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ROLE OF ADMIXTURES

IN

READYMIX CONCRETE
Contents

1 INTRODUCTION

2 GLENIUM CONCRETE

3 SHRINKAGE REDUCING CONCRETE

4 ULTRA HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETE

5 CONCLUSION
Admixtures?
What admixtures can do!
What Admixtures can do!
Chemical Admixtures

 ASTM C 494

 EN 934 – 2

 IS 9103:2003
Chemical Admixtures

Type Description

A Water Reducing admixture (WRA)


B Retarding Admixture
C Accelerating Admixture
D Water Reducing & Retarding Admixture
E Water Reducing & Accelerating Admixture
F High Range Water Reducing Admixture (HRWRA)
G High Range Water Reducing & Retarding Admix
Main effect of plasticizing admixtures

Slump flow [cm]

with 1
Plasticizer

2
without
Plasticizer

Water/Cement Ratio

1
Higher workability at 2
Increase of strength parameters through
constant w/c ratio reduction of w/c ratio at constant slump flow
Types of concrete admixtures

 Lignosulphonates – LS

 Beta-Naphthalenesulphonate - Polycondensate – BNS

 Melamine-Sulphonate-Poly-condensate – MFS

 Poly Acrylates – PAC

 Polycarboxylate Ethers - PCE


Traditional Plasticizers/Superplasticizers
Mode of Action

Electrostatic
Repulsion

BNS molecules
Mode of Action
positive zeta potential)
1. Step: surface charges (

Ca2+ Ca2+ Ca2+ O-


-O Ca2+
Ca2+ Ca2+
Ca2+ Ca2+ O-
-O Ca2+
-O Ca2+ Ca2+ Ca2+
O-
Ca2+ Ca2+ Ca2+
cement grain

cement grain
Ca2+
-O Ca2+
Ca2+
Ca2+ Ca2+
Ca2+ O-
Ca2+ Ca2+
-O Ca2+
formationCa 2+
2+
O-
Ca
of positively charged
Ca Ca 2+
2+ 2+ O-
Ca
-O Ca surfaces
2+ Ca
2+
2+

Ca
-O Ca2+
Ca2+
O-
Ca2+ Ca2+

-O Ca2+ Ca2+


Ca2+
O-
Ca2+ Ca2+
Ca2+
Ca2+ Ca2+ O-
-O Ca2+ Ca2+
Ca2+
Ca2+
O-
-O Ca2+ Ca2+ Ca2+
Ca2+
Mode
nd
of Action
2 step: adsorption of dispersants

negatively
negativelycharged
charged functional
functionalgroups
groups
2+
O-
providewater
provide watersolubility andaffinity
solubilityand affinityto
2+ Ca

-OCa to
positively charged
positively charged

surfaces
surfaces
-O
Ca 2+ Ca 2+
O-
cement grain


-OCa

cement grain
2+


Ca2+
O-
Ca2+
-O
addition st nd
additionof
of11stor
or22ndgeneration
generationO-
Ca 2+


-OCa 2+ (super-)plasticizers
(super-)plasticizers O-
Ca 2+

O-
e.g.
e.g.lignin
ligninsulfonates,
sulfonates, Ca 2+

-O
Ca2+


naphthalene-sulfonate-
naphthalene-sulfonate-
-O Ca 2+
formaldehyde O-
Ca 2+

formaldehyderesins
resins
-OCa melamine-formaldehyde-sulfonate
2+
melamine-formaldehyde-sulfonateO-
Ca 2+

resins
resins
 O- 2+
-O Ca 2+ Ca

2+
Ca O-
-O
Ca2+
Mode
th
of Action
4 step: loss of workability over time

2+
Ca O-

-OCa 2+

Loss
Lossof
ofdispersing
dispersingeffect!
effect!
 2+ 
Ca2+
O-
-O Ca
cement grain

-OCa

cement grain
2+


Ca2+
O-
Ca2+

-O
2+
Ca O-
-O Ca2+ O-
Ca 2+


Ca2+
O-
-O
Ca2+


-OCa 2+

Ca2+
O-

-OCa 2+
2+
Ca O-
Incorporation
Incorporationof
ofsuperplasticizers
superplasticizers 
-O  2+
Ca
into
Ca2+
O-
intogrowing
growinghydrate
hydratephases
phases
 2+
Ca O-
-OCa 2+
Innovation History of Water Reducer Technology
Volume of Admixtures

AE high water-reducing agent


Super plasticizer [Glenium]
Conventional AE water-
reducing agent [Pozzolith]

High water-reducing
agent [Rheobuild]

1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010


Year
PCE Molecule

 complex and flexible


molecules,
 comprising of main chain
 Side chains
 functional groups.
PCE Based - GLENIUM Molecules

Electrostatic
and Steric
Repulsion

GLENIUM molecules
Mode of Action

2+


Ca
Ca2+
O-
2+

-OCa 2+
Introduction
Introductionof
of
 

Ca
Ca2+
2+
O-
-OCa 2+
2+
side
sidechains
chains
cement grain

-OCa

cement grain
2+
2+



Ca
Ca2+
2+
O-
Ca2+
2+
-O


Ca
Ca2+
O-
2+

-O Ca2+
2+

st

O-
Ca
Ca2+
2+

1 st generation:
21nd generation:
generation: 
 O-
-O
Ca2+
2+
Coulomb
polyether carboxylates
Coulomb
Ca
Ca2+
2+


-OCa 2+
2+ Coulomb andonly!
repulsion
repulsion steric
only! 

Ca
Ca2+
2+
O-

-OCa 2+
2+ repulsion


Ca
Ca2+
2+
O-

 O-

-OCa 2+
2+
more effective! Ca
Ca2+
2+

 

Ca
Ca2+
2+
O-
-OCa2+
2+
Glenium Concrete

 High grades
 Low Grades
 SCC
 Precast
Glenium Concrete for Higher Grades

Why higher grades? (M45 – M 60)

 Early destripping
 Advantages in column size reduction
 Longer spans and thinner decks
 PT slabs – 30 MPa in 3 days
General Practice for Higher Grade

 Use of Higher Cement contents


 Use of very low water /cement ratios
 Use of Expensive Mineral Admixtures

 Phenomenal increase in costs


 Concrete very sensitive to changes in moisture content
 Extra cement content due to retention effect
PT Slab requirements

 30 MPa in 3 day
 Large pours to be done
 Voids & honeycombs cannot
be tolerated
 Constraint – Shrinkage,
which is sensitive to use of
higher cement content & SF
Critical Areas

 Use of higher cement content – Thermal Shrinkage


 Use of silica fume – Risk of Plastic shrinkage
 Use of low w/c ratio – Higher dosage of SNF admixture
– (retardation effect-plastic shrinkage)

 Higher cost of concrete!


Hydration Reactions

Glenium Concrete
How does Glenium Work?

Improved Dispersion
due to electrostatic and
GLENIUMTM molecules
steric repulsion
….low w/cm
Glenium Concrete
GLENIUM helps in

 Excellent dispersion of binders  Better Hydration


 Water reduction upto 40%  Reduction in Cement content
 Lower risk to Thermal Shrinkage

 High early strengths  Faster de-stripping possible


 Reduce/Eliminate SF  Economical concrete
 Reasonably lower w/c ratios  Tolerant to changes in moisture
content
M 60 Grade at a Site in Chennai
Typical Glenium Mix – M 60
Mix with SF Mix with Glenium
Cement 430 425
Flyash 80 150
Silica Fume 35 0
Binder 565 575
Total Aggregates 1782 1722
Water 158 161
Traditional Admix 1.8% xxx
Glenium Range XXX 1.2%
W/B Ratio 0.28 0.28
1 Day 19.02 18.30
3 Days 39.46 37.40
7 Days 58.47 58.2
28 Days 72.34 71.11
Depth of water penetration Nil Nil
Economical Glenium Concrete

Rs./Kg Mix with SF Mix With Glenium

Cement 4.25 1828 1806

Flyash 1.0 80 150


Silica fume 30 1050 0
Total Aggregates 0.40 713 689
Water 0.08 11 13
Trad. Admixture 50 509 0
Glenium Range 160 0 1120

Material Cost/Cu.M 4191 3778

Cost Saving ~ Rs. 400/M3


Glenium Concrete for Lower Grades

Requirements in Lower Grade concrete


 Early age strengths
 Reduction in cement
 Addition of Fly ash
 Lower dosage of admixtures
 Extended retention – 2 to 3 hrs
 Avoid retempering of Concrete
 Tolerance to water (10 – 15 Litres)
Glenium Concrete
GLENIUM helps in

 Excellent dispersion of binders  Better Hydration


 Reduction in Cement content

 Water reduction  Early Strength gain


 Addition of Flyash

 lower w/c ratios  Economical concrete


 Tolerant to changes in water content
Typical Glenium Mix – M 30

Traditional M 30 Glenium Concrete


Cement 280 220
Flyash 60 120
Binder 340 340
Total Aggregates 1842 1820
Water 162 152
Traditional Admix 1.0% xxx
Glenium Range Admixture XXX 0.6%
W/B Ratio 0.46 0.42
1 Day 8.30 7.8
3 Days 16 .23 18.40
7 Days 26.42 28.92
28 Days 35.32 38.40
Economical Glenium Concrete

Rs./Kg Traditional Mix With Glenium

Cement 4.25 1190 935

Flyash 1.0 60 120


Total Aggregates 0.40 737 728
Water 0.08 13 12
Trad. Admixture 28 95 0
Glenium Range 130 0 265

Material Cost/Cu.M 2095 2060


Shrinkage Reducing Admixture

TETRAGUARD®

 PLASTIC SHRINKAGE
 DRYING SHRINKAGE
 THERMAL SHRINKAGE
 AUTOGENOUS SHRINKAGE
 CARBONATION SHRINKAGE
Drying Shrinkage Cracking

Cause:
 Volume reduction due to moisture loss
 Loss of moisture from freshly-hardened concrete
 Loss of moisture from concrete into sub-grade

Joint
Drying Shrinkage

Sub-Base

Inter-panel Cracking
Mechanism of Drying Shrinkage

Capillary Tension appears to be the dominant


mechanism in drying shrinkage. Stress upon
drying is related to the surface tension of pore
water.

Addition of SRA lowers the pore water surface


tension.
How is Surface Tension
Related to Drying Shrinkage?

 Pore water loss due to


hydration &
evaporation.

 As pores become less


than fully saturated,
meniscus forms at the
air-water interface due
to surface tension.
How is Surface Tension Related to
Drying Shrinkage?

 The surface tension


of pore solution that
forms meniscus also
exerts inward pulling
force on the side of
the pore wall.

 These forces in all


pore sizes ranging
from 2.5-50 nm is the
primary cause of
shrinkage.
Magnitude of Drying Shrinkage

28-Day
 Typically 0.040-0.045%
 Range: 0.025-0.080%

Long-Term
 Typically 0.08%
(800 millionths or 800 microstrains)
 Range: Low: 0.04% High: 0.12%
Shrinkage-Reducing Admixtures

 Developed in 1982 in Japan.


 Function by reducing capillary tension and the tensile
forces that develop within the concrete pores as it
dries.
 Primarily used as integral admixtures in concrete
mixtures, but some can be applied topically to
concrete surfaces.
Shrinkage-Reducing Admixtures

TETRAGUARD shrinkage-reducing admixtures


TETRAGUARD AS20 – Liquid form

Offer a practical approach to combat drying shrinkage.


 Dosage: 0.5% - 4.0%, most typical dosage is 1-2%.
Designer and Producer Benefits

 Reductions in drying shrinkage, drying shrinkage cracking and


curling.
 Elimination of extra reinforcement needed to restrain expansive
forces.
 No special silo or bag storage of Type K cement, expansive aids or
aggregates
 No increase in porosity due to microcracking
 Enhanced finishability and truck clean-up
Tetraguard AS 20

A new solution to an old problem:


0  Reduced drying
-100 shrinkage cracking
-200
-300
 Reduction of curling
-400
µ strain

-500
-600
-700
-800
-900
-1000
0 100 200 300 400 500
Test Age (Days)
Reference SRA
Burbank Water Treatment
Facility, US
Design Considerations and Concerns for
Liquid Containment Structure

 Recommendations from ACI 350 for watertight structures were


specified:
Maximized aggregate size, low w/c of 0.45,
compressive strength of 28 MPa and drying shrinkage
of 0.042% at 28 days.
 Producer also needed pumpable mix with 18±2.5 cm slump for
placement and consolidation around restraint and faced
difficulties in meeting drying shrinkage specification with
aggregates.
Concrete Mixture Proportions
Burbank Water Treatment Facility

Materials Control Mix 2 Mix 3 Mix 4

Type II Cement, kg/m3 383 383 383 383


Sand, kg/m3 761 761 761 761
3/8” Aggregate, kg/m3 197 197 197 197
1” Aggregate, kg/m3 845 845 845 845
Total Water, kg/m3 172 172 172 172
Water/Cement Ratio 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45

Admixtures
Superplasticizer, g/cwt 142 142 142 142
Air Entrainer, g/cwt 11.3 11.3 11.3 11.3
SRA, l/m3 0.0 2.5 3.7 5.0
Hardened Properties of Burbank Water
Treatment Facility Mixtures

Average Compressive Strength (psi)


Mixture 1-day 3-day 7-day 28-day
Reference 2340 4270 4740 4900
Mixture 2 2640 3770 5210 5860
Mixture 3 2670 4690 5100 6210
Mixture 4 2890 4650 5410 6450

Average Length Change, % (negative sign denotes shrinkage)


Mixture 7-day 14-day 21-day 28-day
Reference -0.023 -0.033 -0.044 -0.049
Mixture 2 -0.011 -0.018 -0.027 -0.034
Mixture 3 -0.009 -0.014 -0.024 -0.028
Mixture 4 -0.007 -0.012 -0.020 -0.023
Comparison Testing of In situ
and Laboratory Specimens
ASTM C157 Shrinkage Data
from Laboratory and Field
Specimens (µ
µstrain)
Reference Specimens
28-day 115-day 320-day 474-day
Laboratory Average -663 -917 -1003 -1063
Field Average -653 -870 -950 -1023

SRA Treated Specimens


28-day 115-day 320-day 474-day
Laboratory Average -420 -630 -720 -777
Field Average -370 -620 -700 -747
ASTM C 157 Shrinkage Data for
Dupont Circle Full Depth Repair
100
0
-100
-200
L ength C hange (µ strain)

-300
-400
-500
-600
-700
-800
-900
-1000
-1100
-1200
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
Test Age (days)
Reference - Lab Reference - Field SRA - Lab SRA - Field
In situ Shrinkage Data for
Dupont Circle Full Depth
Repair
0
-100
-200
-300
-400
µ strain

-500
-600
-700
-800
-900
-1000
0 100 200 300 400 500
Test Age (Days)
Reference SRA
Shrinkage Reduction with SRA
60
ASTM C157
50
In situ
% Drying Shrinkage Reduction

40

30

20

10

0
28 Days 474 Days
Additional Findings

 Enhanced Tensile Bond Strength


 Decreased Volume of Permeable Voids
 TETRGUARD addition did not effect set times
 Addition of TETRAGUARD at reduced restrained drying
shrinkage in adverse simulated desert environments
 Synergy with silica fume
Summary

 SRAs provide significant reductions in drying shrinkage


and subsequent cracking in both laboratory and field
investigations.
 Substantial benefits with regards to watertightness,
aesthetics and overall serviceability can be obtained
with SRAs.
 Inclusion of SRAs to slabs, bridge decks, liquid
containment and repair work can be very advantageous
to improving life cycle.
Market of Ultra High-Strength
Concrete

Production Volume of RMC in Japan (2005)


A present market
size is not so large.
Design Composition However, this
Concrete
technology is
Strength Volume Ratio
becoming a trend
(Mpa/mm2) (×thousand m3) (%) in Japan.

80< 10 0.0
50-80 1,130 0.9
<50 120,410 99.1
Total 121,550 100
Why Ultra High-Strength Concrete?
Trend of Architectural Design

1. To get wide-span by downsizing column


2. To get no-column living space for future renewal
3. To improve interior comfort by structural stiffness
Larger Living Space

Small Small

Large
Ultra High-Strength Concrete (UHSC)
Typical Projects

Brillia Tower Tokyo


Place: Kinshi-cho, Tokyo (45F, unit: 644)
Owner: Tokyo Tatemono, completed in 2006
Constructor: TAISEI Corp. Fc130Mpa/mm2

THE KOSUGI TOWER


Place: Kawasaki City, Kanagawa (49F, unit: 689)
Owner: Tokyo Tatemono, completed by June of 2008
Constructor: TAISEI Corp. Fc150Mpa/mm2
Mix Design of UHSC
Materials

Cement: Ordinary Port-land, Low heat, Silica fume premixed


Additive: Silica fume (Powder type, Cement mixed type)
Aggregate: Tight sands, Andesite crashed stone, sands

Admixture: Superplasticizer for Ultra-High-Strength concrete


Fiber: Polypropylene Fiber

Cx5% Cx3%

Same condition
W/C=15%
Cement paste

Existing Product RHEOBUILD SP8HU


Mix Design of UHSC
Mix Design

Mix Design of Ultra High-Strength Concrete

Design 1)
Unit Weight (kg/m3)
Type of W/B
No. Strength Flow Air Cement (%) W C 2)
SF Fiber
(Mpa) (cm) (%)
1 150 65±10 Max.2 SF premixed 15.0 155 1033 (103) 2.5
2 130 65±10 Max.2 SF premixed 18.0 155 862 (86) 2.5
3 60±10 2±1.5 SF premixed 20.0 155 775 (78) 1.0
100
4 60±10 2±1.5 L + SF 20.0 155 697 78 1.0
5 60±10 2±1.5 SF premixed 30.0 155 517 - 1.0
80
6 60±10 2±1.5 M, L 25.0 170 680 - 1.0

Remarks
1) Type of Cement: L=Low-heat Portland Cement, M=Moderate-heat Portland Cement
2) SF: SF=Silica Fume
Performance of Glenium 8008
Performance Requirements

1. Dispersibility of cement should be higher.


2. Mixing time should be shorter.
3. The viscosity of concrete should be lower.
4. Thixotropy of concrete should be lower.
5. It is necessary to make flowability change
according to time smaller.
Performance of Glenium 8008
Dispersibility of cement

Dispersibility of Glenium 8008 is higher than that of existing product.

3.5

3.0
SP dosage (Cx%)

Existing
2.5
Product
2.0
Glenium 8008
1.5

1.0
12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26
Water-cement ratio (%)
Performance of Glenium 8008
Mixing Time
+G +G Discharge Discharge
Electric power consumption of Mixer (A)

Glenium 8008
Existing
Product

The improvement
of dispersibility
enables shortening
the manufacturing
time.

faster faster

Mortal (W+AD+C+S) Mortal +G


Existing
Product 150sec 90sec

Mortal (W+AD+C+S) Mortal +G


SP8HU 90sec 90sec
Hardened Property of UHSC
Condition of Mix Design

Kind Kind of Slump Air


W/B s/a Water Dos.
No. of admix- flow content
(%) (%) binder (kg/m3) ture (Bx%)
(cm) (%)

LS12 0.12 23.3 4.0 43.0 2.5

LS15 0.15 35.7 LPC+ 2.0 68.5 1.8


150 Glenium
LS18 0.18 41.9 SF 1.5 70.0 1.8
8008
LS22 0.22 46.6 1.2 68.0 2.0

L30 0.30 51.8 LPC 160 0.65 67.5 3.7


250ml
AE water Slump
OP55 55.0 47.0 OPC 176 /B=100k 4.5
reducing 19.0
g
Hardened Property of UHSC
Compressive Strength

W/C=18%
W/C=18%isisthe
the
Standard Curing highest
highestMAX:170
MAX:170
200 1year 6months 91days 56days Mpa
Mpa
Compressive strength (Mpa)

28days 7days 1days

150

100

50

0
LS22 LS18 LS15 LS12 OP55
Hardened Property of UHSC
Autogenous Shrinkage

Age (day)
-28 0 28 56 84 112 140 168 196 224 252 280 308 336 364 392
Autogenous shrinkage strain (µ)

200

L30
-200
LS18
-400
LS22
-600 LS15

-800 LS12
-1000

-1200
Hardened Property of UHSC
Drying Shrinkage

Age (week)
-10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
0.00 •• Drying
Drying shrinkage
Length changing ratio (%)

shrinkage
is
is remarkably
remarkably
-0.02 less
less than
than that
that of
of
OP55
OP55
-0.04
•• The
The lower
lower the
the
water-binder
water-binder
-0.06
ratio,
ratio, the
the lower
lower
-0.08
the
the drying
drying
shrinkage
shrinkage
-0.10 LS12 LS15 LS18
LS22 OP55
-0.12
Admixtures for all Situations

 High compressive strength


 Shrinkage Reduction
 Economical Concrete
 Water Tight Concrete
 Extended Haul Concretes
 Speedy Construction
 Impermeable Concrete
 Durable Concrete
Thank You!!