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7 Limits and Derivatives

7 Limits and Derivatives

(b) g(x) is not a continuous function for all real values of x


because it is discontinuous at x = 0.
Quick Practice 7.3 (p. 7.13)
1

Exploration

(a)

Exploration 7.1 (p. 7.28)


1. (radian)
0.5

sin

2.

x 64

=4
0.1

0.01

0.001

0.9589

0.9983

1.0000

1.0000

(radian)

0.001

0.01

0.1

0.5

1.0000

1.0000

0.9983

0.9589

sin

(b)

lim ( x 4 + 2 x 3 + x 2) = ( 3) 4 + 2( 3)3 + ( 3) 2

x 3

= 22
Quick Practice 7.4 (p. 7.13)

lim ln x = ln

(a)

x e

Classwork
Classwork (p. 7.4)
f ( x ) =2 x 2 4 x
1.

(a)

lim x 3 = (64) 3

1
2

lim 2 x = 2 3

(b)

4 f ( 2) =4[ 2( 2) 2 4( 2)]
=4(16)
=64

x 3

1
8

Quick Practice 7.5 (p. 7.15)

f ( a + 2) = 16

lim 3x ( 2 x 1) = lim 3x lim ( 2 x 1)

2( a + 2) 4( a + 2) = 16
2

(a)

x 1

x 1

a 2 + 2a 8 = 0
( a + 4)(a 2) = 0
a = 4 or 2

lim[(e x ) ln x] = lim(e x ) lim ln x


(b)

(a) Domain: (, +)
Range: (, +)
(b) Domain: [4, +)
Range: [0, +)
(c) Domain: (, +)
Range: (0, +)

(c)

x e

x e

= (e e) ln e
=0
4

2
2

lim x = lim x
x 2
x

2
x
x

= 2
2

=1

Quick Practice 7.6 (p. 7.16)

2 x 2 + x 15
( 2 x 5)( x + 3)
= lim
x 3
x 3 2( x + 3)( x 3)
2 x 2 18
2x 5
= lim
x 3 2( x 3)
(a)
2( 3) 5
=
2( 3 3)
11
=
12

Quick Practice 7.1 (p. 7.5)

lim

f ( g ( x)) = f + 1
2

= 1 2 + 1
2

= 1 x

g ( f ( x )) = g (1 2 x )
(b)

x e

Quick Practice

(a)

x 1

= 31[ 2( 1) 1]
= 1

2
(b) a + 4a + 4 2a 4 = 8

2.

1 2 x
+1
2
3
= x
2
=

Quick Practice 7.2 (p. 7.12)


(a) f (x) is a continuous function for all real values of x.

NSS Mathematics in Action Module 2 Vol.2 Full Solutions

( x +1) 2 1
x2 + 2x
= lim
x 0
x 0
3x
3x
x +2
= lim
x 0
3
(b)
0 +2
=
3
2
=
3
lim

Quick Practice 7.9 (p. 7.22)


(a)

x 4

= lim
x 4
x +5 3

x 4

= lim
x 4

= lim
x 4

x 4
x +5 3

2x +5
3 x 1

2x + 5
x
= lim
x 3 x 1
x
5
2x +
x
= lim
x
1
3
x
5

lim 2 +
x
x
=
1

lim 3
x
x

Quick Practice 7.7 (p. 7.16)

lim

lim

x + 5 + 3
x + 5 + 3

( x 4)( x + 5 + 3)
x +5 9

5
x
=
1
lim 3 lim
x
x 4
2 +0
=
30
2
=
3
lim 2 + lim

( x 4)( x + 5 + 3)
x 4

= lim( x + 5 + 3)
x 4

= 4 +5 +3
=6
Quick Practice 7.8 (p. 7.20)
(a)

(b)

3 + 2 x
x +
2x
lim

3
2 x
+
lim
x + 2 x
x + 2 x
1
1
= 3 lim x + lim 2 x
x + 2
x + 2
= 3(0) + 0
=0
= lim

3
5
3
5

lim 4 + 2 = lim 4 + lim


lim 2
x

x x
x
x

1
1
= 4 + 3 lim
5 lim 2
x x
x x
= 4 + 3(0) 5(0)

(c)

=4

lim (4 3e 2 x ) = lim 4 lim 3e 2 x

x +

x +

x +

= 4 3 lim e 2 x
x +

= 4 3 lim (e 2 ) x
x +

(b)

1
= 4 3 lim 2
x + e

1
= 4 3 lim
x + (e 2 ) x
= 4 3(0)
=4

x 2 +1
x + x ( x 2 +1)
lim

7 Limits and Derivatives

x2 + 1
x3
= lim
x + x ( x 2 + 1)
x3
1 1
+ 3
= lim x x
x +
1
1+ 2
x
1
1
lim + lim 3
x +
x

+
x
x
=
1
lim 1 + lim 2
x +
x + x
0+0
=
1+ 0
=0

lim sin
x

(a)

2
x

= sin
3


3
2

lim (1 + sin x ) cos x

x
6

(b)

= 1 + sin cos
6
6

3 3
4

lim 3 + 4 cos 2 2 x

(c)
Quick Practice 7.10 (p. 7.23)
After a very long time, we have:


= 3 + 4 cos 2 2
4
= 3

3(t + 2)2
C = lim
t + (t + 1) 2

Quick Practice 7.12 (p. 7.30)

3(t + 4t + 4)
= lim 2
t + t + 2t + 1
3t 2 + 12t + 12
2
= lim 2 t
t +
t + 2t + 1
t2
12 12
3+ + 2
t t
= lim
t +
2 1
1+ + 2
t t
12
12
lim 3 + lim + lim 2
t +
t + t
t + t
=
2
1
lim 1 + lim + lim 2
t +
t + t
t + t
3+ 0+ 0
=
1+ 0 + 0
=3
2

(a)

x2
x 0 sin x

lim

= lim
x
x 0 sin x

= lim
lim x
x

0
sin
x x 0

= (1)(0)
=0

(b)

sin 6 x
x 0
2x
sin 6 x
= lim
3
x 0
6x

sin
6
x

= lim
lim 3
x0 6 x x 0
= (1)(3)
=3

lim

Quick Practice 7.13 (p. 7.31)

The concentration of the pollutants is 3 mg/L.

lim
x 0

sin 4 x
sin 4 x 3x 4

= lim

cos 3 x
x

0
tan 3x
4 x sin 3 x 3

sin 4 x
3x
4
= lim
lim
lim cos 3x
x

0
x

0
4 x
sin 3x x 0
3
4
= (1)(1)(1)
3
4
=
3

Quick Practice 7.11 (p. 7.28)

NSS Mathematics in Action Module 2 Vol.2 Full Solutions

e2x e x
eu 1
=
lim
2u
x 0
u 0
xe x
u 3
e
3

lim

eu 1
1
lim 2u
= 3 lim

u 0 u u 0 e 3

= 3(1)(1)
=3

Quick Practice 7.14 (p.7.32)

1 cos 4 x
2 sin 2 2 x
=
lim
x 0 sin 2 x
x 0 sin 2 x
2(2 sin x cos x) 2
= lim
x 0
(a)
sin 2 x
= lim 8 cos 2 x
lim

x 0

= 8(1) 2
=8
(b)

3 x + x 3x x
2 cos
sin

sin 3 x sin x
2 2
lim
= lim
x 0
x 0
x
x
sin x

= lim 2 cos 2 x

x 0
x
sin x

= 2 lim cos 2 x lim

x 0
x 0
x

= 2(1)(1)
=2

Quick Practice 7.16 (p. 7.39)


Let f(x) = 2x2 3.
Slope of the tangent at x = 1

f (1 + x ) f (1)
x 0
x
2(1 + x ) 2 3 [2(1) 2 3]
= lim
x 0
x
2 + 4( x) + 2(x) 2 3 ( 1)
= lim
x 0
x
4( x) + 2( x) 2
= lim
x 0
x
= lim ( 4 + 2x)
= lim

Quick Practice 7.15 (p. 7.36)


(a) Let u =

x
.
3

x 0

Then x = 3u
When x 0, u 0.

lim
x 0

(b)

lim

=4

y
3

e 1
eu 1
= lim
u 0 3u
x
1
eu 1

= lim
3 u 0 u
1
= (1)
3
1
=
3

x0

e2 x ex
xe x

= lim

x0

Quick Practice 7.17 (p. 7.41)


(a)

dy
( x + x) 2 3( x + x) ( x 2 3x)
= lim
dx x0
x
2
x + 2 x(x) + ( x) 2 3x 3(x) x 2 + 3 x
= lim
x 0
x
2 x( x) + ( x) 2 3( x)
= lim
x 0
x
= lim ( 2 x + x 3)

e 3 x 1
xe 2 x

x 0

= 2x 3

Let u = 3x.
Then x =

u
3

When x 0, u 0.

7 Limits and Derivatives

(b)

1
1

dy
2 ( x + x ) 2 x
= lim
dx x0
x
( 2 x ) ( 2 x x )
= lim
x 0 x ( 2 x x )( 2 x )
1
= lim
x 0 ( 2 x x )( 2 x )
1
=
(2 x) 2

Exercise
Exercise 7A (p. 7.5)
Level 1
1. (a) True
(b) True
2.

(a) All non-negative real numbers


(b) All real numbers
(c) All real numbers

3.

(a) f(2) + f(2)

Quick Practice 7.18 (p. 7.42)

1
(a)

2( x + x) + 7
x

dy
= lim
dx x0
= lim

x 0

=2

2x + 7

2
3f(3) =3[ 2(3) 5(3) 7]
(b)
=12

2 x + 7 2( x + x) + 7

(c) f(a + 1) f(a)

x 2( x + x ) + 7 2 x + 7

= 2( a +1) 2 5( a +1) 7 ( 2a 2 5a 7)
= 2a 2 + 4a + 2 5a 5 7 2a 2 +5a +7
= 4a 3

4.

2 x
2( x + x) + 7 2 x + 7

[ 2 x + 7 + 2( x + x) + 7 ]
2

(c) g(f(3))

( 2 x + 7) 2 2 x + 7

= ( 2 x + 7)

5.

3
2

(b) Slope of the curve at x = 0

dy
dx

= [ 2(0) + 7]

=
=
=

f(x) = ax3 2x2


f ( 1) = 5

= f ( 2( 2) +5)
= f (1)

7.

73
7 7

g(x) = 2x2 + b
g ( 2) = 5

a = 7

3
2

=2( 2) 2 +( 2)
=6

a ( 1)3 2(1) 2 = 5
a 2 = 5

x =0

= (7)

= g (3 5)
= g ( 2)

2( 2) 2 + b = 5
b = 3
6.

2
(a) f(3) g(3) =(3 5) [ 2(3) +3]
=42

= f ( 2(3) 2 +3)
(b) f(g(3)) = f ( 21)
=21 5
=16

x 0 x

(d) True

=2( 2) 2 5( 2) 7 +2( 2) 2 5( 2) 7

2 x + 7 2( x + x) + 7

x 2( x + x) + 7 2 x + 7
= lim

x 0 2 x + 7 + 2( x + x) + 7

2 x + 7 + 2( x + x) + 7
= lim

(c) False

7
7

7
49
5

1 2
3(1) +1
1
=
4

(a) f(g(2)) =

NSS Mathematics in Action Module 2 Vol.2 Full Solutions

= f ( 2 x + 5)
2 x +5 2
=
f(g(x)) 3( 2 x + 5) +1
(b)
2 x +3
=
6 x +16

(a) f(g(e))

( 2) + a ( 2) + b = 4
2a + b = 8 (2)

(1) (2), 3a =6
a =2

By substituting a = 2 into (1), we have


2 +b =2
b =4

x 2
= g

3 x +1
x 2
(c) g(f(x)) = 2

+5
3
x +1
17 x +1
=
3 x +1

8.

h ( 2) = 4
2

= g ( 23 )
11. (a) g(g(3)) = g (8)
=28
=256

= f (ln e)
= f (1)

=( 23 ) 2
(b) [g(3)] =82
2
=64

=13
=1

[ g ( a )]b = ( 2a )b

=g (e 3 )

(b) g(f(e)) =ln e 3


=3
(c) f(g(x))

= ( 2b ) a
= [ g (b)]a

= f (ln x )
=(ln x )3

(ii) g(a + b)

=g ( x 3 )

12. (a)

f ( 5) = 4

f ( 2) = 12

2 2 + a ( 2) + b = 12
2a + b = 16 (1)
f (3) =18
( 3) + a (3) + b =18
3a + b = 9 (2)

By substituting a = 5 into (1), we have


2( 5) +b =16
b =6

(b) Domain: ,

f ( 2 x ) = 10

( 2 x ) 2 5( 2 x ) 6 = 10

Range: (, 0)
(or other possible answers)

2 x 2 5x + 2 = 0
( x 2)( 2 x 1) = 0

14. (a) A = r2

1
x = 2 or
2

6
2
=3

(b) Maximum value of r =

10. h(x) = x2 + ax + b

5a + 6 =16
5a =10
a = 2

= f ( 4 x 3)
6
=
13. (a) f(g(x))
3( 4 x 3) 1
3
=
6 x 5

(1) (2), 5a =25


a =5

a ( 5) + 6 = 4

(b) Domain: (, 3]
Range: [0, +)

(b) f(x) = x2 5x 6

= 2 a 2b

f ( x ) = ax +6

Level 2
9. (a) f(x) = x2 + ax + b

= 2 a +b
= g ( a ) g (b )

(d) g(f(x)) =ln x 3


=3 ln x

= 2ab

(c) (i)

Minimum value of r = 0
Range of A = (0, 9]

h(1) =1
(1) 2 + a (1) + b =1
a + b = 2 (1)

15. (a) V = x(10 2x)2


(b) 0 < 2x < 10
6

7 Limits and Derivatives


0<x<5
Domain of V = (0, 5)
Exercise 7B (p. 7.17)
Level 1
1. f(x) is a continuous function for all real values of x.
2.

g(x) is a continuous function for all real values of x.

3.

h(x) is not a continuous function for all real values of x


because it is discontinuous at x = 1.

4.

5.

6.

x +2
=
ex

15. lim
x 0

0 +2
e0

= 2
16. lim
x 4

2 x 2 5 = 3 2( 4) 2 5
=3

s(x) is not a continuous function for all real values of x


because it is discontinuous at x = 3.
x 4

1
=
2
1
=
8

17.

lim(7 x 2) = 7(3) 2
x 3

=19
7.

lim ( 2 x 3 + x 2 5) = 2( 2)3 + ( 2) 2 5

x 2

= 17

2 x2 + 5x
2( 2) 2 + 5( 2)
=
lim

x 2
3x 2
3( 2) 2

8.

lim(3 x 4)(2 x x 2) =[3( 2) 4][2( 2) 2 2]


2

x 2

=8
lim

10.

x 2

x +1
2 +1
=
2 x 3
2( 2) 3
1
=
7

19.

lim e3 x

x 1

lim ln(5 x 2 2) = ln[5(1) 2 2]

20.

x 1

lim e x ln( x 2 +1) = e 0 ln(0 2 +1)


x 0

4e 2 x
4e 2 ( 0 )
=
x 0 2 x 2 3 x 2
2(0) 2 3(0) 2
21.
4
=
2
= 2

= 4e3

12.

13.

1
1
= ln
x
e
= ln e 1
= 1

x +1
x +1
= lim
2
x 1 x 1
x 1 ( x +1)( x 1)
1
= lim
x 1 x 1
22.
1
=
1 1
1
=
2
lim

lim ln( x 3 x +1) = ln[(1) 3 ( 1) +1]

x 1

=0
lim
14.

x e

x ln

x = e ln e
=

2 +2 ( 1) 1

lim

x 1

x e

= e3( 1)

=0

lim 4e3 x = 4e3(1)

lim ln

2 +2 x 1

=1

= ln 3

11.

9
=
2
81
=
4

18.
2

9.

4 1
x 1
lim
=

x 4 6 x

6 ( 4)

lim18 = 18

e
2

NSS Mathematics in Action Module 2 Vol.2 Full Solutions

lim

x 3

23.

x 2 9
( x + 3)( x 3)
= lim
x

3
x +3
x +3
= lim ( x 3)

lim
x 9

x 3

x 3
x 3
= lim

x 9 9 x
9x

= lim

= 3 3
= 6

x 9

28.

= lim

x 9
(9 x )( x + 3)
1
x +3

x 9

x 3
x 3
lim 2
= lim
x 3 x + x 12
x 3 ( x + 4)( x 3)
1
= lim
x 3 x + 4
24.
1
=
3 +4
1
=
7

x 1

25.

29.

lim

x 1
x 1
= lim
3
x

1
x 1
( x 1)( x 2 + x +1)
1
= lim 2
x 1 x + x +1
1
= 2
1 +1 +1
1
=
3

2 x 2 + 4 + 2

2x2 + 4 + 2

30.

lim

x 2

3x 2
3x 2
=
lim
x 0 ( 2 x + 1) 2 1
x 0 4 x 2 + 4 x
2

3x
4 x ( x +1)
3x
= lim
x 0 4( x +1)
3(0)
=
4(0 +1)
=0

x 2
= lim

2
2 x 3 1
2 x 3 1
x 2

2 x 3 +1

2 x 3 +1

= lim

( x 2)( 2 x 3 +1)
2x 4

= lim

( x 2)( 2 x 3 +1)
2( x 2)

x 2

x 0

26.

2x2 + 4 2
2x2 + 4 2
= lim

x 0
x
x

2x
= lim
x 0
2
2x + 4 + 2
2(0)
=
2(0) 2 + 4 + 2
=0

lim

= lim

9 +3
1
=
6

x 0

lim

x +3

x +3

x 2

= lim

x 2

2 x 3 +1
2

2( 2) 3 +1
2

=1
lim
x 0

x +9 3
= lim

0
x

= lim
x 0

27.

= lim
x 0

x +9 3

x + 9 + 3
x + 9 + 3

Level 2

x
x ( x + 9 + 3)
1
x +9 +3
1

0 +9 +3

1
=
6

31. (a)
(b) f(x) is not a continuous function for all x in the
interval (3, 3) because it is discontinuous at x = 1.

7 Limits and Derivatives

1 1
x 3

3
x
3x
lim
= lim
x 3 5( x 3)
x 3 5( x 3)
1
= lim
37.
x 3 15 x
1
=
15(3)
1
=
45

32. (a)
(b) f(x) is a continuous function for all x in the interval
(3, 3).

38.

lim
x 5

4x
=
x 2 2 x 10

4(5)
52 2(5) 10

33.

4 (2 + 3 x) 2
[2 + (2 + 3 x)][2 ( 2 + 3 x )]
= lim
x 0
x 0
4x
4x
3x (4 + 3 x)
= lim
x 0
4x
3(4 + 3 x)
= lim
x 0
4
3[4 + 3(0)]
=
4
= 3

lim

20
25 10 10

=
=2

34.

lim ( x 2 + 3x)(4 x 3 5 x 2 + 6)
x 1

= [12 +3(1)][ 4(1) 3 5(1) 2 +6]

39.

x 2 x 12
( x 4)( x + 3)
= lim
2
x

4
x 6x +8
( x 4)( x 2)
x +3
= lim
x 4 x 2
4 +3
=
4 2
7
=
2

40.

3x 2 + 4 x 4
(3 x 2)( x + 2)
= lim
x 2 2 x 2 + 3 x 2
x 2 ( 2 x 1)( x + 2)
3x 2
= lim
x 2 2 x 1
3( 2) 2
=
2( 2) 1
8
=
5

= 20

lim
x 4

=2

lim 3

x2 +5x 6
2 2 + 5( 2) 6
3
=
2 x 4 2 x 1
2(2) 4 2( 2) 1

x 2

35.

=3
=

8
27

2
3

lim

lim

1
x
2

2 x 1
2 x 1
= lim
2
1
4 x 1 x ( 2 x + 1)(2 x 1)
2

= lim
36.

1
x
2

1
2 x +1

1
1
2 + 1
2
1
=
2
=

lim e
x 2

41.

x 2 4
x 2

= lim e
x 2

= lim e x +2
x 2

= e 2 +2
= e4

( x +2 )( x 2 )
x 2

NSS Mathematics in Action Module 2 Vol.2 Full Solutions

42.

x2 + 2x 3
( x + 3)( x 1)
= lim ln
lim ln
2

x 1
x + 4 x 5 x 1 ( x + 5)( x 1)
x +3
= lim ln
x 1
x +5
1 +3
= ln
1+5
2
= ln
3

lim

x 2

lim
x 4

3x + 4 x
3x + 4 x
3 x + 4 + x
= lim

2
2
x 4
2 x 32
3 x + 4 + x
2 x 32
3x + 4 x 2
= lim
x 4 2( x + 4)( x 4)( 3 x + 4 + x )
( x + 1)
= lim
x 4
2( x + 4)( 3 x + 4 + x )
( 4 + 1)
=
2( 4 + 4)( 3( 4) + 4 + 4)
=

x3 + 8
( x + 2)( x 2 2 x + 4)
=
lim
x 2 4 x 2
( x + 2)( x 2)
x2 2x + 4
x 2
x 2
2
(2) 2(2) + 4
=
2 2
= 3

47.

= lim

43.

lim

x 2

x + 3 x +10 x 3x +10
x + 3 x +10
= lim

x 2
x +2
x +2
x 3x +10

= lim

x 2

44.

= lim

x 2

8 x 3 + 27
( 2 x + 3)( 4 x 2 6 x + 9)
lim
= lim
3 2x + 3
3
2x + 3
x
x
2

= lim

x 2

= lim ( 4 x 2 6 x + 9)
x

5
128

3
2

3
3
= 4 6 + 9
2
2
= 27

48. lim

45.

x 2

x 2 3x 10
( x + 2)( x 3 x +10 )
( x + 2)( x 5)
( x + 2)( x 3 x +10 )
x 5
x 3x +10
2 5

2 3( 2) +10
7
4

x + 2 2
2 x + 5 3

x +2 2
2 x + 5 + 3
2
2x2 + 7 3
= lim

2x2 + 7 3
2
x
+
7
+
3
x 2 2 x + 5 3
2 x + 5 + 3
lim
= lim

x 1
x 1
2
x 1
x 1
2
x
+
7
+
3

( x + 2 2)( 2 x + 5 + 3)
= lim
2
2x + 7 9
x 2
2x +5 +9
= lim
x 1
( x 1)( 2 x 2 + 7 + 3)
( x + 2 2)( 3x + 5 + 3
x +2 +2
= lim

x 2
2( x 2)
2( x + 1)( x 1)
x +2 +2
= lim
x 1
2
( x 1)( 2 x + 7 + 3)
( x + 2 4)( 2 x + 5 + 3)
= lim
x 2 2( x 2)( x + 2 + 2)
2(1 + 1)
=
2
2(1) + 7 + 3
( x 2)( 2 x + 5 + 3)
= lim
x 2 2( x 2)( x + 2 + 2)
2
=
3
2x + 5 + 3
= lim
x 2 2( x + 2 + 2)
46.

2( 2) + 5 + 3

2( 2 + 2 + 2)
3
=
4

10

7 Limits and Derivatives

5
6
5
6

lim 3 +
2 = lim 3 + lim
lim 2
x

2
x
2
x
x
x

=3 +0 0

49. lim
x 1

=3

x3 1
x 2 +1 x +1
2

( x 1)( x + x +1)

= lim

x 1

x +1 x +1

lim (6 x 2 ) = lim 6 lim

x +1 + x +1

3.

x +

x +

x +1 + x +1

=6

x 2 +1 ( x +1)

x 1

( x 1)( x 2 + x +1)( x 2 +1 + x +1 )
x 1
x( x 1)

= lim

4.

( x + x +1)( x +1 + x +1 )
x 1
x( x 1)

= lim

12 4
lim 3 = lim 9 + 2
x +
x +
x
x x

12
4
= lim 9 lim
+ lim 2
x +
x + x
x + x
= 90+0
=9

( x 2 + x +1)( x 2 +1 + x +1 )
= lim
x 1
x

lim (5 + 2 x ) = lim 5 + lim

(12 +1 +1)( 12 +1 + 1 +1 )
=
1

5.

x +

x +

lim (6 4e 3 x ) = lim 6 4 lim e 3 x

x +8 3

= lim
x 1

x +3 2
x +8 3

6.

( x + 3 2)( x + 8 + 3)
x 1
x +8 9
x 1

( x + 3 2)( x + 8 + 3)

x 1
x 1
x 1

= lim

x 1

= 6 4(0)
=6
lim (6e x + 3e 2 x ) = 6 lim e x + 3 lim e 2 x

7.

x +3 + 2
x +3 + 2

8.

( x + 3 4)( x + 8 + 3)
( x 1)( x + 3 + 2)

5
2
5
2
lim
+ x = lim
+ lim x
x

+
x

+
3x
9
3x 9
= 0 +0

x +

=0

x +8 + 3
x +3 + 2

3
2

2x 2 9x
2x 9x
x2
lim
=
lim
x + x 2 + 4
x +
x2 + 4
x2
9
2
x
= lim
x +
4
1+ 2
x
20
=
1+ 0
=2
2

Exercise 7C (p. 7.25)


Level 1
5
5

lim 2 + = lim 2 + lim


x +
x +
x + x
x

1.

9.

= 2 +0
=2

2.

11

= 6(0) + 3(0)
=0

( x + 3 2)( x + 8 + 3)
x +8 9

= lim
= lim

x + 8 + 3
x + 8 + 3

= lim
= lim

1
2x

=5

x +3 2

x 1

x +

=5 + 0

=6 2

50. lim

1
x2

= 6 0

( x 1)( x 2 + x +1)( x 2 +1 + x +1 )

= lim

x +

NSS Mathematics in Action Module 2 Vol.2 Full Solutions

2 x + 7
x
x 1
x
7
2+
x
= lim
x
1
1
x
2+0
=
10
=2

2x + 7
lim
= lim
x
x
x 1

10.

lim

x +

3x + 7
3x + 7
x
= lim 3
x +
x2
x2
x

13.

= lim

x +

=3

7
x
2
1
x
3+

3+0
10

=3 3

2x 4

2x 4
lim
= lim x
x 1 2 x
x 1 2 x

8
8
x2
lim
= lim
2
2
x + 2 x + 3 x
x + 2 x + 3 x
x2
8
11.
2
= lim x
x +
3
2+
x
0
=
2+0
=0

lim

12.

14.

2 0
=

02
= 1

=3
=

2
x
3
8+
x
1

3x 2 x 4
3x x 4
x2
lim
= lim
2
2
x + 5 x + 4 x 9
x + 5 x + 4 x 9
x2
1 4
3 2
x x
15.
= lim
x +
4 9
5+ 2
x x
300
=
5+00
3
=
5
2

x 2
x 2
x
= lim 3
x

8x + 3
8x + 3
x
= lim

2
x
= lim
x 1

2
x

10
8+0

1
2

12

7 Limits and Derivatives

x 2 4x
x 2 4x
x3
lim
=
lim
x + 2 x 3 + 7 x 2 2
x + 2 x 3 + 7 x 2 2
x3
1 4

16.
x x2
= lim
x +
7 2
2+ 3
x x
00
=
2+00
=0

lim

x +

21.

6 x 2 5x
x2
3x 2 + 8
x2
5
x
8
3+ 2
x
6

60
3+0

= 2

(2 x + 1) 2 3x
4 x 2 + x +1
=
lim
x +
x +
4x 2
4x 2
4 x 2 + x +1
x2
= lim
x +
4x 2
22.
x2
1 1
4+ + 2
x x
= lim
x +
4
4+0+0
=
4
=1
lim

3 x 2 8 x 1
3 x 8 x 1
x3
lim
= lim
3
x + 7 x 4 x
x +
7x 4x 3
x3
3 8
1
2 3
18.
x x
x
= lim
x +
7
4
x2
0 0 0
=
0 4
=0
2

23.

( 2 x + 3)(3 x 4)(4 x + 5)
lim
= lim
x
x
6x 3

( 2 x + 3)(3 x 4)(4 x +

x3
6x 3
x3
3
4
5

2 + 3 4 +
x
x
x

= lim
x
6
( 2 + 0)(3 0)( 4 + 0)
=
6
=4

Level 2
3

20.

= lim

x +

2x 3 7x
2x 3 7x
x3
lim
=
lim
x + 3 2 x 2 4 x 3
x + 3 2 x 2 4 x 3
x3
7
2 2
x
17.
= lim
x + 3
2
4
x3 x
20
=
004
1
=
2

19.

6 x 5x
= lim
x +
3x 2 + 8
2

lim ( 4 + 3 x 1 ) 3 = lim 4 +
x +
x +
x

3
= ( 4 + 0)
= 64

24.

lim (5 4 3 x ) = 5 0

=5

13

NSS Mathematics in Action Module 2 Vol.2 Full Solutions

( 2 x + 5)(3 x )
x2
x3
x2
1
5 3

= lim 2 + 1
x x
x
x

= 0( 2 + 0)( 0 1)
=0

lim ( x +1 x 1 )

28.

( 2 x + 5)( 3 x )
lim
= lim
x
x
x3

x +

= lim ( x +1 x 1 )
x +

x +1 ( x 1)
= lim
x +
x +1 + x 1
2
= lim
x +
x +1 + x 1
=0

x +1 + x 1

x +1 + x 1

25.

(7 x 3)(8 x + 5)
(7 x 3)(8 x + 5)
x2
lim
= lim
x + (5 x + 2)( 4 x 9)
x + (5 x + 2)( 4 x 9)
x2
3
5

7 8 +
x
x

= lim
x +
2
9
5 + 4
x
x

(7 0)(8 + 0)
=
(5 + 0)(4 0)
14
=
5

lim

29.

27.

x +1 + x 1

x +

4x 3 x
4x 3 x
x
lim
= lim
x +
x +
2x + 5 x
2x + 5 x
x
3
4
26.
x
= lim
x +
5
2+
x
4 0
=
2 +0
=2

4e x 6e 2 x
x +
5e3 x

x ( x +1 x 1 )

1
= lim

x +

x ( x +1 x 1 )
= lim

lim

x +

= lim

x +

2 x
1+

1
1
+ 1
x
x
2

1 + 0 + 1 0
2

=1

px 2 + qx
= 1
x 0 3 x 2 + x
px + q
lim
= 1
30.
x 0 3 x + 1
p ( 0) + q
= 1
3(0) +1
q = 1
lim

4e x 6e 2 x
e3 x
= lim
x +
5e3 x
e3 x
4
6
x
2x
e
= lim e
x +
5
0 0
=
5
=0

14

x +1 + x 1

x +1 + x 1

7 Limits and Derivatives

px 2 + qx
=2
x + 3 x 2 + x
px 2 + qx
x2
lim
=2
x + 3 x 2 + x
x2
q
p+
x =2
lim
x +
1
3+
x
p +0
=2
3+0
p =6
lim

Exercise 7D (p.7.33)
Level 1

lim sin x

1.

= sin

lim (1 + cos 2 x)

2.


= 1 + cos 2
4
=1
lim tan 2 x

4(1 + 3 )
C=
3 2 (1)
16
=
9
1

3.

in Johns blood after 1 hour is

= tan 2
=0

lim

The concentration of the medicine that remains

x 0

16
mg/L.
9

4.

(b) After a very long time, we have:

4(1 + 3t )
t +
32t
1 1
4 32 t + 3t

= lim
t
t +
3
=0

C = lim

lim
x 0

The concentration of the medicine that remains


in Johns blood after a very long time is 0 mg/L.

5.

sin x
1 sin x
= lim

x 0
4x
x
4
1
sin x
= lim
x

0
4
x
1
= (1)
4
1
=
4
sin 3 x
sin 3 x
= lim
3
x

0
x
3x

sin 3 x
= 3 lim
x 0
3x
= 3(1)
=3

10 000 + 2 3 + 1
22 +1
= 6000

32. (a) S =

lim

The daily sales of the magazine when it has been


published for 2 days is $6000.
(b) After a very long time, we have:

x 0

6.

10 000 t 3 + 1
S = lim
t +
t 2 +1
1 1
+
t t4
1
1+ 2
t

10 000
t +

=1

31. (a) When t = 1,

= lim

10 000 0 + 0
1+ 0
=0
=

The daily sales of the magazine after it has been


published for a very long time is $0.
15

3x
3
2x
= lim

x

0
sin 2 x
sin 2 x 2
3
2x
= lim
2 x0 sin 2 x
3
= (1)
2
3
=
2

NSS Mathematics in Action Module 2 Vol.2 Full Solutions

x
2

lim
= lim
2x
x 0
x x 0
x

sin
sin

2
2

= lim 2 lim 2 x
x x 0
x 0
sin

= (1)(0)

lim

7.

x 0

12.

1
= (1)
2
1
=
2

=0
x

lim x cot x = lim


cos x
x 0 sin x

= lim
lim cos x

x 0 sin x x 0
= (1)(1)

x0

8.

13.

=1
9.

sin 4 x sin 2 x
sin 2 x
sin 4 x
= lim
2 lim
x 0
2x
x 0 4 x
x 0 2 x
sin 4 x
= 2 lim
1
x 0 4 x
= 2(1) 1
lim

x 0

sin 5 x
sin 5 x 6 x 5
= lim


sin 6 x x0 5 x sin 6 x 6
5
sin 5 x
6x
lim
lim

6 x 0 5 x x 0 sin 6 x
5
=
6

14.

sin x + sin 3 x
x 0
x cos x

lim

1
3
sin x
sin 3 x
= lim

+ lim

x 0
x

0
x
cos x
cos x
3x
sin x
1
sin 3 x
3

= lim
lim
+ lim
lim

x 0 x x 0 cos x x 0 3 x x 0 cos x
= (1)(1) + (1)(3)
=4

lim
x 0

11.

x
x

3
x
lim 2 = lim 3 cos
x 0
x x 0
x 2
3
tan
sin

3
3

3
x

= lim 3 lim cos


x x 0
x 0
3
sin 2

3
= (1)
2
3
=
2
lim

=1

10.

tan x
1
sin x
= lim

0
2x
x 2 cos x
sin x
1

= lim
lim

x 0
x

0
x
2 cos x

sin 2 x
tan 2 x
x

= lim

2
x 0
x
cos 2 x
x
2

x
sin x
= lim
lim
x 0
x 0 cos 2 x
x

= (1)(0)

x
x

sin

3
x
1
2 = lim
2
lim

x 0 sin 3 x
x 0
x sin 3 x 6

sin
1
2 lim 3 x
= lim
6 x 0 x x 0 sin 3 x

1
=
6
sin

15.

Level 2

=0

16

7 Limits and Derivatives

x
2sin 2
1 cos x
2
lim
= lim
x 0 sin x
x 0 sin x

sin 2 x

x x

2
= 2 lim

2
x 0
sin x 4
x

16.
2

20.

x
2sin 2
cos x 1
2
lim
= lim
x 0 sin 2 x
x 0 sin 2 x

sin 2 x

2x x

2
= 2 lim

x 0 x 2 sin 2 x 8

21.
x 2

sin
1 2
2x

= lim
lim
lim x
x
4 x 0
x 0 sin 2 x x 0
2

sin 2 x
x

= 2 lim
lim
lim cos x

x 0 2 x x 0 sin x x 0
= 2(1)(1)(1)

lim

sin 2 x tan 3 x

x2
6
sin 2 x sin 3 x
= lim

x 0
2x
3x
cos 3 x
x0

sin 2 x
sin 3 x
1

= 6 lim
lim
lim

0
x

0
x

0
2 x
3 x
cos 3 x

= 6(1)(1)(1)
=6

19.

lim

x0

1
= (1)2 (1)(0)
4
=0
22.

7 x + 3x 7 x 3x
2 sin
sin

2
2

x2
2 sin 5 x sin 2 x
= lim
x 0
x2
sin 5 x sin 2 x

= 2 lim

10
x 0
2x
5x

1 cos x
3

x +x

cos 7 x cos 3 x
lim
= lim
x 0
x 0
x2

2 x
2 sin 2
= lim 2

x0 x ( x + 1)

sin
1
2
= ( 2) lim
4 x0 x

x 2 (1 + cos 3 x )

1
sin 3 x

= 9 lim
lim

x 0 3 x x 0 1 + cos 3 x
1
= 9(1) 2
2
9
=
2

=2

18.

1 cos 2 3 x

sin 2 3 x

9
= lim

2
x 0 (3 x )
1 + cos 3 x

sin 2 x
sin 2 x x

= lim

2 cos x
tan x x 0 2 x sin x

17.

x2
1 cos 3 x 1 + cos 3 x
= lim

x 0
1 + cos 3 x
x2
x 0

= 2(1) 2 (1)(0)
=0
lim

1 cos 3 x

= lim

x 2
sin
x x

= 2 lim 2 lim
lim
x 0 x x 0 sin x x 0 4
2

x 0

lim

x0

lim 1
x0 x + 1

sin 5 x
sin 2 x

= 20 lim
lim

x 0
x

0
5 x
2x

= 20(1)(1)
= 20

1
= (1)(1)
2
1
=
2

23.

17

NSS Mathematics in Action Module 2 Vol.2 Full Solutions

6x + 4x 6x 4x
e(e x 1 1)
e(e u 1)
2 sin
sin
lim
= lim
cos 6 x cos 4 x
2
2
x 1
u 0
u


x 1
lim
= lim
2
2
u
x0
x

0
x
x
e 1
= e lim
2 sin 5 x sin x
u 0
u
= lim
2
= e(1)
x0
x
=e
sin 5 x sin x
= 2 lim

5
x0 5 x
x

u
sin 5 x
sin x

5. Let u = 2x, then x = .


= 10 lim
lim

2
x0 5 x x0 x
When x 0, u 0.
= 10(1)(1)
e 2 x 1
e u 1
lim
= lim
= 10
x 0
u 0
u
x

24. Let y = x , then x = y ,


2
sin x
sin( y )
e u 1
lim
= lim
=

2
lim
x x
y 0
y
u 0
u
sin y
=

2
(
1
)
= lim
y 0 y
= 2
=1

Exercise 7E (p. 7.36)


Level 1

6.

e x 1 1
e x 1
= lim
x 0
4x
4 x0 x
1
= (1)
4
1
=
4

lim
1.

2.

x 0

u
.
6

When x 0, u 0.

lim
x 0

Let u = x + 2, then x = u 2.
When x 2, u 0.

e x +2 1
e u 1
= lim
x 2
u 0
x +2
u
=1

e x +3 e 3
e 3 (e x 1)
= lim
x 0
x 0
x
x
x
e 1
= e 3 lim
x 0
x
3
= e (1)

lim

x
1
= lim u
u

0
e 1
e 1
u
6
1
1
= lim u
6 u0 e 1
u
1
1
=
6
eu 1

lim

u0
u
6x

1
= (1)
6
1
=
6

= e3

4.

x
1
= lim 6 x
x

0
e 1
e 1
x
6x

Let u = 6x, then x =

lim

3.

lim

7.

ex e
e(e x 1 1)
= lim
x 1 x 1
x 1
x 1
lim

Let u = x 1, then x = u + 1.
When x 1, u 0.

1 e3x
e 3 x 1
= lim
x 0
x 0
2x
2x
u
Let u = 3x, then x = .
3
lim

When x 0, u 0.

18

7 Limits and Derivatives

e x 1 2 x 1
e x 1
= lim


x 0 sin 2 x
x 0
sin 2 x 2
x

1 e3x
e u 1
= lim
x 0
u 0
2u
2x
3
3
eu 1
= lim
2 u 0 u
3
= (1)
2
3
=
2

lim

8.

lim

10.

1
(1)(1)
2
1
=
2
=

e x ex
e x (e 2 x 1)
lim
= lim
x 0
x
x 0
x
u
Let u = 2x, then x =
.
2

lim

x 0

e3x 1

=
lim
x
3
x

e 1 x 0 3x
e 1

e3 x 1

e 3 x 1
x
= 3 lim
lim

x 0 3 x x 0 e x 1

= 3(1)(1)

11.

When x 0, u 0.

e x (e 2 x 1)
e
lim
= lim
x0
x
u0

u
2 (e u

=3

1)

u
2

e 2 x 1 x

e 2 x 1
= lim

2
x 0 sin x
x 0
2
x
sin
x

lim


e u 1

= 2 lim e 2 lim
u0
u 0 u

= 2(1)(1)
=2

e 2 x + e 2 x 2
(e x e x ) 2
= lim
2
x 0
x 0
x
x2
e x e x
= lim
x 0
x

e 2 x 1
x
lim
= 2 lim

x 0
x

0
2 x
sin x

= 2(1)(1)
=2

12.

e2x 1
e2x 1
3x 2
= lim
cos 3x

x 0 tan 3 x
x0
sin 3x 3
2x

lim
9.

1
e x 1
2x
lim
lim

2 x0 x x 0 sin 2 x

lim
2

e x (e 2 x 1)
= lim

x
x0

u
Let u = 2x, then x =
.
2

13.
2

2
e2x 1
3x
lim
lim cos 3x lim

0
3 x0 2 x x0
sin
3x

2
(1)(1)(1)
3
2
=
3
=

When x 0, u 0.

lim

x 0

e 2 x + e 2 x
x2

2
= lim e 2
x 0

e u 1

ulim

0 u


e u 1

= (1) 2 lim
u 0 u

14. Let y = 1 +

3
, then ln y = x ln1 + .
x
x

Let u = ln1 +

ln y =

3
3
, then x = u
.
x
e 1

3u
u

e 1

When x +, y +and u 0 .

= ( 2) 2
=4
Level 2

19

NSS Mathematics in Action Module 2 Vol.2 Full Solutions

lim ln 1 +
x +

3
= lim ln y
x y +
3u
= lim u
u 0 e 1
1
= 3 lim
u 0 eu 1

1
= 3
u

lim e 1
u 0 u

=3

lim

x0

(b) (i)

lim 1 + = e3
x +
x

Let u = ln
1 +

x sin x

ln(1 + x sin x )
= lim

x0
x sin x

sin x

1
1

, then y =
.

m(eu 1)
my
1

ln(1 + x sin x )
x

ln(1 + x sin x )
= lim

x0
x sin x

(ii) lim
x 0

When x 0, y +, z + and u 0 .

lim

x 0

ln(1 + x sin x )
sin x 2
= lim

lim
x sin x

x 0
x 0 x

= (1)(1)
=1

y
1

x x
1 .
15. Let y =
, then

1
+
1 + =

x
m
my

1
ln z = y ln
Let z =
1 + my
1 + my
, then

ln(1 + x)
y
= lim y
x
y 0 e 1
1
= lim
y 0 e y 1

=1

ln(1 + x + x 2 )
1 + x + x 2 1

x x
1

lim 1 + = lim
1+
x 0
m
y +
my

ln(1 + x + x 2 )
1 + x + x 2 +1
= lim

2
2

x0
1 + x + x 1 1 + x + x +1
ln(1 + x + x 2 )

= lim
1 + x + x 2 +1
2
x0
x+x

ln(1 + x + x 2 )

2
= lim
lim 1 + x + x +1
2
x

0
x

x+x

1
= lim ln z
lim ln 1 +
y +
my z +
1
= lim
u 0 m(eu 1)
1
1
= lim
u
m u 0 e 1

1
1
=
u
m

lim e 1
u 0 u

1
=
m

1
x

lim 1 +
x 0
m

= (1)(2)
=2

Exercise 7F (p. 7.42)


Level 1
dy
=2(3)3 4(3) 5
1. (a) dx
x =3
=37
f (2) =
(b)

dy
dx

x = 2

= 2(2) 3 4(2) 5

1
=e m

= 13

16. (a) Let y = ln(1 + x ) , then x =e y 1 .


When x 0, y 0 .

2.

20

(a)

g (3) =6e 3 (3 +2)


=30e 3

7 Limits and Derivatives

(b)

dy
dx

dy
2( x + x)2 + ( x + x) 4 (2 x 2 + x 4)
= lim
dx x 0
x
2 x 2 + 4 x ( x ) + 2( x ) 2 + x +

2
x 4 2 x x + 4

= lim
x 0
x

= g (0)
x =0

= 6e 0 (0 + 2)
= 12
3.

Slope of curve C at x = 3

dy
dx

x =3

3
[ 4(3) 7] 2
3
=
25
=

4.

4 x ( x ) + 2( x ) 2 + x
= lim
x 0
x
= lim [4 x + 2( x) + 1]

Slope of curve C at x = k
dy
=
dx x =k

dy
dx

=
x= k

x 0

= 4x + 1

8
(2k + 3) 2
8

1
=
2 (2k + 3) 2

8.

4k 2 + 12k 7 = 0

dy
( x + x)2 + 4( x + x) 3 ( x 2 + 4 x 3)
= lim
dx x 0
x
x 2 2 x( x) ( x) 2 + 4 x +

2
4( x) 3 + x 4 x + 3

= lim
x 0
x

7
1
k = or
2
2

5.

dy
3 4( x + x) (3 4 x)
= lim

0
dx
x
3 4 x 4x 3 + 4 x
= lim
x 0
x
= lim ( 4)
x 0

2 x ( x ) ( x ) 2 + 4( x )
= lim
x 0
x
= lim ( 2 x x + 4)

= 4
dy
5 ( x + x ) 2 (5 x 2 )
= lim
dx x0
x
6.

5 x 2 2 x( x ) ( x) 2 5 + x 2
x0
x
= lim ( 2 x x )

x 0

= lim

= 2x + 4

x0

= 2x
7.

9.

21

1
1

dy
= lim x + x + 5 x + 5
dx x0
x
x + 5 ( x + x + 5)
= lim
x0 x( x + x + 5)( x + 5)
1
= lim
x0 ( x + x + 5)( x + 5)
1
=
( x + 5)2

NSS Mathematics in Action Module 2 Vol.2 Full Solutions

1
2

dy
( x + x)
= lim
dx x0
x
= lim

x 0

= lim

10.

x 0

= lim

1
x

( x + x) 1 x 1
dy
= lim
dx x0
x

= lim

x 2 ( x + x) 2

x0

x( x 2 )( x + x) 2

= lim

x0

x 2 x 2 2 x( x) (x) 2
x( x 2 )( x + x) 2
2 x x

= lim

x0

x 2 ( x + x) 2
2x

x 0

x2 ( x2 )
2
= 3
x

x + x 1 x 1

x + x 1 + x 1
x + x 1 + x 1

x + x 1 ( x 1)
x ( x + x 1 + x 1 )
1
x + x 1 + x 1

1
2 x 1

5( x + x) 2 5 x 2
x 0
x
2
5 x + 10 x( x) + 5( x) 2 5 x 2
= lim
x 0
x
= lim [10 x + 5(x)]

f ' ( x) = lim
13. (a)

x 0

= 10 x
(b) Slope of the tangent to the curve at x = 1
= f ' (1)

=10(1)
=10
14. (a)

11.

4( x + x)2 5( x + x) (4 x 2 5 x)
g ' ( x) = lim
x 0
x
4 x 2 + 8 x( x) + 4( x)2

2
5 x 5( x) 4 x + 5 x
= lim
x 0
x

2( x + x) 2 x
dy
= lim
dx x0
x
2( x + x) 2 x
2( x + x ) + 2 x
= lim

x0

x
2
(
x
+

x
)
+
2
x

2( x + x x )
= lim
x0 x[ 2( x + x ) + 2 x ]
= lim

x0

=
=

2
2( x + x) + 2 x

8 x( x) + 4( x)2 5( x)
= lim
x 0
x
= lim [8 x + 4( x) 5]

2 2x
1
2x

x 0

12.

= 8x 5
(b) Slope of the tangent to the curve at x = 2
=g ' ( 2)

=8( 2) 5
=11
15.

22

7 Limits and Derivatives

1
3

dy
( x + x)
= lim
dx x0
x

1
x

(b)

x3 ( x + x)3

= lim

x( x + x)3 x3

x 0

x3 [ x3 + 3x 2 (x) + 3x(x) 2 + (x)3 ]

= lim

x( x + x)3 x3

x 0

3 x 2 (x) 3 x(x) 2 (x)3

= lim

19. (a)

x( x + x) x

3 x 3 x(x) (x) 2

= lim

x 4 )

(b)

x6
3

d 1
( x + x 4) 2 ( x 4)

= lim
dx x 4 x 0
x

Level 2
16. The tangent to C at x = k is parallel to the x-axis.
Slope of the tangent at x = k is 0.

= lim

1
2

( x 4) 2 ( x + x 4) 2
1

x 0

x( x 4) ( x + x 4) 2
x
= lim
1
1
x 0

x( x 4) 2 ( x + x 4) 2

1
1

( x 4) 2 + ( x + x 4) 2

1
=
1
1
1
1

2
2
2
( x 4) ( x 4) ( x 4) + ( x + 4) 2

h ( k ) = 0

2k (k 3) 2 = 0
k = 0 or 3
17. (a) Slope of C at the point P(3, 11)
dy
=
dx x =3
=3(3) 2 6(3) 2
=7

dy
=7
dx
(b)

x +x 4) +

= x

3x 2

x +x 4 x 4 )(

= x + x 4 x +4

( x + x)3 x3

x 0

x + x
x

d x
x
+

x
+
1
x
+1

= lim
dx x + 1 x 0
x
1
= lim
x 0 ( x + x + 1)( x + 1)
1
=
( x +1) 2

3 3

x 0

3x2 6 x 2 = 7
x2 2x 3 = 0

1
( x 4) 2
2

(c) Slope of the curve at x = 8

( x + 1)( x 3) = 0
x = 1 or 3 (rejected)

When x = 1,

dy
dx

x =8
3

1
= (8 4) 2
2
1
=
16

y = ( 1)3 3( 1) 2 2( 1) 5
= 7
The coordinates of Q are (1, 7).
18. (a)
20.

x + x
x
( x + x )( x + 1) x( x + x + 1)

=
x + x + 1 x + 1
( x + x + 1)( x + 1)
x 2 + x + x( x) + x x 2 x(x) x
( x + x + 1)( x + 1)
x
=
( x + x + 1)( x + 1)
=

23

NSS Mathematics in Action Module 2 Vol.2 Full Solutions


(b) Slope of the tangent to the curve at x = 1

x + x
x

dy
= lim 2 x + 2x 1 2 x 1
dx x 0
x
( 2 x 1)( x + x ) x ( 2 x + 2x 1)
= lim
x 0
x( 2 x 1)(2 x + 2x 1)

dy
dx

=1

=2

(c) Slope of the tangent to the curve at x = k is 2.

dy
dx
2

dy
( x + x ) + 1
= lim
dx x0
x

( x + 1)

x ( x 2 + 1)[( x + x ) 2 + 1]
2 x x

x0

= lim

x0 ( x 2

1
2

+ 1)[( x + x) 2 + 1]

2x

( x + x ) x + x x x
x 0
x
x 0 x[( x + x)

1
2

x0

22.
x0

24.

3 x + 3 x ( x ) + ( x ) 2

x 0 ( x + x )

1
+ (1 x 2 ) 2

3x

x + x + x x ]

= lim

2 x x
1
[1 ( x + x) 2 ] 2

3 x ( x ) + 3 x ( x ) 2 + ( x )3

x 0 x[( x + x)

1
+ (1 x 2 ) 2 ]

x + x + x x ]

= lim

1 x 2 2 x ( x ) ( x ) 2 1 + x 2
1
x[(1 ( x + x) 2 ] 2

( x + x )3 x 3

= lim

dy
[1 ( x + x) ] (1 x 2 ) 2
= lim
dx x0
x
= lim

= lim

( x + 1) 2

1
= 2
k2
1
=4
k2
1
k2 =
4
1
k =
2

3
dy 2
( x + x ) 2 x 2
x
=
lim
dx x0
x

= lim

= 2
x =k

( x 2 + 1) [( x + x ) 2 + 1]

= lim

21.

12

=1

2 x 2 + 2 x ( x) x x 2 x 2 2 x ( x ) + x
x 0
x ( 2 x 1)(2 x + 2x 1)
1
= lim
x 0 ( 2 x 1)( 2 x + 2 x 1)
1
=
( 2 x 1) 2
= lim

x + x + x x

2x x
3 x
2

1 x2
Revision Exercise 7 (p. 7.46)
Level 1
1. (a) f ( x ) = 3 x 2 +1

23. (a)

1
1
2x
dy
( x + x )
x
= lim

0
dx
x
2 x + 2( x) 2 x
x x x
= lim
+

x 0

x
( x )( x + x )

2( x + x ) +

2 f ( 1) 3 f ( 2) = 2[3( 1) 2 +1] 3[3( 2) 2 +1]


= 2( 4) 3(13)
= 31
(b)

1
= lim 2

x 0
x ( x + x)

1
=2 2
x

f ( 4 +a ) f ( 4) =3( 4 +a ) 2 +1 [3( 4) 2 +1]


= 48 +24a +3a 2 +1 49
=3a 2 +24a
(c) Domain : (, +)
24

7 Limits and Derivatives

g ( f ( x)) = 0
g (3x 2) = 0

Range : [1, +)

2.

(a)

f ( x ) = 2 x +3

2(3x 2) 2 5(3x 2) = 0

f (11) = 2(11) +3

18 x 2 39 x + 18 = 0

6.

=5

6 x 2 13x + 6 = 0

f ( f (11)) = f (5)

(3x 2)(2 x 3) = 0
2
x=
3

= 2(5) + 3
= 13

(b) Domain : , +
2

Range : [0, +)
3.

7.

f (0) = 4

(d) P(x) is not a continuous function for all real values of


x.

f ( 2) = 4
a ( 2) 2 + 3( 2) 4 = 4
4a =14
a=

(a) F(x) is a continuous function for all real values of x.

(c) H(x) is a continuous function for all real values of x.

a (0) 2 +3(0) +b = 4
b = 4

3
2

(b) G(x) is not a continuous function for all real values of


x because it is discontinuous at x = 0.

f(x) = ax2 + 3x + b

or

lim 3 x 3 = 3 lim x 3

7
2

8.

x 1

x 1

= 3( 1) 3
= 3
lim [( x 2 + x )( x 3)]

4.

(a) A = x(8 x)

9.

(b) A = x(8 x) > 0


0<x<8
The domain of A is all positive numbers less
than 8.

5.

x
2

=[( 2) 2 +( 2)](2 3)
=10

10. lim
x 2

6 x 2 5 x + 2 = 6( 2) 2 5( 2) + 2
=4

4x 3
= f

2
5
(a) f(g(x)) =
4x 3
3 2

2
5
=
6 4x

5
= g

3 2x
5
3
(b) g(f(x)) 4
3 2x

=
2
6 x + 11
=
6 4x

25

NSS Mathematics in Action Module 2 Vol.2 Full Solutions


3

lim
x 1

3
2(1) 10
2 x 10
=
2
x +3
(1) 2 + 3

16.

=2

x 5

17.

6 + 52 +11
5 +5
6
=
5

18.

x 0

15.

=
=

8 +

6
3
+4
2
6 3x + 4 x 2
x
lim
= lim x
x +
x +
5
5x 6x2
6
x
19.
0 0 + 4
=
0 6
2
=
3

3x 2
x+4

x
x
sin
3
3
lim
= lim
x 0 tan 2 x x 0 sin 2 x
cos 2 x
sin

3 x +1 1
3 x +1 1
= lim
x

0
2x
2 x ( 3 x +1 +1)
= lim

5
x
4
7
x
8 + 0
=
7 0
8
=
7

8x + 5
lim
= lim
x + 7 x 4
x +

1
3 2
2
=
1
+4
2
1
=
9

x 0

(6 + x 2 +11 )
x 5
5+x

= lim
=

1
x
2

6 x 2 +11

( x 5)( 6 + x 2 +11 )
x 5
36 x 2 11

= lim

( x 5)( 6 + x 2 +11 )
x 5
(5 + x )(5 x )

6x 7x + 2
(3 x 2)(2 x 1)
= lim
2
1
2 x + 7 x 4 x ( 2 x 1)( x + 4)
= lim

x 5

= lim

lim

( x 3)( x 2 +1)
x 2 1

= 3 2 +1

x 2 3x 4
( x +1)( x 4)
lim 2
= lim
x 4 x 6 x + 8
x 4 ( x 2)( x 4)
x +1
= lim
x 4 x 2
13.
4 +1
=
4 2
5
=
2

14.

x 3

x 3

3x + 6
3( x + 2)
lim
= lim
x 2 2 x 2 8
x 2 2( x 2 4)
3( x + 2)
= lim
x 2 2( x + 2)( x 2)
3
12.
= lim
x 2 2( x 2)
3
=
2(2 2)
3
=
8

1
x
2

= lim

= lim( x 2 +1)

lim

lim

x 2 1

x 3

8
4
1
=
2

11.

x 3

lim

20.

3
2( 3 x +1 +1)
3

sin

2
x
1
3

= lim

cos 2 x
x 0 x
sin 2 x
6

1
= (1)(1)(1)
6
1
=
6

2( 3(0) +1 +1)
3
4
26

7 Limits and Derivatives

1 cos 2 x
2 sin 2 x
= lim
x 0
x 0 x sin x
x sin x

lim

lim

sin(e 2 x 1)
1 e

x 0

2 sin x
= lim
x 0
x
= 2(1)

21.

sin(e 2 x 1) e 2 x 1
= lim

x 0 e 2 x 1
1 e x

sin(e 2 x 1) (e x + 1)(e x 1)
= lim

x 0 e 2 x 1
1 ex

=2

sin(e 2 x 1) x

= lim
(e + 1)
2
x
x 0 e 1

22.

= (1)(e 0 + 1)
=2

sin 3 x

x
sin 3x
x

lim
+
= lim
+
x 0 tan x
sin 3x x 0 sin x sin 3 x

cos x

x
sin 3x

cos x
3+

sin x
3x

= lim

x 0
3x 1

sin
3
x
3

26. After a very long time, we have:

C = lim

t +

9
12 8e 0.8t

9
12 0
3
=
4
=

The concentration of the insecticide in the soil after a


very long time is

1
= (1)(1)(1)(3) + (1)
3
10
=
3
x
x

e 2 1 1
e 2 1
lim
= lim

x 0
x 0
x
x
2

23.
1
= (1)
2
1
=
2

3
g/m2.
4

27. After a very long time, we have:

5000 + 4400t
t +
1 + 5t
5000
+ 4400
t
= lim
t +
1
+5
t
0 + 4400
=
0 +5
= 880

P = lim

e 2 +x e 2
e 2 (e x 1)
= lim
x 0
x 0
x
x
x
e
1
24.
= e 2 lim
x 0
x
2
= e (1)
lim

The price of the camera is $880 after a very long


time.

3
3

d 3
2( x + x) 2 x

= lim
dx 2 x x0
x
6 x 6 x 6x
= lim
28.
x0 x ( 2 x )( 2 x + 2x )
3
= lim
x0 x ( 2 x + 2x )
3
= 2
2x

= e2
25.

29. (a) y = 2x2 5x

27

NSS Mathematics in Action Module 2 Vol.2 Full Solutions

dy
2( x + x) 2 5( x + x) 2 x 2 + 5 x
= lim
dx x0
x

( x + x 1)(2 x + 2 x + 1) ( x 1)(2 x + 1)
x 0
x
2 x 2 + 2 x ( x ) + x + 2 x ( x ) + 2( x ) 2 + x

2
2 x 2 x 1 2 x + x + 1

= lim
x 0
x

f ' ( x) = lim

2 x 2 4 x( x) + 2( x) 2 5 x 5x 2 x 2 + 5 x
x0
x
= lim ( 2x + 4 x 5)
= lim

x0

= 4x 5
(b) The tangent to C at P is parallel to the x-axis.

dy
=0
dx
4x 5 = 0
i.e.
5
x=
4

By substituting x =

2( x ) 2 + 4 x ( x ) x
= lim
x 0
x
= lim (2 x + 4 x 1)

5
into y = 2x2 5x,
4

x 0

= 4x 1

5
5
y = 2 5
4
4
25
=
8

(b) Slope of the tangent to the curve at x = 1


= f ' ( 1)

=4( 1) 1
=5

25
5
,
.
8
4

The coordinates of P are

31. (a)

y=

1
3x 2

1
1

dy
3( x + x ) 2 3 x 2
= lim
dx x0
x
(3 x 2) (3 x + 3x 2)
= lim
x0 x (3 x 2)(3 x + 3 2)
3
= lim
x0 (3 x 2)(3 x + 3x 2)
3
=
(3 x 2) 2

30. (a)

(b) The slope of the curve y =

1
at x = k is
3x 2

3
.
16
3
3

=
2
(3 x 2)
16

(3k 2) 2 = 16
3k 2 = 4
k = 2 or

2
3

Level 2
32.

28

f ( x) =

2
, g ( x) = 2 x 1
x +1

7 Limits and Derivatives

f ( g ( x)) = g ( f ( x))

1
x 2 3x + 2 x + 2
1

lim
2
= lim
x 2 x 2
x 3x + 2 x 2 ( x 2)( x 2 3x + 2)

2
2
= 2
1
( 2 x 1) +1
x +1
1
4 x 1
=
x
x +1
x +1 = 3 x x 2

( x 2) 2
x 2 ( x 2)( x 2 3 x + 2)
x2
= lim 2
x 2 x 3 x + 2
1
= lim
x 2 x 1
1
=
2 1
=1
= lim

x 2 2 x +1 = 0
( x 1) 2 = 0
x =1

37.

33. f(x) = e2x+1

f ( x + a)
=3
f ( x)

e 2 x +2 a +1
=3
e 2 x +1

lim

x 3

x +3
x + 2 x 2 9

= lim

( x + 3)( x 2 x 2 9 )
x 2 2 x 2 +9

= lim

x 2 x 2 9
3 x

x 3

x 3

e2a = 3
2a = ln 3
1
a = ln 3
2

3 2( 3) 2 9
3 ( 3)

= 1

5 x 2 20
5( x + 2)( x 2)
= lim
3
x 2
x

2
x 8
( x 2)( x 2 + 2 x + 4)
5( x + 2)
= lim 2
x 2 x + 2 x + 4
34.
5( 2 + 2)
=
( 2 ) 2 + 2( 2 ) + 4
5
=
3
lim

38.

lim

x 16

x + 9 5
20 x 2

( x + 9 25)( 20 x + 2)

= lim

x 16

= lim

( x 16)( 20 x + 2 )

x 16

35.

x + 3x + 9
x 2 + 2 x +1
32 + 3( 3) + 9
= 2
3 + 2( 3) + 1
27
=
16

(16 x )( x + 9 + 5)

= lim

x 3 27
( x 3)( x 2 + 3x + 9)
lim 3
=
lim
x 3 x x 2 5 x 3
x 3 ( x 3)( x 2 + 2 x + 1)
= lim

( 20 x 4)( x + 9 + 5)

x 16

20 x + 2
x +9 +5

20 16 + 2
16 + 9 + 5

2
=
5

x 3

lim
x 4

39.
36.

2 x +1 3
2x 4 2

= lim
x 4

40.

29

( 2 x 8)( 2 x +1 + 3)

2( 4) 4 + 2

=
=

( 2 x 8)( 2 x 4 + 2)

2( 4) + 1 + 3
2
3

NSS Mathematics in Action Module 2 Vol.2 Full Solutions

lim

x +

( 2 x 1)( x + 2)(3 x +1)


1
2
1

y
= lim 2 1 + 3 +
cos

x +
x
x
x
x3

cos x
2

lim
= lim
= ( 2 0)(1 + 0)( 3 + 0)

y 0
y
x 2 x
=6
2

y
sin
2
= lim
y 0
y

41.

x3
1
= lim
x ( 2 x 1)( x 2 4)
x
1
4
2 1 2
x
x

1
=
( 2 0)(1 0)
1
=
2
lim

42. Let y = 2 x , then x =


When

y
sin 1
2
= lim
y
y 0
2
2

y
.
2

lim

1
1 2

lim 1 +
1+
= lim
x +
y +
2
x
y

= lim

x 0 1 e

x + , y + .
x

2x

x0

= lim

x0

44.

(e x 1)
2
e x 1
( x )

=e 2
= e

lim

x 0

e x e x
x (e x + e x )

y
2

, y 0 .
2

= lim

x 0

46. (a)

x(e2 x + 1)

2( x + x) + 1 2 x + 1
dy
= lim
dx x0
x
[ 2( x + x) + 1] (2 x + 1)
= lim
x0 x ( 2 x + 2x + 1 + 2 x + 1)
= lim

x0 (

(b)

30

e2 x 1

e2 x 1

1
= lim
2x 2
x 0 2 x
e + 1

1
= (1) 2(0) (2)
e + 1
=1

45.

When x

2x

2
1
=2

y 2

= lim
1
+
y +
y

43. Let y = 2 x , then x =

1
2

2
2 x + 2x + 1 + 2 x + 1)

1
2x +1

= tan 45
2 a +1
2a +1 =1
a =0

7 Limits and Derivatives

1 + t + t 2 + + t n 1 =

47. (a)

lim

2( x + x) 1 2 x 1

dy
( x + x) + 3 x + 3
= lim
dx x 0
x
(2 x + 2 x 1)( x + 3) (2 x 1)( x + x + 3)
= lim
x 0
x( x + 3)( x + x + 3)

x 0

2.

(a)

1
n

f (0 +1) = f (0) f (1)


f (1) = f (0) f (1)
f (0) =1

f ( x + x ) f ( x )
x 0
x
f ( x ) f ( x ) f ( x )
= lim
x 0
x
f ( x)[ f (x) 1]
= lim
x 0
x
f ( x ) 1

= lim f ( x) lim

x 0
x 0 x
f (0) = 2

f ( x) = lim

(b)

f (x ) 1

f (0) = lim f (0) lim


=2
x 0
x 0
x

( x + 3) 2 = 49
x + 6 x 40 = 0
( x 4)( x + 10) = 0
x = 4 or 10
2

From (a), f(0) = 1

2 x 1
, we have
x +3

f ( x) 1
=2
x

f ( x) 1

f ( x ) = lim f ( x ) lim

x 0
x 0
x

f ( x ) = f ( x) 2
f ( x ) = 2 f ( x)

2( 4) 1
4 +3
=1

By substituting x = 10 into y =

lim

x 0

y=

2 x 1
, we have
x +3

2(10) 1
10 + 3
=3

Inquiry and Investigation (p. 7.51)

y=

Activity and Discovery


1. r

The required points are (4, 1) and (10, 3).

2.

(a) Radius of each semi-circular arc

2r
2n
r
=
n

Challenging Questions (p. 7.49)


1.

t 1 1 + t + t 2 + + t n 1

dy 1
=
dx 7
7
1
=
( x + 3)2 7

By substituting x = 4 into y =

1+ x 1
t1
= lim n
x
t 1 t 1
1
= lim n
t 1 t 1
t1
= lim

2 x 2 + 2 x( x) x + 6 x + 6 x

3 2 x 2 2 x( x) 6 x + x + x + 3
= lim
x 0
x( x + 3)( x + x + 3)
7
= lim
x 0 ( x + 3)( x + x + 3)
7
=
( x + 3)2

(b)

t n 1
t 1

Let t = n 1 + x , then x =t n 1 .
When x 0, t 1.

(b) Length of the curve


31

NSS Mathematics in Action Module 2 Vol.2 Full Solutions

1
r
2 n
2
n
=r
=

(c) No
Further Questions
1.

2.

lim

n +

1
=0
n2

2
3
6
1
lim 2 + 2 + 2 = lim 2
n

+
n
n
n
n
=0

n +

3.

2
3
n
1 + 2 + 3 + ... + n
1
lim 2 + 2 + 2 + ... + 2 = lim
n

+
n
n
n
n2
n
n(n + 1)
= lim
n +
2n 2
1
1

= lim 1 +
n

+
2
n

1
= (1 + 0)
2
1
=
2

n +

32