells us about the position or location of the bird. This can be clearly illustrated when showing our shock and incredulity when pronouncing He keeps his canary in the BATHROOM ?? Other feelings students can express and have fun with in the same way include irritation, impatience, delight and sarcasm. iii) They went to Australia and Italy. Here the stress is on Italy as it is gives the second place of destination. There were only two places.

They went to Australia and Italy.. Here the stress is on Australia as it gives information that the first place of destination is Australia , then there could be other places like Italy followed by . Which could mean that there were more than two places of destination. O. First he put his {dirty sweater} into the {washing machine} ,then returned to the {armchair} in front of the television. The above sentence contains 3 morphemes. They are:

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a) Dirty sweater-2 free morphemes ,they can be split into Dirty sweater

b) Washing machine : 3 morphemes,2 bound 1 free Wash+ ing machine c) Armchair: 2 free morphemes arm and chair

P. Yes , there is a difference between the pronunciation of the two words .The stress in sentence A is here progress T he stress in sentence B is on progress . Q. The word room in each of these has different meanings with reference to context .In sentence A it refers to the actual room physically ( 4 walled structure).In sentence B it refers to space ,i.e. the amount of space available in the case for keeping things. In urdu both of these words translate into one word . Room( 4 walled structure ) Room (space)- R. In Urdu-Hindi, possession can be expressed with the word paas meaning

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near. 1. sadiq=ke paas aik kitaab hai. Pass =has Sadiq has a book

Urdu also has a locative usage of this paas that gives its literal meaning near. 2. daryaa=ke paas aik iimaarat hai. Paas = near There is a building near the river.

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