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2004

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2004
-1-

658.012.12
65.05373
71
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: . : , 2004. 148 .
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080101
, 080109 , , 080502 , 080111 , 080503
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: 140 .
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ISBN 5-900037-44-4
- , 2004

-2-

........................................................................................................................................................................ 4
1. .............................. 7
1.1. .......................................................................................... 7
1.2. ............................................................................ 10
1.3. .................................................................................................... 12
1.4. ...................................................................................................... 13
1.5. ..................................................................... 14
1.6. ................................................................... 15
1.7. .......................................... 17
2. ..................................................................................................... 20
2.1. .................................... 20
2.1.1. ..................... 20
2.1.2. .......................................................... 22
2.1.3. ......................................................... 28
2.2.
........................................................................................... 45
2.2.1.
........................................................................................................................................... 45
2.2.2.
.................................................................................................................................. 55
2.2.3.
................................................... 59
2.2.4. ............................................................................................................................................. 69
2.3. ............................................................................ 80
2.3.1. ............................................................................................. 80
2.3.2. ............................................................................................. 82
2.3.3. .............. 86
2.3.4. ............................................................................................................................................. 87
2.4.
.......................................................................... 94
2.4.1. ............................................................................................... 94
2.4.2.
............................................................................ 97
2.4.3. ................................103
2.5. ..........................................107
2.5.1. ....................................................................107
2.5.2. ............................................................................108
2.5.3. .......................................................................................................................... 109
2.6. ...........................................................................................................................................................112
3.
..............................114
3.1.
.................................................................................................114
3.2. ........................................................................120
3.3.
..................................121
3.4. ...........................................................................................................................................................135
.............................................................................................................................................................. 137
......................................................................................................................... 140

-3-

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1.2.

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-18-

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-19-

2.

2.1.

2.1.1.


[7, 125].
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[84, . 233-235] , , ,
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-20-

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-21-

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2.1.2.


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[7]
. 2.1.
,
,
() .

.


y = f (x ) ,
x = { xi } , i = 1,..., n , f (x) , y .
-22-

, () ,
.

, () [3, . 64].


()

. 2.1.

-23-

,

0 1 ( ):
= 1 0 , = (1 0 ) / 0
i = 1 / 0 .
, (,
) :
y = ( x1 , x 2 ,..., x n ) ,
y = ( x1 , x 2 ,..., x n ) ,
iy = (ix1 , ix 2 ,..., ix n ) ,
, , i , , , .

.

. ,
, , :

y =

Axi

i =1

= A x1 + A x 2 + ... + A x n .


Axi ,
i - .

.
:
- ( y ; x , z
; y = x z );
-24-

- ,
( y ; x , z , v ; y = x z v );
- , ( y
; x , z , v ;
x
y =
) [118, 119].
z+v

.
[7, 85], :
1) : y =

xi

i =1

= x1 + x 2 + ... + x n ;

(2.1)

2) : y = x i = x1 x 2 ... x n ;

(2.2)

i =1
n

x
3) : y = 1 , y = i = 1
m
x2

xi
,

(2.3)

xj

j = n +1

y ,
xi .
, (2.1)-(2.3)
() . , - - :
n

y=

xij
j =1 i =1

xi

y = i = 2 .
x1

-25-

, [32]
:
1. . :
a
y= 1.
a2
a1 -
a1 = a11 + a12 + ... + a1n ,

n
a1n
a11 a12
y=
+
+ ... +
y = x i .
a2 a2
a2
i =1
2. . :
a
y= 1.
a2
,
,
n
a1bcde... a1 b c d e
y=
= ... y = x i .
a2bcde... b c d e a2
i =1
3. . :
a
y= 1.
a2
,
, ( ,
):
a1
a
x
y = b = 11 y = 1 .
a 2 a 21
x2
b
,

() .
, [85]
, .

-26-

, , ,
,
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( ) [7].
x = { xi } , P . P . f (x) P , .
f (x) .
.
-
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-
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: () ( () ).
y ; x1 , x 2 ,..., x n , . y .
x1 , x 2 ,..., x n , y x1 , x 2 ,..., x n ;
:
x1 = l1 (1 , 2 ,..., m );
x 2 = l 2 (1 , 2 ,..., k );
.................................
x n = l n (1 , 2 ,..., h ).
-27-

. ,
, y .
.


;
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() .
, ,
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,
(
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2.1.3.

, ,
( ), .
[7, 68].
, ()
y =

y i + ( x ) ,

i =1

(2.4)

yi = f ( x1, x2 ,..., xi 1, xi + xi , xi +1 ,..., x n ) f ( x1, x 2 ,..., xi 1, xi , xi +1 ,..., x n ) ,


-28-

(x) ,
.

.

,
y = L(x) + ( x ) .
(2.5)
, ,
,
y =

f x i ( x0 ) x + ( x) .

(2.6)

i =1

, , (2.4)-(2.6)
() .
,

[8].

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.
[50, 66, 67, 85, 115, 121, 123, 125]:
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-29-

;
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.

[56]
.
. x (), x .

x dx .

[47, 91, 100].
y = f (x) dy df (x ) :
dy = df ( x ) = f ( x)dx .
,
, y = f (x) , x dx .
, z = f ( x, y ) , , , :
z
z
dz = dx + dy .
x
y
,
:
z
z
z = f ( x + x, y + y ) f ( x, y ) = dx + dy + o dx 2 + dy 2 .
y

x
-30-

x y
z :
z
Ax = dx = f x ( x, y ) x ,
x
z
A y = dy = f y ( x, y ) y .
y
, ,
,
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-31-

.

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:
D1R1 ,
IN =
D0 R0
IN =

D0 R1 D1R1 = I R I D ,
D0 R0 D0 R1

I N ;
I R () ;
I D ;
D0 , D1 ;
R0 , R1 -
.

N = D1 R1 D0 R0 .

,
,
,
:
AR = D0 R1 D0 R0 ,

AD = D1 R1 D0 R1 .

-32-

,
( , ), ,
.
, .

.

, .
,

:
1). :
y0 = ~
y0 = f ( x1 , x 2 ,..., xn ) .
2). :
~
y1 = f ( x1 + x1 , x2 ,..., xn ) ,
~
yi = f ( x1 + x1 ,..., xi + xi , xi +1 ,...), i = 2,..., n 1 .
3). :
y1 = ~
y n = f ( x1 + x1 , x 2 + x2 ,..., x n + xn ) .
4). :
y = y1 y 0 = f ( x1 + x1 , x2 + x2 ,..., xn + x n ) f ( x1 , x 2 ,..., x n ) .
5). i -
:
Axi = ~
yi ~
yi 1 , i = 1,..., n .

y =

Ax i

i =1

=~
yn ~
y n 1 + ~
y n 1 ~y n 2 + ... + ~
y1 ~
y 0 = y1 y 0 .

[125], . -,
-33-

; -,
[7].
,
f = x y , x y
x y .
f = f1 f 0 = ( x + x )( y + y ) xy = xy + xy + xy .
f :
f = ( y + y )x + xy = Ax + A y ,
(2.7)

f = yx + ( x + x ) y = Ax + A y .
(2.8)
,
, x , y .
( x + x)y
, () .
( xy )
.
,
.


- .

:

, , ;
(
), .
-34-

,
, -
, [43].

,
n

y = xi y =
i =1

xij .
j =1 i =1

,
:
n

dy = dxi xk .

i =1
k =1, k i
,
,

() ,
, , , :
i 1
n
n
n

y = Ax i = xi x j + x j xk .

i =1
i =1
j =1
k = i +1

, ,
.



- .

-35-


,
.
i -
:
i 1
i 1

= y 0 + Ax j xi , i = 1,..., n .
Axi = y 0 + Ax j

xi

j =1
j =1

,
,
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,
.
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.

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,
,
.
[129].
, (. (2.7)-(2.8)).
, ,
. ,
f = x y xy
y
xy
xy
k =
,
k=
yx + xy
yx

.
(2.7)-(2.8),
, ,
.
-36-

, [2, . 65] , , , , ,
.
, . . , .

. ,
,
.
, y = f ( x ) = f ( x1 , x2 ,..., x n )
:
1). :
Ax i = f (..., xi 1 , xi + xi , xi +1 ,...) f ( x1 , x 2 ,..., xn ) ;
, (2.4)
:
n

y Ax i = ( x) = ( x1 , x2 ,..., xn ) .
i =1

2).
:
Axi
~
Axi = Axi + ( x )
.
n

Ax i

i =1

-37-

:
n

~
y = Ax i .
i =1


, , , (2.7),
(2.8) ,
, . ,
.
:
Ay + A y
A + Ax ~
~
~
~
, f = Ax + A y ,
Ax = x
, Ay =
2
2



.
, ()
.
,
. ,
.

, [12],

. :
f = f1 f 0 = ( x + x )( y + y ) xy ,
x
Ax = f 0 K x = f 0
,
x
-38-

y
.
y
, ,
, , ..:
f Ax + A y ,
Ay = f 0 K y = f 0

:
f ( Ax + Ay ) = ( x, y ) = xy .
, ,
, .

[86; 87, . 18-25].
. ,

y = xi ,
i =1

:
n

y = Ax i =
i =1

K xi y , K xi

i =1

xi
n

x j

j =1

.
,
n

y=

xi

A
= i =1
m
B

xj

j = n +1



A B ,
xk , A B .
-39-


[99] , . .

.

y=

xi .
i =1

, :

lg y =

lg xi ,

i =1

n
n
x + xi
y1
lg y1 lg y 0 = lg
= (lg( x i + xi ) lg x i ) = lg i
y 0 i =1
xi
i =1

lg y1 lg y 0 y , :

y =

Axi

i =1

[K x i
n

i =1

y ,

x + xi
x + xi

lg i
lg i
x
x
i
=

i
.
K xi =
n x + x
y
lg 1
lg i x i
y0
i

i =1
, . , ( ).

( -)

-40-

xi

A
y = = i =1
m
B

xj

= xi
i =1

x j 1 .

j = n +1

j = n +1

y =

Ax k

k =1

x + xk
lg k
xk
K xk =
y
lg 1
y0

xk
lg
x + x k
K xk = k
y
lg 1
y0

[K x k
m

k =1

y ,

x + x k

lg k
x

, k = 1,..., n ,
n x + x
m

x
j
lg i x i + lg x + x
j = n +1 j
i
j
i =1

xk

lg
x k + x k
, k = n + 1,..., m .
n x + x
m

x
j
lg i x i + lg x + x
i
j
j = n +1 j
i =1
,
,
.

[117],
( ) . ,
.
y = f ( x1 , x2 ,..., x n )
:
n
n m

y = Ax i + = f xi (x1 + jx1 , x 2 + jx 2 ,..., xn + jx n ) xi + ,

i =1
i =1 j = 0

-41-

x
,
m
m ,
. m .

, .
,
,
.
xi =



, , [7, 103,
117, 120, 128].
, , [8].
:
1) , ;
2) e ;
3) .


, m :
n
n
m

y = Ax i = lim f xi (x1 + jx1 , x 2 + jx2 ,..., xn + jx n ) xi .

i =1
i =1 m j = 0


e , -

-42-

.
( ,
),

e ,
.
, m , , n -
m :

M j = x1j , x2j ,..., xnj , j = 1,..., m ,


j

xi i - j .
y . ,
M j M j +1 ( j = 1, 2,..., m 1)
j

j +1

xi = xi + ( xi xi ) t; i = 1,..., n; 0 < t < 1.


, ,
M j M j +1 , :
1

yij = f xi x1j + ( x1j +1 x1j ) t ,..., x nj + ( x nj +1 xnj ) t ( xij +1 xij )dt ,


0

i = 1,..., n; j = 1,..., m 1 .
yij i - j .
,
y12
K y1 j
K y1( m 1)
y11
y
y 22
K y 2 j
K y 2( m 1)
21

M
M
M
M

yi 2
K yij
K y i (m 1) .
yi1

M
M
M
M

y ( n 1)1 y (n 1) 2 K y ( n 1) j K y (n 1)(m 1)
y n1
y n 2
K y nj
K y n (m 1)

-43-

yij ,
, i - :
n
n
n m 1

y = yi = Axi = yij .

i =1
i =1
i =1 j =1
[127],
.
. , -
.
,
. , [7, 123] .
,
, ,
[7, . 138].
, ,
, , ,
.

-44-

2.2.


2.2.1.

,
[7, 67, 85, 115, 125],
.
,
. ,
[7],
,
, , ,
. ,
. , .


[21, 23, 26, 106, 110, 113, 131-133],

.

[41, 59, 100], .
( ) [48, 57, 137, 139],

,
.
-45-


.
f (x) x0
f ( x0 ) . , f ( x0 ) > 0 , f (x) x0 (
x x0 :
x < x0 , f ( x) < f ( x0 ) , x > x0 , f ( x) > f ( x0 ) ); f ( x0 ) < 0 ,
f (x) x0 ( x x0 : x < x0 , f ( x) > f ( x0 ) , x > x0 ,
f ( x) < f ( x0 ) ).
.
,
f ( x) f ( x0 )
f
= lim
.
f ( x0 ) = lim
x x0
x 0 x x x 0
f ( x0 ) > 0 . , x0 ,
f ( x) f ( x0 )
> 0,
x x0
:
f ( x) f ( x0 ) > 0 x > x0 ,
f ( x ) f ( x0 ) < 0 x < x0 ,
f (x) x0 . f ( x0 ) < 0 . .
( ()).
f (x) [a; b ]
x0 ( ) . x0
f ( x0 ) . f ( x0 ) = 0 .
.
x0 f (x) ,
f ( x0 ) 0 . , x0
; , f ( x0 ) > 0 , x0

f ( x) < f ( x 0 ) , , x0 . ,
-46-

f ( x0 ) < 0 , x0
f ( x) < f ( x 0 ) , . f ( x0 ) = 0 ,
.
.
f (x) [a; b ]
[a; b ] . , , f (a ) = f (b) .
c ,
f (c) = 0 .
.

. , , ,
[a; b ] . .
,
. .
. 2.2:
,
, .

. 2.2.
( ).
f (x) [a; b ]
. [a; b ] -47-

c , ,
f (b) f (a ) = f (c)(b a ) .
.

( f (b) f (a) ) ( x a) .
g ( x) = f ( x) f ( a )
ba
:
[a; b ], f (x) ; (a; b ) ,
g ( x) = f ( x )

f (b) f (a )
.
ba

,
g (a ) = g (b) = 0 .
, c (a; b ) , ,
g (c) = f (c)
f (c ) =

f (b) f (a )
=0
ba

f ( b) f ( a )
, .
ba

.
2.3. , ( f (b) f (a )) (b a )
, A(a , f (a )) , B (b, f (b)) y = f (x ) ,
f (c) , C (c, f (c )) .
, y = f (x )
A B C , AB .
f (b) f (a ) = f (c)(b a ) .
a > b .
,
y = f ( x1 , x 2 ,..., x n ) ,
-48-

y =

f xi (c1 , c 2 ,..., c n ) xi .

(2.9)

i =1

. 2.3.

ci = xi + xi ( xi ; xi + xi ) , (0;1) ,
(2.9)
y =

i =1

f x i ( x1 + x1 , x 2 + x 2 ,..., x n + x n ) x i ,

(2.10)

0 < < 1 , ,

.
,
, . , ,
.
. 2.4
.

M 0 M 1 .
-49-

, ,
, .

. 2.4.

,
.
.
g (x) [ a; b ] m g ( x) M ,
b

g ( x)dx = (b a) ,

m M .
.
a < b ,
-50-

m(b a ) g ( x)dx M (b a ) ,
a

1
m
g ( x)dx M .
ba
a

1
=
g ( x )dx ,
ba
a

.
( )
,
b

g ( x)dx = G(b) G (a) .

(2.11)

, g ( x) = G ( x) ,
G (b) G (a ) = G (c)(b a ) = g (c )(b a ) , a c b .
, - .

b

g ( x)dx = g (c)(b a)

. 2.5.
ABCD h = g (x ) . ( ) g (c) . ,
(2.11), y = f (x ) :
y = f ( x + x ) f ( x ) =

x + x

f (t )dt .
x

-51-

. 2.5.

t = t ( ) = x + x , (0;1) , ,
1

y = f (t ) t ()d = f ( x + x ) xd .

, :
y =

n 1

i =10

f x i ( x1 + x1 ,..., x n + x n ) x i d =

Axi .

(2.12)

i =1

(2.9) . - [62, . 252-255, 138].


f (x) n - , , .

f ( x) = f (0) ( x ) , f (x ) , f (x ) ,, f ( n1) ( x) , f ( n) ( x) ,
(*)
a 0 f (x) ,
n!, .
c -52-

, S (c)

f (c ) , f (c) , f (c) ,, f ( n1) (c) , f ( n) (c) .
, S (x) ,
x ,
.
, S (x) x . x
(*), S (x)
. : x
f (x) x f ( k ) ( x) , 1 k n 1.
l - f (x) , l 1 ,
f () = f () = ... = f (l 1) () = 0 , f (l ) () 0 .
, [ ; + ]
f (x) , f (x ) ,, f (l 1) ( x ) , ,
f (l ) ( x) . ,

f ( ) , f ( ) ,, f (l 1) ( ) , f (l ) ( )
,

f ( + ) , f ( + ) ,, f (l 1) ( + ) , f (l ) ( + )
. (*) , , x f (x) , , , f (x) f (x)
, . f ( ) > 0 , f (x)
[ ; ] , f ( ) < 0 ; f ( ) < 0 ,
f (x) , f ( ) > 0 . , . , f ( + ) > 0 , f (x)
[; + ] , f ( + ) > 0 ; f ( + ) < 0
f ( + ) < 0 . , f (x) f (x) .
-53-

, x l -
f (x)
f (x) , f (x ) ,, f (l 1) ( x) , f (l ) ( x)
l .

f ( k ) ( x) , f ( k +1) ( x) ,, f ( k + l 1) ( x) , 1 k n 1, l 1 ,
f ( k 1) ( x ) , f ( k + l ) ( x) .
, x
f ( k ) ( x) , f ( k +1) ( x) ,, f ( k + l 1) ( x) , f ( k + l ) ( x )
l . , , , f ( k 1) ( x ) f ( k ) ( x) , , l 1 , x

f ( k 1) ( x) , f ( k ) ( x) , f ( k +1) ( x) ,, f ( k + l 1) ( x) , f ( k + l ) ( x )
, .
, f ( k 1) ( x ) f ( k + l ) ( x ) x .
, a b , a < b ,
(*),
f (x) , a
b , ,
S (a ) S (b) .
, , a b ,
. c f (x) , , , (*). S + (c)
f (c ) , f (c) , f (c) ,, f ( n1) (c) , f ( n) (c) ,
:
f ( k ) (c) = f ( k +1) (c) = ... = f ( k + l 1) (c ) = 0 ,

(**)
(***)

f ( k 1) (c) 0 , f ( k + l ) (c ) 0 ,

-54-

(****)

f ( k ) (c) , f ( k +1) (c) ,, f ( k + l 1) (c ) ,


f ( k + l ) (c) ; , , ,
(**) . , S (c) (**),
: (***)
(****), , f ( k + i ) (c) , 0 i l 1 , ,
f ( k + l ) (c) , l i , ,
.
f (x) , a b , a < b , a b f (x) , , ,
(*), . ,
[a; a + 2] f (x) ,
a (*); ,
, [b 2; b] f (x)
b (*). f (x)
, a +
b , , , S (a + ) S (b )
. , ,
S (a + ) = S + (a ) , S (b ) = S (b) .
, -: a b , a < b , f (x) , , a b ,
, S + (a ) S (b) .

2.2.2.

, ,
,
,
-55-

,
:
A x i = K x i = f x i ( x1 + x1 , x 2 + x 2 ,..., x n + x n ) x i . (2.13)


, , (2.10), : y
, xi xi
.
,
,
.
, , .
, (2.13) , , ,
. :
y =

A xi

i =1

= A x1 + A x 2 + ... + A x n .

(2.14)

,
,
.

,

.


.
-56-

, , ,
, ,

.
.
,
,
, . ,
, (2.12), ,
[7,
. 135-137].
, ,

(. 2.4 ( XY ) . 2.6 d ),
,
(. 2.6 a 2.6 b ),
(. 2.6 c ).
, , ,
.
, ,
.
,
,
,
, . , . ,
, .

-57-

. 2.6.


, ,
,
[81].

-
.
, -58-


.
[7],
.

, . , , ..

.
,
, ,

.
,
( ). ,
.

2.2.3.


,

[14, 89].

.
, .
1).
-59-

f = x y.
x y x
y ,
f = ( x + x)( y + y ) xy = yx + xy + xy .
(2.15)
, ,
f = f x ( x + x , y + y ) x + f y ( x + x , y + y ) y ,

f = ( y + y ) x + ( x + x ) y = Ax + A y ;
(2.16)
(2.15) (2.16), , = 0,5
1
1
f = ( y + y ) x + ( x + x ) y = y cp x + x cp y = A x + A y . (2.17)
2
2
,
.
,

.
2).
f = x yz.

f = xyz + ( x + x)yz + ( x + x)( y + y )z .
:
f = ( y + y )( z + z )x + ( x + x )( z + z )y + ( x + x )( y + y )z ,

x
y
z
3 0 2 + 21 ( 0 + 1 ) = 0 , 0 = 1 , 1 =
.
+
+
x y z
, :

1
3
3
=
1+
+
1 .

2
3
1

(0;1) ,

f = Ax + A y + Az .
-60-

, , , , ,
.
3).
f = x yz p.

f = xyzp + ( x + x)yzp + ( x + x)( y + y )zp + ( x + x )( y + y )( z + z )p .
, :
f = ( y + y )( z + z )( p + p )x + ( x + x)( z + z )( p + p )y +
+ ( x + x)( y + y )( p + p )z + ( x + x)( y + y )( z + z )p =
= Ax + Ay + Az + A p .
:
4 0 3 + 31 2 + 2 2 ( 0 + 1 + 2 ) = 0 ,
x
y
z
p
0 = 1 , 1 =
+
+
+
,
x y z p
x y
x z
x p
y z
y p
z p
2 =

.
x y x z x p y z y p z p
, :
3
2 2 21
1
1
4
=
1 ,
12

= 27 31 + 108 1 2 + 216 (1 + 2 + 1) +

[(

+ 12 81 41 27 21 22 81 31 2 +

))

+ 81 31 + 96 32 + 324 21 2 + 1 22 +
1 1
3
+ 324 21 + 22 + 972 1 2 + (648 (1 + 2 ) + 324 ) 2 .

( (

, ,

-61-

y = f ( x1 , x2 ,..., xn ) = xi
i =1

:
I.
:
n

y = ( xi + xi ) xi ,
i =1
n i 1

y =

i =1

( x j + x j ) xi

i =1 j =1

j =1

k = n +1

( x j + x j ) = xk

xk ,

(2.18)

k = i +1

= 1.

II. ,
:
n

y = Ax i , Ax i =
i =1

i 1

( x j + x j ) xi
j =1

( x k + x k ) .

(2.19)

k = i +1

III. (2.18) (2.19), :


n2

( n m) m

n 1 m

m=0

0 = 1, m =

C nm

aij , m = 1, . ..,

i =1 j =1

n2

m = 0 ,

(2.20)

m =0

n 2 , aij =

xk
, k = 1,..., n .
x k



f = x y z p q .
:
I.
f = xyzpq + ( x + x )yzpq + ( x + x)( y + y )zpq +
+ ( x + x)( y + y )( z + z )pq + ( x + x)( y + y )( z + z )( p + p )q .
II. :
f = ( y + y )( z + z )( p + p )(q + q )x +
+ ( x + x)( z + z )( p + p )(q + q )y +
+ ( x + x)( y + y )( p + p )(q + q )z +
-62-

+ ( x + x)( y + y )( z + z )(q + q )p +
+ ( x + x )( y + y )( z + z )( p + p)q = Ax + A y + Az + A p + Aq .
III.
5 0 4 + 41 3 + 3 2 2 + 2 3 ( 0 + 1 + 2 + 3 ) = 0 ,
0 = 1 , 1 = a x + a y + a z + a p + aq ,

2 = a x a y + a x a z + a x a p + a x aq + a y a z +
+ a y a p + a y aq + a z a p + a z aq + a p aq ,
3 = a x a y a z + a x a y a p + a x a y aq + a x a z a p + a x a z aq +
+ a x a p aq + a y a z a p + a y a z aq + a y a p aq + a z a p a q ,
x
z
y
p
q
, ap =
, ay =
, az =
, aq =
.
z
x
y
p
q
,
(0;1) xi + xi ,
.
. , , , , .
,
.
(2.20)
, , , - [62, . 255-259].
.
f (x) ,
, ,
(
) .
, , f ( x) . ,
,
ax =

-63-

f ( x) f (x) . ,
f (x) ,
( ) .
(2.20)
, .
:
{n 0 ; (n 1) 1 ; ...; 2 n 2 ; ( 0 + 1 + ... + n 2 )} ,
1,
, ,
:
C nm

m x
k > 0,
0 = 1 > 0 , m =
i =1 j =1 xk

m = 1, . .., n 2 , k = 1,..., n .

,
. ,
xi + xi ( xi ; xi + xi ) ,
(0;1) .
(2.20) ,
(0;1) .
, , , , , , .
, .
.
.
.

-64-

1).
x
.
y

x + x x
= Ax + A y ,
f =
y + y y
:
x
( x + x ) y
( y + y )
( x + x )
f =

=
x
y .
2
2
2
y + y
( y + y )
( y + y )
( y + y )
f =

,
:
y( y + y) y
.
=
y
2).
x
.
f =
y+z

x + x
x
f =

= Ax + A y + Az ,
y + y + z + z
y+ z

x
( x + x) y
( x + x) z
f =

,
( y + y + z + z ) ( y + y + z + z ) 2 ( y + y + z + z) 2

( y + z) ( y + y + z + z) ( y + z)
.
(y + z )

3).
x+ y
.
z

x + x + y + y x + y
f =

= Ax + A y + Az ;
z + z
z
:
x
y
( x + x) + ( y + y )
f =

z .
2
( z + z ) ( z + z )
( z + z )
f =

-65-

=
4).

z ( z + z ) z
.
z

x+ y
.
z+ p

x + x + y + y x + y
f =

= Ax + A y + A z + A p ;
z + z + p + p z + p
:
1
1
f =
x +
y
( z + z + p + p)
( z + z + p + p)
( x + x ) + ( y + y )
( x + x ) + ( y + y )

z
p ,
( z + z + p + p ) 2
( z + z + p + p ) 2

f =

( z + p) ( z + z + p + p) ( z + p)
.
(z + p )

,

n

xi

y = i =1
m

x j

j = n +1


:
n
xi
A x i ( i n )=
y = Ax i ,
,
m

( x j + x j )

i =1

j = n +1

n
x j ( xi + xi )
i =1
Ax j (n +1 j m)=
, =
2

(x j + x j )

j =n+1

-66-

x j ( x j + x j ) x j

j = n +1

j = n +1
m

x j

j = n +1

j = n +1

,
0 1
(2.12).
,
f = x y , :
1

0
1

f = (( y + y )x )d + (( x + x)y )d =
1
1
1

2
2

=
= yx
+ yx
+ xy
+ yx

2 0
2 0
0
0

1
1

= y + y x + x + x y = y cp x + xcp y = Ax + Ay .
2
2


:
n

i =1

l =1

y = Ax i , Axi = xl
i0 = 1 , im =

C nm1

k =1

j =1

akj , m = 1, . .., n 1,

k in k ,

k =1

akj =

xh
, h = 1,..., i 1, i + 1,..., n .
x h

:
f = x y z p q , f = Ax + A y + Az + A p + Aq ,

1
1
1
1

Ax = x y z p q x4 + x3 + x2 + x1 + x0 ,
2
3
4
5

x0 = 1 , 1x = a y + a z + a p + aq ,

x2 = a y a z + a y a p + a y aq + a z a p + a z aq + a p aq ,
x3 = a y a z a p + a y a z aq + a y a p aq + a z a p aq , x4 =a y a z a p a q ;
1
1
1
1

A y = x y z p q y4 + y3 + y2 + 1y + y0 ,
2
3
4
5

y0 = 1 , 1y = a x + a z + a p + a q ,
-67-

y2 = a x a z + a x a p + a x a q + a z a p + a z a q + a p a q ,
y

y3 = a x a z a p + a x a z a q + a x a p a q + a z a p a q , 4 =a x a z a p a q ;
1
1
1
1

Az = x y z p q z4 + z3 + z2 + 1z + z0 ,
2
3
4
5

z0 = 1 , 1z = a x + a y + a p + aq ,

z2 = a x a y + a x a p + a x a q + a y a p + a y aq + a p a q ,
z3 = a x a y a p + a x a y aq + a x a p aq + a y a p aq , z4 = a x a y a p aq ;
1
1
1
1

A p = x y z p q p4 + 3p + p2 + 1p + p0 ,
2
3
4
5

p
0 = 1 , 1p = a x + a y + a z + a q ,

p2 = a x a y + a x a z + a x a q + a y a z + a y a q + a z a q ,
p

3p = a x a y a z + a x a y a q + a x a z a q + a y a z a q , 4 =a x a y a z a q ;
1
1
1
1

Aq = x y z p q q4 + q3 + q2 + q1 + q0 ,
2
3
4
5

q
0 = 1 , q1 = a x + a y + a z + a p ,

q2 = a x a y + a x a z + a x a p + a y a z + a y a p + a z a p ,
q

q3 = a x a y a z + a x a y a p + a x a z a p + a y a z a p , 4 =a x a y a z a p ;
z
y
p
q
, az =
, ap =
, aq =
.
ay =
z
y
p
q

, (2.12):
m

y = Ax i , A x i ( i n ) =
i =1

xi
m

x j

j = n +1

-68-

( x j + x j )

ln

j = n +1
m

x j

j = n +1

Ax j (n +1 j m) =

y Axi
i =1
m

x j

x j .

j = n +1



. 2.4.
. 2.5.

[20].

,
, .

2.2.4.

,
.

n

y = f ( x1 , x2 ,..., xn ) = xi
i =1

, :
x
x
x1 = ... = x n = 1 = ... = n = .
x1
xn
:

-69-

i =1

i =1

i =1

i =1

i =1

f = ( xi + xi ) xi = ( xi + xi ) xi = xi (1 + ) n 1 . (2.21)
:
n i 1

f =

( x j + x j ) xi

i =1 j =1

k = i +1

i =1

( xk + xk ) = xi n (1 + ) n 1. (2.22)

(2.21) (2.22), :
1

1
1 (1 + ) 1
=
1 .
(2.23)

100% ( = 1), , (2.23), ,



1
n
2 1 n 1

=
1.

n :

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
0,500 0,528 0,554 0,578 0,600 0,621 0,640 0,657 0,672

n
1
1
1

n
n
n
2 1 n 1
2 1 n 1

2 1 n 1
lim
1 = lim
1 = exp lim ln

1 =
n
n
n n
n

2 n ln 2 1

ln( 2 n 1) ln n
1 1 = exp ln 2 1 = 1 .
= exp lim
1 = exp lim n
n 1
n

n 2 1 n
, -
f = x yz.
:
f = ( y + y )( z + z )x + ( x + x )( z + z )y + ( x + x )( y + y )z ,
-70-


p 2 () = 3 0 2 + 21 ( 0 + 1 ) = 3 2 + 2 (1 + ) = 0 ,
x
y
z
0 = 1 , 1 = =
.
+
+
x y z
,
.
(0;1) , , -,

S + (0) S (1)
( , ),
S + (0)
p n 1 (0) , p n 1 (0) , pn 1(0) ,, pnn11 (0) ,
S (1)
p n 1 (1) , p n 1 (1) , p n 1 (1) ,, p nn11 (1) ,
n , .
n = 3 :
p 2 (0) = (1 + ) , p 2 (0) = 2 , p 2 (0) = 6 ,
p 2 (1) = 2 + , p 2 (1) = 6 + 2 , p 2 (1) = 6 .
.
1) 0 ,
S + (0) S (1) = 1 0 = 1 ,

2) 1 < 0 ,
S + (0) S (1) = 1 0 = 1 ,
3) 2 < 1,
S + (0) S (1) = 2 0 = 2 ,
4) 3 < 2 ,
S + (0) S (1) = 2 1 = 1,
5) < 3 ,
S + (0) S (1) = 2 1 = 1.
= 2 = 1, , (0;1) .
, ( 2; 1)

-71-


2 1

+ + (0;1) ,
3
9 3 3
(0;1) .

- (. 2.1).
2.1

1,2 =

1.

2.

3.


x = 2 ; x = 3 ;
y = 2 ; y = 1 ;
z = 1 ; z = 2
x = 5 ; x = 2 ;
y = 1 ; y = 2 ;
z = 2 ; z = 3
x = 7 ; x = 2 ;
y = 1 ; y = 2 ;
z = 1 ; z = 1

(0;1)

Ax

Ay

Az

3,17

0,53

15,56

7,35

18,09

41

-1,33

1 = 0,74 ;
2 = 0,15

-20,88 29,70 26,18


-6,38 23,04 18,34

35

-2

0,33

-4,44

23

16,89 10,55

- . 2.7.

.
, -. , ,
[22]
,
f ( x) =

n +1

xi ,
i =1

p n ( ) ,
n

2 2n 2k

= 2 2 n 2 + 2 2n 4 + 2 2n 6 + ... + 2 0 2 2 n -

k =1

p n (0) , p n (1) ,
(0; 1) .

-72-

. 2.7. (0;1)



y = x1 x2 x3 ,
y ;
x1 ;
x2 ;
x3 .
(. 2.2),
. 2.3 . 2.8, , ,

, -73-

,
,
,
, .
2.2

.,
%

.,
%

54

2600%

-50%

30

65

117%

120

.,
%

,
. .

.,
%

, ./

,
/.

,
. .

3390 2825%

2.3

, . .



3691
-2033
1732
3220
-147
317
3554
-1482
1318

. 2.8.
( , . .)
.
,
-74-

. , , ,
.
, ,
, , , , , , ,
, .
, .
, , x 0 ,
y 0 , 0 x , 0 y .
, ,
. , ,
,
.
z = x y :
0 z = y0 0 x + x0 0 y + 0 x 0 y .

z = ( y 0 x + x0 y + xy ) .
()
2 z = z 0 z =
= ( y0 x + x0 y + xy ) ( y 0 0 x + x0 0 y + 0 x 0 y ) =
= y 0 (x 0 x) + x0 (y 0 y ) + (xy 0 x 0 y ) =
2

(2.24)

= ( y0 x + x0 y ) + ( 0 y x + 0 x y + x y ) =
= ( y0 + 0 y )2 x + ( x0 + 0 x)2 y + 2 x2 y ,
2 x = x 0 x , 2 y = y 0 y .

.. [28].


, .
-75-

-76-

-77-

-78-

-79-

2.3.

2.3.1.


.

,
( ),
[16, 24, 114], .. .
, () ,

( ),
( ). , .
, , ,
[69, 101].
, , .
,
( ) (, , , ), , (, ).

-80-

y = f ( x1 , x2 ,..., x n ) m :
y1 = f ( x11 , x12 ,..., x1n ) ,
y 2 = f ( x12 , x22 ,..., xn2 ) ,

y m = f ( x1m , x 2m ,..., xnm ) .


, , ,
:
y = d (x1 , x 2 ,..., xn ) ,
xi = (x1i , xi2 ,..., xim ) ,

( ).
() .
, , ,
, () .
, ,

, . , , .
,
, .
. 2.9

.

-81-

. 2.9.

, ,
, , , ABC . ,
( ) , , , :
y j +1 y j
j +1

y j
j

= const , j = 0, 1 .

x
x
x
,
, ,
.

2.3.2.
-82-


. , , :
n

y j = Ax , j = 1, 2,..., m .
i =1



:
n

y = Ax i , Ax i =
i =1

Axi .
j

j =1

.
,
y=

xi
j =1 i =1

= x11 x12 ... x1n + ... + x1m x 2m ... xnm ,

, :
n

y = Ax i , Ax i =

m i 1


j =1 k =1

xkj + j xkj xij

(x
n

j
j
x
+

j h , (2.25)
h

j (2.20).
:
n
m n
n 1

j
(2.26)
y = Ax i , Ax i = x h ijn k .
k

i =1
j =1 h =1
k =1

i =1

h = i +1

:
l j
x

m i
x11 + x12 + ... + x1l
x1m + x 2m + ... + xlm
i =1
.
y =
+ ... +
= 1
n
1
1
m
m
m
x
+
x
+
...
+
x
x
+
x
+
...
+
x
j =1
n
n
l +1
l+2
l +1
l+2
x ij

i = l +1
, , :
-83-

y = Axi , Ax i (i l ) =
i =1

(xi
n

j =1

k = l +1
j

Ax i (l +1 i n) =

j =1

+ j xi

(xkj + j xkj )

k =1

x j + j x j
i
i

k = l +1

,
(2.27)

n
n
j
j
j
j
xk
x k + x k
xk
k = l +1 k = l +1
k = l +1
;
n
xkj
k = l +1

j =

xi

xij

:
n

y = Ax i , A x
i =1

i ( il )

xi

j =1
x kj
k = l +1

Ax i (l +1 i n) =

j =1

(x kj + x kj )

ln k = l +1 n

x kj
k = l +1

k =1
n

xkj

,
(2.28)

xk

xij .

k = l +1

, [124, . 7-12].
, xi
, m ,

-84-

x1 x1 K x1
n
2
1

2
2
2
x2 K xn
x
j
xi = 1
,
K
K
K
K

m
m
m
x
x2 K xn
1
n - , j - .

,
A1
A1x K A1x
x
2
n
1
2
2
2

A j = Ax1 Ax 2 K Ax n .
xi
K K K
K
m
m
m
A
A
K
A
x2
x n
x1

[ ]

, j
,

Ax i =

Axi ,
j

j =1


n m

y = Axj .
i =1 j =1

, , , . ,
,
( ) ,
() .

-85-

2.3.3.

() .
:
y=

xi

j =1 i =1

= x11 x12 + ... + x1m x 2m .

,
, :
y = x1 x2 .
, (), (), :
x1

j
x1 , x2 =
j =1

x2 .
j

j =1


y=

y
m

x2j

x2
j =1

= x1 x2 ,

j =1

x1 (, ),
(, ),
m

x1 =

j =1

)(

x1j + x1j x 2j + x 2j

(x2j + x2j )
m

j =1

-86-

x1j x 2j

j =1
m

x2j
j =1

)(

m
m
j
j
j
j
j
j

x
x
x1 + x1 x 2 + x 2
1 2

1 j =1
j =1
+
x1cp =
.
m
m
2
j
j
j
x 2 + x 2
x2

j =1
j =1

y = Ax i = Ax1 + Ax 2 ,
i =1

j
j x 2

Ax1 = x2 cp x1 = x 2 +
x1 ,

2
j =1

(2.29)

Ax 2 = x1cp x2 = x1cp x 2 .
j

j =1

, ,
. , , -, ,

. -,
,
(, , ).
, , [2, . 54], ,
. ,
,
, . .

2.3.4.


-87-

y = x1 x2 ,
.
, , (
),
( ) :
y1 = x11 x12 y 2 = x12 x 22 .
:
x11 , x12 , x12 , x22 , y1 , y 2 .
,
,

y1 = ( x11 + x11 ) ( x12 + x12 ) x11 x12 = x12 x11 + x11 x12 = A 1 + A 1 ,
x1
x2
cp
cp
y 2 = ( x12 + x12 ) ( x 22 + x22 ) x12 x22 = x 22 x12 + x12 x22 = A 2 + A 2 .
x1
x2
cp
cp

y = x1 x 2 ,
y , (
);
x1 , x11 x12 ,

x 2 x12 x 22 .
, , .
().
x 2 , ,
,
x 2 = x12 + x22 , x2 = x12 + x22 ,
y = y1 + y 2 , y = y1 + y 2 .

-88-


,
y = x1 x 2 = x11 x12 + x12 x22
.
,
:
y = y1 + y 2 = x12 x11 + x11 x12 + x22 x12 + x12 x 22 =
cp
cp
cp
cp

= x12 x11 + x22 x12 + x11 x12 + x12 x22 =


cp
cp
cp
cp

= x12 + x22
cp
cp

x12

cp

x11 + x22

cp

x12

cp

cp

+ x22

x12

x11

cp

x12 + x12 x 22

cp
x12 + x22 =

x12 + x22

= x2 cp x1 (1) + x1cp (1) x 2 = Ax1(1) + Ax 2 (1) .


,

,
,
,
.

() ().
, :

x11 x12 + x12 x 22 1


1 1
2 2
y = x1 x 2 = x1 x2 + x1 x2 =
x2 + x22 .
1
2
x2 + x 2

(
x11 + x11 ) (x12 + x12 ) + (x12 + x12 ) (x 22 + x 22 ) x11 x12 + x12 x22
x1 ( 2) =

,
(x12 + x12 )+ (x22 + x22 )
x12 + x22
-89-

)(
(

) (
) (

)(
)

1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
1 1
2 2
x1 + x1 x2 + x2 + x1 + x1 x2 + x2 + x1 x2 + x1 x2

1
1
2
2
x12 + x22
+

+
+

x
x
x
x

2
2
2
2
x1cp (2) =
2
,

y = x12 + x 22 x1 ( 2) + x1cp ( 2) x12 + x 22 =


cp
cp

= x 2 cp x1 ( 2) + x1cp ( 2) x2 = Ax1( 2) + Ax 2 ( 2) .
,
() ,

D = x1 (1) x1 ( 2) 0 ,
cp = x1cp (1) x1cp (2) 0 .

x12 x22 x22 x12 ) (x11 x12 )
(
D =
+
1
2
1
1
2
2
(x2 + x2 ) [(x2 + x2 )+ (x2 + x2 )]
(
x12 x22 x22 x12 ) (x11 x12 )
+
,
1
1
2
2
1
1
2
2
[(2x2 + x2 )+ (2 x2 + x2 )] [(x2 + x2 )+ (x2 + x2 )]

(
x12 x22 x22 x12 ) (x11 x12 )
cp =

1
2
1
2
2 (x2 + x2 ) (x2 + x2 )
(x12x22 x22x12 ) [(x11 + x11 ) (x12 + x12 )]

2 (x12 + x22 ) [(x12 + x12 ) + (x22 + x22 )]

(2.30)

(2.31)
.

(. 2.6) , .
-90-


(2.30)-(2.31). ,
y = Ax1(1) + Ax 2 (1) = x 2 cp x1 (1) + x1cp (1) x2 =
= x2 cp x1 (2) + x1cp (2) x2 = Ax1( 2 ) + Ax 2 ( 2) = y .

2.6


cp
x1 (1) x1 (2) x1cp (1) x1cp ( 2) D

x11 = 3; x11 = 12;


1.

2.

3.

x12 = 2; x12 = 4;
x12 = 15; x12 = 9;
x 22 = 6; x22 = 3
x11 = 3; x11 = 12;
x12 = 2; x12 = 4;
x12 = 5; x12 = 7;
x 22 = 6; x22 = 12
x11 = 3; x11 = 12;
x12 = 2; x12 = 4;
x12 = 15; x12 =

10,04

8,40

13,50

16,20

1,64

-2,70

8,25

8,25

8,63

8,63

0,00

0,00

38,05

39,00

32,32

31,50

-0,95

0,82

-1,22

0,47

8,92

7,43

-1,69

1,49

45;

x 22 = 6; x22 = 18
x11 = 3; x11 = -2;
4.

x12 = 2; x12 = 1;
x12 = 10; x12 = -1;
x 22 = 3; x22 = 12

-91-

,
(. 2.7), , , .
.
, (2.30)-(2.31) ,
D = cp = 0
.
1. x12 x 22 :
x12
x12

x12 + x12
x12

1 = I

x12

1 =

x12

x 22

=I

x 22

1 =

x22 + x22
x 22

1 =

x22
x 22

2. x11 x12 :
x11 = x12 x11 = x12 .
2 . 2.7
.
2.7

1.

x11 = 3; x12 = 2; x12 = 15; x 22 = 6;

x11 = 12; x12 = 4; x12 = 9; x22 = 3


x11 = 3; x12 = 2; x12 = 5; x 22 = 6;
2.
x11 = 12; x12 = 4; x12 = 7; x22 = 12
x11 = 3; x12 = 2; x12 = 15; x 22 = 6;
3.
x11 = 12; x12 = 4; x12 = 45; x22 = 18
x11 = 3; x12 = 2; x12 = 10; x 22 = 3;
4.
x11 = -2; x12 = 1; x12 = -1; x22 = 12

-92-

Ax1(1) Ax 2(1) Ax1( 2)

Ax 2 ( 2 )

115,5 94,5

96,6

113,4

210

132

138

132

138

270

723

711

741

693

1434

-14

116

5,37

96,63

102

, - () .

y = x1 x 2 x3 = x11 x12 x13 + x12 x 22 x32 ,
y ;
x1 ;
x 2 ;
x3 .
.
,

x11 x12 x13 + x12 x22 x32 x12 x13 + x 22 x32 1


y=

x3 + x32 = x1 x 2 x3 ,
2
1 1
2 2
1
x 2 x3 + x 2 x3
x3 + x3
, ,
x11 x13 + x12 x32 x11 x12 x13 + x12 x 22 x32 1
y=

x3 + x32 = ~
x1 ~
x 2 x3 .
1
1 1
2 2
2
x3 + x3
x1 x3 + x1 x3



.

.
,
, .
, ,
.
, , -93-

. , . , 4 (. 2.7). ,

, .


, , .

2.4.


2.4.1.

.
-
, [2, . 8].
( ), -
( ) (
, ).
1738 .,

p
, ..
p1 .
Ip =
p0
-94-


1764 .:
p
p1
0 .
Ip =
n
,
, . . .
, .
.
p1q0 ,
Ip =
p0 q0
p ;
q .
1 0 ,
.
. ; . , , ,
, , , . ,
()
, ,
.
1874 . . ,
:
p1q1 .
Ip =
p0 q1
,
. -95-

() ().
,
,

.
,
.
,
, ,
[2]. ,

,
, .

,
, [31].
, ,
, ,
.
, . , :
, ( ) .
, - () (),
-96-


. , , , ,
, , , .

2.4.2.


, , , .
, . , ,

( ) , .
, , ;
() . , , (, ), (,
).
, () .
, , ,
, - [2, 46].

, , -97-


.

[70, 88], , ,
.
, ,

q

q
E p (q) = ,
p

p
q ( );
p .

( ) - (,
) .
, ()
y = f (x ) y () x [46].
y x E x ( y ) ,
y x
y x
y x
E x ( y ) = lim
= lim = lim
.

x x 0 x y x 0 x y
x 0 y
,

dy x
x f ( x) f ( x)
E x ( y) =
= f ( x) =
=
.
y
f ( x)
dx y
y
x
x
(., , [30, 33, 92]),
, , , ,
, .
-98-

, ,

f ( x) f ( x ) f ( x) xi
E xi ( y) =

x .

x
x
f
(
x
)
i
i i
,

n
n
x x
y
f i( x) i i = f i< e > ( x) xi ,
(2.32)
y i =1
f
(
x
)
x

i
i =1
x
f ( x) xi
f i< e > ( x) = E xi ( y ) = i
f ( x)
f i -
[27].
, , ,

, ,
,
, , .
, .
x mi ( xi ; xi + xi ) y m = f ( x m )

y =

y =

n
x
f ( x m ) x k
y
= f k ( xm ) mk

=
y k =1
f
(
x
)
f
(
x
)
x

m
mk

(2.33)

f k< e > ( xm ) im f m xk ,

k =1

y
f ( xm )
im f = m =
,
y
f ( x)

xm , .
(2.33) .
-99-

,
n

f i< e > ( xm ) i mf m xi

y i =1
=
E x ( y) =
x

m xi
. (2.34)
= f i< e > ( xm ) i m

x
i =1
n

, ,
,
.

[53, 94, 95],

y = f ( x, a ) ,
f ;
x ;
a .

() [49, 134], , , , .
. .

, :
n

= xi
i =1

= x1 1 x2 2 ... xm m , i < 1 i .

(2.35)


.
-100-

ln y = ln a + i ln xi ,
i =1

(2.35) xi > 0 , i = 1,..., n . .


.

- [30, 38, 135], .. ..

:
2

= xi
i =1

= x11 x 2 2 = L1 C 2 ,

L ;
C ;
a ( ),
;
i i - () ( ).
-
(2.35).


y = F (x)

i = ln xi , = ln y , xi = exp i , y = exp ,

= ln y = ln F (exp 1 ,..., exp n ) = (1 ,..., n ) = () .
x , y :
-101-

x + x
= ln( x + x) ln x = ,
x
F ( x + x )
ln iy = ln
= ln F ( x + x ) ln F ( x) = () = .
F ( x)

ln ix = ln

= i ( m ) i .
i =1

iy =exp = exp i ( m ) i =

i =1

= (exp i )

i ( m )

i =1

<e >

= (ixi ) Fi

( xm )

(2.36)

i =1

ln F ( x ) Fi( x) xi
=
ln( xi )
F ( x)

()
.
i () =
i
(2.36) [25].

-
i , (2.36) :
Fi< e > ( x) =

iy = iL1 iC 2 ,
, ,

n

iy = (ixi ) i .
i =1

, () () (
).
-102-

2.4.3.


, ( ,
).
, ,
[2, 7],
, ,
., [44, 45, 52],
:
, , , , .
,
,
, , ;
, , . [17, 105].
,
,

f = f ( x) = f ( x1, x2 ,..., xm )
f = f ( x1 ) f ( x 0 ) , x = x(t ) , 0 t 1 , :
m 1 f ( x (t ) ) x (t )
i

f =

i =10

xi

dt

dt .

(2.37)

-103-

v = vi , vi = qi pi , v = v1 v 0 ,
i =1

m1

m
dqi (t )
dp (t )
v = pi (t )
dt + qi (t ) i dt .
dt
dt
i =1
i =1
0

(2.38)

,
,
f = ln(v)
v1
f = ln(v ) ln(v ) = ln ;
v0

Dq , D p
1

m 1 p (t ) dq (t )
m 1 q (t ) dp (t )
i
i
i
f = ln(v ) ln( v ) =

dt +
i dt =
dt
dt
i =10 v (t )
i =10 v (t )
1

1
1
m
m

dqi (t )
dpi (t )
1
1
= ln exp [v (t )] pi (t )
dt + ln exp [v(t )] qi (t )
dt =
dt
dt

i =1
i =1
0
0

= ln Dq + ln D p ,
~ ~
Dq , D p

v1 v 0 v1 v 0 v
v 0 + (v1 v 0 )
v1

=
=
= ln 1 +
= ln
f = ln
0
0
0
0

v0
v
v
v
v


m 1 p (t ) dq (t )
m 1 q (t ) dp (t )

i
i
= ln exp

dt + ln exp i i dt =
0
0
dt
dt

i =10 v
i =10 v
~
~
= ln Dq + ln D p .


qi (t ) = qi0 + t (q1i qi0 ), pi (t ) = pi0 + t ( p1i pi0 ), 0 t 1 ;
1

1
0
pi (t ) dqi (t )
0
1
0 qi qi
v 0 dt dt = pi + t ( pi pi ) v 0 dt =
0
0
2 1 q1 q 0 p 0 + p1
q1i qi0 0 1
1
0 t
i i
i ,
=
pi t | + ( pi pi ) | = i

2 0
2
v0
v0
0

-104-


m q1 q 0 p 0 + p1
m p1 p 0 q 0 + q1
~L
~L
i
i
i
i
i i
i .
Dq = exp
, D p = exp i

0
0
2
2
i =1 v
i =1 v

q1
p1
0
0
i

, pi (t ) = pi exp t i , 0 t 1 ;
qi (t ) = qi exp t
0
q
p0

i
1
1
p1 0
q1
pi (t ) dqi (t )
q1i
1
0
i
i

v 0 dt dt = v 0 pi exp t p 0 qi exp t q 0 ln q 0 dt =

i
i
i
0
0

vi1 1
v1i

exp t ln
|
1
0

0
1 1
1
0
1
0
1
0

v
0
v
q
v
v
q
v
q v
i

= i ln i exp t i dt = i ln i
= i ln i i
=
0
0
1
0
0
1
v0
v
v0
qi0 0
v
q
v
v
q
i
i ln i
i
ln i
vi0
vi0

vi1 vi0
0

ln

q1i
qi0

: ln

v1i
vi0

v
:
m v1 v 0
m v1 v 0
p1i
v1i
q1i
v1i
~E
~E
i
i
i
i
ln
ln
Dq = exp
: ln , D p = exp
: ln
.
0
0
0
0
0
0
v
p
v
v
q
v
i =1
i =1
i
i
i
i
, (2.37)
,
,

v1 v 0 v1 v 0

,
ln 1 +
0
0

v
v

,
.
(2.37) ,
,
:
n f ( x 0 + x ,..., x 0 + x ,..., x 0 + x )
1
i
i
m
m
1
f =
x i , (2.39)

x
i
i =1
-105-

0 < < 1,
, . , v
= 0,5 ,
( ,
)
m q1 q 0 p 0 + p1
m p1 p 0 q 0 + q1
i
i
i
i
i
i i
i ,
=

+
0
2
2
v 0 i =1 v 0
i =1 v
~
~
DqL , D Lp , -

.
, f = ln(v)
v 0 + v
= ln(v 0 + v) v
f = ln
v0


0
v
+ v
v

ln =

v0

,
v
( , )
f = ln(v 0 + ln v) v,
,
f = ln(v 0 + v) ln(v 0 ) .
,


.

.
, ,
, ; .
, , -106-

(2.38). , , , . , ,
,
.

2.5.

2.5.1.
,
, .
, ,
. ,
,
, ,
.

, ,
= v = p q.
,
. .
, , : ,

. ,
-107-

.
, . .

, () .
,
, .

2.5.2.
,
. ,
{ pi 0; 0 i 1, i = 1 } { pi 0; 0 i 1, i = 1 },
i

pi pi ;
i i , i -
,
.
,
Q = qi , Q = qi ,
i


q
q
i = i , i = i .
Q
Q
,
-108-

p = i pi p = i pi ,
i

; ,

ri = pi pi r = p p ,

p pi ri
p p r
Si = i
=
S=
= .
pi
pi
p
p
( ri , r ) ( S i , S ) , ()
() .

2.5.3.
, .

S j = min S i , S k = max Si .
i

S j S Sk ,
[19]
.

() .
,
,
S j S Sk ,
(*)
~

p
S j = S j + S j 1 1 ,

~
p

S k = S k + S 1 1 ,
k
p

~
p = p .

-109-

, , :
~
S j S Sk ,
r
~ ~
r =~
p p .
S = ~, ~
p

(**)

:
1) pi pi = pi S i pi = pi ( S i 1)

( S i 1) i pi

i
;
= 1+
S = 1+
p
p
2) S j Si S k S j 1 Si 1 S k 1
i pi

i pi

1 + S j 1 i

S 1 + (S k 1) i

) (

~
~
~

p
p
p
3) 1 + S j 1 = S j + 1 S j + S j 1 = S j + S j 1 1 = S j
p
p
p
~
~
~

p
p
p
1 + (S k 1) = S k + (1 S k ) + (S k 1) = S k + (S k 1) 1 = S k ,
p
p
p
(*).

~
~
p
p
S 1 + (S k 1)
p
p
~
~
p
p
p
S j 1 S 1 (S k 1) S j 1 (S 1) ~ S k 1
p
p
p
~
p
p p
S j 1 ~ Sk S j ~ Sk ,
p
p
(**).

4) p p = p S p = p (S 1) 1 + S j 1

-110-

1.
1
pi
i

1
2
3
4
5

8,73
1,88
33,01
16,57
20,99

0,173
0,016
0,031
0,548
0,232

2
pi
i
8,09
4,24
61,54
14,39
19,79

0,041
0,024
0,013
0,433
0,490

Si
0,073
-1,255
-0,864
0,132
0,057

p p 16,51 17,16
=
= 0,039 ; S i = 1,255 ; S k = 0,132 .
S=
p
16,51
,
S [S i ; S k ].
2.
1
p i
i

1
2
3
4
5

8,73
67,60
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p p 17,31 18,01
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1. .. - :
. . .: , 1999. 320 .
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, 1977. 200 .
3. .. / .. , .. ,
.. , .. ; . .. . .: , 2000. 288 .
4. .., .. . .: , 1998. 1022 .
5. / .. ,
.. , .. .; . . .. . :
, 1998. 398 .
6. .., .. , , . .: , 2000. 368 .
7. .., .. . M.:
, 1997. 416 .
8. .. . (, , , ) / .. , .. , .. . .: ,
1976. 264 .
9. .., .. . .: , 2003. 240 .
10. .. . .: -, 2001.
222 .
11. . , - . ( ). .:
, 2000. 304 .
12. .. . .: , 1975. . 125-132.
13. .. - . .: -, 2003. 215 .
14. .. . M.: ,
1985. 304 .
15. .. / .. , .. , .. //
: . .-. . .II. : , 2000. . 47-48.
16. .. / .. , .. , .. // : . . . .-. . SAS2000. : , 2000. . 25-30.
17. .. /
.. , .. , .. // .
-140-

: . 5, . 4. : , 2000.
. 419-422.
18. .. / .. ,
.. , .. // :
. . . . .-. . : , 2000. . 188-193.
19. .. / .. ,
.. , .. // : . .
. . : , 2000. . 35.
20. .. /
.. , .. , .. // : . . .
.-. . . . : , 1999.
. 263-269.
21. .. . : . / .. , .. , .. . : , 2000. 72 .
22. .. - / .. , .. , .. // : . . IX . . . . 9. : - , 2004.
. 8-9.
23. ..
/ .. , .. , .. //
: . . III . . . :
, 1998. . 75-76.
24. .. / .. , .. ,
.. , .. // :
. . . . . : , 1998. . 49-50.
25. .. / .. , .. ,
.. // : . . . : , 2003.
. 36-37.
26. .., ..
// , : . . .-. . : , 1997. . 103-104.
27. .. . / .. , .. , .. // . : . 5,
. 3. : , 2003. . 347-348.
28. .. /
.. , .. , .. // -141-

: . VI .
. . . 6. : , 2001. . 40-41.
29. .. .
.: , 2001. 206 .
30. .. // . . 3. 1993. . 225-230.
31. .. . .: , 1930. 200 c.
32. .. . .: ,
1962. . 77-78.
33. .. : 2- . / .. , .. ,
.. . .: , 1996. 349 ., 503 .
34. . . .: .
Channel Trading Ltd., 1996. 312 .
35. .. . .: - , 2003. 176 .
36. .., .. :
// . 2002. 1. . 108-112.
37. .. - . : , 2000. 112 .
38. .. (). .:
-, 2002. 795 .
39. ..
/
.. , .. , .. // . 2000.
2. . 2-5.
40. .. // . 2003. 8. . 5-6.
41. .., .. . .:
, 2003. 654 .
42. .. / .. ,
.. , .. . .: , 2000. 352 .
43. .. // . 1973. 1.
. 20.
44. .. // . [52]. . 291-297.
45. ..
. // . 2003. . 39. 2.
.136-154.
46. .. / .. , .. , .. . .: , 1997. 368 .
47. .., .. . .:
, 2002. 592 .
48. .. . . 2- . / .. ,
.. , . . . . .. . .: - , 1985,
1987. 662 ; 358 .
49. .
/ . . .: -, 2002. 576 .
-142-

50. .., .. . :
, 1989. 295 .
51. ., .
. .: , 1976. 736 .
52. . . .: , 1990. 303 .
53. .. . , , .
.: , 1986. 238 .
54. .., .. . .: , 2000. 424 .
55. .. . .: , 2002. 208 .
56. .. . .:
, 1969. . 113.
57. ., .
. .: , 1968. 720 .
58. .. // . 2000. 6. . 33-36.
59. .. : . 1. :
Alfa, 1998. . 168-169.
60. / . . .. , .. .
.: , 1984. 412 .
61. / . . .. , .. . .: , 1974. 399 .
62. .. . .: , 1968. 431 .
63. .. . .: , 2003. 192 .
64. .., .. - //
. 2003. 1. . 2-5.
65. .. . .: , 2000. 392 .
66. .. -
/ .. , .. , .. ; . .. . .:
, 1999. 471 .
67. .. / .. , .. , .. . .: , 2002. 480 .
68. () / . .. , .. . .:
, 1988. 294 .
69. ,
(, ) . . .: ,
, 2002. 78 .
70. ., . : 2- . .: , 1992. 375 .,
350 .
-143-

71. ..
1917-1993. .: - , 1997. 312 .
72. .. . .: ,
2002. 176 .
73. .., ..
. , , 2000. 283 .
74. .., ..
: . . , 1999. 219 .
75. .., .. // . 2000. 6. . 30-32.
76. .. -

// .RU. 2002. 6. . 6-10.
77. ..
// .RU. 2003. 8. . 12-14.
78. .. : // . .:
, 2003. 37 .
79. ..
/ .. , .. , .. . : ,
2002. 176 .
80. 2003-2008 . 5+5.
.: , 2003. 42 .
81. .. - . .: , 2000. 399 .
82. XXI : / . . . .. ; . . . .: , 1999. 793 .
( ).
83. .. . .: , 2002. 573 .
84. .., .. . .: - -, 1999. 784 .
85. .. . :
, 2002. 704 .
86. .. . .: , 1972. . 22-31.
87. .. . .: , 1968. 245 .
88. ., . . : -
, 1997. 800 .
89. . . 1:
/ .. , .. , .. , .. . .: , 1993. 480 .
90. .. / .. , .. , .. , .. , .. // . 2003. 5. . 88-91.
-144-

91. .. : . 1. .: , 1967.
. 117-119, . 367-370.
92. .. / .. , .. , .. , .. . . 2. .: , 2001. 376 .
93. . : . . .: , 1996. 336 .
94. .. (, ):
WP2/2002/04. .: , 2002. 80 .
95. .. . .: , 1974. 127 .
96. - : , ,
/ .. , .. ( ). .: ,
2002. 702 .
97. .. : . .: ,
2000. 489 .
98. .. Delphi 3.0 . .: , 1998. 544 .
99. ., . //
. 1977. 5. . 71-73.
100. .. :
. 1 / .. . .: , 1997. 608 c.
101. ..
/ .. , .. . .: , 1974. 82 .
102. .. / .. // .
2003. 12. . 9-15.
103. . // . .: , 1964. . 206-212.
104. ..
//
, : . . 1. .:
, 2002. . 80-83.
105. .. // :
. . .-. . : , 2000. . 86-87.
106. ..
//
. . 5. : , 2002. . 94-96.
107. .. -
// , 2003,
1-2 (12). : - . . 30-35.
108. ..
// .-. . .
: . . . : , 2000. . 57-58.
109. ..
// , , , : . .-. . : , 2001. . 19-20.
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110. .. // : . :
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111. ..
// :
, . 5. .: , 2003. . 114-122.
112. .. // , , : : . . . . . .
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113. .. // ,
45- . 3. : , 2001. . 70-73.
114. .. // :
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127. : , , , , , / . . .. ,
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-147-

:

- ,

,

658.012.12
65.05373
.., .., ..
71
: . : , 2004. 148 .
ISBN 5-900037-44-4
,
.

.
, .
.
, .

..
.. ,
..

18.11.2004. 6084/16. 55-60 /2.


. . . . 9,2.
200 . 828. .
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148

2.4

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,
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= Axi

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= i =2

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xi

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77

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m

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y = i =1
m

( x j + x j )

j = n +1

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2.5

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78

y = xi
i =1

i =1

i =1

i =1

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xi

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ln 2
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( xi + xi ) xi

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C n1 m
1 i
i
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k =1 k
l =1
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n
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( xi + xi ) xi

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= Axi
i =1

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n

ln i = 2

xi

i =2

, Axi (i 2) =

xi

79
n

xi

y = i =1
m

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y = i =1
m

( x j + x j )

j = n +1

xi

i =1
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xj

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ln

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j = n +1

x j

xi