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CHO MNG NGY THNH LP TRNG I HC HNG HI VIT NAM 01/ 04/2012

Tp ch Khoa hc Cng ngh Hng hi S 30 4/2012



90

H THNG ICD (INLAND CLEARANCE DEPOT) TRONG VN TI A
PHNG THC (VTPT) VIT NAM
THE INLAND CLEARANCE DEPOT SYSTEM IN MULTIMODAL TRANSPORT
IN VIETNAM
TS. NGUYN HNG VN
Khoa Kinh t VTB, Trng HHH
Tm tt:
Cc cng cn ng mt vai tr rt quan trng trong vic t chc vn chuyn container
trong ni a v n cc cng bin bng ng b, ng st, ng sng, gp phn
gim s n tc hng ho cng bin, gim s tc nghn giao thng ng b trong t
chc vn ti container ni a, l mt xch quan trng trong dy chuyn VTPT. VTPT
ra i mang li li ch to ln cho cc bn tham gia qu trnh vn ti (ngi ch hng,
ngi giao nhn, ngi vn chuyn...). V vy vic nghin cu h thng ICD trong
VTPT Vit Nam c ngha khoa hc v thc tin trong giai on hin nay.
Abstract:
The ICD system plays an important role in domestic transportation of containers and in
transporting containers to sea ports by road, rail, water way, in contributing a part in
reducing and preventing the shut-out of goods in sea ports as well as the congestion in
road transport in domestic container transportation, it is also one important link in the
chain of multimodal transport. The international multimodal transport has brought big
advantages to many parties, such as the shipper, the freight forwarder, the transporter ...
when they attended to this procedure. Therefore, it is scientifically, practically essential
and meaningful to research the ICD systerm in multimodal transport in Vietnam in the
current stage.
1. t vn
Cng cn (ICD-Inland Container Depot) l mt mt xch quan trng trong vn ti a phng
thc, l im tp kt hng container xut chuyn ra cng v ngc li nhn hng container
nhp t cng v rt hng l giao cho cc ch hng. Cc cng cn ng mt vai tr rt quan
trng trong vic t chc vn chuyn container trong ni a v n cc cng bin bng ng b,
ng st, ng sng, gp phn gim s n tc hng ho cng bin, gim s tc nghn giao
thng ng b, trong t chc vn ti container ni a, l mt xch quan trng trong dy chuyn
VTPT. Trn th gii, cng cn pht trin gn lin vi s pht trin mnh ca vn ti a phng
thc, cc cng ty vn ti container ln trn th gii u pht trin h thng cng cn ring gom
hng v phn phi hng. S pht trin h thng cng cn Vit Nam s lm tng t l container
ho, pht trin vn ti a phng thc quc t. V vy vic nghin cu h thng ICD trong VTPT
Vit Nam l cn thit v cp bch trong giai on hin nay.
2. nh gi thc trng
Cng thng quan ni a (ICD) l ni thc hin cc cng vic nh giao/nhn hng ha,
ng gi v rt rut container, hot ng vn ti bng ng st/ ng b n v i t cc cng,
lm th tc Hi quan, gom hng l LCL, lu kho tm thi hng ha v container, sa cha
container, bo tr v sa cha cc b phn container. Hin nay Vit Nam, cc cng cn mi ch
hnh thnh ti vng kinh t trng im (KTT) Min Nam v vng KTT pha Bc, KTT Min
Trung cha c cng cn ICD, nguyn nhn l do khi lng hng ho xut nhp khu bng
container qua vng KTT min Trung qu t, ch chim t l 3% so vi khi lng hng ho
container trong c nc v cc cng Nng, Qui Nhn nng lc tip nhn lng
container ny.
* Vng kinh t trng im pha Bc c 5 im thng quan ni a l ICD Gia Lm (H Ni)
v ICD Thy Vn (Vit Tr Ph Th), ICD Hi Dng, ICD M nh (H Ni) v ICD Tin Sn.
ICD Gia Lm hot ng t thng 5/1996, c din tch bi 720 m
2
, vn phng, h thng trang
thit b chuyn dng ph tr khc. ICD Gia Lm c v tr thun li cho vic khai thc hng
container xut nhp khu gia cng Hi Phng, H Ni v khu vc ln cn. Vic t chc vn ti
container i n cng Hi Phng s dng vn ti ng b. Tuy nhin ICD Gia Lm khai thc
khng c hiu qu do c din tch nh, khong cch gia ICD Gia Lm v cng Hi Phng ngn
(102 km) v mt s Khu cng nghip ln H Ni c lng hng container ln c Chnh ph
cho php thnh lp Hi quan Khu cng nghip phc v cho vic lm th tc Hi quan ngay ti .
CHO MNG NGY THNH LP TRNG I HC HNG HI VIT NAM 01/ 04/2012
Tp ch Khoa hc Cng ngh Hng hi S 30 4/2012

91
ICD Vit Tr Ph Th c a vo khai thc u thng 11-2004. ICD Vit Tr c din
tch 20.000 m
2
v c v tr thun li v giao thng nh: nm trn tuyn ng cao tc xuyn Cn
Minh - Hi Phng, cch ga ng st Ph c trn tuyn ng st H Ni Lo Cai 1 km, cch
cng sng Vit Tr 6 km, cch sn bay quc t ni bi 40 km, cch H Ni 70 km, cch cng Hi
Phng 180 km, ng thi cng l ni c lng hng ho tp trung ln.
ICD Hi Dng nm Km 48+450 Quc l 5, thnh ph Hi Dng, cch cng Hi Phng
50 km, cch cng Ci Ln 120 km, cch sn bay Ni Bi 80 km. ICD Hi Dng c bi container
rng 12 hec-ta. Vi h thng ng st chy qua gia ICD, thun tin xy dng ga xp d
hng ho, ICD ny l im nt giao thng ng b, ng st thun tin i tt c cc tnh.
ICD M nh (H Ni) c din tch 55.000m
2
vi h thng kho hn 10.000m
2
gm kho ngoi
quan, kho thng quan v kho bo thu. Hng ha xut nhp khu bng container thng qua ICD
M nh phn ln thuc khu vc H Ni vi khi lng hng thng quan trung bnh khong 1000
TEU/thng, ch yu l hng nhp. Vi tc th ha nhanh a ICD M nh vo khu vc
ni dn n kh nng m rng kh khn v t chc vn ti phc tp, gy n tc giao thng.
ICD Tin Sn c kh nng kt ni vi cc khu kinh t nng ng min Bc l H Ni, Bc
Ninh v Vnh Phc. Ngoi ra, n cn c kh nng kt ni vi tuyn ng st quc gia ni lin
Tin Sn vi pha nam Trung Quc (qua tuyn ng Lim - Yn Vin - Lo Cai) v tuyn ng
Lim - Yn Vin - Lim - Lng Sn, ni vi cng Ci Ln (qua tuyn Lim - Yn Vin - Ci Ln). ICD
Tin Sn vi 40.000 m
2
din tch kho hin i loi A theo tiu chun chu u, v 37.300 m
2
khu
bi container c qun l bi h thng qun l hin i, c kh nng tm kim container t
chnh xc cao.
Ngoi ra, vng kinh t trng im pha Bc cn c cc im thng quan ni a v im lm
th tc Hi quan ngoi ca khu nh: Thng Long (thuc khu cng nghip Bc Thng Long), Bc
Ninh, M Linh (Vnh Phc), Hng Yn, Bch ng (cng ng sng), Nam nh, Ninh Bnh.
* Vng kinh t trng im pha Nam c 10 ICD hot ng nh: ICD Phc Long, ICD
Transimex, ICD Ty Nam, ICD Tn To, ICD Sng Thn, ICD Bin Ha, ICD Tn cng- Long Bnh
(ng Nai), ICD Trng Th (Bn Ngh), ICD Sotrans v ICD Phc Long.
ICD Phc Long c v tr ti km s 7, xa l H Ni, phn khu Phc Long, qun 9 Thnh
ph H Ch Minh c Gemadept khai thc t 1995 vi din tch 120.000 m
2
phc v hng ho
xut nhp khu, ngoi ra cn c h thng 5 bi cha container rng cc v tr ln cn.
ICD Transimex c v tr thuc Th c, Thnh ph H Ch Minh, nm bn sng Si Gn,
gia cc trung tm thnh ph v khu cng nghip ng Nai, khu cng nghip Sng Thn, cch
xa l H Ni khong 500 km v trung tm Thnh ph H Ch Minh 9 km hng v hng Bc. ICD
Transimex bt u hot ng t nm 2000. ICD ny phc v cho hng ho ti cc cng bin ln
nh Tn cng, VICR v cng Si Gn. Hng container nhp c a v ICD bng ng thu;
cn hng xut c tp kt ti ICD bng ng b, ng sng, sau c a n cc cng
bin bng ng b.
ICD Ty Nam ( ICD Tanamexco) c a vo hot ng vo nm 2004, y l a im
thun li cung cp dch v container cho khch hng ca thnh ph H Ch Minh v cc tnh ln
cn. Vi trn 125.000 m
2
din tch bi cha container, 8.000m
2
nh kho ngoi quan cng vi
700m
2
cu cng, ICD ny c th tip nhn x lan trng ti 1.000 tn.

Hin trng mt s ICD thuc khu vc kinh t trng im pha Nam

Cng cn T
T

Ch tiu ch yu

n v Phc
Long
Transim
ex
Bin
Ho
Sng
Thn
Tn
To
Trng
Th
1 Qui m ha 12 9 17 50 6,4 1,3
2 Kho cha hng

m
2
40.000 49.000 32.000 50.000 15.50
0

3 Bi cha container m
2
80.000 13.000 30.000 198.00
0
19.80
0

4 Cu cng m 165.000 100 75
5 Trang thit b bc xp
Cn cu trc c nh Ci 6 3
CHO MNG NGY THNH LP TRNG I HC HNG HI VIT NAM 01/ 04/2012
Tp ch Khoa hc Cng ngh Hng hi S 30 4/2012

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Cn cu trc di ng Ci 16 2 2 7
Xe nng container Ci 50 5 2 2 3 6
Xe nng hng Ci 12 7 3 1 11
6 Sn lng thng qua 10
3
TEU 365 178 36,3 65
7 Phng tin vn ti
S lan Ci 55 4
u ko Ci 150 10 40 20 3
R moc Ci 425 75 20 9
Ngun: Quy hoch pht trin h thng cng cn ti cc vng kinh t trng im

ICD Tn To thnh lp theo Quyt nh s 398/Q-GSQL ngy 09/11/1999 ca Tng cc
Hi quan, c v tr ti KCN Tn To, phng Tn To, qun Bnh Tn, TP.HCM. Tn To l KCN
u tin trong c nc c thnh lp kho ngoi quan, vi qui m 64.000m
2
bi container, 3 kho
ngoi quan vi din tch trn 15.000m
2
v c Chi cc Hi Quan Tn To ti ICD nn vic lm th
tc cho hng ha xut nhp khu rt thun li.
ICD Sng Thn c tng din tch 500.000 m
2
, l n v trc thuc Tn Cng, nm trong Khu
cng nghip (KCN) Sng Thn thuc phng Bnh Ho, qun Thun An Bnh Dng. ICD ny
s dng phng thc vn ti ng b, phc v trc tip cho nhu cu vn ti, lm th tc thng
quan cho hng ho xut nhp khu ca khu cng nghip Sng Thn v cc khu cng nghip ln
cn.
ICD Bin Ho thuc cng ty TNHH Tn Ngha, c Chnh ph cho php thnh lp thng
6/2000. ICD Bin Ho s dng ch yu l vn ti ng b, ngoi ra cn kt hp c vn ti
ng b v ng sng. Vi din tch trn 180.000m
2
. H thng kho ca ICD Bin Ha bao gm
10 kho trong c 9 kho ngoi quan, v mt kho thng vi tng din tch 46.385m
2
.
ICD Tn Cng Long Bnh c v tr nm trong trung tm t gic pht trin kinh t chin lc
v tim nng nht Vit Nam gm thnh ph H Ch Minh, tnh ng Nai, tnh Bnh Dng v tnh
B Ra -Vng Tu thuc vng kinh t trng im pha Nam. ICD Tn Cng Long Bnh rng 80
hc ta c kh nng thng quan 500.000 tues/ nm, khong 10 triu tn hng ha qua kho. ICD
Tn Cng Long Bnh l ni u tin Vit Nam p dng thng quan in t.
ICD Trng Th nm khu vc Trng Th, qun Th c, Thnh ph H Ch Minh. ICD
ny trc thuc cng Bn Ngh, phc v cho khai thc cng Bn Ngh, c tng din tch l 13.000
m
2
v i vo hot ng nm 2004.
ICD Sotrans c a im ti Km 09 Xa L H Ni, Phng Trng Th, Th c, thnh ph
H Ch Minh v chnh thc i vo hot ng vo nm 2010. ICD Sotrans c din tch 10 ha
(100.000 m
2
), v tr thun li, dy chuyn cng ngh cao, dch v trn gi m bo p ng hon
chnh nhu cu vn chuyn cho cc Ch tu, cc Cng, cc cng ty xut nhp khu, cc cng ty
Thng mi v dch v
ICD Phc Long c din tch 160.000 m
2
. Cng ICD Phc Long c chia lm 4 khu vc,
Depot 01,02,03, 04 v ICD Phc Long nm gn on ng dc theo xa l H Ni. ICD Phc
Long p dng h thng trao i d liu in t (EDI) trao i thng tin vi cc hng tu. H
thng qun l cng CMS (Container Management System) ca ICD Phc Long c thit k c
bit nhm p ng thch hp nht vi iu kin c th ca Cng ty v p dng mt cch hiu qu
nhng li th ca IT (Information Technology) v EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) trong vic
qun l ICD.
Nh vy, h thng cng cn ca Vit Nam ang giai on hnh thnh v pht trin, tnh
hiu qu cn thp. Cng cn vng kinh t trng im pha Bc c s lng ICD cn t, din tch v
quy m khai thc cn nh b, cha c cc trang thit b xp d chuyn dng, li ch kt ni vi h
thng giao thng quc gia l ng b m cha c cc kt ni vi ng bin v ng sng. Do
, phm vi hot ng ca cc ICD ny cng c mt s hn ch, ch yu cung cp dch v vn ti
ng b v cho thu kho bi l chnh. Cc ICD ny cha hnh thnh mng li trn cc hnh
lang vn ti container ch yu v cha c cc trang thit b xp d chuyn dng, cha c s gn
kt cht ch vi cng bin. Cng cn phn b ch yu khu vc Pha Nam do c s chnh lch
v khi lng hng container xut nhp khu. Cc ICD khu vc Pha Nam pht huy c vai
tr vn c ca mnh trong vic lm im trung chuyn hng ha gia cc doanh nghip xut nhp
khu v cng bin.

CHO MNG NGY THNH LP TRNG I HC HNG HI VIT NAM 01/ 04/2012
Tp ch Khoa hc Cng ngh Hng hi S 30 4/2012

93
3. Gii php
Vic s dng ICD trong dy chuyn VTPT l mt vn quan trng v n gp phn gim
tc nghn giao thng trong khu vc cng, gim t l mt mt, hao ht ca hng ho v gim chi
ph lu thng do vn ti nhanh hn, do vic u t pht trin cc cng cn v gn kt cht ch
gia ICD vi cng bin l mt yu cu cp thit pht trin VTPT Vit Nam. nng cao
hiu qu hot ng ca cc ICD trong hot ng VTPT Vit Nam, cn thc hin mt s gii
php sau:
- Cn c quy hoch h thng giao thng kt ni gia cc khu cng nghip, ICD v cc cng,
vic xy dng cc ICD cn theo quy hoch pht trin h thng cng cn c Chnh ph ph
duyt.
- khu vc kinh t trng im Min Bc, cc ICD cn trang b cc thit b xp d chuyn
dng v cn c s kt ni vi ng sng, ng st to ra s kt ni hp l gia cc ICD vi
h thng giao thng quc gia.
- Cn c s h tr vn u t ca Nh nc v kt cu h tng giao thng vn ti to ra
s kt ni cc ICD vi cc mng li giao thng quc gia nh ng b, ng st, ng
sng,
- Cn c vic phi hp gia cc B, ngnh c lin quan trong vic thnh lp cc ICD
pht trin h thng ICD cho ph hp, m bo hng c gii phng nhanh chng, an ton, tin
li v tit kim c chi ph.
- u t pht trin h thng thng tin hin i m bo kt ni gia ch hng, Hi quan,
ngi giao nhn, v cc B ngnh c lin quan.
- y mnh cng tc ci cch hnh chnh th tc Hi quan, p dng hnh thc thng quan
in t cho hng ho.
- V pha cc doanh nghip khai thc ICD cn tuyn dng v o to ngun nhn lc c
nng lc chuyn mn nh: giao nhn, bc xp, qun l,

TI LIU THAM KHO

[1] Vin chin lc v pht trin giao thng vn ti: Quy hoch pht trin h thng cng cn ti
cc vng kinh t trng im.
[2] Nguyn Hu Hng (1998), Nghin cu hot ng cng cn Gia Lm- H Ni xut hng
pht trin cng cn Vit Nam, Lun vn Thc s Khoa hc, Trng i hc Hng hi, Hi
phng.
[3] http://www.phuclongicd.com; http://www.dongnai.gov.vn.


Ngi phn bi n: TS. V Tr Phi


VN AN TON VN CHUYN HNG NGUY HIM BNG TU BIN
ISSUES ON SAFE CARRIAGE OF DANGEROUS GOODS BY SEA

TS. NGUYN NGC KHANG
Vin Khoa hc C bn, Trng HHH
Tm tt
Vn vn ti hng ha bng ng bin ang c nhiu thay i. S lng v chng
loi hng ha nguy him c vn chuyn trn cc tu bin tng; phng thc vn ti,
ti trng, cc loi tu bin tng; ng thi, nhng trng hp s c v tai nn tu bin
chuyn ch loi hng ha nguy him cng tng ln. Cn phi lm g bo m an ton
cho con tu v con ngi trong qu trnh vn chuyn cc loi hng ha nguy him bng
tu bin? Bi bo trnh by mt vi vn ang c quan tm trong lnh vc vn
chuyn hng nguy him bng tu bin hin nay.
Abstract
Recently, many changes in cargo shipping have been seen. The increase in the number
of sea incidents follows that of ship types, amount of dangerous cargo by sea and ship
tonnage. What to do safeguard ships and seamen? This article deals with some issues
inrelation with dangerous cargo shipping navadays.