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SCIENCE FOLIO NAME : NOR SYAZWANI BT ZULKEFLI NO I/C: 940621-07-5348 CLASS: 2 IKRAM TITLE :
SCIENCE FOLIO NAME : NOR SYAZWANI BT ZULKEFLI NO I/C: 940621-07-5348 CLASS: 2 IKRAM TITLE :
SCIENCE FOLIO NAME : NOR SYAZWANI BT ZULKEFLI NO I/C: 940621-07-5348 CLASS: 2 IKRAM TITLE :
SCIENCE FOLIO NAME : NOR SYAZWANI BT ZULKEFLI NO I/C: 940621-07-5348 CLASS: 2 IKRAM TITLE :
SCIENCE FOLIO NAME : NOR SYAZWANI BT ZULKEFLI NO I/C: 940621-07-5348 CLASS: 2 IKRAM TITLE :
SCIENCE FOLIO NAME : NOR SYAZWANI BT ZULKEFLI NO I/C: 940621-07-5348 CLASS: 2 IKRAM TITLE :
SCIENCE FOLIO NAME : NOR SYAZWANI BT ZULKEFLI NO I/C: 940621-07-5348 CLASS: 2 IKRAM TITLE :
SCIENCE FOLIO NAME : NOR SYAZWANI BT ZULKEFLI NO I/C: 940621-07-5348 CLASS: 2 IKRAM TITLE :
SCIENCE FOLIO NAME : NOR SYAZWANI BT ZULKEFLI NO I/C: 940621-07-5348 CLASS: 2 IKRAM TITLE :
SCIENCE FOLIO NAME : NOR SYAZWANI BT ZULKEFLI NO I/C: 940621-07-5348 CLASS: 2 IKRAM TITLE :
SCIENCE FOLIO NAME : NOR SYAZWANI BT ZULKEFLI NO I/C: 940621-07-5348 CLASS: 2 IKRAM TITLE :

SCIENCE FOLIO

NAME

: NOR SYAZWANI BT ZULKEFLI

NO I/C: 940621-07-5348

CLASS: 2 IKRAM

TITLE : THE EFFECTS OF WATER POLLUTIONS ON LIVING THINGS

CONTENTS

NO

CONTENT

PAGE

1

TITLE

 

2

INTRODUCTION

 

3

OBJECTIVE

 

4

WATER POLLUTION

 

5

ADDITIONAL FORMS OF WATER POLLUTION

 

6

CAUSES OF WATER POLLUTION

 

7

EFFECTS OF WATER POLLUTION

 

8

WAYS TO CONTROL WATER POLLUTION

 

9

WAYS TO CONSERVE AND PRESERVE WATER QUALITY

 

10

CONCLUSION

 

INTRODUCTION

Comprising over 70% of the Earths surface, water is undoubtedly the most precious natural resource that exists on our planet. Without the seemingly invaluable compound comprised of hydrogen and oxygen, life on Earth would be non-existent: it is essential for everything on our planet to grow and prosper. Although we as humans recognize this fact, we disregard it by polluting our rivers, lakes, and oceans. Subsequently, we are slowly but surely harming our planet to the point where organisms are dying at a very alarming rate. In addition to innocent organisms dying off, our drinking water has become greatly affected as is our ability to use water for recreational purposes. In order to combat water pollution, we must understand the problems and become part of the solution.

OBJECTIVE

To learn more about the effect of the water pollution

To discuss about ways to conserve and preserve water quality

To be able to explain the effects of water pollution on living things

To be able to explain ways to control water pollution

Help take care of our precious commodity

To be more responsible when using water

Understanding the preservation of water quality

1. Water pollution occurs when unwanted and harmful substances pollute the water. The substances are called
  • 1. Water pollution occurs when unwanted and harmful substances pollute the water. The substances are called water pollutants.

  • 2. Water pollutants come from industrial waste, domestic waste, chemicals, agricultural activities, mining activities, Siltation and oil spillage from tankers.

  • 3. Industrial waste

(a)

Factory waste includes inorganic solids and toxic chemicals. Examples of such chemicals are alkalis, acids, mercury, lead, cyanide and radioactive substances.

(b)

Factory waste is discharge into rivers and seas, polluting the water and poisoning the aquatic life.

4.

Domestic waste

(a)

Domestic waste which is thrown into drains results in water pollution.

(b)

Pollutants from homes include garbage, untreated sewage and detergents

(c)

Non-biodegradable detergents, plastic bags and styrofoam articles which cannot be broken down into harmless substances can pollute water for many years. They are harmful to plants and small animals.

(d)

Sewage is waste matter that is dissolved or suspended in water. It has a high content of human excreta and urine.

(e)

Domestic rubbish includes left over food and wastes such as paper, plastic, glass and metal.

5.

Agricultural waste

(a)

In agriculture, the use of chemicals fertilisers, pesticides, insecticides, herbicides and fungicides can pollute the water.

(b)

These substances leach into the ground and enter the water sources in the soil which later flows into rivers, ponds and lakes.

6.

Siltation

(a)

When forests are cut down and construction activities are carried out, the mud and silt flow into rivers lakes.

7.

Oil spills

(a)

Oil spills occur when oil tankers are involved in accidents with other ship at sea.

(b)

The seas are also polluted with oil that comes from illegal cleaning of oil tankers while at the sea.

(c)

The layer of oil that forms on the surface of the sea does not dissolved in water. The oil spreads quickly and soon forms a large area on the surface of sea. This layer of oil kills animals in the sea and ruins beaches when it turns the shore black and sticky.

ADDITIONAL FORMS OF WATER POLLUTION

Three last forms of water pollution exist in the forms of petroleum, radioactive substances, and heat. Petroleum often pollutes water bodies in the form of oil, resulting from oil spills. The previously mentioned Exxon Valdez is an example of this type of water pollution. These large-scale accidental discharges of petroleum are an important cause of pollution along shore lines. Besides the supertankers, off- shore drilling operations contribute a large share of pollution. One estimate is that one ton of oil is spilled for every million tons of oil transported. This is equal to about 0.0001 percent. Radioactive substances are produced in the form of waste from nuclear power plants, and from the industrial, medical, and scientific use of radioactive materials. Specific forms of waste are uranium and thorium mining and refining. The last form of water pollution is heat. Heat is a pollutant because increased temperatures result in the deaths of many aquatic organisms. These decreases in temperatures are caused when a discharge of cooling water by factories

ADDITIONAL FORMS OF WATER POLLUTION Three last forms of water pollution exist in the forms of
Many causes of pollution including sewage and fertilizers contain nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates. In
Many causes of pollution including sewage and fertilizers contain nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates. In
Many causes of pollution including sewage and fertilizers contain nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates. In
Many causes of pollution including sewage and fertilizers contain nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates. In

Many causes of pollution including sewage and fertilizers contain nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates. In excess levels, nutrients over stimulate the growth of aquatic plants and algae. Excessive growth of these types of organisms consequently clogs our waterways, use up dissolved oxygen as they decompose, and block light to deeper waters. This, in turn, proves very harmful to aquatic organisms as it affects the respiration ability or fish and other invertebrates that reside in water. Pollution is also caused when silt and other suspended solids, such as soil, wash off plowed fields, construction and logging sites, urban areas, and eroded river banks when it rains. Under natural conditions, lakes, rivers, and other water bodies undergo Eutrophication, an aging process that slowly fills in the water body with sediment and organic matter. When these sediments enter various bodies of water, fish respiration becomes impaired, plant productivity and water depth become reduced, and aquatic organisms and their environments become suffocated. Pollution in the form of organic material enters waterways in many different forms as sewage, as leaves and grass clippings, or as runoff from livestock feedlots and pastures. When natural bacteria and protozoan in the water break down this organic material, they begin to use up the oxygen dissolved in the water. Many types of fish and bottom-dwelling animals cannot survive when levels of dissolved oxygen drop below two to five parts per million. When this occurs, it kills aquatic organisms in large numbers which leads to disruptions in the food chain.

1. By-products, toxic substances and radioactive substances from factories: (a) Radioactive waste substances can cause cancer.

1. By-products, toxic substances and radioactive substances from factories:

  • (a) Radioactive waste substances can cause cancer.

  • (b) Mercury, lead and heavy metals from the water will accumulate in the tissues and organs of animals through the food chain.

  • (c) These harmful metals may end up being consumed by humans when they eat these animals.

2. Domestic waste

  • (a) People who drink water that has been polluted by domestic waste can be infected with diseases such as cholera, dysentery and typhoid.

  • (b) This polluted water can also cause skin diseases if it is used for washing clothes and bathing.

  • (c) As bacteria and algae grow in polluted water, they use up oxygen. The decaying organic substances also reduce the dissolved oxygen supply in the water. As a result, many aquatic living things will die. The decaying matter will emit a bad smell.

3. Chemicals substances from the agricultural sector:

  • (a) Fertilisers that flow into rivers will cause algae to grow fast. Their growth prevents sunlight from reaching the plants in the water.

  • (b) The aquatic plants die. The river ecosystem will be affected. Many aquatic animals will also die as a result of lack of oxygen in the water.

  • (d) most pesticides, insecticides, herbicides and fungicides are not easily broken down. These toxic substances leach into the soil. From the soil they are transferred through the food chain to animals and humans.

4. Siltation

  • (a) Mud pollutes rivers and lakes.

  • (b) Mud prevents sunlight from entering the water. As a result, plants cannot carry out photosynthesis and die.

5. Oil spills

  • (a) The layer of oil that forms on the surface of the sea prevents sunlight and air

from entering the water. The plants and animals in the water will die.

  • (b) Seabirds fish and other aquatic organisms are killed because the oil is toxic.

  • (c) Polluted beaches endanger the organisms which live along the beach areas.

  • (d) Fishermen depend on the sea for their livelihood. So they suffer economic hardship.

from entering the water. The plants and animals in the water will die. (b) Seabirds fish
  • 1. Water pollution is a serious and complex problem in Malaysia.

  • 2. several approaches can be used to control water pollution:

    • (a) Holding campaigns to prevent water pollution. These campaigns educate the public on the dangers of water pollution and suggest ways to prevent water pollution.

    • (b) Implementing laws under the Environmental Quality Act (Scheduled Wastes) 1989 on the disposal of chemical wastes, rubbish, carcasses and excreta into rivers and seas.

    • (c) Rubbish should be placed in closed rubbish bin and disposed of in the designated dumps. They should not be thrown into drains, river or seas.

    • (d) The use of fertilisers, fungicides and pesticides must be controlled to reduce water pollution. Safer alternative methods such as biological control can be used in the agricultural sector.

    • (e) Recycling paper, plastic, glass and metals prevents these materials from ending up in drains and rivers.

    • (f) Waste products from factories have to be treated. This is to make sure that they are not harmful before they are disposed of into the public sewage system.

    • (g) The authorities should implement a system of detecting oil spills in the Straits of Malacca or the South China Sea. This system will surely ensure that oil spills are detected immediately. Quick action can be taken to prevent the worsening. Offenders can be prosecuted under the law.

    • (h) The main steps to water pollution control are prevention, monitoring and enforcement.

1. Industries have policies and the technology to achieve their business objectives. At the same time,
1. Industries have policies and the technology to achieve their business objectives. At the same time,
1. Industries have policies and the technology to achieve their business objectives. At the same time,
1. Industries have policies and the technology to achieve their business objectives. At the same time,
  • 1. Industries have policies and the technology to achieve their business objectives. At the same time, these policies should also preserve the quality of water.

  • 2. A factory that has caused water pollution must be responsible for its actions. It must pay compensation for the damages brought about by its activities.

  • 3. Projects such as building hotels and rest house along beach areas to attract tourists may cause pollution of the seas and beaches. Therefore, a carefully planned construction strategy should be followed.

  • 4. Cleaning agents that are used in homes are mostly petrochemical-based. These cleaning agents contain substances that can pollute the rivers and lakes. Today, cleaning agents without petrochemicals are available. The public should be encouraged to use these new cleaning agents.

  • 5. In the agricultural sector, steps should be taken to reduce the use of pesticides, fungicides and fertilisers. These chemicals pollute the water.

  • 6. To control pests, biological control methods can be used. For example, owls can be used to control rats which eat the oil palm fruit.

  • 7. In the education sector, environmental education should be incorporated into the school curriculum. This will make students aware of the water pollution problem. Students will know the effects and consequences of water pollution. They will learn about ways to control this problem.

  • 8. Educational programmes for the community should be carried out. This increases the public awareness of conserving water, reducing dangerous wastes and recycling to preserve water quality.

  • 9. As part of the efforts to preserve water quality, recycling should be carried out.

Wastes which can be recycled include old newspapers, glass, aluminium cans, old tyres and plastic. 10. We should make an effort to conserve and preserve water quality. The first step must come from us. We are the ones who determine the water quality in our country.

Clearly, the problems associated with water pollution have the capabilities to disrupt life on our planet

Clearly, the problems associated with water pollution have the capabilities to disrupt life on our planet to a great extent. Congress has passed laws to try to combat water pollution thus acknowledging the fact that water pollution is, indeed, a serious issue. But the government alone cannot solve the entire problem. It is ultimately up to us, to be informed, responsible and involved when it comes to the problems we face with our water. We must become familiar with our local water resources and learn about ways for disposing harmful household wastes so they don’t end up in sewage treatment plants that can’t handle them or landfills not designed to receive hazardous materials. In our yards, we must determine whether additional nutrients are needed before fertilizers are applied, and look for alternatives where fertilizers might run off into surface waters. We have to preserve existing trees and plant new trees and shrubs to help prevent soil erosion and promote infiltration of water into the soil. Around our houses, we must keep litter, pet waste, leaves, and grass clippings out of gutters and storm drains. These are just a few of the many ways in which we, as humans, have the ability to combat water pollution. As we head into the 21st century, awareness and education will most assuredly continue to be the two most important ways to prevent water pollution. If these measures are not taken and water pollution continues, life on earth will suffer severely. Global environmental collapse is not inevitable. But the developed world must work with the developing world to ensure that new industrialized economies do not add to the world's environmental problems. Politicians must think of sustainable development rather than economic expansion. Conservation strategies have to become more widely accepted, and people must learn that energy use can be dramatically diminished without sacrificing comfort. In short, with the technology that currently exists, the years of global environmental mistreatment can begin to be reversed.

We can conclude that:

 

Types of

Pollutants

Source

 

Harmful effects on living things

pollutants

 

Industrial

Toxic chemicals

Factories that use

Causes poisoning such as mercury

waste

chemicals

poisoning in animals and plants.

Radioactive

Nuclear power

Harms animals and plants that have been

residues

plants

exposed to the radioactive rays.

Domestic

Garbage or litter

Household

chokes fish, birds and other

waste

marine which eat the garbage

blocks sunlight and prevents

Untreated sewage

Households

aquatic plants from making food causes diseases such as cholera

without proper

and typhoid

sewage facilities

Reduces dissolved oxygen in

water as bacteria use up the dissolved oxygen to break down sewage. Promotes growth of algae which

in turn blocks sunlight from reaching other water plants Kill marine life when the dissolved oxygen and food in water are reduced

Agricultural waste

Excessive

Farms, gardens,

Reduces the amount of dissolved

fertiliser

estates

oxygen in water as bacteria use

up the oxygen to break down the fertilizers. Promotes growth of algae which

in turn blocks sunlight from reaching other water plants Kill marine life when the dissolved oxygen and food in water are reduced

Pesticides

Farms, gardens,

Kills other living things besides

estates

pests

Harms animals and human when they eat plants which contain toxic pesticides

Waste from

Mud, silt, sand

Deforested areas,

 

blocks sunlight from reaching

silting

and other solids in the soil

construction sites

 

water plants which will die when they cannot make their own food

 

slows down or blocks the flow of water

Accidental

Oil

Oil tankers, sea

Poisons and kill birds, animals and

spillage and

vessels, boat

other marine life that swallow the

leakage from

repair yards, oil

oil.

oil tankers

refineries

Damages the feathers of birds and in turn prevents bird from flying to search for food.