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Ketcham 1 PBL Lesson Plan Samford University Orlean Bullard Beeson School of Education & Professional Studies STUDENT:

PHILLIP KETCHAM GRADE/SUBJECT: 10TH/SPAN II SCHOOL: HOOVER HIGH SCHOOL DATE: MAY 2ND , 7TH ESTIMATED LESSON TIME: 12:49

Lesson Objectives: Students will: Identify the seven main drug cartels in Mexico and the details of each cartels size, primary areas of control, and types of drugs trafficked. Given opportunities to work in small groups, 10th grade Spanish II students will create an original written document explaining the seven main drug cartels in Mexico and the details of each cartels size, primary areas of control, and types of drugs trafficked. Given opportunities to work in small groups, 10th grade Spanish II students will present to the class their groups original written document explaining the seven main drug cartels in Mexico and the details of each cartels size, primary areas of control, and types of drugs trafficked. National & State Standards: The following national standards related to the unit objective and subobjectives are found in the American Council of Teaching Foreign Languages (2013). National Foreign Language Education Standards:

CULTURES
GAIN KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING OF OTHER CULTURES
Standard 2.1: Students demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between the practices and perspectives of the culture studied Standard 2.2: Students demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between the products and perspectives of the culture studied

COMPARISONS
DEVELOP INSIGHT INTO THE NATURE OF LANGUAGE AND CULTURE

Ketcham 2 Standard 4.2: Students demonstrate understanding of the concept of culture through comparisons of the cultures studied and their own. The following state standards relevant to this unit are found in the Alabama State Department of Education (2013). Alabama State Foreign Language Course of Study: 3.) Create oral and written presentations in the target language about a variety of topics using familiar and newly acquired vocabulary words and phrases and correct structure in the past time frame. 5.) Describe practices within the cultures where the target language is spoken. 6.) Explain the influences of geography on a target culture, including food, clothing, dwellings, transportation, and the arts. 9.) Compare traditions and social conventions of a target culture to one's own. 10.) Describe typical activities and events of a target culture. Pre-Instructional Activities: The teacher introduces the objective of the lesson and indicates what the lesson is about. After reviewing the names of the drug cartels that will be researched in the mini-unit and throughout the unit in its entirety, the teacher will call upon volunteers to give their opinions on the matter pre-research and what they think they will learn from their research on the drug cartels. Problem Overview: The teacher assigns students to groups of four, and gives each group a list of the seven main Mexican drug cartels their group will research. The students will decide who will fulfill each of the group responsibilities practiced when they assemble in their small groups tomorrow upon entering the classroom. They will be acting as agents of the DEA office in Birmingham, Alabama who are conducting a detailed research on the six main Mexican Drug Cartels smuggling narcotics and undocumented individuals into the U.S. via the southern border along with gathering information on the sizes of each cartel, each cartels geographical power, and types of narcotics being smuggled by each specific cartel. The students will be expected to keep track on a daily basis of all group activities and give daily interim reports of their progress. Upon completion of their research, each group will be expected to prepare a written report and brief oral presentation of the groups findings for John B. Woods of the DEA headquarters in Washington, D.C. By pre-arrangement, a letter is delivered to the classroom at this time in the lesson. Its contents (listed below) will be read aloud by the teacher:

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United States Drug Enforcement Administration HQ (DEA) Washington, D.C. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) Birmingham, Alabama Branch Dear Agents: As many of you are informed on the matter, our nation is in a critical and violent war against Mexican drug cartels smuggling narcotics and undocumented individuals into our nation through our southern border. We are aware in Washington of the drug battles and busts your department are doing currently, but we need more help nationally. President Obama has asked our head quarters in Washington to conduct an intensive research project of the seven main cartels that are the big smugglers and the most violent threats to our nation. President Obama wants to be informed on the details of each drug cartel including their sizes, primary geographical areas of control, and types of narcotics each group smuggles into our nation through the southern border. Report your findings to the DEA office headquarters in Washington ASAP. We are looking forward to your findings. John B. Woods, Director of DEA operations Washington, D.C. DEA Headquarters Problem Analysis: The teacher distributes a copy of the letter to each student and allows a few minutes for him or her to read it. The teacher will then place a large sheet of newsprint on the board, dividing it into four sections labeled: INFORMATION, LEARNING ISSUES, HYPOTHESES, and ACTION PLAN. The teacher begins to lead the students in analysis of the problem with probing questions such as the following, and fills in the appropriate section of the chart, which follows (projected only) with the students responses. Questions to stimulate analysis of the problem: 1. What information do we know about the situation in John B. Woods letter? 2. What current problem is the U.S. dealing with? 3. What kind of information does Woods wants you to find out? 4. What are the specific details that he wants you to investigate? 5. What is the tone of Woods letter? How does this reflect the severity of the problem with drug cartels?

Ketcham 4 6. What will the continued smuggling of narcotics and undocumented individuals have on the future of national security in the U.S.? 7. How big are the drug cartels (number of narcotraficantes)? 8. What are the drug cartels primary geographical areas of control? 9. What types of narcotics are the cartels smuggling into the U.S.? 10. What parts of the nation are in the most immediate danger? 11. What is significant about President Obama requesting this research on the drug cartels? 12. Why do you think this problem is so serious? 13. What is the best way to begin your investigation? 14. Where will you most likely find the information need to complete the research?
INFORMATION The smuggling of individuals and narcotics is a serious problem. Americans are in danger of experiencing violence. The DEA headquarters need information immediately to keep our country safe. Operating as agents of the DEA office in Birmingham, Alabama. LEARNING ISSUES What effect will the drug cartels have on the U.S.? How do the cartels conduct their smuggling? Effects of rampant violence in Mexico and U.S. border towns. HYPOTHESES Certain parts of the U.S. are in more danger than others. The cartels use a variety of means of transporting individuals and drugs. The violence in Mexico and the U.S. are changing the way citizens live. If drug consumption dropped, the cartels would be less prevalent. ACTION PLAN Meet with group members & assume roles as DEA agents. Assign group positions: Task leader, recorder, presenter, and time keeper. Delegate investigative tasks in the group Report back to group & begin discussing reforms that would occur.

The money the drug cartels receive from U.S. drug users fuels the cartels.

Group Formation: Students will be placed into small groups of 4. The students will be given a brief moment to assign roles within the group and read over the descriptions of each role: Task Leader- responsible for getting things started and delegating tasks, keeps daily log or journal of activities, tasks accomplished.

Ketcham 5 Recorder- responsible for compiling all of the members work to compose/write the groups theory. Time Keeper- responsible for making sure that the team is making good use of their time and encourages group to work on certain activities for a certain amount of time and then moving on to other tasks necessary to create their theory. Affect Leader- responsible for making each session humane by providing some humor, insuring all are equally involved and participating freely, and for relieving stress that the group may experience during the duration of the unit. Anticipated Learning Issues: Students are expected to acquire mastery of the following (refer to Content Specification Chart) Information/facts, concepts, relationships, and processes during the research and collection of data for problem solving in this mini-unit. Evidence of this mastery should be revealed in one form or another during their group problem solving process or presentation of solutions: Information/Facts: The seven main drug cartels that control the majority of the drug trafficking in Mexico and the U.S. are the Los Zetas, Gulf Cartel, La Familia Cartel (a.k.a The Knights Templar), Tijuana Cartel, Jurez Cartel, and Beltrn Leyva. Los Zetas are notoriously famous for being the most violent and brutal with their enemies. The U.S. is currently involved in a violent War on Drugs with the Mexican Drug Cartels responsible for trafficking narcotics and undocumented persons.

Concepts: Cartels Collaboration Customs Geography Narcotics

Ketcham 6 Research Methods Trafficking (Drugs, Arms, People) Violence Relationships/Generalizations: According to the laws of supply and demand, reducing the supply of drugs without reducing the demand causes the price, and hence the profits of narcotics sellers (i.e. the Mexican Drug Cartels), to go up. Processes: Problem-based learning procedures for analyzing data, locating resources of information, generating hypotheses, and weighing the most plausible explanations for certain topics. Working cooperatively in small, problem-solving groups. Group Deliberation & Problem-Solving Activities: Students are assigned to four-member problem solving groups and turn their desks around to allow them to talk together easily. Computers are reserved for the classroom. Forms are provided for students to use in making their interim reports (See Daily Journal/Log form in Appendix A). The teacher will provide students with several resources to start their investigations on the Mexican Drug Cartels. A list of promising websites to visit is posted on the board, but students will not be restricted to use these websites only. If groups want to sign out resources from the library, their names will be recorded by the teacher, and returned to the library at the end of each class period. The teacher will check off their names as they return the borrowed resources. The Problem Analysis chart will remain posted prominently on the wall of the classroom throughout the mini-unit. Students meet with their group members to determine their responsibilities within the small group, deciding who will serve as task leader, reporter, presenter, and time keeper. They assume their roles as DEA agents working to gather information about the Mexican Drug Cartels the U.S. is fighting in the War on Drugs. The teacher will visit each group to answer any questions they have, check on each group members responsibility, and provide each group a copy of the group process evaluation form (see Appendix A). The teacher reminds the task leader to hand in the groups log/journal and date each entry at the conclusion. Groups begin collecting information about the Mexican drug cartels, their individual sizes, geographical area of control, specific narcotics smuggled by each

Ketcham 7 cartels, and any information the group deems important or interesting identified for their written report to John B. Woods. Groups share their collected information and deliberate how they think the drug cartels are influencing the U.S. The groups formulate their findings for Woods and propose answers to all his requests, referring to their copies of his letter. Each group shares its research to Woods with the class upon the conclusion of the group assignment. Each group completes its written report with supportive documentation and hands the report into the teacher with self/group evaluations and the groups log daily journal upon the conclusion of the mini-unit. Formative Evaluation: Daily journal/log of group problem solving activities (See Appendix B). Self and group evaluation of group members contributions (See Appendix B). Teacher observation of group processes (See Appendix B), shared with the group at intervals throughout the group data-collection and deliberations. Group written report identifying the seven main drug cartels in Mexico and the details of each cartels size, primary areas of control, and types of drugs trafficked. Criteria are as follows: 1. Group identifies the seven main drug cartels in Mexico and includes the details of their primary geographical areas of control. 2. Group Identifies 2 interesting facts/characteristics of each cartel. _____15 points _____ 10 points 3. Group report follows the proper format laid out in class. . _____ 5 points TOTAL: _____ 30 points

Ketcham 8 Oral Presentation on each groups research on the Mexican Drug Cartels. The following rubric will assess each groups mastery of the mini-unit objective:
4 3 2 1 CATEGORY 5 Time Presentation Presentation is Presentation is Presentation is Group fails stays within 1 minute too 2 minutes to 3 minutes too to give a the 8 minute short or too short or too short or too presentatio time frame long. long. long. n given. Content Group clearly Group Group Group Group fails identifies the identifies 5-6 of identifies 3-4 of identifies 1-2 of to identify 7 main cartels the main cartels the main the main any of the including the including their cartels cartels main drug size, size, including their including their cartels and geographical geographical size, size, their area of area of control geographical geographical specific control, and and types of area of control, area of control, characterist types of narcotics and types of and types of ics. narcotics trafficked. narcotics narcotics trafficked. trafficked. trafficked. Interesting Group crisply Group presents Group Group Group fails Fact presents 1 1 interesting provides 1 provides 1 to provide 1 interesting fact, but only interesting fact, interesting fact, interesting fact and partially clarifies but lacks a but fails an fact in their explains the groups clear explanation for presentatio clearly the reasoning for explanation of the groups n. groups their choice. the groups reasoning for reasoning for choice. their choice. their choice. Division of Each of the the Groups four group Presentatio members n shared in the presentation equally. Every individual 2-3 individuals in the group within the contributed, but group carried not equally in the group in the the presentation of presentation the groups findings. 1-2 individuals carried the groups presentation without the help of others. Not all group members took a speaking part in the presentatio n leaving the burden upon 1 individual.

_____/20 Total Rating

Ketcham 9 Problem Follow-Up: In a whole class session, the teacher will request each group to describe its best source of information used in solving the problem and explain the pros and cons of two other sources consulted. Then, the teacher leads students in up-dating the problem analysis chart begun after students received the hook at the beginning of the mini-unit. Projected changes are given below:
INFORMATION Add any new information discovered during research. Over 50,000 Mexicans have lost their lives to the drug wars. The Mexican drug cartels have a wide variety of power in Mexico. The Mexican government seeks to minimize the power of the drug cartels rather than drug-trafficking prevention. LEARNING ISSUES The differences in Mexican and American culture create problems in the prevention of violence and drug trafficking. The different approaches and motives behind the U.S. and Mexican governments are creating roadblocks in solving the drug war problem. The corruption of the Mexican police forces has created a spirit of distrust amongst Mexican citizens. HYPOTHESES The drug cartels will supply the narcotics as long as the U.S. has a high demand for narcotics. Closing the border with Mexico would significantly reduce the amount of narcotics flowing into the U.S. The violence of the drug cartels is creating tensions between Mexicans living in the U.S. with Americans. The geography of the southern border is advantageous for smuggling narcotics and individuals into the U.S. ACTION PLAN Add search for recruiting tactics of Mexican drug cartels. Consider how the trafficking of drugs from Mexico to the U.S. stabilizes the economy of Mexico. Consider the impact of drug use upon Mexican and American families. Research how drug cartels grow/create narcotics. Form opinions and prepare for presentation.

The impact of the drug cartels has spread all throughout the U.S.

Prepare written report for John B. Woods of the DEA headquarters.

Ketcham 10 Correctives & Extensions: Correctives: Students who do not master the unit sub-objective are assigned at the end of the mini-unit to visit http://geo-mexico.com/wpcontent/uploads/2010/04/STRATFOR-Mexican-drug-cartels-map.jpg to analyze the map of the Mexican drug cartels geographical territory occupied by each of the six main Mexican cartels. The students will list each of the cartels in descending order from biggest to smallest (geographically) and listing which types of drugs are being trafficked through each cartels geographical region into the U.S. Extensions: At the conclusion of the mini-unit, Students who have mastered the unit sub-objective are assigned to read the online article entitled Mexican Drug Cartels Dispatch Agents Deep into the U.S. at http://www.startribune.com/nation/200886001.html?refer=y and describe 3 ways how the article reveals that the power/area of control the Mexican drug cartels is extending far beyond the Mexican border. Resources: Teacher: The teacher will use the following resources in planning the unit and after the unit begins, during group deliberations to provide information upon request (in response to specific student questions): Journal Articles: Dean, William (2012). The War on Mexican Cartels, Harvard University Insitute for Politics, 1-34, September. Walser, Ray Ph.D (2010). U.S. Strategy Against Mexican Drug Cartels: Flawed and Uncertain, The Heritage Foundation, 1-14, April. On-line Articles: http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-201_162-57567340/u.s-militarizes-latinamerican-drug-war/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mexican_Drug_War http://www.stanford.edu/class/e297c/poverty_prejudice/paradox/htele.html http://thehill.com/blogs/regwatch/administration/281295-obama-administrationtargets-mexican-drug-cartel-figure Maps: http://imgur.com/r/pics/wqf9V Web Sites:

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www.huffingtonpost.com www.wikipedia.com www.cfr.org www.drugwarfacts.org Teacher will use previous knowledge of the geography and culture of Mexico in this lesson. Student: The following resources will be made available to students as they work in their small problem solving groups: Video: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/01/16/mexicos-drug-warviolence_n_2488520.html The video provides a brief overview of the current situation. It cites multiple facts (i.e. number of deaths, causes to the drug war, U.S. consumption of narcotics etc.,) 3 minutes long. Journal Articles: Dean, William (2012). The War on Mexican Cartels, Harvard University Institute for Politics, 1-34, September. Walser, Ray Ph.D (2010). U.S. Strategy Against Mexican Drug Cartels: Flawed and Uncertain, The Heritage Foundation, 1-14, April. Online Articles: http://www.foxnews.com/us/2013/04/01/mexican-drug-cartels-reportedlydispatching-agents-deep-inside-us/?test=latestnews http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mexican_Drug_War http://www.stanford.edu/class/e297c/poverty_prejudice/paradox/htele.html http://thehill.com/blogs/regwatch/administration/281295-obama-administrationtargets-mexican-drug-cartel-figure Maps: http://imgur.com/r/pics/wqf9V

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Web sites: www.huffingtonpost.com www.wikipedia.com www.cfr.org www.drugwarfacts.org

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Reflection Upon Lesson: I went to Hoover High School with the expectations that I would be observing a class with a majority of students who were motivated to succeed in Spanish, and a teacher who was skilled in relating the content to the students. My expectations were only partially met throughout my observation experience at Hoover High School. First, the classrooms I observed had a low number of students who seemed to be interested in Spanish. The majority of students seemed to be taking Spanish solely for the reason that they needed another year of Spanish in order to be accepted in the university or college of their choice. Also, I observed a high number of students who treated the teacher with disrespect and looked for opportunities to disrupt the flow of the classroom in any way they could. Secondly, my teacher seemed unconnected with her students. When dealing with troublesome students, she would use sarcastic remarks. Also, at the conclusion of her last period she acted unusually ready to leave school early. This in and of itself is no sin, but after teaching for 32 years in public schools, my teacher seemed like she was ready for retirement. When the day arrived for teaching my PBL lesson on the Mexican Drug Cartels, I was excited and thought I was prepared. I enjoyed interacting with the students and answering their questions, but I ran into some obstacles. I think the main takeaway from teaching the lesson is that many times in education, the lesson does not go as you planned. I found myself audibling from my original plans and tactics throughout the lesson. Many of these changes were made due to my time allowed with the students and their unmotivated behavior. Overall, I enjoyed my time at Hoover High School, but I think I would be more effective as a student observer if I knew what I know now at the beginning of my clinical experience at the school.

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Appendix A A-1 Group Daily Journal/Log A-2 Self & Peer Evaluation Form A-3 Teacher Observation Checklist A-4 Group Presentation Rubric

Ketcham 15 Phillip Ketcham Spanish II Appendix A-1

Group Daily Journal/Log The Mexican Drug Cartels: The Effects of the Drug Cartels on the United States A Problem-Based Unit Model

Instructions: At the conclusion of the class period or group work, the task leader will fill out the following report. Give the sheet to Mr. Ketcham before you leave the class. Group Members: Include Role in Parenthesis 1. _________________________________ ( 2. _________________________________ ( 3. _________________________________ ( 4. _________________________________ ( ) ) ) ) Date:____/___/______ Period:______________

I. List 2-4 Research Topics Completed this Class Period: 1. 2. 3. 4. II. Explain 2-4 Ongoing Research Topics: 1. 2. 3. 4. III. List 2-4 Future Research Topics: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Ketcham 16 IV. One important article of information the group discovered this class period is

V. We have a question about

Ketcham 17 Phillip Ketcham Spanish II Appendix A-2

Self & Peer Evaluation Form Place this in the black basket on my desk at the conclusion of the mini-unit. Date:

Name: Group Name:

Self-Evaluation (Name/Position) Criteria Respectful to other group members and their comments Stayed on task and did not stray from the assigned problem Shared ideas with the group and answered questions Listened to group members opinions and politely disagreed with reasons Completed their assigned task and fulfilled their role in the group Frequently 3 points Sometimes 2 points Rarely 1 point

Group Member #1 (Name/Position) Criteria Respectful to other group members and their comments Stayed on task and did not stray from the assigned problem Shared ideas with the group and answered questions Listened to group members opinions and politely disagreed with reasons Completed their assigned task and fulfilled their role in the group Frequently 3 points Sometimes 2 points Rarely 1 point

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Group Member #2 (Name /Position) Criteria Respectful to other group members and their comments Stayed on task and did not stray from the assigned problem Shared ideas with the group and answered questions Listened to group members opinions and politely disagreed with reasons Completed their assigned task and fulfilled their role in the group Frequently 3 points Sometimes 2 points Rarely 1 point

Group Member #3 (Name /Position) Criteria Respectful to other group members and their comments Stayed on task and did not stray from the assigned problem Shared ideas with the group and answered questions Listened to group members opinions and politely disagreed with reasons Completed their assigned task and fulfilled their role in the group Frequently 3 points Sometimes 2 points Rarely 1 point

Ketcham 19 Phillip Ketcham Spanish II Teacher Observation Checklist The Mexican Drug Cartels: The Effects of the Drug Cartels on the United States A Problem-Based Unit Model Group Members: Role in Parenthesis 1. _______________________________ ( 2. _______________________________ ( 3. _______________________________ ( 4. _______________________________ ( ) ) ) ) Appendix A-3

Instructions: Teacher watches the group and how each member interacts with the members of the group and the rest of the class. The teacher will mark the behavior s/he observes each day during group work. I. Group Procedures 1. Group stays on research topic without being easily distracted. 2. Each member accomplishes his/her designated responsibilities 3. Each member respects the opinions of fellow members 4. Each member shares ideas about the topic Teacher Remarks: _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________ II. Group Problem Solving Practices and Discussions 5. Group members realize the complexity of the research topic 6. Group members deliberate over potential viewpoints before choosing one over another viewpoint. 7. Group members defend their viewpoint on the topic with logical arguments (map, investigated data, facts, images, articles etc.,) 8. Group members research through various resources. 9. Group practice concise research methods.
Day 1 Day 2

Day 1 Day 2

Ketcham 20 10. Group members rational for finding demonstrates proficiency in higher thinking skills. 11. Group members demonstrate knowledge of the cultural tensions between the U.S. and Mexico. Teacher Remarks: _____________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ III. Group Teamwork: 12. Group members take note of each members viewpoint. 13. All members work as a team to complete the assignment Teacher Remarks: ______________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ IV. Group Social Activity: 14. All members interact with their classmates in other groups in a positive manner that creates an environment conducive to PBL.
Day 1 Day 2

Day 1 Day 2

Ketcham 21 Phillip Ketcham Spanish II Appendix A-4

Group Presentation Rubric Group:_______________________ Teacher:_________________ Date:_________________________ Title of Work:___________


4 3 2 1 CATEGORY 5 Time Presentation Presentation is Presentation is Presentation is Group fails stays within 1 minute too 2 minutes to 3 minutes too to give a the 8 minute short or too short or too short or too presentatio time frame long. long. long. n given. Content Group clearly Group Group Group Group fails identifies the identifies 5-6 of identifies 3-4 of identifies 1-2 of to identify 7 main cartels the main cartels the main the main any of the including the including their cartels cartels main drug size, size, including their including their cartels and geographical geographical size, size, their area of area of control geographical geographical specific control, and and types of area of control, area of control, characterist types of narcotics and types of and types of ics. narcotics trafficked. narcotics narcotics trafficked. trafficked. trafficked. Interesting Group crisply Group presents Group Group Group fails Fact presents 1 1 interesting provides 1 provides 1 to provide 1 interesting fact, but only interesting fact, interesting fact, interesting fact and partially clarifies but lacks a but fails an fact in their explains the groups clear explanation for presentatio clearly the reasoning for explanation of the groups n. groups their choice. the groups reasoning for reasoning for choice. their choice. their choice. Division of Each of the the Groups four group Presentatio members n shared in the presentation equally. Every individual 2-3 individuals in the group within the contributed, but group carried not equally in the group in the the presentation of presentation the groups findings. 1-2 individuals carried the groups presentation without the help of others. Not all group members took a speaking part in the presentatio n leaving the burden upon 1 individual.

_____/20 Total Rating