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MANAGEMENT”

“MANAGEMENT” NOTES
BSIT PART-
PART-1 (2ND
(2ND SEMESTER)

Prepared BY: Syed Fateh Ali Shah (06/ITEC/29)


M.Ramzan Unar (06/ITEC/61)
Qalander Bux (06/ITEC/67)

What is Management?
Management is the systematic way of Pleasing,
Organizing, and Leading & Controlling for the achievement of the objective &
goals.

Management Functions:-
There are four management functions.
1- Planning
2- Organizing
3- Leading
4- Controlling

1-Planning:-
Planning is the process for doing a plain for something &
deciding in advance what to do, how to do, when to do & who is to do it.

2- Organizing:-
It is a process of creating an organization structure with the
view that what is done, who is doing them, where the reports are collected
& who makes the decisions.
3-Leading:-
It is a process of motivating & communicating with the
organizations, human resources to ensure goals are attained.

5-Controlling / Co-ordination:-
Controlling is the process to control &
monitor all the activities & makes the corrections.

What is Effectiveness?
Making right decisions & doing right things at
right time in right ways.

What is Efficiency?
Using limited resources in such a way that we
produce maximum output & the resources are not wasted.

The Role of Management:-


There are three roles of management.
1- Interpersonal role.
2- Informational role.
3- Decisional role.

1- Interpersonal role:-
Interpersonal role involves the manager in
relationship with other individuals both inside & outside the organization
or firm.

2- Informational role:-
Informational role is the role in which the
manager sends the information to other people (managers) or receives the
information from other people (managers) on any point of view.
3- Decisional role:-
The managers use the available information to
make important decisions.

What is a Manager?
Some one who manage the entire organization &
some one who plains & makes decisions, organizes, leads & controls
human, financial, physical & information resources.

Management levels defined:-

There are three management levels:-


1- First line managers.
2- Middle managers.
3- Top (or senior) managers.

1- First line managers:-


Directly responsible for day-to-day
operations & monitors the activities of operating employess.

2- Middle managers:-
Responsible for section or departments,
monitors the activities of lower-level managers (first line managers).

3- Top (or senior) managers:-


Responsible for entire enterprise,
manage the organization’s over all goals, strategy & operating policies.

What is an Organization?
Organization is a systematic arrangement
of people brought together to accomplish some specific purpose or goals.

E.g.:- College, University etc.


What is System Approach?
A system is a set of interrelated &
interdependent parts arranged in a manner that produces a unified whole.

There are two basic types of system:-


1-Close system.
2-Open system.

1-Close system:-
A system that is not influenced by & do not interact with
their environment.

2-Open system:-
A system that is influenced by & interact with their
environment.

In system Approach effectiveness is attained through:-


Planning, programming, monitoring, controlling etc.
E.g.:- military, government agencies, automobiles, insurance, banking etc.

What are types of plans?


There are two types of plans.
1-Strategic plans.
2-Tactical or Operational plans.

1-Strategic plans:-
The plan that apply to the entire organization, establish
the organization’s overall goals & position the organization in terms of its
environment.

Strategic plans are long term, directional & single use plans.
Long term plans:-
Plans with a time frame beyond three years.

Directional plans:-
Plans that are flexible & that set out general guidelines.

Single use plans:-


A one-time plan specifically designed to meet the needs of
a unique situation.

2-Tactical or Operational plans:-


Plans that specify the details of how
the overall goals are to be achieved.

Tactical plans are Short time, Specific & Standing plans.

Short term plans:-


Plans covering one year or less.

Specific plans:-
Plans that are clearly defined & that leave no room for
interpretation.

Standing Plans:-
Ongoing plans that provide guidance for activities
performed repeatedly.

What are Decision making conditions?

There are three conditions managers may face as they make decisions:-
1-Certainty.
2-Uncertainty.
3-Risk.
1-Certainty:-
A situation in which a manager can make accurate decisions
because the outcome of every alternative is known.

2-Uncertainty:-
A situation in which a manager do not have full knowledge of
alternative outcomes.

3-Risk:-
A situation in which the decision maker is able to estimate the
likelihood of certain outcomes.

What is SWOT analysis?


The combined external & internal analyses
are called the “SWOT analysis”, because it’s an analysis of the
organization’s Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities & Threats.

By that managers can identify a strategic niche (suitable position) that the
organization might exploit.

What is a small business organization?

It is an organization that is independently owned, operated & financed. It


has fewer than 100 employees & has relatively little impact on its industry.

What are Multinational Corporations(MNCs)?

Organizations which maintain significant operations in multiple countries


but are managed from a base in the home country.

E.g:- Alfa, Mobil Oil & so many companies are among a growing number of
firms that earn more than 60% of their revenue from foreign countries.
What is Collectivism?

A social framework in which people to act as members of groups & expect


others in groups of which they are a part (such as a family or an
organization) to look after them & to protect them when they are in trouble.

What are planning tools & techniques?

Assessing the environment:-


The screening of large amounts of
information to anticipate (expect) & interpret changes in the environment.

The fastest growing area of environmental scanning is “Competitor


Intelligence”.

Competitor Intelligence:-
It is a process by which organizations gather
information about their competitors & get answers to questions such as:-
Who are they?
What are they doing?
How will what they are doing effect us?

Scenario:-
A visualization of what the future is likely to be.