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Botkin & Keller- Earth as a Living Planet: 8th Edition Guided Reading Assignment Chapter #11- Agriculture, Aquaculture

and the Environment Name: ____Claudine Manabat______ Case Study: Biofuels and Banana Chips: Food Crops vs. Fuel Crops 1: Why do pig farmers have to feed their pigs junk-food? The crops that are use to feed the pigs (corn and other crops) are icreasing and the junk food are cheaper than the corn and other crops. Corn price are rising due to biofuel ethanol. Agroecosystems: An ecosystem created by agriculture. Tpycially it has low genetic, species, and habitat diversity. 2: Explain how agroecosystems halt ecological succession. The ceops we plant are early- successional species (grow fast, spread their seeds widelt and rapidly, do best when sunlignt, water, soil is abundant). Then plant are replace to successional plants and requires time and effort for us. 3: What is the problem with growing monocultures? It suck up all the nutrients that is needed for the plant and if a viruses kills one plant it kills everything. 4: Why does growing plants in neat rows and fields make it easier for pests? The pest can find their favorite food easly. 5: How does plowing fields over and over damage the soils? Explain. Expose to erosion and disturb the soil and microoraganism decline 6: What are the other 2 ways that agrocultures are harmful to ecosystems? GMOs Pesticide The Plow Puzzle 7: How much of the top soil in the U.S. has been lost since European settlement? 1/3 of topsoil/ 80 million hecatares/ 198 acres Can We Feed the World? 8: What percentage of the worlds land area is used for agriculture? 38% (size of both North and South America combined) How We Starve 9: What is the difference between undernourishment and malnourishment? Undernourishment are results from insuffiecient calories in availabale food. (dies of no energy) Malnourishment results from a lack of specific chemical components of food. (lacks vitamins, proteins)

10: Why does providing food aid to countries in need actually work against increased availability of locally grown food? give a man a fish and feed him for a day: teach a man how to fish and feed for him for life Gives the government to lower their budget. What We Grow on the Land 11: Most of the worlds food is produced by only _14_ species. List them below in order of importance: Wheat Rice Maize Potatos Manioc Sugarcane Sugar beets Common beans Soybeans Barley Sorghum Coconuts Bananas 12: What is a forage crop? forage crop are crops use to feed domestic animals 13: Define the following: Rangeland: provides food for grazing and browsing animals without plowing and planting Pasture: plowed and planted and harvested to provide forage for animals 14: What impact does the number of livestock around the world have on rangeland and pasturelands? Impact how much waste they put and how much resources they intake

15: Why are feedlots considered to be a big source of local pollution? Feedlots is where place where the cows are compacted and the poop and other infections can local pollution 16: What is a benefit of farming animals rather than crops? The soil doesnt that have much nutrients to support crop Soils 17: How does rainwater affect the soil horizon? Explain.

Nutrients goes down to lower levels of the horizons, because of how the acidic the rain water is. 18: What is soil fertility? How it is determined? The capacity of to supply nutrients necessary for plants to grow. Determined climate and rainfall 19: Why are soils in humid and tropical areas considered to be poor? Those areas have a lot of rain and rain is acidic and leach the nutrients downward What happens to them after deforestation? Reforestation is harder because the topsoil is removed 20: What is the problem with soils in semi-arid regions? The soil shrinks and dry out 21: Why are coarse-grained soils more susceptible to erosion that soils that contain more clay? CGS has more space between them so it is hard to retain water 22: Soil Horizons: Define each of the soil horizons Horizon O:living thing live the plant (color usually brown or black) Horizon A: composed of minerals and organic mater (color light black or brown) Horizon E:composed of light colored material (from leaching of clay calcium, magnesium, iron) Horizon B:enrich in clay, iron oxides, silica, carbonate, other materials Horizon C:composed of partially altered parent material Horizon R:unweathered parent material Restoring Our Soils 23: What is the difference between organic and inorganic (artificial) fertilizers? Organic is animals poo IO F is chemicals that you put in the soil (nitrates and p) 24: Define the following: Macronutrient: a chemical element required by living things in large amounts Micronutrient:a chemical element required by living thing in small amounts Limiting Factor:single requirement for growth available in the least supply in comparison of what the organism needs Controlling Pests 25: In the U.S, how much of the potential harvest is lost to pests? 1/3 26: What is the definition of a weed? Plants that compete with the crop Pesticides 27: What are the differences between inorganic and organic pesticides? Have carbon 28: What are some of the reasons why pesticides are considered to be ineffective? Ineffective since you spray a lot and might not work for the pest needed to exterminate

29: Define Integrated Pest Management (IPM) AND explain HOW it works: Goal can be control rather than complete extermination Doing the opposite of big industrialize farm. 30: What is the use of biological control and give an example: One species that is a natural predetor 31: What was the green revolution? Development in the agriculture after World War 2 raising more yield and resistance for a pesticids Genetically Modified Food: Biotechnology, Farming and Environment 32: What are the 3 practices of genetic engineering? Faster and more efficient ways to develop new hybrids Introduction of a terminator gene Transfer of genetic properties from widely divergent kinds of life. 33: What are the PROS and CONS of developing hybrid crops? PROS- could lead to less resources use CONS- can create a super weed/ need more fertilizer, pesticide, water= more pollution 34: What is the terminator gene and what does it do? 35: What are the political and social concern with companies using seeds with terminator genes? 36: How are GMO (Genetically Modified Organisms) helpful? Can lead to better GMOs 37: How can GMOs be harmful? We can get a disease Aquaculture 38: What is aquaculture and how can it be helpful? The farming of this important source of protein in both marine and freshwater habitats.it can provide nutritional food. 39: What is mariculture? Farming og ocean fish 40: How can aquaculture and mariculture harmful to the environment? Produce waste in the waters Critical Thinking Issue: Will There Be Enough Water to Produce Food for a Growing Population? 1: How might dietary changes in developed countries affect water availability? It affect a lot because crops needs a lot of water 2: How might global warming affect estimates of the amount of water needed to grow crops in the 21st century? It can affect it greatly because are water source is being more scarce than it should be 3: Withdrawing water from aquifers faster than the replacement rate is sometimes referred to as mining water. Why do you think this term is used? It means that we are taking it to fast so were basically mining it

4: Many countries in warm areas of the world are unable to raise enough food, such as wheat, to supply their populations. Consequently, they import wheat and other grains. How is this equivalent to importing water? Like food, we need water because it is essential for life. 5: Malthusians are those who believe that sooner or later, unless population growth is checked, there will not be enough food for the worlds people. Anti-Malthusians believe that technology will save the human race from a Malthusian fate. Analyze the issue of water supply for agriculture from both points of view. Both of points is true because if we dont check our population size we are going to have a mass extinction. And it has been said that we are going through that phase because mother Earth cant sustain us. The other side is also true because science can help us. It is just that the knowledge we know is not that great for the amount of people we have Interactive Soil Pyramid- Understand How to Calculate the Soil Composition Type go to: http://courses.soil.ncsu.edu/resources/physics/texture/soiltexture.swf Understand and Using Soil Pyramids go to: http://soils.usda.gov/technical/aids/investigations/texture/ Directions: Using the Soil Pyramid Program- Identify the Type of Soil with the Following Percent Compositions: Sand: 30 Clay: 30 Silt: 40 Answer: ___Clay Loam____ Sand: 45 Clay: 10 Silt: 45 Answer: ______Loam______ Understand Soils in Biomes Around the World Go to: https://php.radford.edu/~swoodwar/biomes/ Directions: Determine the Type of Soils that are Characteristics of Each Specific of These Terrestrial Biomes and List Why? Tundra: No true soil is developed in this biome due to the edaphic factors mentioned above
because of Permafrost

Taiga (Boreal Forest): Podzolization occurs as a result of the acid soil solution produced
under needleleaf trees. The main soil order associated with the taiga is spodosol Temperate Broadleaf Deciduous: Brown forest soils (alfisols, in the American soil taxonomy) develop under the TBDF

Mediterranean Scrub: small shrubs can live there Temperate Grassland: Calcification is the dominant soil-forming process in semiarid regions.
Mild leaching, high organic content, and concentration of calcium carbonate in the B horizon typifies the dark brown mollisols developed under the temperate grasslands Scrubland: Calcification is the dominant soil-forming process, if indeed soil forming even occurs. There is poor development of horizons, with accumulation of calcium carbonate at or near the surface

Tropical Rainforest: Oxisols, infertile, deeply weathered and severely leached, have
developed on the ancient Gondwanan shields Tropical Savannah: Soils vary according to bedrock and edaphic conditions. In general, however, laterization is the dominant soil-forming process and low fertility oxisols can be expected.

Control of Soil Erosion- go to: http://www2.kenyon.edu/projects/farmschool/types/tillage.htm Directions: Define and describe each of the alternative methods to traditional soil tillage Windbreaks: plant trees along the borders of their fields to cut down on wind erosion. method is
most often practiced in flat areas and hilly regions Cover Crops: stop soil erosion in fall and spring use winter crops to cover soil Grassed Waterways: To keep the soil in these depressions from running away with the water, farmers plant grassy strips. Excess water is absorbed by the grass rather than acting as an erosion agent. Contour Cultivation: Contour cultivation produces furrows that are perpendicular or at an angle to the slope of the field. The irregular surface of the field breaks up the flow of water and makes it more difficult for water to erode the soil. Strip Cropping: alternate a field with strips of different crops or fallow Forages: alfalfa and hay can be included in a rotation to cut down on erosion Conservation Tillage: This layer protects the underlying soil from wind and rain during the fall and winter until a new crop is planted in the spring No-Till: that farmers leave all of the last crop's residue in the soil while planting the new crop Ridge Tillage: soil into ridges and then plant the seeds on top of the ridges