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Muhammad Irfan,S.Si., M.

Pd|University of Sarjanawiyata Tamansiswa Page1


E8T|YA8| |NTERVAL
N||a| po|nr esr|maror ur|u| seouar parare|er a|ar oergar|urg dar| sarpe| yarg d|pero|er. ur|u|
||u, ur|u| rerpero|er sua|u per||raar yarg |eo|r |epa|, rayor||as pere|||| cerderurg rerggura|ar
es||ras|| |r|erva|. 3era||r oesar |eoar |r|erva| yarg d|pa|a|, sera||r oesar pu|a r||a| |eoerarar
es||ras|rya. Narur, pere|||| |eo|r cerderurg ur|u| rerggura|ar |eoar |r|erva| yarg serp|| dergar
deraja| |epercayaar yarg reruas|ar.
V|sa||ar
`
rerupa|ar es||ra|or oag| , sedarg|ar P dar 0 rerupa|ar r||a|-r||a| es||ra|or
oerdasar|ar sarpe|-sarpe| |er|er|u. Koel|s|er |epercayaarrya ada|ar:
, ) 1 P P Q < < =
P Q < < d|seou| |r|erva| |epercayaar (|r|erva| |orl|ders|), sedarg|ar P dar 0 d|seou| oa|as-
oa|as |epercayaar. Pada oeoerapa |||era|ur, |r|erva| |epercayaar juga d|seou| dergar se|arg
|epercayaar.
8ELANS KEPER6AYAAN UNTUK RERATA
Teoreme
, )
2
, known.
J||a X rerupa|ar rera|a ur|u| sarpe| aca| oeru|urar r yarg d|aro|| dar| popu|as| rorra|
(a|au popu|as| |a| rorra| dergar u|urar sarpe| 30 n > ) dergar
2
d||e|aru|, ra|a se|arg
|epercayaar , ) 100 1 oag| ada|ar:
1 1
2 2
X : X :
n n


< < +
6ontoh:
3ua|u sarpe| oeru|urar 225 d|aro|| dar| sua|u popu|as| yarg rerpurya| dev|as| oa|u 2,25. Rera|a
sarpe| |erseou| ada|ar Z,89. Ter|u|ar |r|erva| es||ra|or ur|u| dergar se|arg |epercayaar
95 8. 99
8o|us|:
A. 3e|arg |epercayaarrya 95, ra|a 0.05 = dar
1
0.025
2
= . 3er|rgga
0.025
1.96 Z = . Va|a,
, ) , )
, ) , ) , ) , )
1 1
2 2
2, 25 2, 25
67,89 1,96 67,89 1,96
15 15
67,89 1,96 0,15 67,89 1,96 0,15
67,596 68,184
X : X :
n n

< < +
| | | |
< < +

\ . \ .
< < +
< <
Muhammad Irfan,S.Si., M.Pd|University of Sarjanawiyata Tamansiswa Page2
8. 3e|arg |epercayaarrya 99, ra|a 0.01 = dar
1
0.005
2
= . 3er|rgga
0.005
2.58 Z = . Va|a,
, ) , )
, ) , ) , ) , )
1 1
2 2
2, 25 2, 25
67,89 2,58 67,89 2,58
15 15
67,89 2,58 0,15 67,89 2,58 0,15
67,503 68, 277
X : X :
n n

< < +
| | | |
< < +

\ . \ .
< < +
< <
Teoreme
, )
2
, unknown.
J||a
2
, X s rerupa|ar rera|a dar var|ars| ur|u| sarpe| aca| oeru|urar |ec||, r<30, yarg
d|aro|| dar| popu|as| rorra| dergar
2
||da| d||e|aru|, ra|a se|arg |epercayaar
, ) 100 1 oag| ada|ar:
1 1
; 1 ; 1
2 2
n n
s s
X t X t
n n


< < +
6ontoh:
0ar| sua|u popu|as| der|ger |s| 88V, d|asurs||ar oerd|s|r|ous| rorra|. 0|aro|| Z sarpe| aca|, |errya|a
|s|rya ada|ar 9.8, 9., 10.2, 10, 9.8, 10.1, dar 10.2 |||er. Ter|u|ar se|arg |epercayaar 95 ur|u| rera|a
popu|as|.
8o|us|:
X =10, dar
, )
2
1
X X
s
n

=

=0.283. 3e|arg |epercayaarrya 95, ra|a 0.05 = dar


1
0.025
2
= .
3er|rgga
0.025;6
2.447 t = . Va|a,
, ) , )
1 1
; 1 ; 1
2 2
0.283 0.283
10 2.447 10 2.447
7 7
9.738 10.262
n n
s s
X t X t
n n


< < +
| | | |
< < +

\ . \ .
< <
8ELANS KEPER6AYAAN UNTUK E0A RERATA
Teoreme. ur|u|
1 2
j||a
2 2
1 2
, d||e|aru|
J||a
1 2
, X X rerupa|ar rera|a-rera|a sarpe| aca| yarg |rdeperder oeru|urar
1 2
dan n n
yarg d|aro|| dar| popu|as| rorra| (a|au popu|as| |a| rorra| dergar u|urar sarpe|
Muhammad Irfan,S.Si., M.Pd|University of Sarjanawiyata Tamansiswa Page3
1 2
30, 30 n n > > ) dergar
2 2
1 2
, d||e|aru|, ra|a se|arg |epercayaar , ) 100 1 oag|
1 2
ada|ar:
, ) , )
2 2 2 2
1 2 1 2
1 2 1 1 2 1 2 1
1 2 1 2 2 2
X X : X X :
n n n n


+ < < + +
J||a
2 2 2
1 2
= = ra|a:
, ) , )
1 2 1 1 2 1 2 1
1 2 1 2 2 2
1 1 1 1
X X : X X :
n n n n

+ < < + +
6ontoh:
3arpe| oa|era| jer|s A dergar u|urar sarpe| 80 rerurju||ar oarWa rasa pergguraarrya rerpurya|
rera|a 110jar dergar dev|as| oa|u 10jar. 3edarg|ar oa|era| jer|s 8 dergar u|urar sarpe| 100
rerurju||ar oarWa rasa pergguraarrya rerpurya| rera|a 90 jar, dergar dev|as| oa|u 30 jar.
Ter|u|ar se|arg |epercayaar 95 ur|u| se||s|r rera|a popu|as| oa|era| A dar 8.
8o|us|:
3e|arg |epercayaarrya 95, ser|rgga 0.05 = dar
1
0.025
2
= . 3er|rgga
0.025
1.96 Z = . Va|a
, ) , )
, ) , ) , ) , )
, ) , ) , ) , )
2 2 2 2
1 2 1 2
1 2 1 1 2 1 2 1
1 2 1 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
1 2
1 2
1 2
40 30 40 30
110 90 1.96 110 90 1.96
80 100 80 100
20 1.96 5.385 20 1.96 5.385
9.445 30.555
X X : X X :
n n n n






+ < < + +
| | | |
+ < < + +

\ . \ .
< < +
< <
Teoreme. ur|u|
1 2
j||a
2 2
1 2
, ||da| d||e|aru|.
2 2 2
1 2
= =
J||a
1 2
, X X rerupa|ar rera|a-rera|a sarpe| aca| yarg |rdeperder oeru|urar
1 2
dan n n
yarg d|aro|| dar| popu|as| rorra| (dergar u|urar sarpe|
1 2
30, 30 n n < < ) dergar
2 2
1 2
,
||da| d||e|aru|, ra|a se|arg |epercayaar , ) 100 1 oag|
1 2
ada|ar:
J||a
2 2 2
1 2
= =
, ) , )
1 2 1 2
1 2 1 1 2 1 2 1
; 2 ; 2
1 2 1 2 2 2
1 1 1 1
n n n n
X X t s X X t s
n n n n


+ +
+ < < + +
Muhammad Irfan,S.Si., M.Pd|University of Sarjanawiyata Tamansiswa Page4
J||a
2 2
1 2
=
, ) , )
2 2 2 2
1 2 1 2
1 2 1 1 2 1 2 1
; ;
1 2 1 2 2 2
v v
s s s s
X X t X X t
n n n n

+ < < + +
dergar,
, )
, ) , ) , ) , )
2
2 2
1 1 2 2
2 2
2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
/ /
/ / 1 / / 1
s n s n
v
s n n s n n
+
=
( (
+
( (

6ontoh: Kasus l:
2 2 2
1 2
= =
Ve|ode peroe|ajarar A d|oer||ar |epada 12 s|sWa. Kepada |e|orpo| |a|rrya, seoarya| 10 s|sWa
d|oer||ar re|ode peroe|ajarar 8. 3e|e|ar oeoerapa |a|| peroe|ajarar, s|sWa d| dua |e|orpo| |erseou|
d|oer| uj|ar dergar soa| yarg sara. Pada |e|orpo| per|ara, rera|a r||a| s|sWa ada|ar 85 dergar dev|as|
oa|u 1, sedarg|ar pada |e|orpo| |edua rerpurya| rera|a 81 dergar dev|as| oa|u 5. Car||ar se|arg
|epercayaar 90 ur|u| se||s|r ra|a-ra|a popu|as|, j||a d|s|r|ous| r||a|-r||a| pada ras|rg-ras|rg |e|orpo|
d|arggap rorra| dar |edua popu|as| rerpurya| var|ars| yarg sara.
8o|us|:
V|sa||ar
1 2
, ras|rg-ras|rg rerupa|ar rera|a s|sWa d| |e|orpo| A dar 8.
1 2
1 2
0.05;20
1 2
85 81 4
2 12 10 2 20
1.725
11 16 9 25
4.478
20
1 1 1 1
0.428
12 10
X X
n n
t
s
n n
= =
+ = + =
=
+
= =
+ = + =
3er|rgga,
, ) , ) , ) , ) , ) , )
1 2
1 2
4 1.725 4.478 0.428 4 1.725 4.478 0.428
0.694 7.306


< < +
< <
6ontoh: Kasus ll:
2 2
1 2
=
Pada 15 ou|ar |era|r|r, rera|a gerpa d| 0ururg Verap| ada|ar 12 |a||, dergar dev|as| oa|u 3 |a||.
3edarg|ar pada 10 ou|ar |era|r|r, rera|a gerpa d| 0ururg Kra|a|au ada|ar 9 |a||, dergar dev|as| oa|u 2
|a||. Car||ar se|arg |epercayaar 95 ur|u| se||s|r rera|a gerpa |erseou|, j||a d|arggap pergara|ar
|erseou| oerasa| dar| popu|as| rorra| dergar var|ars| oeroeda.
Muhammad Irfan,S.Si., M.Pd|University of Sarjanawiyata Tamansiswa Page5
8o|us|:
, )
, ) , )
1 2
2
2 2
2 2
2 2
0.025;23
2 2
1 2
1 2
12 9 3
3 / 15 2 / 10
1
22.99 23
0.0435
3 / 15 / 14 2 / 10 / 9
2.069
9 4
1
15 10
X X
v
t
s s
n n
= =
+
= = = ~
( (
+
( (

=
+ = + =
3er|rgga,
, ) , ) , ) , )
1 2
1 2
3 2.069 1 3 2.069 1
0.931 5.069


< < +
< <
Teoreme. ur|u|
1 2
pada pergara|ar oerpasargar
J||a
1 2
D X X = rerupa|ar rera|a-rera|a dar| oeda r||a|-r||a| pada pergara|ar
oerpasargar pada sarpe| aca| yarg oeru|urar r yarg d|aro|| dar| popu|as| rorra| dergar
rera|a
1 2 D
= , ra|a se|arg |epercayaar , ) 100 1 oag|
D
ada|ar:
1 1
; 1 ; 1
2 2
D
n n
s s
D t D t
n n


< < +
6ontoh:
3|x peop|e s|gr up lor a We|gr| |oss prograr. You co||ec| |re lo||oW|rg da|a:
Persor 1 2 3 1 5
w
e
|
g
r
|
8elore (X) 13 205 15Z 138 1Z5 1
Al|er (Y) 125 195 150 110 15 10
For a 95 corl|derce |eve|, l|rd |re corl|derce |r|erva|l
8o|us|:
Persor 1 2 3 1 5 3ur
w
e
|
g
r
|
8elore (X) 13 205 15Z 138 1Z5 1
Al|er (Y) 125 195 150 110 15 10
0|llererce (d) 11 10 Z -2 10 12
Muhammad Irfan,S.Si., M.Pd|University of Sarjanawiyata Tamansiswa Page6
, )
0.25;5
1 1
; 1 ; 1
2 2
7
4.82
1
2.571
4.82 4.82
7 2.571 7 2.571
6 6
1.94 12.06
i
D
n n
D
D
d
D
n
d D
s
n
t
s s
D t D t
n n


= =

= =

=
< < +
| | | |
< < +

\ . \ .
< <

Let|hen
1. 3ua|u sarpe| aca| oeru|urar 11 d|aro|| dar| popu|as| rorra|, yarg rerpurya| dev|as| oa|u 2.5.
rera|a sarpe| ada|ar Z5. Ter|u|ar |r|erva| es||ra|or ur|u| dergar se|arg |epercayaar 95l
2. 0ar| r||a| A|jaoar Aos|ra|, d|asurs||ar oerd|s|r|ous| rorra|. 0|aro|| secara aca| 10 r||a|
raras|sWa: 50, 5, Z5, 90, 15, Z0, 0, 5, Z0, dar 15. Ter|u|ar se|arg |epercayaar 95 ur|u|
rera|a popu|as|l
3. Popu|as| oo|a |arpu A d|aro|| sarpe| secara aca| Z0 sarpe| dergar rera|a rasa pera|a|ar
1000jar dergar dev|as| oa|u 80 jar. 3edarg|ar 0 sarpe| oo|a |arpu 8 rerpurya| rera|a
rasa pera|a|ar 900jar dergar dev|as| oa|u 100jar. Ter|u|ar se|arg |epercayaar 95 ur|u|
se||s|r ra|a-ra|a oo|a |arpu A dar 8l
1. 20 sarpe| oo|a |arpu A dergar rera|a rasa pera|a|ar 1000jar dergar dev|as| oa|u 80 jar.
3edarg|ar 15 sarpe| oo|a |arpu 8 rerpurya| rera|a rasa pera|a|ar 900jar dergar dev|as|
oa|u 100jar. 0ergar se|arg |epercayaar 95, |er|u|ar |r|erva| es||ra|orrya, j||a:
a. 0|asurs||ar rerpurya| var|ars| yarg sara
o. 0|asurs||ar rerpurya| var|ars| yarg oeroeda
5. Pada ra|a |u||ar s|a||s|||a ra|era||| d| u3T, a|ar d|uj| ele| peroe|ajarar rerggura|ar
red|a.0ar| se|urur raras|sWa, d|aro|| sarpe| secara aca| 12 sarpe|. 3e|e|ar d||es, d|pero|er
ras|| oer||u|:
Persor 1 2 3 1 5 Z 8 9 10 11 12
V
e
d
|
a
e
l
l
e
c
|
8elore Z0 80 55 5 Z5 Z Z0 80 Z5 5 Z0 80
Al|er Z0 95 Z0 Z0 5 0 80 90 Z0 Z0 Z5 85
Ter|u|ar se|arg |epercayaar 95 ur|u| se||s|r rera|a se|e|ar rerggura|ar red|a dar seoe|ur
rerggura|ar red|a.
Muhammad Irfan,S.Si., M.Pd|University of Sarjanawiyata Tamansiswa Page7
UJ| h|P0TE8|8
0a|ar a|||v||as ||r|ar, oarya| perra||ar |||a |er|uju pada per|aryaar-per|aryaar |er|arg va||d||as dar|
|eor| a|au r|po|es|s dar| seouar |ejad|ar. V|sa||ar, apa|ar ooa| A |eo|r oa|| dar| pada ooa| 8 da|ar
reryerour|ar perya||| X? apa|ar rode| peroe|ajarar A |eo|r ele|||l dar|pada rode| peroe|ajarar 8?
0|er |arera ||u, pere|||| rerou|ur|ar perguj|ar |erradap lerorera-lerorera yarg ada. Perguj|ar
|erseou| d|seou| dergar uj| r|po|es|s.
l|us|ras| sederrara
3eouar |eor| rerurju||ar oarWa ras|| dar| rea|s| |er|er|u oerd|s|r|ous| rorra|, ~ ( ,16) X N . 3e|e|ar
d||a|u|ar pere||||ar d||rd||as||ar oarWa 10 = j||a r|rera| |er|er|u ||da| ada dar 11 = j||a r|rera|
|er|er|u ada. Pada sarpe| aca| r, |||a rercooa ur|u| reru|us|ar ra| yarg oerar. 0a|ar ra| |r|, |||a
|rg|r re|a|u|ar uj| 'r|po|es|s ro|'
1
: 10
o
H = = |erradap 'r|po|es|s a||erra||l'
1 1
: 11 H = =
h|P0TE8|8 N0L 0AN h|P0TE8|8 ALTERNAT|F
Pada ururrya, r|po|es|s d|oeda|ar rerjad| dua jer|s, ya||u: r|po|es|s ro| dar r|po|es|s a||erra||l.
8|asarya, r|po|es|s ro| rerya|a|ar ||da| ada |ore|as|/ruourgar, sedarg|ar r|po|es|s a||erra||l
rerya|a|ar seoa|||rya, ya||u ada |ore|as|/ruourgar. J||a rero|a| |
o
, ra|a dergar o|ora||s a|ar
rerer|ra |
1
. Veruru| 8ud|yoro (2009: 113) |erdapa| ||ga ||pe r|po|es|s, ya||u:
T|pe A
(dua e|or)
0
1
:
:
H c
H c

=
=
/ 2
ada|ar r||a|
|r|||s.
0aerar yarg d|ars|r
ada|ar daerar
pero|a|ar
T|pe 8
(sa|u e|or |arar)
0
1
:
:
H c
H c

s
>

T|pe C
(sa|u e|or ||r|)
0
1
:
:
H c
H c

>
<

Muhammad Irfan,S.Si., M.Pd|University of Sarjanawiyata Tamansiswa Page7


UJ| h|P0TE8|8
0a|ar a|||v||as ||r|ar, oarya| perra||ar |||a |er|uju pada per|aryaar-per|aryaar |er|arg va||d||as dar|
|eor| a|au r|po|es|s dar| seouar |ejad|ar. V|sa||ar, apa|ar ooa| A |eo|r oa|| dar| pada ooa| 8 da|ar
reryerour|ar perya||| X? apa|ar rode| peroe|ajarar A |eo|r ele|||l dar|pada rode| peroe|ajarar 8?
0|er |arera ||u, pere|||| rerou|ur|ar perguj|ar |erradap lerorera-lerorera yarg ada. Perguj|ar
|erseou| d|seou| dergar uj| r|po|es|s.
l|us|ras| sederrara
3eouar |eor| rerurju||ar oarWa ras|| dar| rea|s| |er|er|u oerd|s|r|ous| rorra|, ~ ( ,16) X N . 3e|e|ar
d||a|u|ar pere||||ar d||rd||as||ar oarWa 10 = j||a r|rera| |er|er|u ||da| ada dar 11 = j||a r|rera|
|er|er|u ada. Pada sarpe| aca| r, |||a rercooa ur|u| reru|us|ar ra| yarg oerar. 0a|ar ra| |r|, |||a
|rg|r re|a|u|ar uj| 'r|po|es|s ro|'
1
: 10
o
H = = |erradap 'r|po|es|s a||erra||l'
1 1
: 11 H = =
h|P0TE8|8 N0L 0AN h|P0TE8|8 ALTERNAT|F
Pada ururrya, r|po|es|s d|oeda|ar rerjad| dua jer|s, ya||u: r|po|es|s ro| dar r|po|es|s a||erra||l.
8|asarya, r|po|es|s ro| rerya|a|ar ||da| ada |ore|as|/ruourgar, sedarg|ar r|po|es|s a||erra||l
rerya|a|ar seoa|||rya, ya||u ada |ore|as|/ruourgar. J||a rero|a| |
o
, ra|a dergar o|ora||s a|ar
rerer|ra |
1
. Veruru| 8ud|yoro (2009: 113) |erdapa| ||ga ||pe r|po|es|s, ya||u:
T|pe A
(dua e|or)
0
1
:
:
H c
H c

=
=
/ 2
ada|ar r||a|
|r|||s.
0aerar yarg d|ars|r
ada|ar daerar
pero|a|ar
T|pe 8
(sa|u e|or |arar)
0
1
:
:
H c
H c

s
>

T|pe C
(sa|u e|or ||r|)
0
1
:
:
H c
H c

>
<

Muhammad Irfan,S.Si., M.Pd|University of Sarjanawiyata Tamansiswa Page7


UJ| h|P0TE8|8
0a|ar a|||v||as ||r|ar, oarya| perra||ar |||a |er|uju pada per|aryaar-per|aryaar |er|arg va||d||as dar|
|eor| a|au r|po|es|s dar| seouar |ejad|ar. V|sa||ar, apa|ar ooa| A |eo|r oa|| dar| pada ooa| 8 da|ar
reryerour|ar perya||| X? apa|ar rode| peroe|ajarar A |eo|r ele|||l dar|pada rode| peroe|ajarar 8?
0|er |arera ||u, pere|||| rerou|ur|ar perguj|ar |erradap lerorera-lerorera yarg ada. Perguj|ar
|erseou| d|seou| dergar uj| r|po|es|s.
l|us|ras| sederrara
3eouar |eor| rerurju||ar oarWa ras|| dar| rea|s| |er|er|u oerd|s|r|ous| rorra|, ~ ( ,16) X N . 3e|e|ar
d||a|u|ar pere||||ar d||rd||as||ar oarWa 10 = j||a r|rera| |er|er|u ||da| ada dar 11 = j||a r|rera|
|er|er|u ada. Pada sarpe| aca| r, |||a rercooa ur|u| reru|us|ar ra| yarg oerar. 0a|ar ra| |r|, |||a
|rg|r re|a|u|ar uj| 'r|po|es|s ro|'
1
: 10
o
H = = |erradap 'r|po|es|s a||erra||l'
1 1
: 11 H = =
h|P0TE8|8 N0L 0AN h|P0TE8|8 ALTERNAT|F
Pada ururrya, r|po|es|s d|oeda|ar rerjad| dua jer|s, ya||u: r|po|es|s ro| dar r|po|es|s a||erra||l.
8|asarya, r|po|es|s ro| rerya|a|ar ||da| ada |ore|as|/ruourgar, sedarg|ar r|po|es|s a||erra||l
rerya|a|ar seoa|||rya, ya||u ada |ore|as|/ruourgar. J||a rero|a| |
o
, ra|a dergar o|ora||s a|ar
rerer|ra |
1
. Veruru| 8ud|yoro (2009: 113) |erdapa| ||ga ||pe r|po|es|s, ya||u:
T|pe A
(dua e|or)
0
1
:
:
H c
H c

=
=
/ 2
ada|ar r||a|
|r|||s.
0aerar yarg d|ars|r
ada|ar daerar
pero|a|ar
T|pe 8
(sa|u e|or |arar)
0
1
:
:
H c
H c

s
>

T|pe C
(sa|u e|or ||r|)
0
1
:
:
H c
H c

>
<

Muhammad Irfan,S.Si., M.Pd|University of Sarjanawiyata Tamansiswa Page8


T|PE KE8ALAhAN
0ef|n|s|:
0aerar |r|||s ur|u| uj| r|po|es|s ada|ar suose| dar| ruarg sarpe| yarg sesua| ur|u| rero|a| |
o
.
0ef|n|s|:
1. Kesa|arar T|pe l , ) ada|ar |esa|arar yarg |erjad| |e|||a pere|||| rero|a| |
o
, padara|
serarusrya |
o
|erseou| oerar.
2. Kesa|arar T|pe ll , ) ada|ar |esa|arar yarg |erjad| |e|||a pere|||| rerer|ra |
o
padara|
serarusrya |
o
|erseou| sa|ar.
0ef|n|s|:
ur|u| |
o
sederrara, pe|uarg dar| pero|a|ar |
o
yarg oerr||a| oerar, d|seou| |aral s|gr|l||ars| dar|
perguj|ar.
eberepe s|fet yeng terke|t dengen Kese|ehen T|pe | den T|pe ||
1. Kesa|arar T|pe l dar T|pe ll sa||rg oer|a||ar, da|ar ar|| rerper|ec|| pe|uarg rurcu|rya
|esa|arar ||pe l a|ar rerperoesar pe|uarg rurcu|rya |esa|arar ||pe ll, oeg||u pu|a seoa|||rya.
2. u|urar ||rg|a| s|gr|l||ars| yarg oerar|| juga pe|uarg rurcu|rya |esa|arar ||pe l, dapa| se|a|u
d|per|ec|| dergar reryesua||ar r||a| |r|||srya.
3. Vera|||ar u|urar sarpe| r a|ar rerper|ec|| pe|uarg |esa|arar ||pe l dar pe|uarg |esa|arar
||pe ll.
PR08E0UR UJ| h|P0TE8|8
1. Rurusar |
o
dar |
1
2. Verer|u|ar |aral s|gr|l||ars| yarg d|gura|ar ur|u| uj| r|po|es|s
3. Ver|||r s|a||s||| uj| yarg sesua|
1. Vergr||urg r||a| s|a||s||| uj| da|a ara|ar yarg d|pero|er dar| sarpe|
5. Verer|u|ar r||a| |r|||s dar daerar |r|||s
. Verer|u|ar |epu|usar r|po|es|s apa|ar |
o
d||o|a| a|au d||er|ra
Z. Veru||s|ar |es|rpu|ar sesua| ras|| |epu|usar r|po|es|s
Muhammad Irfan,S.Si., M.Pd|University of Sarjanawiyata Tamansiswa Page9
UJ| h|P0TE8|8 RERATA
8er||u| rerupa|ar s|a||s||| uj| rergera| rera|a:
h
o
Persyereten 8tet|st|k Uj|
0
=
Popu|as| rorra|,
2
d||e|aru|
0
~ (0,1)
/
X
Z N
n


=
0
=
Popu|as| rorra|,
2
||da|
d||e|aru|
0
~ ( 1)
/
X
t t n
s n

=
1 2 0
d =
Popu|as| rorra|, |rdeperder,
2 2
1 2
, d||e|aru|
, )
1 2 0
2 2
1 2
1 2
~ (0,1)
X X d
Z N
n n


=
+
1 2 0
d =
Popu|as| rorra|, |rdeperder,
2 2
1 2
, |a| d||e|aru|,
2 2
1 2
= =
, )
1 2 0
1 2
1 2
2 2
1 1 1 2
1 2
~ ( 2)
1 1
( 1) ( 1)
2
p
p
X X d
t t n n
s
n n
n s n s
s
n n

= +
+
+
=
+
1 2 0
d =
Popu|as| rorra|, |rdeperder,
2 2
1 2
, d||e|aru|,
2 2
1 2
=
, )
, )
, )
, )
, )
, )
1 2 0
2 2
1 2
1 2
2
2 2
1 1 2 2
2 2
2 2
1 1 2 2
1 2
~ ( )
/ /
/ /
1 1
X X d
t t v
s s
n n
s n s n
v
s n s n
n n

=
+
+
=
( (
( (
+
( (

0 D
d =
Popu|as| deperder
(oerpasargar), popu|as| rorra|,
2
|a| d||e|aru|
0
1 2
~ ( 1)
/
d
D d
t t n
s n
D X X

=
=
6ontoh 1:
Pada uj|ar ras|ora| ra|era|||a 3VA d| Yogya|ar|a oeoerapa |arur |era|r|r, d|pero|er rera|a Z.5 dergar
dev|as| oa|u 8. Pada |arur 2013, d||eroarg|ar re|ode oaru ur|u| rer|rg|a||ar |erarpuar s|sWa
da|ar o|darg ra|era|||a. 3e|e|ar re|ode oaru d||a|sara|ar, d|aro|| sarpe| aca| 25 s|sWa d||es
dergar s|ardar yarg sara dar rerpurya| rera|a 8Z.. J||a d|aro|| 5 = apa|ar dapa| d|s|rpu||ar
oarWa re|ode oaru dapa| rer|rg|a||ar |erarpuar ra|era|||a?
Muhammad Irfan,S.Si., M.Pd|University of Sarjanawiyata Tamansiswa Page10
8o|us|:
1.
0
: 76.5 H s (re|ode oaru ||da| rer|rg|a||ar |erarpuar ra|era|||a)
1
: 76.5 H > (re|ode oaru dapa| rer|rg|a||ar |erarpuar ra|era|||a)
2. Taral s|gr|l||ars|: 5 =
3. 3|a||s||| uj|: Z
1. Z r||urg:
0
/
87.6 76.5
22.2
8 / 256
hitung
X
Z
n

= =
5. 0aerar Kr|||s
{ ;
0.05
1.645; 1.645
22.2
hitung
Z DK : :
Z DK
= = >
= e


. Kepu|usar: |
o
d||o|a|
Z. Kes|rpu|ar: re|ode oaru dapa| rer|rg|a||ar |erarpuar ra|era|||a
6ontoh 2:
3eorarg pere|||| |rg|r rerge|aru| |eoerarar yarg rerya|a|ar oarWa seseorarg rereru|ar lorru|a
ur|u| reroua| |a|| dergar |arar ra|a-ra|a 39|g. ur|u| ||u, pere|||| rergaro|| 50 sarpe| dar d|uj|.
|as||rya d|pero|er rera|a daya |arar |a|| ada|ar 38.8|g, dergar dev|as| oa|u 0.5|g. 8aga|rar |es|rpu|ar
pere|||| |erseou|, dergar 1 = l
3o|us|:
1.
0
: 39 H = (perrya|aar pereru oerar)
1
: 39 H = (perrya|aar pereru ||da| oerar)
2. Taral s|gr|l||ars|: 1 =
3. 3|a||s||| uj|: Z
1. Z r||urg:
0
/
38.8 39
2.828
0.5 / 50
hitung
X
Z
n

= =
5. 0aerar Kr|||s
{ ;
0.005
2.575; 2.575 atau 2.575
2.828
hitung
Z DK : : :
Z DK
= = < >
= e
Muhammad Irfan,S.Si., M.Pd|University of Sarjanawiyata Tamansiswa Page11

. Kepu|usar: |
o
d||o|a|
Z. Kes|rpu|ar: perrya|aar pereru ||da| oerar
6ontoh 3:
ur|u| re||ra| apa|ar rera|a r||a| ra|era|||a s|sWa |e|as ||ga 3VA 1 ANTA|8RANTA| |eo|r dar| Z5,
secara aca| d|aro|| 12 sarpe|. Terrya|a r||a|-r||a|rya ada|ar:
5Z Z Z5 80 9 9 90 Z0 0 85 Z8 88
J||a d|aro|| 1 = oaga|rara |es|rpu|ar pere||||ar?
8o|us|:
1.
0
: 75 H s (rera|a r||a| s|sWa ||da| |eo|r dar| Z5)
1
: 75 H > (rera|a r||a| s|sWa |eo|r dar| Z5)
2. Taral s|gr|l||ars|: 1 =
3. 3|a||s||| uj|: |
1. | r||urg:
, ) , )
, ) , )
2
2
888; 66938
12 66938 888
888
74; 10.557
12 12 11
74 75
0.328
10.557 / 12
X X
X s
t
= =

= = = =

= =

5. 0aerar Kr|||s
{ ;
0.01;11
2.718; 2.575
0.328
hitung
t DK t t
t DK
= = >
= e
. Kepu|usar: |
o
d||er|ra
Z. Kes|rpu|ar: rera|a r||a| s|sWa |e|as ||ga 3VA 1 ANTA|8RANTA| ||da| |eo|r dar| Z5
6ontoh 4:
Pa| Za|| rergajar ra|era|||a d| |e|as X3 dergar rerggura|ar re|ode |orvers|ora|, dar d| |e|as X1
dergar re|ode J|gsaW. |as|| pere||||ar d|pero|er seoaga| oer||u|:
Ke|as Ve|ode r Rera|a 0ev|as| oa|u
X3 Korvers|ora| 10 ZZ 8
X1 J|gsaW 50 Z9 Z
Muhammad Irfan,S.Si., M.Pd|University of Sarjanawiyata Tamansiswa Page12
0ergar rergaro|| 1 = oaga|rara |es|rpu|ar pere||||ar |erseou|?
8o|us|:
1.
0 1 2
: H s (re|ode j|gsaW ||da| |eo|r oa|| dar|pada re|ode |orvers|ora|)
1 1 2
: H > (re|ode j|gsaW ||da| |eo|r oa|| dar|pada re|ode |orvers|ora|)
2. Taral s|gr|l||ars|: 1 =
3. 3|a||s||| uj|: Z
1. Z r||urg:
d
o
= 0 (|arera ||da| d|o|cara|ar se||s|r rera|a)
, )
1 2 0
2 2
1 2
1 2
2 2
79 77
1.245
7 8
50 40
hitung
X X d
Z
n n


=
+

= =
+
5. 0aerar Kr|||s
{ ;
0.01
2.327; 2.327
1.245
hitung
Z DK : :
Z DK
= = >
= e
. Kepu|usar: |
o
d||er|ra
Z. Kes|rpu|ar: re|ode j|gsaW ||da| |eo|r oa|| dar|pada re|ode |orvers|ora|
6ontoh 5:
3eseorarg |rg|r rerurju||ar oarWa raras|sWa pr|a ||da| sara |erarpuarrya dergar raras|sWa
War||a da|ar ra| s|a||s|||a. ur|u| ||u, |a rergaro|| sarpe| 12 War||a dar 1 pr|a. Terrya|a, rera|a r||a|
raras|sWa pr|a Z5 dergar dev|as| oa|u 9 dar rera|a raras|sWa War||a Z1 dergar dev|as| oa|u 12. J||a
d|asurs||ar oarWa sarpe| |ad| d|aro|| dar| popu|as| rorra| yarg var|ars|-var|ars|rya sara |e|ap| ||da|
d||e|aru|, dar dergar 5 = |er|u|ar |es|rpu|ar pere||||ar |erseou|l
8o|us|:
1.
0 1 2
: H = (raras|sWa pr|a sara |erarpuarrya dergar raras|sWa War||a)
1 1 2
: H = (raras|sWa pr|a ||da| sara |erarpuarrya dergar raras|sWa War||a)
2. Taral s|gr|l||ars|: 5 =
3. 3|a||s||| uj|: |
1. | r||urg:
d
o
= 0 (|arera ||da| d|o|cara|ar se||s|r rera|a)
Muhammad Irfan,S.Si., M.Pd|University of Sarjanawiyata Tamansiswa Page13
, )
, )
2 2
1 1 1 2
1 2
2 2
1 2 0
1 2
( 1) ( 1)
2
(15)9 (11)12
10.376
26
1 1
75 74
0.252
1 1
10.376
16 12
p
p
n s n s
s
n n
X X d
t
s
n n
+
=
+
+
= =

=
+

= =
+
5. 0aerar Kr|||s
{ ;
0.025;26
2.056; 2.056 atau 2.056
0.252
hitung
t DK t t t
t DK
= = < >
= e
. Kepu|usar: |
o
d||er|ra
Z. Kes|rpu|ar: raras|sWa pr|a sara |erarpuarrya dergar raras|sWa War||a
6ontoh 6:
Kerja|ar soa| pada contoh 5 dergar asurs| oarWa var|ars| popu|as|rya ||da| sara
8o|us|:
1.
0 1 2
: H = (raras|sWa pr|a sara |erarpuarrya dergar raras|sWa War||a)
1 1 2
: H = (raras|sWa pr|a ||da| sara |erarpuarrya dergar raras|sWa War||a)
2. Taral s|gr|l||ars|: 5 =
3. 3|a||s||| uj|: |
1. | r||urg:
d
o
= 0 (|arera ||da| d|o|cara|ar se||s|r rera|a)
, )
, )
, )
, ) , )
1 2 0
2 2
1 2
1 2
2 2
2
2 2
2 2
2 2
75 74
0.070
9 12
16 12
9 / 16 12 / 12
291.129
19.672 20
14.799
9 / 16 12 / 12
15 11
X X d
t
s s
n n
v

=
+

= =
+
+
= = = ~
( (
( (
+
( (

5. 0aerar Kr|||s
Muhammad Irfan,S.Si., M.Pd|University of Sarjanawiyata Tamansiswa Page14
{ ;
0.025;20
2.086; 2.086 atau 2.086
0.070
hitung
t DK t t t
t DK
= = < >
= e
. Kepu|usar: |
o
d||er|ra
Z. Kes|rpu|ar: raras|sWa pr|a sara |erarpuarrya dergar raras|sWa War||a
6ontoh Z:
3|x peop|e s|gr up lor a We|gr| |oss prograr oy gyr. You co||ec| |re lo||oW|rg da|a:
Persor 1 2 3 1 5
w
e
|
g
r
|
8elore (X) 13 205 15Z 138 1Z5 1
Al|er (Y) 125 195 150 110 15 10
For a 5 = , l|rd |re corc|us|orl
8o|us|:
1.
0 1 2
: H s (gyr ||da| reroua| oera| oadar |urur)
1 1 2
: H > (gyr reroua| oera| oadar |urur)
2. Taral s|gr|l||ars|: 5 =
3. 3|a||s||| uj|: |
1. | r||urg:
Persor 1 2 3 1 5 3ur
w
e
|
g
r
|
8elore (X) 13 205 15Z 138 1Z5 1
Al|er (Y) 125 195 150 110 15 10
0|llererce (d) 11 10 Z -2 10 12
d
o
= 0 (|arera ||da| d|o|cara|ar se||s|r rera|a)
, )
0
7
4.82
1
/
7
3.557
4.82 / 6
i
d
d
D
n
d D
s
n
D d
t
s n
= =

= =

=
= =

5. 0aerar Kr|||s
{ ;
0.025;5
2.571; 2.571
3.557
hitung
t DK t t
t DK
= = >
= e
. Kepu|usar: |
o
d||o|a|
Z. Kes|rpu|ar: gyr reroua| oera| oadar |urur
Muhammad Irfan,S.Si., M.Pd|University of Sarjanawiyata Tamansiswa Page15
Let|hen
1. 0ar| |es ra|era|||a |e|as lX pada sua|u popu|as|, d|pero|er rera|a Z. 3eorarg pere|||| rercooa
re|ode oaru dergar rergarggap oarWa re|ode oaru dapa| rer|rg|a||ar pres|as| oe|ajar s|sWa.
3e|e|ar d|uj|cooa|ar, |errya|a dar| 9 s|sWa d|pero|er r||a|:
80 Z8 5 88 Z Z 90 Z9 0
J||a 5 = apa|ar dapa| d|s|rpu||ar oarWa re|ode oaru dapa| rer|rg|a||ar pres|as| s|sWa?
2. 8era| ra|a-ra|a papaya jer|s |er|er|u ada|ar 1.Z|g dergar dev|as| oa|u 0.5|g. Pada rus|r parer
|erar|r, d|duga rera|a oera| papaya rerurur. ur|u| rerou||||ar ra| |erseou|, d|aro|| 100
sarpe| aca| ouar papaya. 3e|e|ar d|||roarg |errya|a rera|a oera|rya ada|ar 1.8|g. 8aga|rara
ras|| pere||||ar |erseou|? 1 =
3. 3eorarg pere|||| |rg|r re||ra| apa|ar s|sWa |a||-|a|| |eo|r oa|| ||rg|a| perguasaar geore|r|
dar|pada s|sWa pererpuar. Pere|||| rergaro|| sarpe| s|sWa |a||-|a|| seoarya| 20, dar s|sWa
pererpuar seoarya| 25. 3e|e|ar d||es, |errya|a rera|a r||a| s|sWa |a||-|a|| Z8 dergar dev|as| oa|u
3, dar rera|a r||a| s|sWa pererpuar Z5 dergar dev|as| oa|u 5. 0ergar rergarggap var|ars| dar|
|edua popu|as| sara, oaga|rara |es|rpu|ar pere||||ar |erseou|? 5 =
1. Pada soa| ro.3, dergar rergasurs||ar var|ars| dar| popu|as| oeroeda, oaga|rara
|es|rpu|arrya?
5. 0a|a r||a| pra-uN dar uN ur|u| 11 s|sWa ada|ar seoaga| oer||u|:
3|sWa 1 2 3 1 5 Z 8 9 10
11
Pra-uN Z 5 Z 8 9 Z 8 5
Z
uN Z Z 8 8 9 Z 9 8
8
A|ar d||e|||| apa|ar r||a|-r||a| pra-uN |eo|r oa|| dar|pada r||a| uN. 0ergar rergaro|| 5 =
oaga|rara |es|rpu|ar pere||||ar |erseou|?
. Pa| Ryar rergajar ra|era|||a d| |e|as X1 dergar rerggura|ar re|ode A, dar d| |e|as X2
dergar re|ode 8. |as|| pere||||ar d|pero|er seoaga| oer||u|:
Ke|as Ve|ode r Rera|a 0ev|as| oa|u
X1 A 32 ZZ 9
X2 8 31 Z9 8
0ergar rergaro|| 1 = oaga|rara |es|rpu|ar pere||||ar |erseou|?
REFEREN6E8
8a|r, Lee. J. ard Erge|rard|, Vax. 1991. lnrrooucr|on ro Prooao|||ry ano marnemar|ca| $rar|sr|cs secono
eo|r|on. 0uxoury Press: Ca||lorr|a
8ud|yoro. 2009. $rar|sr|ka unruk pene||r|an eo|s| ke-2. 3eoe|as Vare| ur|vers||y Press: 3ura|ar|a
wa|po|e, R. E. 1982. lr|roduc||or |o 3|a||s||cs. NeW Yor|: Vacr|||ar Puo||sr|rg Co. lrc.
wa|po|e, R. E. ard Vyers, R. |. 19Z8. Prooao||||y ard 3|a||s||cs lor Erg|reers ard 3c|er||s|s. NeW Yor|:
Vacr|||ar Puo||sr|rg Co. lrc.