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UNIVERSITY Oh ARIZONA LIBRAR>

Documents Collection JUN 27

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Frederick H. Mueller, Secretary NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS A. V. Astin, Director

Mechanical Properties of Structural Materials at Low Temperatures


A Compilation from the Literature
R. Michael McClintock and Hugh P. Gibbons

National Bureau of Standards Monograph 13


Issued June 1, 1960

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office Washington 25, D.C. - Price $1.50 (Buckram)

Foreword
The advent of space vehicles which utilize cryogenic fluids for propellants has greatly increased activity in the field of cryogenic engineering in recent years; Large capacity gas liquefaction plants have become necessary to supply cryogenic fluids in the amounts needed for rocket testing. With these plants and the rockets themselves has come the need for associated cryogenic equipment such as valves, pumps, liquid transfer lines, flow indicators, pressure switches, temperature and level sensing devices, and, in fact, all the equipment used in handling liquids at other more convenient temperatures. Intelligent design of reliable cryogenic equipment such as this requires the existence of data on the mechanical properties of structural solids at low tempera tures ; data which are all too scattered or too scarce to suit most designers. This book, therefore, is issued to help fill the need for a compilation of useful design figures.

Contents
Page

Introduction ______________________________________________________ Scales for interpolation_____________________________________________ Graphs for: Aluminum and its alloys_____ _____ _______ _____ _ _ ________________ Copper and its alloys ______________________________________ ______ Nickel and its noiiferrous alloys___________^_________^_^___________ Titanium and its alloys.__________________________________________ Magnesium alloys______________________________________________ Austeiiitic stainless steels. _______--_____________________________^_ Ferritic and hardenable stainless steels_____________________________ Low alloy constructional steels _ - _ _________________________________ Superalloys (alloys of Co, Ni, Cr, W, Mo) __________________________ Brazing and soldering metals______________ _______________________ Miscellaneous alloys and pure metals.______________________________ Noiimetallic materials._______________ ___________________________ References. _-------______________________________ _______________

in ix 1 36 62 72 79 93 120 128 148 154 160 175 177

II

Mechanical Properties of Structural Materials at Low Temperatures


A Compilation from the Literature
R. Michael McClintock and Hugh P. Gibbons
The tensile strength, yield strength, tensile elongation, and impact energy of about two hundred materials, metallic and nonmetallic, are given graphically as functions of temperature between 4 and 3OO Kelvin.

Introduction
The designer of equipment which must operate at very low tempera tures is faced at some time in the design with the problems of making material selections and of performing initial stress calculations. This is no less true, of course, when a device is being designed for use at other temperatures, but the dearth of data on the mechanical properties of commercial materials at low temperatures must certainly be disconcerting to the design engineer who is looking for a material to act as a structural member in a cryogenic device. It is hoped that this compilation of some of the mechanical properties of materials will assist the designer by making available in one publication reliable data which have appeared in the literature or 'which, in some cases, have not yet been published. The selection of a material for fabrication of a part can usually be made in several ways, but very often the simplest method involves the establishing of some figure of merit for the application at hand, and comparing materials on the basis of this figure. For example, double shell, vacuum insulated, cryogenic storage containers often require tension support members for their inner shells. Since it is desirable that such members conduct as little heat as possible into the inner shell from the surroundings of the vessel, an obvious figure of merit for the material to be selected is its yield strength divided by its mean thermal conductivity. (The appropriate yield strength figure is the lowest value for the material over the temperature range in which it operates.) Wlien the most promising materials have been compared on the basis of these figures of merit, then the more qualitative aspects can be examined. These may include such things as the ease of fabrication or the weldability of the material. In some cases, it may even be desirable to assign arbitrary values to the qualita tive properties of the materials, and so to construct fairly complex figures of merit for the purpose of material selection. Following the choice of a proper material, the designer will make initial stress calculations in order to get an idea of the size of the structural components necessary to sustain the working loads. Here again the mechanical properties of the materials must be known. It is to assist these two phases of low temperature equipment design that the present compilation of properties is especially presented. The data are presented with the idea that an engineer who is mak ing initial calculations on equipment for operation at cryogenic temperatures is more interested in obtaining quickly a definite figure than he is in evaluating the experimental data given in several detailed reports on the same material. The graphs and tables pre sented here, consequently, represent an attempt by the authors to HI

perform an evaluation of data which have appeared in the literature and to present the design engineer with the result. The curves therefore appear as lines representing the mechanical properties as functions of temperature, and not as bands representing maximum and minimum values reported. Such an evaluation process is bound to be somewhat subjective. If it were not, the reduction of data to line graphs could better be per formed by the most convenient digital computer programed to provide the best fitting polynomial of degree "n." Unless the data were weighted judiciously, such a curve would be little more than a mathe matical delight and perhaps in poor keeping with the known or suspected behavior of the properties of materials with temperature. The curves in this book, therefore, have been constructed from data which the authors found to be the best documented and the most consistent with that of other investigators. In most cases whatever errors remain after such an abridgement will be adequately compen sated by the designer's use of a "safety factor" in his stress analysis. Where they are not, and greater confidence is required, the references should be consulted for more detail. The references will also disclose the fact that not all the available materials have been included in this volume. Oifferent metals or different heat treatments of the same metal, for example, have in some cases been omitted where it was thought that they were not the most representative of currently available materials. Omissions were also made in a few cases where the trend of a mechanical property as a function of some metallurgical variable was thought to be adequately demonstrated by those data selected for inclusion. It should be remembered that any reduction of scattered mechanical properties data to a smooth curve is an attempt to represent the "most probable" relationship between ordinate and abscissa from among the samples tested. Specific samples may lie above or below the curve, however, and the discrepancies caused by commercial variation in chemical composition, heat treatment, dimensional and experimental errors, etc., are normally condensed into a "safety factor" by the de signer, whereby he sidesteps costly quality control, or more com plicated mathematics in the case of complex devices. The use of a safety factor is properly the province of the design engineer since he knows the use to which the equipment will be put, and the reliability desired. It should therefore be subject to the designer's complete knowledge, and not, as is sometimes the case, be applied to experi mental data by the authors of such reports as this and the results presented as a table of "permissible stresses". This not only mis places the responsibility for safety or reliability, but in complex cal culations the safety factor can be compounded unintentionally. The point of mentioning this is merely that the data in this book should be used with caution for designs in which safety factors must be small (as in cases of restricted weight or size), since low temperature prop erties are often sensitive to variations in thermal and mechanical his tory and chemical composition which are allowable within commer cial specifications. In addition to these variations, limitations in experimental accu racy may account for some of the apparent inconsistencies which appear in graphs in this book. For example, the tensile strength of annealed type 303 stainless steel, which appears on page 98, lies
IV

slightly above that of the same material which has been cold drawn 10 percent; and at 20 K, the same effect reappears in types 310 and 316 stainless steels. It is conceivable that such an effect is real, but the authors' first inclination is to ascribe the difficulty to differences in strain rate between observers, or to other experimental limitations. In any event, having no better knowledge, the authors have thought it best simply to include the curves derived from the experimental results and to let the apparent inconsistencies stand for the present. The same philosophy applies to the graph of the strength of tita nium alloys on page 74, although the drop in tensile strength of the two alloys at 20 K can probably be attributed to experimental error in this case* The elongation of these two alloys is zero at 20 K, and brittle materials are extremely sensitive to accidental surface imper fections or other stress raisers, even such as the radius commonly present at the ends of the reduced section of a tensile specimen. The mechanical properties presented in this compilation as func tions of temperature are tensile strength, yield strength at 0.2 percent offset (unless otherwise noted), elongation, and impact energy. In a few instances the reduction of area of a tensile specimen is presented as an indication of ductility. The first three properties were ob tained from short time tension tests of smooth specimens which were generally cut from bar or plate one-eighth inch thick or thicker. Thinner sheet material is noted on the graphs. Some investigators report "yield point" (usually obtained by the "drop of the beam'7 method) rather than yield strength. In these cases the graphs are so noted, and the upper yield point is the one referred to. The impact energy is the energy absorbed by a standard specimen in breaking under an impact load. In every case the type of impact specimen is indicated on the graph by a note which identifies it with one of the specimens described in test method E23 56T of the Amer ican Society for Testing Materials. The notation "Charpy V" re fers to the type "A" specimen having the V-notch, "Charpy K" refers to the type "B" specimen with the keyhole notch, and "Charpy U" refers to the type "C" specimen with the U-shaped notch. Izod speci mens are type "D" in the ASTM specifications. The Kelvin temperature scale is so widely used in cryogenics that all data have been converted to these units for consistency. For the convenience of those to whom a Fahrenheit temperature means more, extra scales have been included on pages ix and x. These may be cut out and held along the abscissa to allow interpolation as well as direct reading in degrees Fahrenheit. The extra scales also con tain divisions corresponding to the ordinate mechanical properties for interpolation. Adjacent to each curve are several numbers in brackets. These numbers correspond to the references in the bibliography at the end of the graphical section and indicate the sources of data from which the curve was constructed. On graphs where two or more curves appear for the same material, the reference numbers given for one curve apply to the rest. Because of the scarcity of published data, some of the references quoted are from unpublished records. In most cases smooth curves are used to represent the behavior of the mechanical properties as functions of temperature. These curves represent interpolation between experimental data points as men tioned before. In some cases, however, the data are joined by v

straight lines, and intermediate or end points are indicated. Where this occurs, it is because either a scarcity of data or a doubt on the part of the authors cautioned against drawing a smooth curve. The authors have tried to use nomenclature which is consistent with efforts of the various technical societies and manufacturers' asso ciations to classify and standardize metal specifications. When am biguities might still exist, nominal or reported compositions have been used in addition to the name of a material. In a few cases pro prietary names have been given when they have become so commonly used that other designations might be confusing. Throughout the book several abbreviations are used on the graphs. These correspond with usual metallurgical practice in this country: stress is given in psi (pounds per square inch), impact energy in ft-lb (foot-pounds), and tensile elongation in percent in 4D (four diame ters) where this ASTM recommendation was adhered to. The per centage of cold drawing or cold reduction given on many of the graphs refers to reduction of area rather than reduction of diameter. "OQ & T" means "oil quenched and tempered", "WQ & T" means "waterquenched and tempered", "AC" means "air-cooled", "R-B" and "RC" mean "Rockwell B hardness" and "Rockwell C hardness", respectively. Heat treating temperatures are given in degrees Fahr enheit, which is common in metallurgy in this country. Also whenever the metallurgical condition of the specimens was stated in the litera ture, it is appended to the curves. It is surprising, by the way, to find in the literature data derived from material described only as "soft yellow brass" or "soft bronze". An attempt was made to extract meaning from these data, but for the most part the value of such information is not great. Laboratory analysis of the materials tested and careful control of the thermal and mechanical history of the materials investigated would help immensely to establish the reliability and the usefulness of mechanical properties data. Probably the first thing learned by a newcomer to the cryogenic field about the properties of materials is that some materials become brittle at low temperatures and are therefore unusable in many struc tural applications at these temperatures. The literature is studded with accounts of spectacular brittle service failures which would not have occurred at higher temperatures. There are certain applica tions, however, in which it would be a mistake to apply the ductility criterion in the selection of a material for low temperature service. Springs are an example. The authors are aware of an instance in which the most suitable material for a low temperature coil spring was not considered because it would be brittle at the service tempera ture. The ductility criterion should not generally be applied in such cases since a smooth coil spring having no re-entrant corners is care fully designed to act as an elastic member and usually need not pos sess any ductility for its satisfactory service. Professor Collins at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for example, has success fully used carbon steel valve springs in expansion engines for the liquefaction of nitrogen and helium. For most structural applications, however, the engineer would like some assurance that the material he selects will not be brittle at the service temperature. If it were, his hardware w-ould be liable to catastrophic failure in the event of accidental impact or vibration loads at a point where local stresses occurred in excess of those for which he
VI

has allowed. "Ductile" materials, of course, are capable of redistribut ing local stresses in excess of their yield strength by the mechanism of plastic flow. One great difficulty, however, has been that of devising a laboratory test which will predict satisfactorily whether a material will behave in a ductile or a brittle manner in service. The plastic elongation of a tensile specimen is not a satisfactory index, since many materials which show plastic deformation in a tensile test at a given temperature have been known to fail in a >rittle manner in service at the same (or even higher) temperatures. Ordinary low carbon steel, for example, which Eldin and Collins * find to be completely brittle in a tensile test only below 65 K, has a record of many service failures at temperatures only moderately below room temperature. Obviously the behavior of a material under the conditions of uniaxial stress present in the usual tensile test does not provide a sufficiently good prediction of its behavior under multiaxial stress conditions. The beam impact test, in which a standard-size bar is subjected to a high-velocity blow, while popular because of its convenience, is also deficient in some respects as an index of performance of a material in service. A correlation has been obtained between service performance and impact energy for steels by Jaffee et al.,2 but such a correlation applicable to all materials has not yet been found. One difficulty seems to be that light metals pay an unjust penalty in the impact test. Mag nesium alloys, for example, exhibit low impact strength, but have been satisfactorily used in the aircraft industry in structural applications in which they receive impact loads. So whereas the tensile elongation of a material seems to be too optimistic an indication of service ductility, the energy absorbed in an impact test seems in some cases to give information which is too pessimistic. The energy absorbed in an impact test can be deceptive for still other reasons. For example, the energy value is affected considerably by incomplete breakage of a very ductile specimen. When this occurs, a portion of the energy recorded in a Charpy test is the result of forc ing the specimen through the supports of the machine. Consequently this occurrence, along with other supplementary information such as the character of the fracture surface, is sometimes of even greater importance than the absolute value of the energy absorbed. As a simple laboratory test which will provide a suitable analogy to the service performance of a material, the notch tensile test is gain ing acceptance for some purposes. The test is performed either at low strain rates in tensile equipment or at high strain rates, usually in impact machines which have been modified for this use. "Notches" almost always exist, of course, in any manufactured part in the form of weld craters, rivet holes, re-entrant corners, or simply accidental scratches; and the notch-tensile test provides an indication of the abil ity pf a material to sustain working stresses in the presence of such stress raisers. A properly designed notch-tensile specimen also con tains an area of bi-axial or tri-axial stress as well, so information can be gained about the performance of the material under these conditions. There are other types of laboratory tests which have been devised to predict the performance in service of structural materials, each a
1 See reference 29. 2 Jaffee, Kosting, Jones, Bluhm, Hurlich, and Wallace, Impact tests help engineers specify steel, SAE Journal, March 1951.
VII

compromise between simplicity and universality on the one hand, and degree of applicability to the service requirement on the other. For the most part, airframe and component manufacturers make the com promise in the latter direction. Their test specimens consequently consist of sub assemblies, complete components, or even entire complex assemblies. In industries in which weight is not a prime considera tion, and larger safety factors can be used, the tendency is toward the simpler tests. Obviously, economic considerations make the simple experiment the more desirable, and until a simple test is devised which is a reliable index of service performance, most design engineers will content themselves with the less desirable information provided by the usual tensile and impact tests in the first stages of design. The greatest amount of information in the literature which indi cates something about the ductility of a material is in the form of tensile elongation or impact data. Therefore, while not the most sat isfactory indications of ductility, these two mechanical properties are reported in addition to yield and tensile strengths in this book. The authors take pleasure in acknowledging the assistance of L. J. Ericks in the preparation of this book. His careful drafting is re sponsible for the final appearance of the graphs.

VIII

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IOO I5O 2OO TEMPERATURE ,K

25O

3OO

ELONGATION OF 5154 ALUMINUM

50

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

IMPACT ENERGY OF 5154 ALUMINUM

8O x IO

50

IOO ISO ZOO TEMPERATURE K

25O

3OO

STRENGTH OF 5356 ALUMINUM

5O

ELONGATION OF 5356 ALUMINUM


54023Z O -60 -3

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

9O x IO

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

STRENGTH OF

5456 ALUMINUM

ELONGATION OF 5456 ALUMINUM

IOO ISO ZOO TEMPERATURE,K

2 SO

3OO

7O x IO

65

2OO ISO IOO TEMPERATURE,K

250

300

STRENGTH OF 6O53 ALUMINUM

5O

ELONGATION OF6O53 ALUMINUM


1J

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

250

3OO

CHARPY

K \T6[-rs]

10
5

5O

IMPACT

ENERGY OF

TEMPERATURE, K

IOO

ISO

2OO

25O

3OO

6O53 ALUMINUM

27
75xlO

T6[,43,7I,I03]

TENSILE YIELD

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, 0 K

25O

3OO

STRENGTH OF 6O6I ALUMINUM

55 5O 45 4O 35 3O 25
o> o

28

T6l>,43,7l, 103]

20 15 10 5
2OO ISO IOO TEMPERATURE, K

5O

25O

3OO

ELONGATION OF 6O6I ALUMINUM

50

IMPACT ENERGY OF

2OO ISO IOO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

6O6I ALUMINUM

6O x I O~

29
ALL SPECIMENS FROM EXTRUSIONS TENSILE YIELD

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

STRENGTH OF 6O63 ALUMINUM


60
ALL SPECIMENS FROM EXTRUSIONS

5O
Q 4O ^~ c 30

20
o> ex
IO

5O

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

2 SO

3OO

ELONGATION OF 6O63 ALUMINUM

7OxlO 6O

3O

T6,FORGED[4]

5O
CL

-40

T6<

05 UJ

or 30 20 10
TENSILE YIELD

5O

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

250

300

STRENGTH OF 6151 ALUMINUM


25 2O
15 "c o o IO

T6, FOR6ED[4]

g. 5
5O

100 (50 20O TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

ELONGATION OF 6151 ALUMINUM

isoxicr
I4O 130

31

T6, SHEET

[43, 7l]

120
I IO IOO
90

T6, ROD[4,43,7I,O3]

T6, EXTRUSIONS ,43,57]

en U*
or

UJ e

7O 6O 5O 4O 3O 20 IO
TENSILE YIELD

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

250

3OO

STRENGTH OF 7O75 ALUMINUM

40 35 3O

Q 25
0[4,43]

c 2O
4C

** I 5 \f
ex 10 5

T6.SHEET % IN 2"

T 6, ROD [4,43,71,103]

T6, EXTRUSIONS[4,43,57]

5O

ELONGATION OF 7O75 ALUMINUM 10


T6, ROD, CHARPY K [lO3] T6, EXTRUs'lONSlST]; IZOD

IOO ISO ZOO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

5
T6, ROD, CHARPY v[7l]

5O

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

IMPACT

ENERGY OF 7O75 ALUMINUM

IOO x IO~

33

90
- 8O CO

T6, FORGED [65]

co

tr ro I6O
TENSILE YIELD 5O

Ld

50

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

250

3OO

STRENGTH OF 7O79 ALUMINUM


<u
<M
CO

2O

I 15
T6, FORGED C653

IO

8 5 S.
5O

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE ,K

250

3OO

ELONGATION OF 7O79 ALUMINUM


CHARP1' V

r T6,
SO

FOF IGED [65]


m ..^^ .

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

IMPACT ENERGY OF 7O79 ALUMINUM

7O x IO

34

TENSILE YIELD

IOO ISO ZOO TEMPERATURE t K

250

3OO

STRENGTH OF SAND CAST ALUMINUM ALLOYS

50

IOO I5O 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

ELONGATION OF SAND CAST ALUMINUM ALLOYS


IO
CHAR PY K

/I95 - T6 [75] / / x 356 - T6 [75]

5O

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE ,K

25O

3OO

IMPACT ENERGY OF SAND CAST ALUMINUM ALLOYS

Copper and Its Alloys

so x ic

7O
DRAWN, HARD [7.]

6O

5O
OT Q.

CO

J340 (T
05

ANNEALED [9, 17,33,70,71,83, 88,9O]

30

20
r-ANNEALED [33, 7O]

10
TENSILE YIELD 5O

STRENGTH OF OXYGEN FREE HIGH CONDUCTIVITY COPPER

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

250

3OO

37

^-ANNEALED [33, 70]

COLD DRAWN, HARD [7.]

ELONGATION OF OXYGEN FREE HIGH CONDUCTIVITY COPPER


ANNEALED [67]

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE , K

25O

300

5O

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

250

3OO

IMPACT ENERGY OF OXYGEN FREE HIGH CONDUCTIVITY COPPER

30O xl
28O

38
CONDITION A AT /2H /2 HT TREATMENT SOLUTION TREATED SOLUTION TREATED 8 AGE HARDENED COLD DRAWN - HALF HARD CD. HALF HARD ft AGE HARDENED

26O 24O 220 2OO I8O

. ieo

I4O I2O 100 80 60 40 20


TENSILE YIELD NOMINAL COMPOSITIONS A WROUGHT - Be 2, Co .3, Cu BAL O CAST

- Be 2, Co.6, Cu BAL

5O

STRENGTH OF BERYLLIUM COPPER

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE , K

250

3OO

39
7O 60 g 50 "~ 4O _c COMPOSITIONS a TREATMENTS GIVEN ON PAGE 38. SAME AS

30 o> o
o>
k_

Q. 2O

IO

IOO ISO TEMPERATURE,

2OO K

25O

3OO

ELONGATION OF BERYLLIUM COPPER


COMPOSITIONS a TREATMENTS GIVEN ON PAGE 38. SAME AS

2O
A4HT[80]

A AT [80]

O AT [80]

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE. K


540232 O -60 -4

25O

3OO

IMPACT ENERGY OF BERYLLIUM COPPER

4O
I6O x IO* ISO I4O 130 -A Be-Zn, i-HT[80]

ABe-Co,iHT[eo]

I2O IIO
IOO 90

ABe-Co,^HT

o Be-Co, AT [80]

to 8O A Be-Co co
UJ 70
CO

[7.]

60 50 4O

TENSILE YIELD
NOMINAL COMPOSITIONS BERYLLIUM - COBALT BRONZE: A WROUGHT Be .6, Co 2.6,

3O 2O
IO

o CAST Be .4, Co 2.3, BERYLLIUM-ZINC BRONZE :

Cu BAL.

Cu BAL.

A WROUGHT Be I.I, Zn .9, Cu BAL. CONDITION TREATMENT AT SOLUTION TREATED a AGE HARDENED. '/2H COLD DRAWN TO HALF HARD CONDITION. /2HT C.D. HALF HARD AND AGE HARDENED. "AHT C.D. QUARTER HARD AND AGE HARDENED.

5O

ICO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE , K

25O

3OO

STRENGTH OF BERYLLIUM BRONZES

6O SO

________________41___________
COMPOSITIONS a TREATMENTS GIVEN ON PAGE 4O. SAME AS

A Be -Co,
[71]

GAGE LENGTH

3O

20 W.
Q> CL

10

O Be-CO, AT [80]

5O

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

ELONGATION OF BERYLLIUM BRONZES


COMPOSITIONS a TREATMENTS GIVEN ON PAGE 4O. SAME AS

3O 25 2O
^ IS IO 5

CHARPY K CHARPY V

,-^HT[80]

[80]

Be-Co, AT [80]

5O

IOO ISO 200 TEMPERATURE, K

25O

300

IMPACT ENERGY OF BERYLLIUM BRONZES

42________ j |
67-33, 4O% C.D. [l (YELLOW BRASS)

6O - 39 + I % Sn, ROLLED [9O] ,(NAVAL BRASS)

8O

67-33, ANNEALED (YELLOW BRASS) [IS]

70
CO CO LU

cr

7O-3O, ANNEALED, (CARTRIDGE BRASS)[l7]

CO

6O

X/-67-33, ANNEALED

5O

TENSILE

4O

--"YIELD POINT'(BY DROP OF THE BEAM) EXCEPT AS NOTED


'^.^ / NAVAL BRASS, ROLLED

30 25
5O

rrU-5O, ANPJtALtU, I ***. 4=_ ('% OFFSET YIELD _____* ^"" -.^ STRENGTH)

STRENGTH OF SOME ALPHA BRASSES

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

80
7O
-30, ANNEALED (CARTRIDGE BRASS)

6O
(A 0>

so

67-33, ANNEALED7 (YELLOW BRASS)/

___[!] ____= V

<M 4Q

z.

6O- 39+ I % Sn, ROLLED [9O] (NAVAL BRASS)

30
2O
IO
67-33, 40% C.D. [15], (YELLOW BRASS)

TEMPERATURE,

IOO

ISO

2OO

ELONGATION OF ALPHA BRASSES 100


80
CHARPY V IZOD -33, ANNEALED [is]

:9 6O i *~ 40

67-33, 4O% C.D. [15]

20
' SO

NAVAL

BRASS , C.D. HARD [49]

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

IMPACT ENERGY OF ALPHA BRASSES

_____44
COMPOSITIONS ALLOY
FREE CUTTING MUNTZ METAL

%Cu

Pb %Sn %Zn
1.3 3.O .55 BAL. BAL.

58.7

ARCHITECTURAL "BRONZE" FREE CUTTING BRASS

57.6 61

36

I2O x IO'
MO IOO

90
to ex .. 80 CO CO
CO

/"A"

COLD DRAWN 12% [l5j C ANNEALED

6O 5O 4O 30 2O IO

"A" ANNEALED

O.5 % OFFSET YIELD STRENGTI

A" COLD DRAWN 12 %

"A"ANNEALED

TENSILE YIELD POINT BY DROP OF BEAM EXCEPT AS NOTED. 5O

100 150 200 TEMPERATURE , K

250

300

STRENGTH OF LEADED BRASSES

60
SO o> 4O
COMPOSITION AS GIVEN ON PAGE 44.

FREE CUTTING MUNTZ ANNEALED [is]

45_____________
METAL,

/ARCHITECTURAL "BRONZE" ANNEALED [9]

CO 3O
c 2O IO
N FREE CUTTING MUNTZ METAL, COLD DRAWN 12% [is]

0> O

\ FREE CUTTING BRASS,


ROLLED [90] 5O

ELONGATION OF LEADED BRASSES


6O 5O 4O

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

CHAPPY V CHARPY K

L 3O 2O
IO

FREE CUTTING BRASS,. ANNEALED[49] FREE CUTTING MUNTZ METAL, ANNEALED [l5] ,FREE CUTTING MUNTZ METAL, COLD DRAWN 12% [is]

^FREE CUTTING BRASS, COLD DRAWN, HALF HARD _______I________I

5O

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

IMPACT ENERGY OF LEADED BRASSES

46
150 I4O I3O I2O
X IW

NOMINAL

COMPOSITION '

<

6O Cu -

'

4O Zn

no
IOO "/ 9O o. .80
V) * LJ 70 fyj

X
ANNEALED ^ [15]

cr

P
TX^..
-^^^^

XTC

LD DRAW N 25% [l 5]

^^.

-.

^5x ^^
^*^^^

60
50 4O 3O 20

^^^^^wm

^AN NEALED
*"*

-.^

to
O

TENSILE YIELD POINT BY DRC>P OF 1 I

BE)&M

5O

IOO

ISO

2OO

25O

3OO

STRENGTH OF MUNTZ METAL

TEMPERATURE,

SO 50
- 40
CVJ

47

ANNEALED [is]

. 3O
o 2O
Q>
IO

COLD

DRAWN 25% [l5]

______I__________I_________I__________I_________

NOMINAL

COMPOSITION :

6O Cu -

4O Zn

5O

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

ELONGATION OF MUNTZ METAL


t><J 50
40 n
4 ^-

CHARPY

V
f

/J
"

ANNEALED [is]

4^*

r*

OLD

DRA WN 25% [15]

3O
2O

IO
NOMI MAL
^k

COM POSITION :

6O Cu - 4O Zn

SO

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE , K

25O

3OO

IMPACT ENERGY OF MUNTZ METAL

x icr
ISO I4O I3O I 2O I IO IOO u> ex 9O

48

COMPOSITIONS COMPLY WITH ASTM DESIGNATIONS BI5O-54 AND B 148-52


* WATER QUENCHED FROM I65OF AND TEMPERED AT I2OO F ALLOY 9D, CAST AND * HEAT TREATED. [47]

ALLOY 9D, CAST AND ANNEALED [47]

^LLOY 9 A , CAST AND ANNEALED[47]


ALLOY 3, WROUGHT AND ANNEALED [47]

CO CO LU 8O OC.
CO

9D, HEAT TREATED

7O
9 D, ANNEALED

6O 5O 4O 3O 2O IO

9A,ANNEALED

3,ANNEALED

_________I__________I__________i__________I

TENSILE YIELD STRENGTH (O.5 % OFFSET)

5O

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

250

3OO

STRENGTH OF ALUMINUM BRONZES

49
ALLOY 3, WROUGHT AND ANNEALED [47] COMPOSITIONS AS SHOWN ON PAGE 48 ALLOY 9A , CAST AND ANNEALED [47] ALLOY 9D, CAST AND ANNEALED [47]

\ALLOY 9D, CAST AND [47] HEAT TREATED *

2OO ISO IOO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

ELONGATION OF ALUMINUM BRONZES


8O
CHAPPY V
-ALLOY 3, WROUGHT AND ANNEALED [47] COMPOSITIONS AS SHOWN ON PAGE 48.

7O 6O 5O
JQ

T 40

H-

3O 20 IO

ALLOY 9A, CAST AND ANNEALED [47! ALLOY 9D, CAST AND ANNEALED [47] N -ALLOY 9D, CAST AND HEAT TREATED * [47]

5O

2OO ISO IOO TEMPERATURE,K

250

3OO

IMPACT ENERGY OF ALUMINUM BRONZES

ISO x l( I4O I3O I2O MO IOO

D3

50

COMPOSITIONS COMPLY WITH ASTM DESIGNATION B ISO -54 FOR WROUGHT AL BRONZE

Q^ ALLOY No. 1 [t7] , ROLLED 8 ANNEAL *

w 90 o.

^^<
^^%

/ALLOY No. 1, / AS FORGED[9C>3

^\
^^

---^

UJ : CO

c/>

</> 80
70

^ v^^

^\
^-^
^

/VLLOY No. ,

-w ^. FORGED /
\ ^>

\x

6O SO 40 3O 2O IO

IT
^LLOY No.l , ROLLED & ANNEAL (YIELD S TRENGTH,(D.1% OFFSIET)

TENSILE YIELD POINT , EXCEPT AS INDIC, ^TED


t 1

50

IOO ISO ZOO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

STRENGTH OF 8% ALUMINUM BRONZE

7O
COMPOSITIONS AS SHOWN ON PAGE 5O.

51

6O 50

o c
4O
CM

ASTM ALLOY No. I, AS FORGED [9O] ASTM ALLOY No. I, ROLLED S ANNEALED [17]

E 3O
20

o>

Q.

IO

5O

IOO ISO ZOO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

ELONGATION OF 8% ALUMINUM BRONZE


6O
5O 4O
CHARPY I2OD K

COMPOSITIONS AS SHOWN ON PAGE 5O.

. -

^ *. ^-

"* -~ \ASTf* ALLOY r4o. 1 , ROLLED, (HA RDNESS l>Z DPH) [49]

3O

2O
IO

\XSTM ALLOY No. 1 , ROLLED S ANNEALED [l7J

SO

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

IMPACT ENERGY OF 8% ALUMINUM BRONZE

I3U X 1

52
COMPOSITIONS CAST
Cu Mn Sn Fe Pb AI Zn 57.7 % . 5 .6 LZ I.O BAL.

I4O 130 I2O 1 10 IOO "w 9O


Q.

LEADED
56.5% 1.4 .9 1. 1 1.3 BAL.

N ^y^
o**

LU

cn" so cn
I cn
6O 5O

/\S CAST [ 90] /

5H^*===^=^
//\S CAST [9O] """' *i *^^ ^
^ *M^V ^^^ ^^^B ^^^ ^^^_ M|

/LEADED, ROLLED AND ANNEALED [l7J

40 30

0^,

mm "^^^ ^""^ ^^M

*^m MMM ^^__ ^^^^

2O IO

^ _EADED, fitOLLED AN D ANNEAL ED [17]. (YIELD S TRENGTH AT 0.1% OlPFSET)

TENSILE YIELD POINT EXCEPT A S INDICAT ED

5O

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE ,K

25O

3OO

STRENGTH OF MANGANESE BRONZES

COMPOSITIONS AS GIVEN ON PAGE 52

AS CAST [90l

LEADED, ROLLED AND ANNEALED [l7]

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

ELONGATION OF MANGANESE BRONZES


COMMON NAME
A *OUNCE METAL a BUSHING " "

COMPOSITIONS - % Cu Sn Pb
85 8O 56.5 5 5 IO .9 25 1 O 1.3

Zn
38.8

Other
l.4Mn

55

B *SEMI - PLASTIC BRONZE 7O C BEARING D -LEADED MANGANESE

3O 25 2O 15 IO

r*NOMINAl_

COMPOS ITIONS OhJLY.

-f -\

ROLLED AlMD ANNEA LED [17]

CHARPY IZOD

C,

AS CAS [49]

iT \
^B,

/'X,

AS CAS T [49]

AS CAST [49]

50

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

250

3OO

IMPACT ENERGY OF SOME MISCELLANEOUS BRONZES

ieox icr
I7O I6O ISO I4O I3O I2O

54
COMPOSITIONS - %

CAST Cu Sn P Zn COLD DRAWN, 88.4 IO.O 1.6

WROUGHT 9O.3 8.2 .06

HARD l>l]

110

</> 9O

ioo tr i
SO 7O 6O 50
.^^ \AS CAST [21]

4O 30 2O

TENSILE YIELD 5O

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

STRENGTH OF PHOSPHOR BRONZE

6O 50 4O

55
COMPOSITIONS SAME AS GIVEN ON PAGE 54.

COLD DRAWN, HARO[7l]

30
g 20
\_

o>

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

ELONGATION OF PHOSPHOR BRONZE


6O
CHAPPY V

5O 4O

30 2O
IO
ASTM GRADE D (9O Cu - IO Sn), COLD DRAWN, HARD [67]

50

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

250

300

IMPACT ENERGY OF PHOSPHOR BRONZE


540232 O - 60 - 5

i4o x icr
I3O

56

120
MO IOO 90
ASTM TYPE A, COLD DRAWN 42% [88]

ASTM TYPE A,
QUARTER HARD

8O [71] co a. ..70 CO

6O 5O 4O 30 2O

ASTM TYPE A, QUARTER HARD

TENSILE YIELD
5O

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE ,K

25O

3OO

STRENGTH OF SILICON BRONZES

7O 6O > 5O o>

57
ASTM TYPE A, QUARTER HARD [7l]

o
CVJ

30

a*

\ASTM TYPE A, [88] COLD DRAWN 42 %

IO

5O

ELONGATION OF SILICON BRONZES


80 7O 6O 5O 40 3O 2O IO
ASTM TYPE A,[67] COLD DRAWN, HARD CHARPY V

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

5O

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

300

IMPACT ENERGY OF SILICON BRONZES

ISO x IO

___________58____________ I | I I I
ALL SPECIMENS ROLLED AND ANNEALED

I4O I3O I2O

no
IOO

~5> 9O a.

30% Ni[33]

fc
60 SO 4O 3O 2O IO
3O% Ni[48]

or

t/> 8O LU

20% Ni [17], (O. I % OFFSET)

45% Ni \\T\S (O. I % OFFSET) TENSILE YIELD

5O

STRENGTH OF CUPRO-NICKELS

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

7O 6O

59
ALL SPECIMENS ROLLED AND ANNEALED

so
o c " 40 CO

E 30 c

S 20
IO

Q.

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,*K

25O

3OO

ELONGATION OF CUPRO-NICKELS
IOO 9O 8O 7O 6O
5O ALL SPECIMENS ROLLED AND ANNEALED IZOD

20 % Ni [17] /

5O

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

IMPACT ENERGY OF CUPRO-NICKELS

icr
I4O I3O
ALLOY ,8% 3O%

6O
NOMINAL
NICKEL NICKEL SILVER SILVER

COMPOSITIONS
% Cu % Ni 17 31 14 % Zn

64
55

1 20
I IO
30% Ni [17], ROLLED S ANNEALED 18% Ni [9O], COLD ROLLED

too
9O - 8O
*

CO

o:

w UJ

CO

18 % Ni [9O], COLD ROLLED18 %Ni [90], ANNEALED 18% Ni AS CAST 18% Ni [90], ANNEALED^ 30%Ni [17], ROLLED a ANNEALED

60
5O 4O

3O KYIELD 2O IO

STRENGTHAT 0.1% OFFSET)

\!8%Ni [90], AS CAST TENSILE YIELD POINT, EXCEPT AS INDICATED

5O

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

250

300

STRENGTH OF NICKEL SILVERS

7O 6O at o SO

61
18 % Ni [90], ANNEALED

30 % Ni [17], ROLLED a ANNEALEDv

18% Ni AS CAST-

CM 4O
3O 2O IO
COMPOSITIONS AS GIVEN ON PAGE 6O.

18 % Ni [90] , COLD ROLLED

a* o.

5O

2OO ISO IOO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

ELONGATION OF NICKEL SILVERS


w 8O 6O 4O 2O
COMPOSITIONS AS GIVEN ON PAGE 6O. IZOD T

\30% Ni ! ROLLED a ANNEAL.ED

J7],

==--.

SO

2OO ISO IOO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

IMPACT ENERGY OF NICKEL SILVERS

Nickel and Its Nonferrous Alloys 62

!5Ox ID140

AS FORGED [21] I3O

120 no
IOO

90

en en Rn UJ oO or cn 70
60 50 4O 3O 2O IO

HOT ROLLED [21] ANNEALED'X [17,83, IOO]

HIGH PURITY (99.85 Ni)ANNEALED [33]

ANNEALED [100] I HIGH PURITY, ANNEALED [33] TENSILE - YIELD 5O

STRENGTH OF COMMERCIALLY PURE NICKEL

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

63

7O

6O /ANNEALED [IT, 100] HOT ROLLED [2i]

w 50

o _c
CM

E 4O o> o

3O

-AS FORGED [21]

2O

10

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

ELONGATION OF COMMERCIALLY PURE NICKEL

3OO 28O 26O 24O 22O 2OO ISO


t

64
CHAPPY V I20D

/ANNEALED[3O HOT ROLLED [3O]

'COLD DRAWN [3O] , (AMOUNT NOT STATED)

4LI6O
*.

I4O 12O IOO


8O ANNEALED [17]

6O 4O 20
'AS CAST [45], (NOTCH NOT GIVEN)

5O

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

IMPACT ENERGY OF COMMERCIALLY PURE NICKEL

I9O x IO ISO

65
COLD DRAWN 5O%[69,82]

170 ISO I5O I4O I3O S.I20


C/5 UJ 110

COLD DRAWN I0%[7i]

K-

or <^ 100
90 8O 70

HOT ROLLED[69]

COLD DRAWN I0%l>i]

60 5O 4O 3O
TENSILE YIELD 50

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

STRENGTH OF

INCONEL

6O
co 50

66
HOT ROLLED [69]

o -- 4O CJ
E 3O o> 20
Q.

COLD DRAWN IO% [7i] (Ij* GAGE LENGTH)

COLD DRAWN 5O%[69,82 IO

5O

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

ELONGATION

OF

INCONEL

2OO
ISO 80 6O 40

HOT ROLLED [3OJ

CHARF>Y V \C:OLD DRANNN SO % [69,82] 7' INCO NEL X, A(3E HARDE NED [45] \AS CAST [45] (NOTCH NOT GIVEN) 50

___J

2O

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

25 O

3OO

IMPACT ENERGY OF INCONEL

io*
150

67

AS FORGED [21,45]

I4O
ROLLED [83]

130 120 MO
_IOO w ANNEALED [ir.33,45

of 90 en
K 8O

O.

LLJ

AS

\-

70 6O 5O 4O 3O 2O 10
ANNEALED HOT ROLLED

TENSILE YIELD

100 TEMPERATURE,K

300

STRENGTH OF MONEL

70 60
w> 5O o> j= o .E 40 CM

68_______ I i
ANNEALED [17,33,45] HOT ROLLED [83]

.E 3O S 20
CL

10

50

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

250

300

ELONGATION OF MONEL
2OO _ANNEALED
[30] ISO

HOT ROLLED [3O]


V

CHAPPY IZOD

,I6O
>

I4O I2O IOO


8O ANNEALED

5O

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

IMPACT ENERGY OF MONEL

22OxlO3
COLD DRAWN 45% [7l]

COLD DRAWN 45 % [71] REF [45]


A B C D E F ANNEALED ANNEALED AND AGE HARDENED HOT FINISHED HOT FINISHED AND AGE HARDENED COLD DRAWN COLD DRAWN AND AGE HARDENED

6O

TENSILE YIELD

5O

IOO I5O 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

STRENGTH OF

K MONEL

8O 7O

___________TO__________
TREATMENTS SAME AS GIVEN ON PAGE 69 REF. [45]

6O
(A 0*

50

<\J 4O

o> o

3O 20
IO
/-COLD DRAWN 45% ( I" GAGE LENGTH)

5O

2OO ISO IOO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

ELONGATION

OF

MONEL

CHAPPY SPECIMENS,
SO

NOTCH NOT GIVEN

H MONEL, AS CAST [45]


4O

Z 3O 2O IO
,AS CAST [45]

5O

2OO ISO IOO TEMPERATURE,K

250

300

IMPACT ENERGY OF MISCELLANEOUS MONELS

ZOO x IO ISO

WATER QUENCHED FROM I832F [2l]

COMPOSITION %
Ni Cr TENSILE YIELD 2O Mn C 78.9 18.9 1.4 .3

5O

IOO I5O 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

STRENGTH OF NICKEL-CHROMIUM RESISTANCE ALLOY


4O 3O

WATER QUENCHED FROM 1832 F [2l]

2O
o> o 10

Q.

5O

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

300

ELONGATION OF NICKEL-CHROMIUM RESISTANCE ALLOY


540232 O -60 - 6

Titanium and Its Alloys 72


ISOxlO* ISO I7O INTERSTITIALS(CfO+H + N)=.3O% (NORMAL)^ INTERSTITIALS (C+O+H + N) = .12% ( LOW) O ALL SPECIMENS ANNEALED COMMERCIAL GRADE RS-7O (.032" SHEET) [71]

I6O
ISO I4O
0-1

CO UJ

co

cr

120
MO IOO

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

STRENGTH OF UNALLOYED TITANIUM

45 4O 35
CO 4>

3O 25 2O

o> 15
Q.

COMMERCIAL GRADE RS-7O [7i] (.032" SHEET), I "GAGE LENGTH

_ ALL SPECIMENS ANNEALED INTERSTITIALS (C+O + H+N) = . 3O %

O INTERSTITIALS (C + O+H+N) =.12% ______I________i_______i_______i

50

IOO ISO ZOO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

ELONGATION OF UNALLOYED TITANIUM

20
15 IO 5

COMMERCIALLY PURE INTERSTITIALS NOT GIVEN

CHARPY V -^ CHARPY K

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

250

30O

IMFVXCT ENERGY OF UNALLOYED TITANIUM

280 x 10 27O 260


15 Cr,
AS FORGED [56]

l3V-HCr-3AI

[7l],(.032"SHEET),

COLD ROLLED a ANNEALED

8 Mn, ANNEALED
[65] (.064' SHEET)

|5AI-2.75Cr-l.25Fej, ANNEALED

TENSILE YIELD

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

STRENGTH OF TITANIUM ALLOYS

30

25 20
ic: 15

% IN 2 INCHES % IN I INCH % IN !/2 INCH _

I3V II Cr -3AI [7i](.O32" SHEET) 4 AI - 4 Mn [12] 6 Al - 4 V [l9]7 I HEAT TREATED 8Mn[65]-^.064"SHEET)

75_____________

5 AI-2.75 Cr - 1.25 Fe [19]

o>

Q.

IO
5AI-4V[65] 1(.O64" 5AI - 2.5 Sn [65]j SHEET)

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

ELONGATION OF TITANIUM ALLOYS


NON-STD. CHAPPY V SPECIMENS .788"WIDE x .197" THICK I NOTCH WAS STD. SHAPE, BUT '/2 STD. I I
6AI - 4V [19], ANNEALED 6 Al - 4 V HEAT TREATED

5 Al - 2.75 Cr -1.25 Fe, ANNEALED [19]

!3V-IICr- 3 Al, ANNEALED [19] Al -4 Mn , ANNEALED [)2]

IOO 150 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

300

IMPACT ENERGY OF TITANIUM ALLOYS

28O x IO

27O 26O

ANNEALED, (.24% CARBON) [12]

ANNEALED, (.OI5 % CARBON [56]

TENSILE -YIELD

STRENGTH OF 4 Al - 4 Mn TITANIUM

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

28O x IO

ANNEALED
[65,71] I .032" a .064" SHEET)

AS FORGED [56]

TENSILE YIELD

12O

5O

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

STRENGTH OF 5 Al - 2.5 Sn TITANIUM

28O x IO

27O 26O

HEAT TREATED 1725 F. I HOUR, WQ, AGED IO5O F, 2 HOURS, AIR COOLED.

ANNEALED- ^
I [65] (.06 4 "SHEET)

TENSILE YIELD 5O

2OO ISO IOO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

STRENGTH OF 6 Al - 4V TITANIUM

Magnesium Alloys
79
9OxlO

QA63, AS EXTRUDED [64]

to c/> UJ o: co 5O

TA54 [42], AS EXTRUDED

MIA[42], HARD ROLLED

4O

30
TENSILE -YIELD

COMMERCIALLY PURE , AS EXTRUDED [8l]

2O

5O

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

STRENGTH OF MAGNESIUM AND SOME MAGNESIUM ALLOYS

4O

SO

35
30

CO 01

25
OJ

2O
15
o> ex IO
COMMERCIALLY PURE A AS EXTRUDED [8l] \

TA54, AS EXTRUDED [42] \

\MIA , HARD ROLLED

5O

IOO ISO ZOO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

ELONGATION OF MAGNESIUM AND SOME MAGNESIUM ALLOYS 10 c HARPY


K

^^ *-/ L.
5O

^COMMERC:iALLY PLIRE, AS CAS T [49] J* \COMMERCI ALLY PURE, AS EXTRUDED ([49] ~

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

IMPACT ENERGY OF MAGNESIUM AND SOME MAGNESIUM ALLOYS

8!
7OxlO

AS EXTRUDED [25,64,81,103]

ANNEALED [71] HOT ROLLED, (PLATE)[>2]

HOT ROLLED

AS EXTRUDED

ANNEALED

TENSILE YIELD

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

STRENGTH OF AZ 31 B MAGNESIUM ALLOY

AS EXTRUDED [25,81,103]

HOT

ROLLED,(PLATE)[42j

IOO I5O 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

ELONGATION OF AZ 31 B MAGNESIUM ALLOY


IO

CHARPY V ---CHAPPY K

JQ

AS EXTRUDED [49, IO3J

50

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

IMPACT ENERGY OF AZ3IB MAGNESIUM ALLOY

9Oxicr
8O

83

,COLD DRAWN,(I3 % R.A.)

70 60
CO Q.

_[64]

AS EXTRUDED, [1,14,64,81]

5O

or
CO

CO CO LU 4O

30

20
10
TENSILE YIELD

SO

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

STRENGTH OF AZ6IA MAGNESIUM ALLOY

AS EXTRUDED [l, 14]

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

ELONGATION OF AZ 61 A MAGNESIUM ALLOY

soxic
8O 7O 6O
tO Q.

AS EXTRUDED., [42,81]-

AZ80-T5I [i] , EXTRUDED AND AGED AZ80'-T5|>2], EXTRUDED AND AGED

~ 50 CO CO

rr
CO

AS EXTRUDED/

3O

20

10

TENSILE YIELD

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

STRENGTH OF AZ8O MAGNESIUM ALLOY

AZ 80-T5 [42], EXTRUDED AND AGED

AS EXTRUDED [42]

AZ 8O-T5I [l], EXTRUDED AND AGED IOO ISO 2OO

TEMPERATURE, K

250

3OO

ELONGATION OF AZ 8O MAGNESIUM ALLOY

85 7OxlO'

60

HM 31 A-F, AS EXTRUDED [25,71]

5O

4O
CO CO LU

HM3IA-F, . AS EXTRUDED/

HM 21 A-T8 [25, 7l]

Ico 30

tr

/ HM n ivi 21 . \ A-T8 M- i o

2O

IO
TENSILE YIELD

5O

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

STRENGTH OF THORIUM-MANGANESE MAGNESIUM ALLOYS

4O

86

35 3O
CO

o>

25

CM 2O

15

a* u \_

a> IO CL

,HM 31 A-F [25,71] / AS EXTRUDED

HM 21

A-T8 [7.J.I/7

5O

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

250

3OO

ELONGATION OF THORIUM-MANGANESE MAGNESIUM ALLOYS 10


CHAPPY V
HM3I A-F [71], AS EXTRUDED

/HM2I

A-T8[7l],
STD. WIDTH

SPECIMEN

5O

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE , K

25O

3OO

IMPACT ENERGY OF THORIUM-MANGANESE MAGNESIUM ALLOYS

87
TOxlO

60
-HK 31 A, .ANNEALED [7l] HK 31 A-H24 [25] 50

tn

4O HK 31 A-T6 [71] HK3I A-H24/


/ni\ HK 01 31 M, A, ANNE ANNEALED

tr

CO

co 3O

20

HK 31 A-T6 10 TENSILE YIELD O 5O IOO ISO 2OO 25O 3OO

TEMPERATURE,K

STRENGTH OF THORIUM-ZIRCONIUM MAGNESIUM ALLOYS


540Z3Z O -60 - 7

4O 35 3O
to <w o 25 c
CJ

88

HK 31 A, ANNEALED [7l]

2O

o o> - IO
HK 31 A-H24 [25]

l5

ELONGATION OF THORIUM-ZIRCONIUM MAGNESIUM ALLOYS


10
CHAPPY V

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE , K

25O

3OO

JQ

5
HK3I A, ANNEALED

\HK 31 A-T6[7l]

5O

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

IMPACT ENERGY OF THORIUM-ZIRCONIUM MAGNESIUM ALLOYS

7O x I03
60
CL , SO CO CO

<n

T5, EXTRUDED [65]

!r 40 ico

3O

2O

TENSILE YIELD 5O

STRENGTH OF Z K 6O A MAGNESIUM ALLOY

100 ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

S.

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

300

ELONGATION OF Z K 6O A MAGNESIUM ALLOY


10
CHARPY V T5, EXTRUDED [65]

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

IMPACT ENERGY OF ZK 6O A MAGNESIUM ALLOY

90
7Ox

5O

2OO ISO IOO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

STRENGTH OF ZINC-RARE EARTH MAGNESIUM ALLOYS

40 35 30
o CM

25 2O
ZEIOXA-HII [7i]

t 15
Q> O

S. 10

5O

ELONGATION OF ZINC-RARE EARTH MAGNESIUM ALLOYS


10 CHARPY V

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

250

3OO

ZE IOXA-HIO[7i]

5O

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

300

IMPACT ENERGY OF ZINC-RARE EARTH MAGNESIUM ALLOYS

6O xlO 50 S.40

92

_____

ALL SPECIMENS ANNEALED AT 675 F REF. [95]

2 30
cr co 20
10

TENSILE YIELD

STRENGTH OF LITHIUM - MAGNESIUM ALLOYS


5O 40 30

JOO ISO 20O TEMPERATURE, K

250

300

20
o
O)

10

ALL SPECIMENS ANNEALED AT 675 F REF. [95] 50

IOO 150 20O TEMPERATURE,K

250

300

ELONGATION OF LITHIUM - MAGNESIUM ALLOYS

Austenitic Stainless Steels

28O x IO3 24O

201,

COLD [19]

REDUCED 40% (HARD) '

2O2,ANNEALED [62,79]

TENSILE YIELD

5O

STRENGTH OF AISI 2OO SERIES STAINLESS STEELS


6O
to 5O
2O2, ANNEALED [62,79]

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE , K

25O

3OO

" 40
CVJ

3O

2O
u v.
Q. IO

-201, COLD REDUCED 4O%(HARD) [19]

5O

100 150 200 TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

ELONGATION OF AISI ZOO SERIES STAINLESS STEELS

34OxlO

32O

3OI-N COLD ROLLED 65%, (SHEET) [19]

3OI COLD ROLLED 65 %, (SHEET) [19]

3OI ANNEALED [2,41]

3OI COLD DRAWN, HALF HARD [2,4l]

3OI

COLD DRAWN, HALF HARD

TENSILE YIELD

3OI ANNEALED

4O

5O

STRENGTH OF AISI 3OI a 3OI-N STAINLESS STEEL

ZOO ISO IOO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

7O 60
CO O>

95

O JC

50 4O

ANNEALED [2, 41 ]

CM

o> 3O
O

COLD DRAWN, HALF HARD [2,

2O IO

COLD ROLLED 4O %,(TO U.TS. I89.OOO psi ) _[59]

COLD RC LLED 60%,( TO U.T.S. 23I.OOO psi) [59] 5O IOO ISO ZOO

ELONGATION OF AISI 3OI STAINLESS STEEL


12O 100
80

TEMPERATURE , K

250

300

\
IZOD

COLD DRAWN , HALF HARD [2,4l]

; so
4O 20
iOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K
25O

5O

3OO

IMPACT ENERGY OF AISI 3OI STAINLESS STEEL

COLD DRAWN,(7I %R.A.)[63]

^COLD DRAWN HALF HARD [59,6Q

COLD DRAWN,(49 % R.A.) [63]

ANNEALED [2,18, 21,41 59.6O.63J

ANNEALED [2,18,21,41,63]

TENSILE YIELD

IOO

I5O

2OO

TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

STRENGTH OF AISI 3O2 STAINLESS STEEL

97

ANNEALED [2,18,21,41, 59,60,63 1 COLD DRAWN,(49 % R A.) [63]

COLD DRAWN HALF HARD [60]

COLD DRAWN,{7I%R.A.) [63]

ELONGATION OF AISI 3O2 STAINLESS STEEL


1 C-\J

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE ,K

25O

3OO

"\ IOO 8O 6O o 40 -IZOD ?n CHAPPY K


1

ANNEALEC) [2.I8.5Sk

O.l

/ANNE ALED [ 84] - -

~-'

MX>LD DR AWN, HALf HARD [5S>]

5O

IOO ISO ZOO TEMPERATURE ,K

25O

3OO

IMPACT

ENERGY OF AISI 3O2 STAINLESS STEEL

98
28O x IO3

ANNEALED [4l]

10% COLD DRAWN

IO % COLD DRAWN [7l]

ANNEALED

TENSILE YIELD

STRENGTH OF AISI 3O3 STAINLESS STEEL

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE ,K

25O

3OO

IOO

/IO% COLD DRAWN [7l] (l'/2 INCH GAGE LENGTH)'

ELONGATION OF AISI 3O3 STAINLESS STEEL


I4O I2O IOO
80 L (.34 % Se +.14 % P), ANNEALED [4l] / (.28%S),ANNEALED

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

6O 4O 2O

IZOD 5O

IMPACT ENERGY OF AISI 3O3 STAINLESS STEEL

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

250

3OO

IOO
COLD DRAWN,(TO U.T.S. 2IO,OOO psi ' [89]

22O 2OO
> I8O

ANNEALED [2,41,62,63,71,96]

cn or

^,60

COLD DRAWN/ , (TO U.T.S. 2IO.OOO psi)

K </> |4O

12O 100 80 6O 40 2O

TENSILE YIELD

5O

STRENGTH OF AISI 3O4 STAINLESS STEEL

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE ,K

25O

3OO

7O 60

IOI

to

ANNEALED [2,41,62,71,96]

50 4O
/COLD DRAWN,(TO U.T.S. 2IO.OOO psi)[89] 'COLD DRAWN,(TO U.T.S. l6!,OOOpsi)

CM

_ 3O
o> o o>

20
IO
COLD DRAWN/ (TO U.TS. 192.OOO psi) [59]

[59]

5O

ELONGATION OF AISI 3O4 STAINLESS STEEL


I *+\J

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

CHARPY K IZOD

yANN EALED [2, 41,96]

I2O IOO

.^ .____. __^_. ^^
yANN

EALED [6' 3,62,84]


^MM____

8O 60 4O

MBVMMM

IM^^HMHK!

^^^s

/ /-

COLD DRA\VN,(TO

U.T: 3. 2IO,OOO

f>si)[89]

^^^HMMHI^

"-^

2O

C)

5O

TEMPERATURE,K

IOO

ISO

2OO

35O

3OC

IMPACT

ENERGY OF AISI 3O4 STAINLESS STEEL

28OxlO3 24O 5 200 8 '60

IO2

15 % COLD DRAWN [r ij

cr

LJ

8O 40

15% COLD DRAWN

IOO

ISO

2OO

25O

3OO

STRENGTH OF AISI 3O8 STAINLESS STEEL

TEMPERATURE,K

8O "I 60 c 4O
\I5%COLD DRAWN [?l]

g 20

5O

ELONGATION OF AISI 3O8 STAINLESS STEEL

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

IO3
28OxlO

26O 24O

COLD DRAWN,( TO U.T.S. 95.OOO psi) [71] ANNEALED [71]

COLD DRAWN

-xANNEALED

2O

TENSILE YIELD

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

STRENGTH OF AISI 3IO STAINLESS STEEL


540232 O -60 -8

104
ANNEALED [7l], (I INCH GAGE LENGTH)

COLD DRAWN,(TO U.T.S. 95.OOO psi)[7l], ( I '/ 2 INCH GAGE LENGTHS COLD ROLLED, (TO U.T.S. I39.OOO psi)[59]

COLD ROLLEDJ TO U.T.S. I59.OOO psi) [59]

ELONGATION OF AISI 3IO STAINLESS STEEL


70 60 50 4O 3O 2O IO

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

300

ANNEALED [59]

50

IMPACT

ENERGY OF AISI 3IO STAINLESS STEEL

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

250

3OO

IO5
3OOxlO
28O

26O

COLD DRAWN 25%

ANNEALED [2,41,71]

COLD DRAWN 25%

2O

TENSILE YIELD

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

STRENGTH OF AISI 316 STAINLESS STEEL

IOO vt o 8O o CM 6O 4O

IO6

ANNEALED [2,4l,7l]

o> o

20

\COLD DRAWN 25% [7l], ( I INCH GAGE LENGTH)

50

ELONGATION OF AISI 316 STAINLESS STEEL

100 150 200 TEMPERATURE,K

25O

300

\.\J

_ _ .
\ANNEALED [2, 4l] T mm \ANNEAL ED [59]
-

, * .

100 8O 60 40 2O

' ^

CHAPPY K IZOD
50

IOO I5O 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

IMPACT

ENERGY OF AISI 316 STAINLESS STEEL

IO7
28O x ICT 26O 24O
ANNEALED [41,63,71,98]

2 2O 2OO I8O
CO

CL I6O

CO CO

tr

li I

100
-ANNEALED [41,63,71,98]

8O 60 4O 2O
TENSILE YIELD 50

IOO 15O 2OO TEMPERATURE ,K

25O

3OO

STRENGTH OF AISI 321 STAINLESS STEEL

IO8

ANNEALED [41,71]

TEMPERATURE,K

IOO

ISO

ZOO

25O I

3OO

ELONGATION OF AISI STAINLESS STEEL


\<L\J

~ '"*-. \ A MNEALED I 39] ANNE*

*^_ /~**

IOO 8O 6O 4O

LED[I] - ^

2O CH ARPY V -IZ<DD 1

5O

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

IMPACT ENERGY OF AISI 321 STAINLESS STEEL

IO9

3OOx icr
28O 26O

24O
COLD DRAWN IO%[7l]

22O 2OO
._ ISO CO a.
160
LU

ANNEALED [2,41,60,63,71]

ac

I2O IOO
COLD DRAWN IO % [71 ]

8O 6O 4O 2O [2,41,60,63,71]

TENSILE YIELD
5O

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

STRENGTH OF AISI 347 STAINLESS STEEL

80

no

70
ANNEALED [4I.6O]
Of

to

6O
COLD DRAWN IO % [7l] \

c 5O
CVJ

4O
Q> O

COLD ROLLED 4O% [59], (TO UT.S. I55.OOO psi)

20
10
COLD ROLLED 6O % [59], (TO UTS. 169,OOO psi)

5O

ELONGATION OF AISI 347 STAINLESS STEEL


\<L\J

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

IOO ^80
t

-" ^ANNEALED

-^(
[2,4l]

^ 60 4O ?o

*-

I^M^BMIHHMi

^^^1^

""

\ANNEA LED [79]

CHARPY K IZOD 5O

IOO ISO ZOO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

IMPACT

ENERGY OF AISI 347 STAINLESS STEEL

22OxlO% 2OO
I8O I6O

Ml

.ANNEALED, (SAME AS PAGE 96)

AIR COOLED FROM I92O F, (SENSITIZED) [73], __ (BRITISH SPEC. En 58 o )

v>

CO UJ CO

80
6O 4O
SENSITIZED | [7 3]

-ANNEALED

2O

TENSILE YIELD 5O

EFFECT OF SENSITIZATION ON STRENGTH OF AISI 3O2 STAINLESS


co o> 8O
AIR COOLED FROM I92O F. (SENSITIZED)[73] , SPEC En 58a) L(BRITISH 60

2OO 15O IOO K TURE, TEMPERA

25O

3OO

CM

4O
(SAME AS PAGE 96 )

8 20
5O

EFFECT OF SENSITIZATION ON ELONGATION OF AISI 3O2 STAINLESS

2OO ISO IOO TEMPERATURE.K

25O

3OO

112

-cc>LD cc)LD

CHARPY K WORN:ED ONLY , % AS SHOWN WORHCED,THE N SENSITIZED I> HRS AT I2OO F REF:[84]

IOO 9O
4

8O x !. 70
*

0%^

~-~~~'

^-

H-

e> 60 en 5 50 i< 4O
3O 2O IO
LU

-o% ^x ^
X

"0%\ ^ ^
^^ /O\

** ^*

[/==
*s'
k

y ^w^^^

^^^ "

-^
x

J>

^ / "^
50

x^

^ *r

^-20 %

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE ,K

250

3OO

EFFECT OF SENSITIZATION ON COLD WORKED AISI 3O2 STAINLESS

113
CHAPPY K

COLD WORKED ONLY, % AS SHOWN. 'COLD WORKED, THEN SENSITIZED _ IOO HRS AT IO2O F REF. [84]

IOO 9O 80

: 7O

CD

>-

-60

o: so z

LJ I 40 O

3O

10

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

EFFECT OF SENSITIZATION ON COLD WORKED AISI 3O4

114

JQ i

ANNEALED HSENSITIZED AT IOOO-I2OO F 5O

ZOO ISO IOO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

300

IMPACT ENERGY OF SENSITIZED WROUGHT STAINLESS STEELS

7O 65 6O 55 5O
347-

T 45 ~ 4O

CD Ql
UJ

35

3I6 \_ 25 20 15

3I8 \ -.--*"'*

IO
CHAPPY K

ANNEALED SENSITIZED, I35O-I65OF I REF. [59] 1_____ 50

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

EFFECT OF THE SIGMA PHASE ON WROUGHT STAINLESS STEELS

5O

116
CHAPPY K REF [50]

50

IMPACT ENERGY OF SENSITIZED CAST ACI-CF-8T STAINLESS STEEL


90 8O 7O 6O
JQ

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

CHAPPY K REF. [50]

A 50 **-

40 3O 2O IO
IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K 25O 3OO

IMPACT ENERGY OF SENSITIZED CAST ACI -CF-2O STAINLESS STEEL

2OOxlO

2O

TENSILE - YIELD

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

300

STRENGTH OF CAST ACI -CF-8 STAINLESS STEEL


$ 60 o 4O CM
^ANNEALED [5l]

2O

if

o>
50

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

ELONGATION OF CAST ACI -CF 8 STAINLESS STEEL

80
CHAPPY K

118
PER [50]

7O 60

ANNEALED

5O 40 3O 20 IO
IO35F -3OMIN

I I035F- 3 MIN.
I25OF-3O MIN.

I250F - 3 MIN I25OF -48HR IO35F - 48 HR

5O

IMPACT ENERGY OF SENSITIZED CAST ACI-CF-8 STAINLESS STEEL


5O 4O 3O 2O
IO35F - 3 MIN J

IOO ISO 200 TEMPERATURE.K

25O

3OO

CHAPPY K REF. [50]

I25O F- 3O MIN.

IO

IMPACT ENERGY OF SENSITIZED CAST ACI-CF-8C STAINLESS STEEL

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

CHARPY K, ALL SPECIMENS ANNEALED REF. [50]


CN- 7M ( 3.4 % Si, 2.5 % Mo,2%Cu

(.9% Si, 2.4 % Mo, 4 % Cu)

IOO ISO ZOO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

IMPACT ENERGY OF CAST ACI STAINLESS STEELS


540232 O - 60 -9

Ferritic and Hardenable Stainless Steels 12O


EXTRA HARD, A(RC5D

24O 22O 2OO


LJ

ISO

STD. HEAT TREAT CYCLE, (TEMPERED AT 85OF) [65] (0.064" SHEET)

Od

en I6O I4O 12O IOO __ A COLD ROLLED BEFORE FINAL TEMPERING 8O 6O 4O


SOAKED 7'/2 HR AT 77 K, WARMED TO TEMPERATURE, THEN HELD AT TEST ERATURE '/2 HR BEFORE TESTING. ROOM TEMP

I______
TENSILE YIELD 5O

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

STRENGTH OF HARDENABLE AM-35O STAINLESS STEEL

25
en o>

121
STD. HEAT TREAT CYCLE,(TEMPERED AT 85O F ) [65] (0.065"SHEET)

o ^c cvJ *0>

20
[5 IO 5

HARD A [19], SAME TREATMENT AS PAGE 12O

5O

IOO 150 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

ELONGATION OF HARDENABLE AM 35O STAINLESS STEEL


*fU
CHA SPY V

35 3O 25 2O 15 IO 5 O
_^f L &

STD. HEAT TREAT CYCLEyx (TEMPERED AT 85O a F) \ i ., iV

^
_s

.-*s

^
ISO 2OO 25O 3OO

5O

TEMPERATURE, K

IOO

IMPACT ENERGY OF HARDENABLE AM 35O STAINLESS STEEL

122
28OxlO3 26O 24O
QUENCHED AND TEMPERED TO RC 39 [4.]

QUENCHED AND EMPERED TO RC 23

[41]

ANNEALED [2]

ANNEALED/

--YIELD

TENSILE

STRENGTH OF AISI 4IO STAINLESS STEEL

IOO ISO ZOO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

123
QUENCHED AND TEMPERED TO RC 23 [41] ANNEALED

s.

-QUENCHED AND TEMPERED TO RC 39 [41]

ELONGATION OF AISI 4IO STAINLESS STEEL

2OO !5O IOO TEMPERATURE,

3OO

IOO 8O 6O 4O 2O
O" 5O IZOD CHARPY K

.Q i

4IO, OIL QUENCHED AND TEMPERED AT II5O F i I I I 431, OIL QUENCHED AND TEMPERED AT UOOFv,-i -1^ [79] 410, ANNEALED [2]

IMPACT ENERGY OF AISI 4OO SERIES STAINLESS STEEL

2OO ISO IOO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

124

I3O 120

no 100
ANNEALED [2,4l]

9O

8
or
C/5 UJ

c/

60

50
4O

30 2O
TENSILE YIELD
50

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

STRENGTH OF AISI 43O STAINLESS STEEL

125

ANNEALED [2, 41]

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

ELONGATION OF AISI 43O STAINLESS STEEL

ANNEALED [2,4l]

5O

IMPACT

ENERGY OF AISI 43O STAINLESS STEEL

IOO ISO ZOO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

28OxlO

126

AMS-5643B,(I7-4PH), CONDITION H-875[5] AMS-5644,(I7-7PH), CONDITION TH-IO5O AMS-5644, (17-7 PH)

AMS-5643B (17-4 PH)

IOO

TENSILE YIELD 50

IOO I5O ZOO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

STRENGTH OF PRECIPITATION HARDENING STAINLESS STEELS


2O
o> o
C\J

15 IO 5

AMS 5643 B,(I7-4PH CONDITION H-875 AMS-5644 i (l7-7PH) r/ CONDITION TH-IO5O [65]

o>

5O

ELONGATION OF PRECIPITATION HARDENING STAINLESS STEELS

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

300

127
I4O 3O 'CHAPPY IZOD V

I2O
I IO IOO AMS 5643 B.07-4 PH) r CONDITION H-II5O ~ [6]

90
8O 70

6O
5O 4O

FV52OB[7Z], OVERAGED TO U.T.S. 146,OOO psi

3O 2O
IO

AMS 5643 B[s], CONDITION H-875 AMS 5644,07-7PH) CONDITION TH-M5O

MS-5644.- CONDITION 50

100 150 200 TEMPERATURE , K

250

300

IMPACT ENERGY OF PRECIPITATION HARDENING STAINLESS STEELS

Low Alloy Constructional Steels 128


CONDITION " AS RECEIVED" (PROBABLY COLD ROLLED)

iou x nu 170 I6O ISO

-^ 'IO4O
10

I4O ISO
CO

*^ \

x^

en

-I2O C/)

o.

1(/>

gno
IOO 90 8O 7O 6O

A
\

\^ A
\
v

[3- ']

r\
IOIO-J

\\ \ > st

v\ x<
\ [37]
\

-^^^ ^^,

"--^

, \&x^> ^J
^

"-^
101

^
N

^X^^^ V

^^
^^*

50 TENSILE YIELD 40 D 5O

o/ ""
25O 3OC

TEMPERATURE, K

IOO

ISO

ZOO

STRENGTH OF SOME AISI -SAE PLAIN CARBON STEELS

ou SO I 1 40
CVJ

129
CONDITION "AS RECEIVED" ( PROBABLY COLD ROLLED )

IOIO [3 7]

c 3O *c

8 20 10

/
1C)4O [37]

If
50

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

300

ELONGATION OF SOME AISI-SAE PLAIN CARBON STEELS


6O 50 4O =T 3O 20
10 NORMALIZED IZOD

iOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

IMPACT ENERGY OF AISI - SAE PLAIN CARBON STEELS

e.\j\j x I9O ISO I7O I6O ISO ._ I4O


1/5 Q.

I3O
COMMERCIAL HEATS WERE TESTED. COMPOSITIONS WERE NOT GIVEN, BIT r DIF FERENCE S PROBA BLY ACCC)UNT FOFj THIE SPREAID OF VAL.UES, ESF'ECIALLY AT THE LOVVEST TEfcIPERATUf3fTC

Sv
ACTURE WITHOUT REDUCTION OF AREA

AT TEMPERATURES BELOW THIS POINT.

1 1 \
I-""""""""

HOT ROLI -ED [29]

of' 30
UJ

[ 120 1 IO IOO 9O 8O 70 6O TENSILE YIELD ^n SO \


\ \ \

\ \

^T
\ \

\ /-"AS RECEIVED" [36] > X^J PROBABLY COLD ROLLED)

\
%.

^^ ^^^^

^-^ -

^^ '^

[36]

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

250

3OO

STRENGTH OF AISI -SAE IO2O STEEL

zoo x icr

ALLOY STEEL

STEEL C, BRINE QUENCHED FROM I60OF a TEMPERED AT IO5O F [55]

SHIP PLATE A [55]

SHIP PLATE B [55]

SHIP

PLATE

5O

(PROBABLY NORMALIZED)

IOO

TEMPERATURE,*K

ISO

ZOO

25O

3OO

TENSILE STRENGTH OF SHIP PLATE a LOW ALLOY CONSTRUCTIONAL STEEL

_____________132 I I i
7O

COMPOSITIONS ON PAGE 131.

6O

i so
STEEL A [55]

c o

< 4O U.

o
O

STEEL B t[55] _

3O

o
UJ

tr

20

10

5O

ZOO ISO IOO TEMPERATURE ,K

25O

3OO

DUCTILITY OF SHIP PLATE a LOW ALLOY CONSTRUCTIONAL STEEL

38O x IO" 36O 34O

133

3 2O 3OO 280 < 26O

3OO M (TRICENT) HEAT TREATED |J65l " (OQ a DOUBLE TEMPERED)

Q.

"HY-TUF,"HEAT TREATED/
[89] N

240

cn 2 2O en
2OO ISO I6O I4O 12O
IOO
TENSILE YIELD O 50

IOO I5O 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

250

3OO

STRENGTH OF SOME SPECIAL PROPRIETARY CONSTRUCTIONAL STEELS

25
2O
O

134

30ON1 (TRICEN- ') HEAT Tl REATED [55] \


^~~~ "

CM

10
<D O V_ O> OL

x^
^S'

1^

L -"HY-TUF "

^
5O

HEAT T REATED [89]

IOO ISO ZOO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

ELONGATION OF SOME SPECIAL PROPRIETARY CONSTRUCTIONAL STEELS


4O
CHARPY CHARPY K V '

T- I

HEAT TREATED

"HY- TUP" [89], HEAT TREATED 300 M (TRICENT) [65] HEAT TREATED

IOO ISO 20O TEMPERATURE, K

250

3OO

IMPACT ENERGY OF SOME SPECIAL PROPRIETARY CONSTRUCTIONAL STEELS

I9O
AISI 2512 AS REC'D-

AISI 233O, OO &T,925F to RC 34 [lO3]

135_______________

[37] AISI 233O,


NORMALIZED [103]

/8.6O % Mi ('.IO C^DOUBLE NORMALIZED a TEMPERED

[103]

2% Ni (.I4C)
ANNEALED

AISI 233O, ANNEALED

7O

\OO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

TENSILE STRENGTH OF NICKEL ALLOY CONSTRUCTIONAL STEELS


35 30
CO 0*

8,60%Ni {.IOO,DOUBLE NORMALIZED & TEMPERED [lO3]\ AISI 2512, AS REC'D. [37]

o 25

CM 2O
l5 o IO

AISI 233O, OQ BT, 925F to RC 34 [|Q3]


AISI 233O, NORMALIZED UO3] -AISI 233O, I ANNEALED [9O] -2 % Ni (.I4C), ANNEALED [44]

5O

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

ELONGATION OF SOME NICKEL ALLOY CONSTRUCTIONAL STEELS


540232 JD -60 - 10

136
NOMINAL COMPOSITION 9% Ni - .11% C

HEAT TREAT " I, LONGITUDINAL [??]

HEAT TREAT^ 2 [86]

5O

HEAT TREAT * [8,45,77, 86.IO3]

\HEAT TREAT TRANSVERSE [77]

HEAT TREAT ^ I. TRANSVERSE [77J 1 -DOUBLE NORMALIZED FROM I65O F HEAT TREATMENT AND I45OF, THEN STRESS RELIEVED AT IO5O F HEAT TREATMENT* 2 - QUENCHED a TEMPERED AT IO5O F.

50

2OO ISO IOO TEMPERATURE ,K

25O

3OO

IMPACT ENERGY OF 9% NICKEL ALLOY CONSTRUCTIONAL STEELS

137
OIL QUENCHED a TEMPERED I HOUR AS SHOWN

I32O, 8OO F, RC-33[85]


RC-44[85]

3OOF,

1340, 3OOF, RC-53[85]

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

2 SO

3OO

IMPACT ENERGY OF AISI -SAE I3OO SERIES CONSTRUCTIONAL STEELS

5% Ni - .IO%C, NORMALIZED [44] 13% Ni - .IO%C NORMALIZED -[44]

2%Nl- .I5%C
NORMALIZED [44]

IOO ISO TEMPERATURE ,

ZOO

25O

3OO

IMfi^CT ENERGY OF SOME NICKEL ALLOY CONSTRUCTIONAL STEELS

7O 65 6O 55 5O 45 4O 35 30 25 2O

__^_____

138

QUENCHED 8 TEMPERED I HR. AS SHOWN


CHARPY V CHARPY K

2315, WQ ,T IOOOF,x RC 27 [66]


^^^

-?~
'

^2315, RB90[66], NORMALIZED-

/ 2340, OQ X TI200F RC 22 [66]

2330, OQ [89], T925F, RC 32

232O,OQ,T400F, RC 42 [85] ' I 233O, OQaT,4OOF to RC 48 [85


2330 [87] , NORMALIZED-^ / /

15

2360, OQ,T400F, RC 54 [85]

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

IMPACT ENERGY OF AISI -SAE 23OO SERIES CONSTRUCTIONAL STEELS

139
GO 50 4O OQ a TEMPERED I HR.AS SHOWN CHARPY V __

30 2O
IO

V3I20, 3OOF, \l RC43[85]

312O, 8OO"F,RC35C85] 3140, 300F, RC52 [85] _______I

5O

IOO ISO ZOO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

IMPACT ENERGY OF AISI - SAE 3IOO SERIES CONSTRUCTIONAL STEELS


12O
IOO 80 6O 4O CHARPY K

4O23, NORMALIZED & STRESS RELIEVED AT 1000 F, RB 83 [66]

2O
IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K
25O

3OO

IMPACT ENERGY OF AISI - SAE 4OOO SERIES CONSTRUCTIONAL STEELS

38O x iO ;
34O

I4O
OQ 8 TEMPERED 4 HRS AT 45O F & TEMPERING REPEATED.

22O
,8O 140
IOO

" OQ 8 TEMPERED AT 8OOF TO RC 49 [89] OQ a TEMPERED AT I2OOF TO RC 34 [89] I TENSILE YIELD 5O

IOO I5O 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

STRENGTH OF AISI-SAE 434O ALLOY CONSTRUCTIONAL STEEL


30
o>
V)

25

. 2O
<M

OQ a TEMPERED AT I2OOF TO RC 34 [89] OQ a TEMPERED 4 HRS AT.450 F a TEMPERING REPEATED.

15 IO

u o>

OQ a TEMPERED AT 8OO F TO RC 49 [89] I_______I_______I

5O

ELONGATION OF AISI- SAE 434O ALLOY CONSTRUCTIONAL STEEL

IOO 150 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

141
I2O
OQ a TEMPERED I HR. AS SHOWN CHARPY V
4I2O, I2OOF, RC 23 [85]

4130, 90O
RC 39 [66

4I2O, IOOO F, RC 31 [85] 4140, 30O F, RC 53 [85]

60
5O 4O 3O

IMPACT ENERGY OF AISI - SAE 4IOO SERIES CONSTRUCTIONAL STEELS


OQ a TEMPERED I HR. AS SHOWN
CHARPY ._ CHARPY V K 432O, IOOO F, RC 33 [85]

2OO ISO IOO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

434O, I2OO F, RC 34 [89]

432O, 3OOF, RC 43 [85]

2O
IO

T: 434O,
5O

3OOF, RC 54 [85]

TEMPERATURE,K

434O, TEMPERED 4 HRS AT 45OF & TEMPERING REPEATED L653____ 300 25O 2OO ISO IOO

IMPACT ENERGY OF AISI - SAE 43OO SERIES CONSTRUCTIONAL STEELS

I2O IOO
8O
-Q

142
OQ a TEMPERED I HR. AS SHOWN

462O, RC 19 [85]

462O, 8OOF,> RC 34 [85]

' 6O
40

462O, 3OO F.s RC 42 [85] ^4640, 3OOF [85], RC 54 I

2O

5O

IOO ISO ZOO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

IMPACT ENERGY OF AISI-SAE 46OO SERIES CONSTRUCTIONAL STEELS


l<iU

IOO 8O 6O 4O 2O

OQ a TEMPERED 1 HR. AS SHOWN


CHARPY V

J^^^^^ 1/ \48I5, II OOF, RC 2O [40]

t 1

~7
5O

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

IMPACT ENERGY OF AISI SAE 48OO SERIES CONSTRUCTIONAL STEELS

I2O IOO
80
!

143
OQ 8 TEMPERED I HR. AT TEMP'S. SHOWN
CHARPY V

6O 4O 2O

5I2O, I2OOF, RC 22 [85] 5I2O, 8OOF; RC 38 [85]

-5I2O, 4OO F, RC 45 [85]

5O

IOO 15O 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

IMPACT ENERGY OF AISI -SAE 5OOO SERIES CONSTRUCTIONAL STEELS


6O
5O 4O
I N - NORMALIZED

IZOD

6150, N [28]

3O
6135, N [28]

2O
IO

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

IMPACT ENERGY OF AISI-SAE 6IOO SERIES CONSTRUCTIONAL STEELS

22O x IO3
ZOO

144

OQ a TEMPERED AT 85O F TO RC 34 [89, 103]

NORMALIZED [103]

6O

IOO 150 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

250

3OO

STRENGTH OF AISI-SAE 863O ALLOY CONSTRUCTIONAL STEEL


25
o c
NORMALIZED C'O3]

20

CJ 15
c

OQ 8 TEMPERED AT 85O F TO RC 3O [89]

IO

Q> O
<D Q.

5O

ELONGATION OF AISI-SAE 863O ALLOY CONSTRUCTIONAL STEEL

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

6O _______________145 5O 4O
.Q

OQ S TEMPERED I HR.AS SHOWN


86 2O, 9OOF,N

CHARPY V "CHARPY K

862O, 3OOF, 43 [85] 863O, 85OF,RC 30 [89] 863O, 30O F, RC 52 [85] 864O, 3OO F, RC 56 [85]
863O [IO3], NORMALIZED

3O *2O IO

50

IOO ISO ZOO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

IMPACT ENERGY OF AISI-SAE 86OO SERIES CONSTRUCTIONAL STEELS


OQ a TEMPERED CHARPY K I HR. AS SHOWN

8750, 1000 F; RC 42 [66]

5O

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

250

3OO

IMPACT ENERGY OF AISI-SAE 87OO SERIES CONSTRUCTIONAL STEELS

3O 25 2O

_______________146
OQ a TEMPERED I
CHARPY K

HR. AS SHOWN

10

926O, 85OF, RC 47 [66]

50

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

250

3OO

IMPACT ENERGY OF AISI-SAE 92OO SERIES CONSTRUCTIONAL STEEL


6O
5O 4O
>

QUENCHED & TEMPERED


CHARPY K

HR.AS SHOWN

/ 30 20
IO

942O, WO , !OOO F, RC 27 [66]

944O, OQ, 9OOF, RC 40 [66]

5O

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

300

IMPACT ENERGY OF AISI-SAE 94OO SERIES CONSTRUCTIONAL STEELS

147
OQ a TEMPERED TO HARDNESS SHOWN AVERAGE OF HIGH a LOW CHEMISTRY EXCEPT AS NOTED. CHARPY V

8IB3O[24], RC 31

81 B40 [24], RC32 98B4O [24] RC36

81 B 3O RC 41

98B4O,[24], RC45
8IB4O, RC43, LOW CHEMISTRY
I I 1

IOO ISO ZOO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

IMPACT ENERGY OF

BORON STEELS

Superalloys (Alloys of Co, Ni, Cr, W, Mo)


148
TENSILE YIELD

A-286 [3j, HT. TR*

CO

IOO

HEAT TREATMENTS
1. I8OOF,WQ a AGED 16 HRS. AT 1325 F, AC

8O 2. I9OOF, WQ a AGED 16 HRS AT I3OOF, AC


3. I85OF, OQ + 4 HRS. AT I55OF, AC a AGED 16 HRS. AT I30OF, A.C.

6O

5O

IOO ISO ZOO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

STRENGTH

OF

SUPERALLOYS

ELONGATION

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

OF SUPERALLOYS

80

149
CHARPY CHAPPY V U MULTIMET { N - 155) , CONDITION*! [67]

7O
A - 286 [3] CONDITION*2 6O

50

HAYNES ALLOY No. 25 ( L~6O5) CONDITION*! [67]

-O

J. 4O

I9-9DL [97] CONDITION* 3'

3O

I9-9DL [97] ( CONDITION

2O

19 -9DL [97],CONDITION*5'

10
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

SAMPLE

CONDITION

HOT ROLLED a STRESS RELIEVED AT 22OO F. I8OOF, WQ a AGED 16 HRS. AT 1325 F, A.C. __ ANNEALED AT I8OOF, A.C. WARM WORKED a STRESS RELIEVED AT I2OO F COLD DRAWN a STRESS RELIEVED. I 5O

IOO ISO 200 TEMPERATURE, K

250

3OO

IMPACT ENERGY OF SOME SUPERALLOYS

3oo x icr
28O 26O 24O 22O 2OO
._ I8
CL

_____________ISO________ HEAT TREATMENTS


1 ., ...MM. ...

1. HOT ROLLED S STRESS RELIEVED AT 22OO F 2. 2350 F, OQ a AGED 46 HRS. AT I4OOF 3 2250 F, WO a AGED 16 HRS. AT I4OOF, A.C

'HAYNES"ALLOY NO 25 ( L-SOS)
HT.TR.*! [7lJ

V- 36 [3], HT TR.*3

S- 816 [3] > HT TR.*3 '

J6O co"
CO LUI4O DC CO "*" BRITISH HT. TR.*2

[73]

I2O iOO 80 60 4O 2O
TENSILE YIELD
S- 816

V - 36

C .29% Ni - 11.8 Cr- 19.4 Mo1.93

Cb V Ti -

Fe - 16.0 Co- BAL.

2.73 .20

1.32

50

IOO ISO ZOO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

STRENGTH OF COBALT BASE SUPERALLOYS

70

______________151

HEAT TREATMENTS SAME AS GIVEN ON PAGE ISO.

60

HAYNES ALLOY No 25 (L-6O5) HT. TR.* I (I" GAGE)

5O
<A O>

o 4O
CJ

V-

8 30
o>
Q.

2O

IO

2OO 150 IOO TEMPERATURE t K

250

3OO

ELONGATION OF COBALT BASE SUPERALLOYS


540232 O - 60 - 11

152
I9O x IO 3
ROLLED AND ANNEALED

180 I7O I6O 150 I4O

;'HASTELLOY"B [66]

HASTELLOY"C

"HASTELLOV'A [66]
20

o:

LU

IOO 9O 8O 7O 6O 5O 4O

;; HASTELLOY"C HASTELLOYB HASTELLOY ->j

TENSILE YIELD
5O

STRENGTH OF SOME PROPRIETARY NICKEL-BASE SUPERALLOYS

IOO ISO ZOO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

7O 6O
o>
CO

153
"HASTELLOV'B [66]

50
"HASTELLOY"A [66]

CJ 4O

c 30 S. 20 IO
ROLLED AND ANNEALED I I 5O o \_ ^'HASTELLOY"C [66]

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

ELONGATION OF SOME PROPRIETARY NICKEL-BASE SUPERALLOYS


80 7O 6O ~T SO 4O 30 ^"HASTELLOY"A [66]
ROLLED AND ANNEALED (TYPE NOTCH NOT GIVEN) HOT ROLLED AND STRESS. RELIEVED AT 22OO F
-O

*"HASTELLOY"X [67] CHARPY V

^"HASTELLOY"C
CHARPY V

*"HASTELLOY"B[67] CHARPY U

20

5O

IOO ISO 20O TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

IMPACT ENERGY OF SOME PROPRIETARY NICKEL-BASE SUPERALLOYS

Brazing and Soldering Metals


3OxlO 3 25

SO Sn-5OPb [53,58]

154 '

ALLOYS AS CAST.

5 Sn-95Pb [46] 5O

IOO ISO 200 TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

TENSILE STRENGTH OF TIN- LEAD


SOLDERS
% ELONGATION IN 2 INCHES % REDUCTION OF AREA ALLOYS AS CAST. 25Sn-75Pb[58] 5 Sn-95 Pb[46]

5OSn-5OPb[58]
O

6OSn -4OPb[58]

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

DUCTILITY OF TIN - LEAD SOLDERS

155
CHAPPY V ALLOYS AS CAST 5Sn-95PbI>6] IOSn-9OPbl>6]

15 Sn-85Pbl>6] 5OSn-5OPb[6l ZOO ISO IOO TEMPERATURE, K 25O 3OO

IMPACT
30 25 2O 15 IO 5

ENERGY OF SOLDERS

TIN-LEAD

I i CHARPY V ALLOYS AS CAST ,2.5 Ag-97.5 Pb [46]

l.6Ag-!5Sn-83.4 Pbl>6]

5O

2OO ISO IOO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

IMPACT

ENERGY OF SILVER-LEAD SOLDERS

12 x IO

156

1.6 Ag - 15 Sn - 83.4 Pb, AS CAST [46] 1.5 Ag- I.OSn-97.5Pb


[54], CONDITION NOT GIVEN PRESUMED AS CAST.

2.5 Ag-97.5 Pbl>6] ? AS CAST

IOO 150 200 TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

TENSILE STRENGTH OF SILVER- LEAD SOLDERS


6O
CO

o>

5O 4O

CM

3O $ 20
o> o. IO 1.6 Ag-l5Sn-83.4 Pb [46] f AS CAST

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

250

3OO

ELONGATION OF SILVER - LEAD SOLDERS

14 xlO-

157
/-95 Sn- 5 Sb [54]

12 10
to

CONDITION OF ALLOYS - NOT GIVEN. PRESUMED AS CAST.

tn co

_ 6

-48 Sn- 36 Pb- 16 Bi __;._-[54]

50

STRENGTH OF MISCELLANEOUS SOLDERS


14 x IO*
-25% In * Pb, Sn CONDITION OF ALLOYS NOT GIVEN. PRESUMED AS CAST

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE , K

25O

3OO

IO 8
6

to

tr to >,

LU

TENSILE YIELD _______I_____

REF [54]

5O

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

STRENGTH

OF INDIUM

SOLDERS

158
I4O x IO

5OCu -5OZn 93OF ANNEALED

45Ag-3O Cu- 25 Zn [58], AS CAST 70Ag-2O Cu - IO Zn [58], AS CAST

5OCu-5OZn

IO -"YIELD

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

250

3OO

STRENGTH OF BRAZING ALLOYS

6O 50 40

159
%ELONGATION %REDUCTION OF AREA
5O Cu-5OZn pOO] 93OF ANNEALED

8 30
o>

45 Ag - 3O Cu - 25 Zn [58] jN AS CAST -

2O IO
5O 7OAg-2OCu-IOZn [58] t AS CAST

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

DUCTILITY

OF

BRAZING ALLOYS

Miscellaneous Alloys and Pure Metals 16O

METAL Ag Cd Co Mo
Sn Tl Zn

ANNEAL TEMR,F.
147 2 392 2OI2 2012 3O2 3O2 302

TENSILE STRENGTH % ELONGATION, p s i .79"GAGE LTH. 3OOK


3O,9OO 6,50O 61,100 76.IOO 5.4OO I.I2O I6.5OO 9O K 40,700 20.6OO IO4.4OO IO8.5OO 15,800 3,I7O I4.2OO

3OOK 23.0
42. 0 4.0 2O. O 52.5 56. 0 44. O

9OK 38. 0 18.0 5.O 0.2 3.6 32.0 O.6

REF. [26]

STRENGTH AND DUCTILITY OF SOME COLD WORKED AND ANNEALED PURE METALS

161
IOVJ

I4O I2O
Q.IOO

..

=^

- _

'

\ v^^ Lj^^nr i TOLLED [ 23]

\ \

cn en so LU or cn eo
4O

/* ^-~^_

^^

>k. COM P. %
C Mn Si P S I.4O - 12.11 .12 .060 -OI2 SO IOO ISO

20 o

T ENSILE Y IELD

STRENGTH OF AUSTENITIC Mn STEEL

TEMPERATURE, K

2OO

25O

3OC

50
30

4O c
o> o

HOT ROLLED
10

5O

ELONGATION OF AUSTENITIC Mn STEEL

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

250

3OO

20O x IO"
"Si 180 a.

162

c/fieo
UJ

AMS 5624, ANNEALED [2O]

o:

I4O

120
IOO
5O

IOO I5O 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

30O

STRENGTH OF HIGH EXPANSION STEEL


8O
6O
AMS 5624, ANNEALED [2O]

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

30O

ELONGATION OF HIGH EXPANSION STEEL

120
CHAPPY K

100
80

AMS 5624, ANNEALED [2O]

6O
4O
5O

IOO I5O 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

300

IMPACT ENERGY OF HIGH EXPANSION STEEL

IOO

SPECIMENS: 1.2" DIA.STD.CAST IRON "ARBITRATION BAR" AS CAST, " UNNOTCHED. IZOD TYPE TEST.
AUSTENITIC> [99]

9O
8O 70 6O 50 4O

AUSTENITIC [99]

D Ni - Mo ACICULAR [99

3O 20
PEARLITIC GRAY IRON [99]

3OO 25O 2OO ISO IOO TEMPERATURE, K NOMINAL COMPOSITIONS. OTHER % Ni %Mn %Si %C %Cr IRON (T) 1.2 2.0 3.2 i.6 3.0 .7 .5 Mo 1.9
50
2.7 2.3 L9 1.5 1. 1 1.0 14.5 34.5 2.2 3.O 6.3 Cu -

IO

I________\________I

IMPACT ENERGY OF SOME FLAKE GRAPHITE CAST IRONS


3OxlO &

5O

2OO ISO IOO TEMPERATURE,K

250

300

TENSILE STRENGTH OF A GRAY CAST IRON

120 ______________164

no 100
9O 80 7O 6O 5O 4O 30 20 10

SPECIMENS ANNEALED,|"SQUAREx UNNOTCHED. CHAPPY TYPE TEST.

COMPOSITIONS: SPECIMEN %C
IRON IRON IRON

IOO ISO TEMPERATURE


.93 2.03 2.73 2.O9

200 K
.024 .028 .028 .162

25O

3OO

%Mn %S %P
.35 .OIO .37 .013 .40 .OI3 .38 .OI4 .60 .71 .71 .72 .042 .055 .057
.049

IRON

2 3 4

3.52 3.33 3.29

3.63

IMPACT ENERGY OF SOME FERRITIC NODULAR CAST IRONS

ISO x icr
I4O I3O I2O I IO IOO 90
Q. 8O

165
NOMINAL

COMPOSITION: c - .025
Mn- .O3O Si - -OO3 P - .OO3 S - .025

COLD DRAWN 24 % [34]

ANNEALED
[34]

o: co eo
50 4O

LU

00 7O

cn

(HOT ROLLED
[17, 21,34, 37]

HOT ROLLED

30 20
TENSILE YIELD POINT YIELD STRENGTH, (O.2 % OFFSET) 5O

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

STRENGTH

OF

INGOT

IRON

60
50

166

to

"5 4O c

3O
HOT ROLLED [i7, 21,37

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

ELONGATION OF INGOT IRON

SO

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

IMPACT ENERGY OF INGOT IRON

is x icr
IO

167

cn tn

[58,76 ],AS CAST

5O

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

3OO

TENSILE STRENGTH OF COMMERCIALLY PURE LEAD


0 0>

4O
[ 58 , 76 ], AS CAST

. 30
CM

~ 20

-o
o>
5O

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

300

ELONGATION OF COMMERCIALLY PURE LEAD

50

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE,K

25O

300

IMPACT ENERGY OF COMMERCIALLY PURE LEAD


540232 O -60 -12

24OxlO3 22O 2OO

____________168__________
HIGH PURITY URANIUM + 2% MOLYBDENUM REF. [104]

TENSILE a YIELD I8O

I6O
CO

Q.

cr 120 i <n

H4O (/> (0 UJ

IOO 8O 6O 4O 20
TENSILE YIELD

STRENGTH OF A MOLYBDENUMURANIUM ALLOY


HEAT TREATMENTS A. As cost. B. Solution treated 3 hrs. at 85OC, water quenched. C. Solution treated 3 hrs. at 85OC, water quenched, aged I hr. at 45OC. D. Solution treated 3 hrs. at 85OC, furnace cooled at 5 eC/min. E Solution treated 3 hrs. at 85OC, furnace cooled to 58OC and held 2 hrs.,then reheated to 625C, held 2 hrs., water quenched.

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

300

3O

25
o 20

_____________169_____________ HIGH PURITY URANIUM + 2 % MOLYBDENUM IREF.


HEAT TREATMENTS SAME AS GIVEN ON PAGE 168.

E-

.E
o o>

15
IO

5O

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

ELONGATION OF A MOLYBDENUMURANIUM ALLOY


3O 25 2O
T 4JQ

HIGH PURITY URANIUM + 2% MOLYBDENUM CHARPY V , REF.

15 IO

5O

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

IMPACT ENERGY OF A MOLYBDENUMURANIUM ALLOY

3OO x ICf 28O 26O 24O 22O 2OO


ISO

I7O

ALLOY A, ANNEALED FROM I472"F[2I] ALLOY B, ANNEALED FROM 1472 F [21]

6O

tr
I2O IOO 8O 60 4O 2O
COMPOSITIONS ALLOY Ni C Mn Si

A B C D E

24.5 .16 31.4 35.8 57.5 58.8 .70 .16 .34 .27

I.OO .30 .82 .86 1.31 .08 .14

TENSILE YIELD 1.64 .28

5O

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

STRENGTH OF NICKEL-IRON ALLOYS

60
M 50 o> o .E 4O
OJ

________________171_____________
ALLOYS A,B,C,D,E - COMPOSITIONS 8 TREATMENTS SAME AS GIVEN ON PAGE I7O.

.E 3O o h_ 2O o> ex IO

2OO ISO IOO TEMPERATURE , K

250

300

ELONGATION OF NICKEL-IRON ALLOYS

FORGED 8 ALLOY E , NORMALIZED FROM I7OO*F [74]

49.4 Ni [16] ANNEALED ALLOY E, AS FORGED [74]7

35.3 Ni [16]; ANNEALED

32NJLI6], ANNEALED 25.9 Ni [16], ANNEALED

200 150 100 TEMPERATURE , K

25O

3OO

IMPACT ENERGY OF NICKEL-IRON ALLOYS

isoxicr u
I4O

172
\ /TENSI LE AND Y IELD, ^ .OIO" !5HEET, \ ^TVACU UM ANNE:ALED [78] \ \

I2O
100 o

en

80
ANN EALED[K

60
4O

\ V o / '^

\,

"*~^^^.- " ~^^^^ *^

^^^^

2O TENSILE
YIELD
50

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

STRENGTH OF COMMERCIALLY PURE TANTALUM


5O to o> 4O

ANNEALED [10;

CJ 30 20
o
10

" SHEET, VACUUM ANNEALED [78]

50

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

30O

ELONGATION OF COMMERCIALLY PURE TANTALUM

L X t\j

173

I3O I2O 1 IO IOO 9O

V s.

x<

-COLD WC)RKED 5O /0 v [38] ^^

Xv

\ \

\
^^_

X^^
^^

^s

^ANNEAl w AT 147 2 F[38]

CO CO

\ \^
^--^

cr

11 I

x^

K N

^V

60 5O 4O 3O 2O

^x
^x X

HIGH F>URITY VACULJM ARC REEMELTED [100], / ?GON ?~~ ANNE/VLED I4O<DF IN AF
^
*""* ******^--T^_

>--^

^^>

x ~~-.

^^^

IO TENSILE YIELD i 0 so

inn i.^n ?nn TEMPERATURE, K

p^n

^nr

STRENGTH OF COMMERCIALLY PURE ZIRCONIUM

5O

174

40

HIGH PURITY VACUUM ARC REMELTED. ANNEALED I4OOF IN ARGON

o c\J

3O

20
ANNEALED I472F[38]

10
COLD WORKED 5O % [38]

5O

IOO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

ELONGATION OF COMMERCIALLY PURE ZIRCONIUM


O\J

CHARPY' V
X HOT RO LLED AT I2OO F [38]

20
10 0

F^rt

inn

isn

9nn

o*>n

-w

TEMPERATURE,K

IMPACT ENERGY OF COMMERCIALLY PURE ZIRCONIUM

Nonmetallic Materials
175
3 4OXIO
1. POLYETHYLENETEREPHTHALATE ("MYLAR") ("TEFLON") 2. POLYTETRAFLUOROETHYLENE 3. POLYTRIFLUOROMONOCHLOROETHYLENE ("KEL-F") 4. POLYVINYLCHLORIDE 5. NYLON DEGREE OF CRYSTALLINITY NOT STATED /J-CDC7I]

35 30 25 ~20
**

CO

co 15

or co IO

UJ

5O

2OO 150 IOO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

3OO

TENSILE STRENGTH OF PLASTICS


(VALUES ARE REPORTED FROM 2O TO I2O% ) ~

20
NOTE:

^ 10
o> o

REPORTS "NIL" REF [27] FOR PLASTICS (I) a AT 198 K a BELOW.

5
200 150 100 TEMPERATURE , K

250

300

ELONGATION OF PLASTICS

176
POLYTETRAFLUOROETHYLENE [91] ("TEFLON

2O
-15

en
IO
CO

O.2% OFFSET

5O

ICO ISO 2OO TEMPERATURE , K

25O

3OO

COMPRESSIVE YIELD STRENGTH OF PLASTICS


ISxIO3
v*
CO CO LJ

AT VARIOUS RATES OF LOADING AS SHOWN, psi per sec., REF [61]

Q.

or

CO

e> 5

or m
ICO I5O 2OO TEMPERATURE, K

25O

30O

STRENGTH OF ABRADED BOROSILICATE OPTICAL GLASS

References
1. Alcoa Research Laboratories. Mechanical Testing Division (unpublished data). 2. Allegheny Ludlum Steel Corp., Stainless Steel Handbook (1951). 8. Allegheny Ludlum Steel Corp. (unpublished data). 4. Aluminum Company of America, Results of tensile tests of various aluminum alloys at 18, 112, and 32OF made at the Aluminum Research Laboratories, as quoted by K. O. Bogardus et aL (see ref. 13). 5. Armco Steel Corp. Product Data Bulletin, Armco precipitation hardening stainless steelsArmco 174PH bar and wire (March 1956). 6. Armco Steel Corp. Research Laboratories (unpublished data). 7. T. N. Armstrong and G. R. Brophy, Some properties of low carbon Sy 2% nickel steel, Paper presented at National Conference on Petroleum Me chanical Engineering, Am. Soc. Mech. Eng., Houston, Texas (Oct. 1947). 8. T. N. Armstrong and A. J. Miller, Notched bar impact properties of some nickel steels after one year exposure to liquid nitrogen, Paper presented at National Conference on Petroleum Mechanical Engineering, Am. Soc. Mech. Eng., Tulsa, Okla. (Oct. 1946). 9. H. G. Baron, Stress-strain curves of some metals and alloys at low tempera tures and high rates of strain, J. Iron and Steel Inst. 182, 354 (April 1956). 10. J. H. Bechtold, Tensile properties of annealed tantalum at low temperatures, Acta Met. 3, 249 (May 1955). 11. Li. C. Bibber, J. M. Hodge, R. C. Altman, and W. D. Doty, A new high yield strength alloy steel for welded structures, Welding Research Council Bulletin No. 13 (July 1952). 12. S, M. Bishop, J. W. Spretnak, and M. G, Fontana, Mechanical properties, including fatigue, of titanium base alloys RC-13OB and Ti-15OA at very low temperatures, Trans. Am. Soc. Metals 46, 993 (1954). 13. K. O. Bogardus, G. W. Stickley, and F. M. Howell, A review of information on the mechanical properties of aluminum alloys at low temperatures, N.A.C.A. Technical Note 2O82 (May 195O). 14. F. Bollenrath and J. Nemes, Uber das verhalten verschiedener leichtmetalle in der kalte, Metallwirtschaft 10 (1931). 15. W. Broniewski and K. Wesolowski, Rev. Met 30, 396, 453 (1933), as quoted by R. A. Wilkins and E. S. Bunn (see ref. 102). 16. P. Chevenard, Rev. Met 19, 2O9 (1922), as quoted in Metals Handbook (see ref. 66). 17. E. W. Colbeck and W. E. MacGillivray, The mechanical properties of metals at low temperaturesPart II, non-ferrous material, Trans. Inst. Chem. Eng. II, 107 (1933). 18. E. W. Colbeck, W. E. MacGillivray, and W. R. D. Manning, The mechanical properties of some austenitic stainless steels at low temperatures, Trans. Inst. Chem. Eng. II, 89 (1933). 19. Convair Astronautics IMv., General Dynamics Corp. (unpublished data). 20. Crucible Steel Co. (unpublished data). 21. W. J. DeHaas and R. Hadfield, On the effect of the temperature of liquid hydrogen on the tensile properties of forty-one specimens of metals, Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) 232A, 297 (1933). 22. T. S. DeSisto, Automatic impact testing from room temperature to 236C, Am. Soc. Testing Materials, Symposium on Impact Testing, Special Technical Publication No. 176 (1956). 23. H. C. Doepken, Tensile properties of wrought austenitic manganese steel in the temperature range from +1OO to 196C, Trans. Am. Inst. Mining and Met. Eng., J. Metals 196, 166 (Feb. 1952) . 24. C. L. Dotson, J. R. Kattus, and F. R. O'Brien, Metallurgical testing of boron steels, WADC Technical Report 53-439 (Oct. 1954). 25. The Dow Chemical Co. (unpublished data) . 26. M. J. Druyvesteyn, Experiments on the effect of low temperatures on some plastic properties of metals. App. Sci. Research, Vol. 1 (Martinus NijhofT. The Hague, 1949). 27. J. Dyment and H. Ziebland, Ministry of Supply, Explosives Research and Development Establishment (Great Britain) Report 24/R/55 (1955) 28. J. J. Egan, A. B. Kinzel, and W. Crafts, Low temperature impact strength of some normalized low alloy steels, Trans. Am. Soc. Steel Treating 21, 1136 (1933). 177

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178

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