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PRELIMINARY COPY-REV-1

BASIC CONCEPTS OF
PRE-ENGINEERED STEEL BUILDINGS

By:
S. Khalid Hashmi
Deputy General Manager –Technical Services
Kirby Building Systems India Ltd

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Table of Contents

1. INTRODUCTION................................................................................................. 3

2. NOMENCLATURE.............................................................................................. 4

3. CONCEPT OF PRE-ENGINEERED METAL BUILDING SYSTEM......... 29

4. ADVANTAGES OF PRE-ENGINEERED BUILDING SYSTEMS.............. 37

5. APPLICATIONS OF PRE-ENGINEERED STEEL BUILDINGS ............... 39

6. PEB SYSTEMS IN INDIA................................................................................. 46

7. WORKING WITH PEB SYSTEMS ................................................................. 47

8. DESIGN OF PEB SYSTEMS ............................................................................ 48

9. MATERIALS AND FABRICATION ............................................................... 53

10. SITE ERECTION ............................................................................................... 54

11. WARRANTY....................................................................................................... 54

12. CONCLUSION ................................................................................................... 54

13. REFERENCE BOOKS & CODES: .................................................................. 55

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Chapter – 1

PRE-ENGINEERED STEEL BUILDINGS SYSTEMS

INTRODUCTION
Technological improvement over the years has contributed immensely to enhancement of
quality of life through various new products & services. Another major impact of this
phenomenon was the availability of these products & services in ready-to-use forms. One
such revolution was the Pre-Engineered Steel Buildings (PEB). Though its origin can be
traced back to 1960’s, its potential has been felt only during the recent years. This was
mainly due to the development in technology, which helped in computerize the design &
drawing.

Though initially only off-the shelf products were available in these configurations, aided
by the technological development, tailor made solutions are also made using this
technology in a very short duration. A recent survey by the Metal Building Manufacturers
Association (MBMA) shows that about 60% of the non-residential low rise building in
USA are Pre-Engineered steel buildings.

The pre-engineered steel building industry is in its infancy in the Indian sub-continent.
However, with the setting up of the state-of-the-art Kirby Building Systems
Manufacturing plant near Hyderabad and the significant advantages of this form of
construction over conventional structural steel and RCC construction, it is inevitable that
PEB system of construction would soon dominate the Indian construction market.

Unfortunately, design schools and the textbooks tend to ignore this type of construction,
apparently assuming that it belongs to manufacturer’s domain. The principal objective of
this is to present architects, engineers, contractors, construction specifiers, facility
managers and building officials with enough information to enable them to make
intelligent decisions in their design and evaluation activities. Pre-engineered Buildings
offer complete freedom of design to accommodate the customer needs.

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Chapter – 2
NOMENCLATURE

ACCESSORY: A supplementary building component added to a


basic Kirby Structure, such as a door, window, skylight,
ventilator, etc.
AISI: American Iron & Steel Institute
AISC: American Institute of Steel Construction
ALUMINIZED: Aluminium coated steel
ANCHOR BOLTS: Bolts used to anchor the structural members
to the concrete floor, foundation or other support. This usually
refers to the bolts at the bottom of all columns.
ANCHOR BOLT DRAWING: A plan view of the foundation
showing all dimensions and sections required to properly locate
the anchor bolts, including projection above concrete, required
recess, etc. Column reactions (magnitude and direction), and base
plate dimensions are also included.
ANGLE: A hot rolled member with two legs making an angle of
900 in between.
APPROVAL DRAWING: A general arrangement drawing with
details sent to the customer to verify design and dimensions and to
verify the sales contract description of materials and services the
manufacturer has agreed to furnish. This includes the anchor bolt
drawings, framing plans, elevations and sections.
ASSEMBLY: Arrangement of different components to fit
together.
ASTRAGAL: A closure between the two leaves of a double swing
or a double slide door used to close the joint.
AUTOMATIC WELDING: A welding procedure utilizing a
machine to make a weld.

AUXILIARY LOADS: All specified dynamic live loads required


by the contract document other than the basic design loads which
the building must safely withstand such as cranes, material
handling systems and impact loads.

A.W.S: American Welding Society.

AXIAL FORCE: A force tending to elongate and shorten a


member.
BACK-UP PLATES: The plates used in between the hillside
washer and column web.
BASE ANGLE: Continuous angle fixed to floor slab or grade
beam for attachment of all wall panels.

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BASE CHANNEL: A light gauge cold-formed channel, which


replaces the base angle when liner panel or double sheeted
partitions are required.

BASE PLATE: The end-plate of a column or beam, which rests


on the supporting surface, usually secured with anchors.
BAY: The space between frame centerlines or primary
supporting members in the longitudinal direction of the
building. Also called stanchion spacing.
BEAD MASTIC: Sealant furnished in a continuous roll,
normally used for sealing roof panel laps. See Endlap Mastic.
BEAM: A horizontal Structural Member, usually carrying
vertical load, which is ordinarily subject to bending.

BEAM, CANTILEVER: A beam supported at one end only and


free at the other, such as brackets, canopies, flagpoles.

BEAM, CONTINUOUS: A beam, which has more than two


points of support, (continuous span).
BEAM, SIMPLE: A beam simply supported at both ends,
theoretically with no rotational end restraint.
BEARING FRAME: Frame made up of beams and columns so
constructed that joints are not capable of transferring moment
due to lateral loads, usually used at sheeted end walls of a metal
building, and when not subject to auxiliary loads or to further
building expansion.

BENT PLATE: A plate bend to form an angle.

BILL OF MATERIAL: A list of components used for


fabrication, shipping, receiving and accounting purposes.
BIRD SCREEN: Wire mesh used to prevent birds from entering
the building through ventilators and louvers.
BLIND RIVET: A small headed pin with expandable shank for
joining light gage metal. Typically used to attach flashing,
gutter, etc. also referred to as a Pop Rivet.
BRACE GRIP: Galvanized steel strands when formed helical
hairpin that wraps itself tightly on the strand with a little help.
BRACE RODS/ANGLES: Rods or angles placed diagonally in
roof and walls for transferring wind loads to foundations and
stabilizing the building.

BRACED BAY: The bay where the bracing is provided.

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BRACING STRAP: The steel band (strap) used to strengthen the


purlins and girts.
BRACKET: A structural support projecting from a wall or column to
which another structural member is fastened. Example: Crane
runway brackets.
BRIDGE CRANE: A load lifting system consisting of a hoist, which
moves longitudinally on, a runway made of beams and rails. Loads
can be moved to any point within a rectangle formed by the bridge
span and runway length.
BRIDGING: Structural members used to give weak axis stability to
open web joists.
BRITISH THERMAL UNIT (BTU): That amount of heat required to
raise the temperature of one pound (2.2 Kg) of water by 1oF (0.56oC)
BUILDING CODES: Regulations established by recognized agencies
describing design loads, procedures and construction details for
structures. Usually apply to designated geographical areas.
BUILDING LENGTH: The length of the building in the longitudinal
direction.

BUILDING WIDTH: It is the lateral width of the building.

BUILT-UP SECTION: A structural member, usually an “H” shape,


made from individual flat plates welded together.
BUILT-UP ROOFING: A roof covering made up of alternating
layers of tar and asphaltic materials (mostly used for flat roofs).
BUTT PLATE: The end plate of a structural member, which usually
butts against a similar plate of another member to form a connection.
Used for moment resisting connections.
BUTTERFLY CANOPY: A free standing, single column supporting
roof structure, having a valley gutter at the centerline of the building,
and the two outer edges of the roof projecting upwards.

BY FRAMED GIRT: The girt, which passes continuously from the


outside flanges of the columns.

“C” SECTION: A member formed from steel coils into the shape of a
block “C”.

CABLE CATCH ASSEMBLY: It is the operating handle used to


open and close the Ridge Ventilator.

CALORIE: Quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one


gram of water through 10C (1 BTU = 252 Calories).

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CAMBER: Upward curvature of a beam in the place of its


web before loading, to offset an anticipated deflection when
load is applied.
CANOPY: An overhanging or projecting roof structure with
the extreme end usually unsupported.
CAP PLATE: A plate located at the top of a column or end of
a beam for capping the exposed end of the member. Used for
pinned conditions.
CAPILLARY ACTION: The property of water by which it
passes through the small passages above the water level.
CATWALK: A narrow walkway used to provide access to
mechanical equipments normally supported on roof
platforms.
CAULK: See sealant.

CAULKING: Sealant used in making watertight joints.

CENTER LINE: It is the line passing through center of


gravity of the section.
CHANNEL (HOT ROLLED): A member formed while in a
semi-molten state at the steel mill to a general “C” shape
having standard dimensions and properties specified by AISC
or the steel producer.
CHECKERED PLATE: The hot rolled plate (strong in
bending), used for flooring in catwalks, staircases, etc.
CLEAR HEIGHT: The vertical dimension from the finished
floor to the top of the cap plate of the column.

CLEAR SPAN: Building without internal columns.

CLIP: A plate or angle used to fasten two or more members


together.
CLOSER: Mechanical device, usually attached to a door,
which prevents closing with excessive force.
CLOSURE (FOAM CLOSURE): Profiled foam material used
inside or outside profiled roof or wall panels to form weather
tight seal.

COIL: The roll of sheets or wires.

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COLD-FORMED STEEL: The process of using press brakes or


rolling mills to cold form sheet or strip steel into desired shapes. A
steel member that has been formed into its functional shape without
heat being applied to aid in the forming.
COLLATERAL LOAD: The static load other than basic design loads,
such as sprinklers, mechanical and electrical systems and ceilings.
COLUMN: A primary structural member used in a vertical position
on a building to transfer loads from main roof beams, trusses or
rafters to the foundation.

COMPONENT: An independent part of an assembly.

COMPRESSION: The act of causing material to contract or shorten.

CONCENTRATED LOAD: A load applied on a member at a point or


over a very short distance.
CONCRETE NOTCH: A notch or block-out formed along the
outside edge of the foundation to provide support for the wall panels
and to help serve as a closure along their bottom edge.
CONTINUITY: The terminology given to a structural system
denoting the transfer of loads and stresses from member to member
as if there were no connections.
CONTINUOUS BEAM: A beam, which has more than two points of
support.
CONTINUOUS RIDGE VENT: Two or more accessories mounted
on the building ridge that allows air circulation.
CONTRACT DOCUMENTS: The documents, which define the
responsibilities of the parties involved in the sale, design, supply and
erection (if any) of a metal building system. Such documents
normally consist of a contract and specification. Plans may be
included.
CORNER COLUMN: A column at any corner of a building. Corner
columns may be primary frame columns or post and beam columns.
COUNTER FLASH: The trim used to connect the sidewall sheeting
of the main building with the roof sheeting of the small building.
COVERING: The exterior metal roof and wall paneling of a metal
building system.
CRANE: A machine designed to lift and/or move material by means
of a hoist.

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CRANE BACK-LEG: The free vertical member of the Crane Tower.

CRANE BEAM: Support for overhead traveling bridge crane.

CRANE BRACKET: Structural support welded to the primary


building frame to permit attachment of a crane runway beam. (see
bracket).
CRANE BRIDGE SPAN: It is the span of the beam over which the
crane trolley moves.
CRANE CAPACITY: It is the capacity of the crane, which it can lift
safely.
CRANE LEG: The vertical member of the Crane Tower, on which
the crane beam rests.

CRANE LOAD: The weight of crane trolley.

CRANE RAILS: Rails welded or bolted to crane beams to form the


track for bridge crane wheels.
CRANE STOPPER: A small vertical member welded to the top of
the crane beam to stop the crane bridge.
CROSS SECTION: An engineering term referring to a drawing or a
plan section of any object cut at right angles to its axes.
CURB: Raised flashing around roof openings to form waterproof
openings.

CURVED EAVE: Curved panels provided at eave.

DAMPER: Baffle plate in a ventilator.

DEAD LOAD: Weight of the structure.

DEFLECTION: The displacement of a structural member of system


under load.
DESIGN LOADS: The loads expressly specified in the contract
documents, which the metal building system is designed to safely
resist.

DIAGONAL BRACING: See Brace Rods.

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DIAPHRAGM ACTION: The capacity of roof, wall or floor system


to resist load in its own plane (as building roof and wall systems
resisting longitudinal wind load without rod bracing).
DOOR GUIDE: An angle or channel guide used to stabilize or keep
plumb a sliding or rolling door during its operation.
DOOR STOPPER: A Clip bolted to door vertical stile, to stop it from
sliding.
DOUBLE CHANNEL: Two channels placed web to web for
additional strength. Normally used in end post conditions.
DOUBLE FACE TAPE: The tape, which is capable to stick from
both the sides, used with insulation.

DOUBLE SLIDE DOOR: The sliding door with two door leaves.

DOWNSPOUT: A hollow section used to carry water from the gutter


of a building to the ground or storm drain.
DOWNSPOUT ELBOW/SHOE: Cold formed sheet metal matching
the downspout shape and curved at bottom so as to direct water away
from a wall when attached to the lower end of a downspout.
DOWNSPOUT STRAPS: The metal straps used to fix the
downspouts with the sidewalls.

DRIFT PIN: A tapered pin used during erection to align holes I steel
members to be connected by bolting (also called spud wrench).

EAVE: A line along the roof/sidewall intersection formed by the


inside faces of the roof and wall panels.
EAVE FLASHING/TRIM: A sheet metal closure which functions
primarily to provide weather tightness in a structure and secondarily
to enhance appearance.

EAVE GUTTER: The gutter at eave used to drain water.

EAVE HEIGHT: The vertical dimension from finished floor to the


eave.
EAVE STRUT: Structural member at the eave, which supports roof,
cover and connects to wall panels.

EAVE STRUT CLIP: The clip used to support the eave strut.

EDGE DISTANCE: The distance between the plate corner and the
center of the bolt.

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ELASTIC DESIGN: A design concept utilizing the proportional


behavior of materials when all stresses are limited to specified
allowable values of the yield stress of the materials.
ELEVATION:
- Distance above or below a prescribed datum or reference.
b) Engineering term referring to any side view of a structure.
END FRAME: A frame located at the endwall of a building, which
supports the loads from a portion of the end bay.
END WALL: An exterior wall, which is perpendicular to the ridge of
the building.
END WALL COLUMN: A vertical member located at the endwall of
a building, which supports the girts.
END WALL EXTENSION: The projection of the roof past the
endwall.
END WALL RAFTER: Normally a cold formed “C” section
supported by end posts on post and beam endwalls. End rafters can
also be a built-up plate or hot rolled section if required by design
loads.
END LAP: A term used to describe the lap condition occurring at a
purlin location where the end of one panel overlaps the panel below
it.
END LAP MASTIC: Sealant in extruded bead form used to seal roof
panel endlaps for weather tightness.

ENDPLATE: A plate welded at the end of a member.

ERECTION: The on site assembling of pre-fabricated components to


form the complete structure.
ERECTION DRAWINGS: A package of drawings issued for
construction and includes anchor bolt drawings and roof and wall
framing (erection) plans that identify individual components and
accessories furnished in sufficient detail to permit proper erection of
the building.

EXPANSION JOINT: A separation between adjoining parts, which


is provided to allow small movements, such as those caused by
temperature changes, to occur independently.
EXTERIOR MOUNTED: A girt system where the girts are mounted
outside the columns and are supported by the outside column flange.

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FABRICATION: The manufacturing process usually performed in a


plant to convert raw material into finished metal building
components. The main operations are cold forming, cutting,
punching, welding, cleaning and painting.
FAR SIDEWALL: The sidewall of the building, which is on the other
side.
FASCIA: An accessory whose function is to enhance the appearance
of a wall. Also used to cover the eave or gable of a building.
FIELD: The “Job site”, “building site”, or general market area outside
of the manufacturer.
FIELD WORK: A term used to indicate the need for field personnel
to modify building components before final assembly is possible.

FILLER STRIP: See “Closure”.

FIN NECK BOLT: The bolts whose heads are flattened (reduced
head size) and used at the exposed surface of the framed openings.
FINISHED FLOOR: Top of the concrete slab or the finished concrete
surface.
FIXED BASE: A column base that is designed to resist rotation as
well as horizontal or vertical movement.

FLANGE: The projecting edge of a structural member.

FLANGE BRACE: An angle member from the flange of columns or


rafters to girts or purlins to provide lateral support and stability.
FLASHING: A sheet metal closure primarily to provide weather
tightness in a structure and to enhance appearance.
FLAT MILD WASHER: Washers used in between the nuts and
Hillside washer for the bracings.
FLUSH FRAMES: A wall framing system where the outside flange
of the girts and columns are flush.
FOOTING: A pad or mat, usually of concrete, located under a
column, wall, or other structural member, that is used to distribute the
loads from that member into the supporting soil without exceeding
the allowable soil bearing pressure.

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FORCE: The action of one body on another body, which changes


or tends to change its state of rest or motion. A force may be
expressed in kN/cm², N.m or other similar units and may act in
any one of the following ways:
a) Compression b) Shear
c) Tension d) Torsion
e) Flexure
FOUNDATION: The substructure, which supports a building or
other structure.
FRAME: Primary structural members made up of columns, rafters
which support secondary framing.
FRAMED OPENING: Framing (headers and jambs) and flashing
which surround an opening in a building. Usually for field
installed accessories such as overhead doors.
FRAMING: The primary and secondary members (columns,
rafters, girts, purlins, brace rods, etc.), which go together to make
up the skeleton of a structure to which the covering can be applied.
GABLE: The triangular portion of the endwall of a building
directly under the sloping roof and above the eave height line.
GABLE ANGLE: Angle fastened to purlins at rake for attachment
of endwall sheets.

GABLE ROOF: A ridged roof that terminates in gables.

GABLE TRIM: A flashing designed to close the opening between


the roof and endwall panels.

GAGE: The distance between holes (see “Holes in Plates”).

GAUGE: Numerals referring to thickness of thin sheeting


materials. No direct mathematical relation between gauge number
and thickness; the higher the gauge number, the thinner the
sheeting material.

GALVANIZED: Steel coated with Zinc for corrosion resistance.

GIRDER: A steel member (either hot rolled or built-up).

GIRT: Secondary horizontal member to which wall panels are


attached usually cold formed “Z”.

GIRT CLIP: Angle clips used to connect the girts to the columns.

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GLAZING: Providing glass panels instead of wall sheetings.

GRADE: The term used when referring to the ground elevation


around a building.
GRADE BEAM: A concrete beam around the perimeter of a
building.
GRATING: Flat steel bars when welded with some spacing in
between to form a strong flooring system.
GROUT: Non-shrinking sand cement mixture used under base plates
to obtain uniform bearing surface.
GUSSET PLATE: Usually a triangular steel stiffener plate used to
help in distributing the load at a connection.
GUTTER: A channel member installed at the eave of the roof for the
purpose of carrying water from the roof to the drains or downspouts.

“H” SECTION: A steel member with an H cross-section.

HAIRPIN: Reinforcing steel used to transfer anchor bolt shear (due to


column thrust) to concrete floor mass.

HANDRAILS: Horizontal and vertical supports at staircase ends.

HANGAR DOORS: These doors provide huge access space required


for Aircraft Hangar Buildings and Ship repair service buildings.

HAUNCH: Intersection of column and rafter.

HAUNCH BRACE: A diagonal brace from the intersection of the


column and rafter section of the rigid frame to the eave to prevent
lateral buckling of the haunch.

HEADER: Horizontal member over an opening in a wall.

HEM: Edge of trim or flashing turned 180 degrees on itself for


increased strength.
HIGH STRENGTH BOLTS: Any bolt made from steel having a
tensile strength in excess of 690 mega Pascal. Some examples are:
ASTM A-325, A-354, A-449 and A-490.
HIGH STRENGTH STEEL: Structural steel having a yield stress in
excess of 36000 pounds per square inch (250 Mpa).

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HILLSIDE WASHER: A washer having non-parallel faces normally


used on brace rods.
HINGED BASE: A column base that is designed to resist horizontal
and vertical movements only.
HIP ROOF: A roof, which rises by inclined planes from all four
sides of a building. The line where two adjacent sloping sides of a
roof meet is called the Hip.
HOOD: Metal flashing to cover exterior sliding door track along the
full length of the door header.
HOT ROLLED SHAPES: Steel section (angles, channels, S-shapes,
W-shapes, etc.), which is formed by rolling mills while the steel, is in
a semi-molten state.

HOLES IN PLATES: The following are the terms used.

PITCH: Distance between centerlines of holes along longitudinal axis


of plate.
GAGE: Distance between centerlines of holes along transverse axis
of plate.

EDGE DISTANCE: Distance from center of hole to edge of plate.

HORIZONTAL KNEE SPLICE: The horizontal connection type


between the column and the rafter.
HOT ROLLED SHAPES: Steel sections (angles, channels, I-beams,
etc.), which are formed while in a semi-molten state at the steel mill
to a shape having standard dimensions and properties specified by
AISC or the steel producer.

IMPACT LOAD: The load, which strikes forcefully.

IMPACT WRENCH: A pneumatic device used to tighten nuts on


bolts.
INSULATION: Any material used in building construction for the
reduction of heat transfer.
INTERMEDIATE RAFTER SPLICE: The connection between the
two pieces of a rafter member.
INTERNAL PRESSURE: Pressure inside a building, which is a
function of wind velocity and number and location of openings.
JACK BEAM: A primary member used to support another beam or
truss and eliminate a column support.

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JAMB: Vertical member at the side of a wall opening.


JIB CRANE: A cantilevered boom or horizontal beam with hoist and
trolley. The lifting machine may pick up loads in all or part of a
circle around the column to which it is attached.
JIG: A device used to hold pieces of material in a certain position
during fabrication.

JOIST: Horizontal member for supporting floor or roof decking.

KICK-OUT: An extension attached to the bottom of a downspout to


direct water away from a wall. Also referred to as Turnout or Elbow.
KILO-CALORIE (K.CAL): Quantity of heat required to raise the
temperature of one kilogram of water by 1oC.

KILOGRAM: Metric Unit of Mass (1 Kg – 2.2 lbm)

KIP: An imperial unit to measure force equal to 1000 pounds


equivalent to 4.4 kilonewtons.
KIRBY-DECK PANEL: Standard corrugated panel used for floor
deck.
KIRBY-RIB PANEL: Standard corrugated panel used for roof, liner
and soffits.
KIRBY-WALL PANEL: Standard corrugated panel used for exterior
surfaces of wall.

KNEE: See Haunch.

KNEE-BRACE: A diagonal brace designed to resist horizontal loads


usually from wind or moving equipment connecting the column to a
beam by forming a rigid triangle.
LEAN-TO: A structure dependent upon another structure for partial
support and having only one slope or pitch.
LEVELLING PLATE: A steel plate used on top of a foundation or
other support on which a structural column can rest.

LINER PANEL: Interior wall sheeting.

LINTEL: A beam: concrete, steel or stone, in masonry walls, placed


above doors, openings or windows to support masonry above.

LIP: A stiffener at the edge of flange of cold-formed members.

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LIVE LOAD: Any variable temporary load on the structure.

LOADS:
a) Dead Load e) Wind Load
b) Impact Load f) Crane Load
c) Roof Live Load g) Collateral Load
d) Seismic Load h) Auxiliary Load
LONGITUDINAL EXPANSION JOINT: A joint down the length of
a building to allow small, relative movements, such as those caused
by temperature change, in the building width.
LOUVER: An opening provided with slanted blades, fixed or
movable, to allow flow of air.

MACHINE BOLTS: Mild steel bolts conforming to ASTM-A307.

MAIN MEMBERS: The main load carrying members of a structural


system including columns, endwall posts, rafters and other main
support members.
MANSARD FASCIA: A tilted fascia projected from the wall and
extended above roofline to form as decorative appearance and to hide
the roofline.
MASONRY: Construction materials such as bricks, concrete blocks,
ceramic blocks and concrete.

MASTIC: Material used to seal cracks, joints and laps.

MBMA: Metal Building Manufacturers Association.

MBMA CODE OF STANDARD PRACTICES: A listing of normal


conditions that apply to the sale, design, fabrication and erection of a
metal building system.
METAL BUILDING SYSTEM: A metal building system consists of
a group of coordinated components, including structural members,
exterior covering panels, fastening devices and accessories, which
have been designed for specific loads, which will work together
compatibly and which have engineered so that they may be mass
produced and assembled in various combinations, or in a
combination with various collateral materials, to provide an enclosed
or partially enclosed structure.

METER: Meter unit of length (1 m = 3.28ft)

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MEZZANINE: An intermediate floor within a metal building used


for offices or storage, may or may not be connected to mainframe
building, and consisting of beams, columns, joists, deck and edge
angles to receive reinforced concrete.

MICRON: Equivalent to 0.001 Millimeter.

MIL: Equivalent to 0.001 inch.

MOMENT: The tendency of a force to cause rotation of bending


about a point or axis. Force times a distance (Torque).
MOMENT CONNECTION: A connection designed to transfer
moment as well as axial and shear forces between connecting
members.

MOMENT OF INERTIA: A physical property of a member which


helps define strength and deflection characteristics.

MONITOR: Raised gable or triangular portion of main building at


ridge location to allow lighting or ventilation at vertical sides of
monitor.
MONOLITHIC CONSTRUCTION: A method of pouring concrete
grade beam and floor slab together to form the building foundation
without forming and pouring each separately.
MONORAIL: A single rail support for a material handling system.
Normally a standard hot rolled I-Beam.
MONORAIL BEAM: A single beam support for a material handling
system. Normally a hot rolled I-beam.

MONO-SLOPE: Single Slope Roof.

Mpa: Mega-Pascal.

MULLION: A vertical bar or pier between panes or sections of


windows and screens.
MULTI-SPAN BUILDING: Building consisting of more than one
gable across the width, which may or may not have interior columns
within each gable.

NEWTON: Metric unit of force (1N = 4.45 lbf)

NOTCH: A corner cut in the concrete edge at finished floor level,


where the wall sheeting rests.

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PASCAL: Metric unit of stress or pressure, force per unit area (N/M2)

PANEL: The roof and wall sheeting.

PARAPET WALL: That portion of the vertical wall, which extends


above the roofline at the intersection of the wall and roof.

PARTITION: A non-load bearing interior wall. It can sustain its own


weight but does not support the ceiling or roof and withstands a
minimal 0.25-kN/M²-wind load.

PEAK: The uppermost point of a gable.

PEAK PANEL: The panel, which is used at the ridge.

PEAK SIGN: A sign attached to the peak of the building at endwall


showing Kirby as the building manufacturer.
PERSONNEL DOOR: An accessory, which provides an entrance to
the building interior.
PIECE MARK: A number given to each component of the building
for erection identification.
PIER: A concrete structure designed to transfer vertical load from the
column base to a footing.
PIG SPOUT: A sheet metal section designed to direct the flow of
water out through the face of the gutter rather than through a
downspout.
PILASTER: A reinforced or enlarged portion of a masonry wall to
provide support for roof loads or lateral loads on the wall.
PINNED BASE: A column base that is designed to resist horizontal
and vertical movement, but not rotation.
PIN CONNECTION: A connection designed to transfer the axial and
shear forces between connecting members, but not moments.
PIPE FLASHING: An accessory used to cover pipes (such as sewer
or furnace ventilation pipes) that penetrate into the roof panel.

PITCH: Slope of the roof.

PLASTIC DESIGN: A design concept based on multiplying the


actual loads by a suitable load factor using the yield stress as the
maximum stress in any member.

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PLASTIC PANELS: See Translucent Light Panels.

PLAN: The vertical projection of a building horizontal cross section.

PONDING: The gathering of water at low or irregular areas on a


roof.

POP RIVET: Used for joining flashing and light gauge metal trims.

PORTAL FRAME: Column and beam bracing used in lieu of


standard rod or cable bracing, to provide clear access.
POST AND BEAM ENDWALL: A system of endwall framing
consisting of upright or vertical members (posts) with pinned ends
and supporting horizontal beams.
PRE-ENGINEER: To design and detail components beforehand.
Used also to mean the fabrication and design of standard sections.
PRE-FABRICATE: To fabricate or build beforehand. To
manufacture standard sections that can be rapidly assembled.
PRE-PAINTED COIL: Coil metal, which received a paint coating
prior to the forming operation.
PRESS BRAKE: A machine used in cold-forming metal sheet or strip
into desired cross section.
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE: Concrete in which the reinforcing
cables, wires or rods in the concrete are tensioned before there is load
on the member, holding the concrete in compression for greater
strength.
PRIMARY FRAMING: The main load carrying members of a
structural system, generally the columns and rafters or other main
support members.
PRIMER PAINT: The initial coat of paint applied in the shop to the
structural framing of a building for protection against the elements
during shipping and erection.

PRISMATIC BEAM: A beam with uniform rectangular cross section

PURLIN: A horizontal secondary structural member bolted to the


rafters, which transfers the roof loads from the roof covering to the
primary frames.
PURLIN EXTENSION: A projecting secondary member used in
connection with overhanging roofs.

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PURLIN LINE: The extreme outer, or exterior, edge of the purlins.

R.F: A single gable rigid frame building.

RAFTER: Primary member supported on columns.

RAKE: The intersection of the plane of the roof and the plane of the
gable.
RAKE ANGLE: Angle fastened to purlins at rake for attachment of
endwall sheets.
RAKE TRIM: Sheet metal flashing used to cover the intersection of
the roof and the endwall of a building.
REACTIONS: The resisting forces at the column bases of a frame,
holding the frame in equilibrium under a given loading condition.
REINFORCING STEEL: The steel bars placed in concrete to help
carry the tension, compression and shear stresses, as well as
temperature stresses.
REVISION: A significant change in building design, building order,
or product worthy of notation.

RIDGE: Peak of a gabled building.


RIDGE CONNECTION: A connection between two members which
transfers the moment from one side of the connection to the other side
and maintains under application of load the same angle between the
connected members that exist prior to the loading. Also, a connection
that maintains continuity.
RIDGE CAP: Continuous metal flashing used to close roofing
material along the ridge of a roof.

RIDGE VENT: The ventilators used at the ridge line.

RIGID FRAME: A structural frame consisting of members joined


together with rigid (or moment) connections so as to render the frame
stable with respect to imposed loads, without the need for bracing in
its plane.

RISERS: The vertical rise of the steps of the staircase.

ROLL-UP DOOR: Door that is supported on a shaft or drum and a


vertical track.
ROOF COVERING: The exterior roof skin consisting of panels or
sheets, and their attachments and weather sealants.

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ROOF CURB: The flat horizontal platform used at roofs to support


the power ventilators.
ROOF EXTENSION: An extension of the roof beyond the endwall
and/or sidewall of a building.

ROOF MONITOR: The ventilation system used at the ridgeline.

ROOF PITCH: Ratio of rise of total width of a single slope.

ROOF SLOPE: The angle that a roof surface makes with the
horizontal. Usually expressed in units of vertical rise to 10 units of
horizontal run.
ROOF SNOW LOAD: The load induced by the weight of snow on
the roof of the structure.

ROPESEAL: (See “Sealant”)

SS: Single slope clear span buildings

SV: Space Saver building – a single gable clear span with straight
columns and flush girts to offer maximum clearances.

SAG ROD, STRAP OR ANGLE: A tension member used to limit the


deflection of a girt or purlin in the direction of weak axis.
SANDWICH PANEL: A panel assembly used as covering; consists
of an insulating core material with inner and outer skins.
SCREEDING: The process of striking off the excess concrete to
bring the top surface of the concrete to proper finish and elevation.
SEALANT: Any material, which is used to close up cracks or joints
to protect against leaks.
SECTION MODULUS: A physical property of a structural member.
It is used to design and basically describes the bending strength of a
member.
SECONDARY FRAMING: Members, which carry loads to the
primary framing. In metal buildings this term includes base angles,
purlins, girts, eave struts, flange braces, etc.

SEISMIC LOADS: The loads developed due to the earthquakes.

SELF-DRILLING SCREWS (SDS): Used for attaching panels and


trims to girts and purlins. Pre-drilling is not necessary.

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SELF-TAPPING SCREWS (STS): Same function as S.D.S but


needs pre-drilled holed.
SHEAR: The force tending to make two contacting parts slide upon
each other in opposite directions parallel to their plane of contact.

SHEETING: The exterior cover for a building, generally light gage


metal, which has been cold formed into a configuration having
appearance, weatherproofing and structural qualities.

SHEET NOTCH: A notch or block formed along the outside edge of


the foundation to provide support for the wall panels and serve as a
closure along their bottom edge.

SHEETING ANGLE: An angle used to support sheeting.

SHIPPER: A list that enumerates by part number or describes each


piece of material or assembly to be shipped. Also called talley sheet
or bill of materials.
SHIMS: Small steel plates used for leveling base plates or packing
between structural members.
SHOP DETAILS: Details prepared for and used by manufacturing in
the fabrication of parts and assemblies.
SHOP PRIMER PAINT: The initial coat of primer paint applied in
the shop.
SHOULDER BOLT: A fastener used to attach wall and roof paneling
to the structural frame. It consists of a large diameter shank and a
small diameter stud. The shank provides support for the panel rib.
SHOT PIN: A device for fastening items by the utilization of a
patented device, which uses powdered charge to imbed the item in the
concrete and/or steel.
SI: The International symbol for the metric unit used by the United
States (Le System International d’ Unites).
SIDELAP: A term used to describe the lap condition occurring at the
side or lengthwise direction of panels.
SIDELAP FASTENER: A fastener used to connect panels together at
the side lap.
SIDEWALL: A term used to describe the entire composition of a
building side.
SIDEWALL OVERHANG: A projection of the roof past the
sidewall.

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SILL: The bottom horizontal member of a door or window opening.

SIMPLE SPAN: A term used in structural analysis to describe a


support condition for a beam, girt, purlin, etc, which offers no
resistance to rotation at the supports; opposite to continuous.
SINGLE SLOPE: A slope in one plane. The slope is from one wall
to the opposite wall.
SINGLE SPAN: A building or structural member without
intermediate support.
SKYLIGHT: Translucent fiberglass panel used at roof to transmit
natural light.

SLATS: The flat strips used in the Roll-up door shutter.

SLEEVE NUT: A long, slender nut normally used to join two brace
rods of the same diameter together. (Also known as coupling).
SLIDE DOOR: A single or double leaf door, which opens
horizontally by means of overhead trolleys.

SLOT: A long hole used for the access for the movements.

SOFFIT: The underside covering of any exterior portion of a metal


building.
SOIL PRESSURE: The load per unit area structure will exert through
its foundation on the soil.
SOLDIER COLUMN: A column in sidewalls, outside the mainframe
lines, located in extended bays to support sidewall girts framed at top
with jack beam to adjacent two main frames.
SPALL: A chip or fragment of concrete, which has chipped,
weathered or otherwise broken from the main mass of concrete.

SPAN: Distance between the supports of beams, girders or trusses.

SPANNER: A component used to connect the endwall rafters with


the columns.
SPECIFICATIONS: A statement of particulars of a given job, as to
size of building, quality, and performance of men and materials to be
used, and the terms of the contract. The most common specification
found in the metal building industry is the “Recommended Guide
Specifications For Metal Building Systems” published by the Metal
Building Manufacturers Association.

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SPLICE: A connection in a structural member.

S.S.D.: Single Slide Door.

STAINLESS STEEL: An alloy of steel, which contains a high


percentage of chromium. Also may contain nickel or copper.
STEEL LINE: The extreme outer limits of a buildings’
structural framing system to which the sheeting is attached.
STEP IN EAVE HEIGHT: The condition where a lower
building is attached to a higher building at the endwalls,
resulting in one building with different eave heights at each
end.
STIFFENER: Plate welded to a member to prevent buckling.

STIFFENER LIP: A short extension of material at an angle to


the flange of cold-formed structural members, which adds
strength to the member.
STILES: The vertical side members of framed and paneled
doors.

STITCH SCREW: Used to fasten side laps of panels.

STRESS: A measure of the load on a structural member in


terms of force per unit area (kips per sq. in) (Mpa).
STRUCTURAL STEEL MEMBERS: Load carrying members.
May be hot rolled sections, cold-formed shapes, or built-up
shapes.
STRUTS: A brace fitted into a framework to resist force in the
direction of its length.
STRUT PURLIN: The purlins located at the wind column
lines.
STUD: A vertical wall member to which exterior or interior
covering or collateral material may be attached. May be either
load bearing or non-load bearing.
SUCTION: A partial vacuum resulting from wind loads on a
building, which causes a load in the outward direction.
TAPERED MEMBER: A built-up plate member consisting of
flanges welded to a variable depth web, which slopes from one
end to the other.

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TEMPERATURE REINFORCING: Lightweight deformed steel


rods or wire mesh placed in concrete to resist possible cracks from
thermal expansion or contraction.
TENSILE STRENGTH: The longitudinal pulling stress a material
can bear without tearing apart.
TENSION: Stress in a structural member created by forces tending
to draw it apart longitudinally.
THERMAL BLOCK: A spacer of low thermal conductance
material.
THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY (K): The rate of heat transmission
by conduction in unit time through unit area of an infinite slab in a
direction perpendicular to the surface for unit temperature
difference, expressed as BTU per hour per square foot per inch
thickness per oF.
THERMAL CONDUCTANCEI: The rate of heat flow, in BTU’s
per hour, through a square foot of material of specified thickness
whose surfaces have a temperature differential of 1oF
THERMAL RESISTANCE I: Resistance of heat flow. The
reciprocal of conductance I.
THERMAL TRANSMITTANCE (U): The rate of temperature in
unit time through unit area of an assembly of materials for unit
difference, expressed as BTU per hour per square foot per oF. This
is also referred to as the overall coefficient of heat transfer.

THROAT: Minimum width of ventilator air inlet.

THRUST: A horizontal component of a reaction.

TIE: A structural member that is loaded in tension.

TOLERANCE: A fractional allowance for variations from the


specified standard weight, dimensions, etc., of mechanical
construction.
TORQUE WRENCH: A wrench containing an adjustable
mechanism for measuring and controlling the amount of torque or
turning force to be exerted, often used in tightening nuts and high
strength bolts.
TRACK: A metal way for wheeled components; specifically one or
more lines of ways, with fastenings, ties, etc., for a craneway,
monorail or slide door.

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TRANSLUCENT: Allowing the passage of light, but not permitting a


clear view of any object. A translucent material is semi-transparent,
or semi-clear.

TRANSVERSE: The direction perpendicular to the ridge.

TRANSVERSE EXPANSION JOINT: A joint across the width of a


building to allow small relative movements, such as those caused by
thermal expansion and contraction of the materials used in the
structure.

TREAD: The horizontal length of the step of a staircase.

TRIBUTARY AREA: The area, which contributes load to a specific


structural component.

TRIM: The metal sheet flashings used to close the gaps.

TRUSS: Structural member made up of several individual parts


welded or bolted together, the completed unit acting as a beam.
TUBE COLUMN: A vertical structural support member made of a
hollow square tube. Normally used as an interior support column in
multi-span buildings or mezzanine floors.

TURN-OF-THE-NUT METHOD: An approved method for pre-


tensioning high strength bolts. The nut is turned from the snug-tight
position, corresponding to a few blow of an impact wrench or the full
effort of a man using an ordinary spud wrench, the amount of rotation
required being a function of the bolt diameter and length.
UH CRANE: A multi-rail, under hung, material handling system,
manually or electrically operated.

UHE CRANE: An electrically operated UH Crane.

UL RATING: Underwriter’s Laboratories certification rating.

UNIFORM LOAD: Loads that cover all or part of a beam and


throughout the portion covered, the amount of load per unit of length
is the same.
UPLIFT: Wind load on a building, which causes a load in the upward
direction.
VALLEY GUTTER: A channel used to carry off water from the “V”
of roofs of multi-gabled buildings.

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VAPOR BARRIER: Material used to retard the flow of vapor or


moisture into walls and thus prevent condensation within them.
VENTILATION: The process of supplying outside fresh air to, or
removing air from an enclosure.
VENTILATOR: An accessory usually used on the roof that allows
air to pass through.
WAINSCOT: Wall material, used in the lower portion of a wall that
is different from the material in the rest of the wall.
WALL BEARING: Wall capable of supporting a vertical load, other
than its own weight.
WALL COVERING: The exterior wall skin consisting of panels or
sheets and their attachments, trim and weather sealants.
WALL, NON BEARING: Wall capable of supporting its own weight
only.
WEB MEMBER: A secondary structural member vertical or
diagonal interposed between the top and bottom chords of a truss.

WEB: That portion of a structural member between the flanges.

WEEP HOLES: Openings in flashings, etc., to permit drainage and


reduce pressures. (Usually field-drilled holes).
WHEEL BASE: The distance between the two wheels of a crane
trolley.
WHEEL LOAD: The load, which is transferred through the wheels
of the crane trolley.

WICKET DOOR: The small door in the main Roll-up or slide doors.

WIND BENT: See “Portal Frame”.

WIND COLUMN: A vertical member supporting a wall system


designed to withstand horizontal wind loads usually at end walls.
WIND LOAD: A loading representing the pressure exerted on a
structure by a given wind velocity. A load caused by the wind
blowing from any horizontal direction.
WORK POINT: An intersection of planes from which dimensions
are located.

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Chapter – 3

CONCEPT OF PRE-ENGINEERED METAL BUILDING SYSTEM


A typical assembly of a simple metal building system is shown below to illustrate the
synergy between the various building components as described below:

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EXTERIOR CLADDING

 Provides a weather tight envelope and transfers structural loads like wind and live
loads to the supporting secondary framing.

 Provides lateral bracing to the roof purlins and wall girts.

SECONDARY FRAMING

“Z” shaped roof purlins and wall girts are used for the secondary framings. They are
lighter than the conventional hot-rolled “C” shaped sections. At the roofs with
appreciable slope over 0.4/10, proper purlin orientation Nesting of these “Z” shaped
members at the supports at the frame locations allows them to act as continuous
members. This doubles the strength capacity of the “Z” shaped members at the laps and
supports where the maximum internal stresses normally occur.

Whenever purlins are stabilized by roofing or top flange, they are considered laterally
supported only for downward loads, which produce mostly compressive stresses in the
purlin’s top flange. But when wind produces upward forces, the bottom flange acts
mostly I compression. There, the purlin is unbraced

 Purlins and girts receive the loads from the roof and wall covering and transfer to
the main building frames.

 Purlins and girts provide lateral bracing to the building columns and rafters
preventing lateral buckling of the compression flanges.

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MAIN FRAMES

Frames of pre-engineered buildings are made from an extensive inventory of standard


plates stocked. PEB frames are normally tapered and often have flanges and webs of
variable thicknesses along the individual members. The frame geometry matches the
shape of the internal stress diagram thus minimizing material waste and reducing the total
weight of the structure. Moment resisting frames provide lateral stability and transfer the
roof and wall loads to the foundations through anchor bolts. For full structural efficiency,
member’s compression flange requires lateral bracings. Under downward loads, the top
flange of the primary members is mostly in compression. Fortunately, this flange carries
roof purlins, which provides the necessary bracing. Under wind uplift, however, it is the
bottom flange that is mostly in compression. Hence, this bottom flange needs to be
stabilized against bucking by flange bracing, consisting of usually of bolted angle
sections. Similarly bracings are needed at the interior flanges of rigid-frame columns that
are normally in compression under downward loads. The bracing connects the interior
flange of the wall girts.

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ENDWALL FRAMING

The function of endwall framing is to resist all loads supplied to the building’s endwalls
and to support wall girts. In buildings with expandable endwalls, a regular interior frame
is provided. In buildings where endwalls are non expandable, light end frames are
provided supporting the vertical loads and contains wall girts, with or without wall cross
bracings. The endwall girts may have a flush or by-pass inset.

WIND BRACING

 Roof and wall x-bracing provides longitudinal stability to the building. Portal
frame bracings or minor axis moment resistance may also be used, if the openings
are required.

 Transfers the wind load acting on building end walls to the foundations.

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Chapter – 4

ADVANTAGES OF PRE-ENGINEERED BUILDING SYSTEMS


REDUCED CONSTRUCTION TIME
Due to the systems approach, the use of high strength steel, use of tapered built-up
sections which are optimized by the computerized design program and the use of
continuous light gage secondary steel section, there is an overall reduction in steel
weight, cost and time relative to conventional steel construction.

Pre-engineered buildings are a predetermined inventory of raw materials that has proven
over time to satisfy a wide range of structural and aesthetic requirements.

The components are engineered beforehand and standardized. Use of these standard
components reduces the engineering, production and erection time. Use of customized
software for design & drafting increases the speed of the project.

The production line is highly sophisticated, having Autowelders, multi-cutting torches,


shear cutting machines etc., which greatly reduce the time of fabrication of built-up
components.

Roll forming machines for producing Z & C members and sheeting, having standard
dimension, increases the production capacity of secondary members. Use of standard
accessories greatly increases the speed of production & erection.

Buildings are typically delivered in just a few weeks after approval of drawings.
Foundation and Anchor Bolts are cast in parallel with manufacture of the building. Site
assembly is fast, as all building components are delivered finished, ready for site bolting.
Our study shows that in India the use of PEB will reduce total construction time on a
project by at least 50%. This will allow faster occupancy and earlier realization of
revenue.

DESIGN
Since PEB’s are mainly formed of standard sections and connections, the design time is
significantly reduced. Specialized computer analysis and design programs optimize
material require. Drafting also computerized using standard details that minimizes project
custom details. The low-weight flexible frames offer higher resistance to seismic forces.

LOWER COST
Due to the systems approach, there is a significant saving in design, manufacturing and
site erection cost. The structural elements are shaped to follow the stress diagram of the
member, thus reducing weight, cost and load to foundations. The secondary members
and cladding nest together reducing transportation cost. The overall price per square
meter may be reduced as much as 30% lower than conventional steel.

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FOUNDATIONS
Pre-engineered Buildings are about 30% lighter than the conventional steel structures.
Hence, the foundations are of simple design, easy to construct and lighter weights.

ERECTION
Since all the connections of the different components are standard, the erection time is
faster.

FLEXIBILITY OF EXPANSION
Buildings can be easily expanded in length by adding additional bays. Also, expansion in
width and height is possible by pre-designing for future expansion.

LARGE CLEAR SPANS


Buildings can be supplied to around 90M clear spans.

QUALITY CONTROL
As buildings are manufactured completely in the factory under controlled conditions, the
quality is assured.

LOW MAINTENANCE
Buildings are supplied with high quality paint systems for cladding and steel to suit
ambient conditions at site, which results in long durability and low maintenance costs.

ENERGY EFFICIENT ROOF AND WALL SYSTEMS


Buildings can be supplied with polyurethane insulated panels or fiberglass blanket
insulation to achieve required ‘U’ values.

ARCHITECTURAL VERSATALITY
Buildings can be supplied with various types of fascias, canopies, and curved eaves and
designed to receive pre-cast concrete wall panels, curtain walls, block walls and other
wall systems.

SINGLE SOURCE RESPONSIBILITY


As the complete building package is supplied by a single vendor compatibility of all the
building components and accessories is assured. This is one of the major benefits of the
pre-engineered building systems.

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Chapter – 5

APPLICATIONS OF PRE-ENGINEERED STEEL BUILDINGS


 Warehouses
 Factories
 Workshops
 Offices
 Gas Stations
 Vehicle Parking Sheds
 Garages
 Supermarkets
 Showrooms
 Aircraft Hangers
 Schools
 Sports and Recreational facilities
 Labor Camps
 Low Cost Housing
 Hospitals
 Port houses
 Platform shelters
 etc

Some of the live examples are as follows:

Project:Office & Workshop Building , Courtesy: Kirby Building Systems

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Project:Shed , Courtesy: Kirby Building Systems

Project: Loco Sheds for Delhi Metro Rail Corporation, Courtesy: Kirby Building Systems

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Project: Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Stations, Courtesy: Kirby Building Systems

Project: Shell Petrol Station, Courtesy: Kirby Building Systems

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Project: North Eastern Council Assembly Buildings, Courtesy: Kirby Building Systems

Project: Nikhil Refineries Kakinada, A.P, Couurtesy: Kirby Building Systems ,.

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Project: Loco Sheds for Delhi Metro Rail Corporations, Courtesy: Kirby Building Systems

Project: GRSE Workshops, Courtesy: Kirby Building Systems

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Project: North Eastern Council Assembly Buildings, Courtesy: Kirby Building Systems

Project: Tata Holset Admin & Plant Bldg, Courtesy: Kirby Building Systems

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Project: Tata Holset Admin & Plant Bldg, Courtesy: Kirby Building Systems

Project: Reliance Petrol Stations, Courtesy: Kirby Building Systems

Project: Kirby Building Systems – Corporate Head Office

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Chapter – 6

PEB SYSTEMS IN INDIA


Although PEB systems are extensively used in industrial and many other non-residential
constructions world wide, it is relatively a new concept in India. These concepts were
introduced to the Indian market lately in the 1990’s with the opening up of the economy
and a number of multi-nationals setting up their projects. Global PEB players have
established their presence in India by appointing local marketing agents and certified
builders. But, Kirby Building Systems is the first PEB manufacturer to start
manufacturing facility in India itself. It shows the commitment and conviction towards
Indian market. Moreover, the state-of-the-art manufacturing facility at Hyderabad can
produce up to 75,000 tones per annum. A full fledge Engineering and Marketing network
is already established and have started working.

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Chapter – 7

WORKING WITH PEB SYSTEMS


Following are some standard industry practices abroad, which will be adapted where
required to suit Indian market conditions.

The pre-engineered building manufacturers operate through network of Sales Offices and
Certified Builders. The Builders are contractors who have been pre-qualified and certified
by the PEB manufacturer and who have an exclusive contract with the manufacturer to
sell and erect the buildings in a specific geographic region. Some builders also provide a
turnkey service including civil works, mechanical and electrical services and finishing
works when required by owner. The builder may either sign contract directly with the
owner or with a general contractor appointed on the project. The owner may directly
order the building from Kirby for supply only or through a Kirby builder for supply and
erection.

Building specifications and Architectural drawings meeting the functional and


architectural requirements of the project are developed by the owner’s Architect /
Engineer and issued with the bid documents. Kirby will prepare structural design and
submit a proposal detailing scope of supply, specifications, price, delivery and proposal
drawings based on the bid documents. Also wherever applicable, Kirby will submit
alternative bids to reduce cost, for consideration by Engineer / Owner. Upon receiving a
confirmed order, Kirby will prepare detailed design, structural design calculations and
Approval drawings and submit for Engineer’s approval. Upon receipt of approval, Kirby
will prepare shop drawings and construction drawings for fabrication and erection of the
building. The anchor bolts plan stamped for construction alongwith the anchor bolts are
typically delivered to site within 10 days of receipt of Approved drawings. Buildings
upto about 300 MT are typically delivered to site within 6-8 weeks from date of approval.

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Chapter – 8

DESIGN OF PEB SYSTEMS


PROGRAM OVERVIEW
The main framing of PEB systems is analyzed by the Stiffness Matrix method using
Kirby in-house software. The design is based on Allowable Stress Design (ASD) as per
the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) specification. The design program
provides an economic and efficient design of the main frames and allows the users to
utilize the program in different modes to produce the frame design satisfying the
engineer’s requirements. The program analyzes and designs the frame based on the given
geometry and loading and the desired load combinations as specified by the building
code opted by the user. The program operates through the maximum number of cycles
specified to arrive at an acceptable design.

DESIGN CYCLE
The design cycle consists of the following steps:

• Set up section sizes and brace locations based on the geometry and loading
specified for the frame design.
• Calculate moments, shears, and axial forces at each analysis point for each load
combination.
• Compute allowable shear, allowable axial and allowable bending stress in
compression and tension at each analysis point.
• Compute the corresponding stress ratios for shear, axial and bending based on the
actual and allowable stresses and calculate the combined stress ratios.
• Decide the optimum splice locations and check to see whether the predicted sizes
conform to manufacturing constraints.
• Using the web optimization mode, arrive at the optimum web depths for the next
cycle and update the member data file.
• At the end of all design cycles, an analysis is run to achieve flange brace
optimization.

FRAME GEOMETRY
The program has the capability to handle different types of frame geometry as
follows:

• Frames of different types viz. Rigid frames, Frames with multiple internal
columns, Single slope frames, lean-to-frames, etc.
• Frames with varying spans, heights and slopes.
• Frames with different support conditions viz. Pin supports, fixed supports,
sinking supports, supports with some degrees of freedom released etc.
• Unsymmetrical frames with off-centric peaks, unequal modules, varying
slopes etc.
• User specified purlin and girt spacing & flange brace locations.

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FRAME LOADING
Frame Design can handle different types of loading as described below:

• All the building dead loads due to sheeting, purlins etc., and the self weight of the
frame.
• Imposed live loads on the frames with tributary reductions as applicable.
• Collateral loads such as false ceiling, light fixtures, A/C ducting loads, sprinkler
systems, and any other suspended loads of similar nature.
• Wind loads input as basic wind speed or basic wind pressure will be converted to
design wind pressure as per the building code specified by the user and shall be
applied on different elements of the frame as per the coefficients corresponding to
the user defined building code. The standard building codes like MBMA, UBC,
ANSI, ASCE etc., are built in to the program and the program can automatically
pick the coefficients for these codes. For special codes, however, the program
offers the option for the user to input the coefficients as required.
• Crane and non-crane special loading can be specified by the user and the program
has the capability to handle these special loads and combine them with the other
loads as desired by the user.
• Seismic loads corresponding to different zone categories of various international
codes can also be defined and combined with other load cases as required.
• Temperature loads can also be specified in the form of the differential temperature
value in Centigrade and specifying the appropriate coefficient for thermal
expansion.
• Load combinations with appropriate load factors can be specified by the user as
desired.

DESIGN CODES
Following design codes are used as applicable to the project:

AISC American Institute of Steel Construction Manual

AISI American Iron and Steel Institute Specifications

MBMA Metal Building Manufacturer’s Association Low Rise Building


Systems Manual.

ANSI American National Standards Institute Specifications

ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers

UBC Uniform Building Code

IS Indian Standards

Other codes as specified in the contract

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DESIGN CRITERIA

Design Method Allowable stress design method is used as per AISC


specifications.

Deflections Unless otherwise specified, the deflections will be to Kirby


standards, which are based on MBMA and AISC criteria
and standard industry practices.

Primary Frames Moment Resisting Plane Frames with pinned or fixed


bases.

Secondary Framing Cold-Formed Z-sections for purlins and girts designed as


continuous beams spanning over rafters and columns with
laps.

Longitudinal Stability Wind load on building end walls is transferred through roof
purlins to braced bays and carried to foundations through
diagonal bracing.

DESIGN SOFTWARE
Kirby uses the following main design software for the Design for pre-engineered
buildings:

PACE II: proprietary design software specifically developed in U.S. for PEB and
customized to Kirby standards.

COMPUFRAME: Design software developed in U.S. for frame analysis and design.

STAAD Pro: Design software for structural analysis and design.

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DESIGN PROCESS
The frame data is assembled based on the number of frame members, number of joints,
number of degrees of freedom, the conditions of restraint and the elastic properties of the
members. Based on this, the data is stored and the member section properties are
computed. The overall joint stiffness matrix is generated based on the above frame data
by summation of the individual stiffness matrices considering all possible displacements.
The load vector is then generated based on the loading data and the unknown
displacements are obtained by inverting the overall joint stiffness matrix and multiplying
with the load vector.

Knowing the free joint displacements, the member end actions are obtained by back
substitution. The axial, shear and bending forces are then transformed to the section
neutral axis and the additional moment created by the eccentricity of the thrust is added
to the moment value. These values are generated for different load combinations and the
final design checks are performed.

The allowable stress values are computed as per the AISC specification with due
consideration for the web depth/thickness ratios and the flange width/thickness ratios
with the appropriate correction factors as per AISC. For computation of the allowable
bending stresses, the effective un-braced lengths for each segment are used based on the
brace point locations defined by the user. The effective length factor K is used for
calculating the slenderness ratios in order to compute the allowable axial stresses. The
coefficients for bending are calculated based on the end conditions for each member and
the corresponding end moment values. The stress ratios are then computed as
actual/allowable stresses and are then combined to check that the total aggregate value is
under unity.

The joint displacements and support reactions are reported for various load cases and
combinations along with the clear heights at haunch and peak to check for clearances.

A detailed connections report is generated based on the forces acting at all the splice
joints and designed as per the specifications of AISC. The connections used in the super
structure for all the main frame splices conform to the specifications of ASTM A 325 for
High strength friction grip bolts. The anchor bolts will be of ASTM A 307 material
Grade 36.

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SERVICEABILITY CRITERIA
Unless otherwise specified by client, the serviceability criteria are based on MBMA and
AISC specifications and standard industry practices. Following are the brief extracts
from these specifications.

 Roof Purlins supporting roof panels: L/150 max.

 Wall Girts supporting wall cladding: L/120 max.

 Rafter Peak Deflection: L/180 max.

 Rafters supporting plastered ceilings: L/360 max. Under live load

 Bare frame drift (Sway): H/60 to H/100 max

 Bare frame drift for frames supporting cranes:

- Top running Cab operated: H/240


- Top running Pendant operated: H/100
- Crane Runway Beams: L/400 max. Horizontal
L/600 max. Vertical

 Mezzanine supporting Beams & Joists: L/240 max. Under Dead & Live load
L/360 max. under LL only

When client requires the serviceability criteria as per IS codes, the design deflections will be
compiled accordingly.

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Chapter – 9

MATERIALS AND FABRICATION


All materials are purchased new direct from the steel mills with certified Mill certificates
complying with ASTM or equivalent specifications. Kirby maintains a large stock of Plates,
Bars, Black coils, Galvanized coils, Sheeting coils and various building accessories required
to support the production levels. All the material specifications are documented in the
Company’s Specification Manual, which is an integral part of the total quality control system
at Kirby. High strength steel having minimum yield strength of 345 Mpa is used for primary,
secondary and cladding. The materials are subject to stringent quality control checks upon
receipt at plant and only upon approval are taken into stock. The material inspection system is
well documented in Kirby Quality Control Manual and complies with material traceability
and other requirements specified in ISO9001.

The manufacture of the building is done in accordance with relevant American Codes.
Welding is performed by pre-qualified welders using approved welding processes as per
structural welding code AWSD1.1 published by the American Welding Society. The built-up
sections are welded in an automatic Conrac welder using submerged arc welding process. The
splice plates and other attachments are welded by the Innershield or CO2 welding process.
All butt welds are full penetration welds. Stage inspections are carried out at various stages in
the manufacturing process and results documented. The welds are subject to NDT tests
including Dye penetrant inspection (DPI), Magnetic particle Inspection (MPI),Ultrasonic
Testing (UT) or Radiography, as required by contract specifications. A 100% visual and
dimensional check is performed on all members. Manufacturing tolerances are in accordance
with MBMA and AWS specifications.

The standard surface treatment for fabricated steel is mechanical wire brushing to SSPC ST3
and application of one coat of red oxide prier to a nominal dry film thickness of 25 microns.
However Kirby offers various types of surface preparation and epoxy paint systems to suit the
corrosive conditions at site and contract requirements. Kirby has blast cleaning facility to
achieve a white metal finish to Swedish standard SA3 and airless spray facility to apply any
specified paint system. Upon request Kirby will recommend the optimum paint system to suit
ambient conditions at site.

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Chapter – 10

SITE ERECTION
Kirby provides Erection drawing and procedures manual, which includes all the information
required for the site assembly of the building. The erector must use the proper tools and
equipment and sequence of erection as specified in Kirby manual. The high strength bolts at
the primary connections are pre-tightened to specified tension or torque as shown in the
erection drawings. The method of tightening may be either using a calibrated tension or
torque wrench or turn-of-the-nut method as specified in AISC Manual. Erection should
always start with a braced bay and the red steel must be fully plumbed before starting
cladding erection. Erection tolerances are as set forth in AISC Code of Practice except
individual members are considered plumb and aligned if the deviation does not exceed 1:300
as per MBMA specifications.

Chapter – 11

WARRANTY
Kirby provides a standard one-year warranty from date of shipment against defective
materials and workmanship. Extended warranty on cladding can be provided based on the
type of coating specified and the requirement of the contract.

Chapter – 12

CONCLUSION
The foregoing is a brief overview of the Pre-Engineered building system. For further details,
you may please refer to the Kirby Technical Manual and other company brochures.

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Reference Books & Codes:


1. Metal Building Systems
Design & Specifications
By: Alexander Newman
Publisher:
McGraw-Hill, 11 West 19th street, New York, NY 10011

2. MBMA: Metal Buildings Manufacturers Association,


Low Rise Building Systems Manual 2002.
1300, Summer Ave, Cleveland, Ohio 44115.

3. AISC: American Institute of Steel Construction,


Manual of Steel Construction, Allowable Stress Design, Ninth Edition 1989.

4. AWS-D1.1-2004: American Welding Society,


Structural Welding Code Steel Manual 2004.

5. IS: 800 – 1984, Indian Standards


Code of Practice for General Construction in Steel

6. AISI: American Iron & Steel Institute,


Cold Formed Steel Design Manual, 1996 Edition.

7. IS: 875 Part 3 – 1987 Indian Standards


Code of practice for Design Loads for Bldgs & Structures(Other than Earthquake)

8. UBC: Uniform Building Code 1997

9. ASCE 7-95: American Society of Civil Engineers,

Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures

10. BSI CP3: Chapter V: Loading Part 2: 1972 Wind Loads

11. BSI 6399: Part 3: 1988, Code of practice for imposed roof loads (snow loads)

12. BSI 6399: Part I: 1984, Code of practice for dead and imposed loads.

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About The Author


S. Khalid Hashmi is working as Deputy General Manager – Technical Services in Kirby
Building Systems India Ltd. He is the Head of Product & System Development group
and involved in Planning, Coordination and Checking of Design works and introduction
of new Products and systems for the company. Basically, he is a Structural Engineer and
has about 19 years of experience out of which 13 years of overseas experience in
different Multi-National Pre-Engineered Steel Building Companies. He started his career
in Pre-Engineered Steel Industry as a Senior Design Engineer. He was involved in
preparing and checking the designs of Pre-engineered Steel Structures of Complex
Buildings, Design Training and in the preparation of Design & Drafting Procedures
Manuals.

Kirby Building Systems India Ltd.

KIRBY BUILDING SYSTEMS - INDIA LTD (ISO-9001 Certified), is an affiliate of


Alghanim Industries -Kuwait, multinational organization with diverse interests in
industrial and consumer products. The name KIRBY has become so well known that it
is accepted as the generic term to describe steel buildings throughout the Middle East
and other parts of the World.

KIRBY BUILDING SYSTEMS began manufacturing pre-engineered steel buildings in


Kuwait in 1976 and has a set up a state-of-the-art pre-engineered steel building plant at
Pashamylaram near Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh. Further, considering the customer’s
requirements, KIRBY is setting up a new pre-engineered steel building plant at
Haridwar.

KIRBY is the premier producer of steel buildings in the Middle East and South West
Asia. Over the years KIRBY has earned a remarkable reputation for providing cost
effective solutions for buildings manufactured to the highest standards and suited to all
environments. KIRBY operates from all the major cities of India. The manufacturing
facilities have a production capability to produce hundreds of custom designed steel
buildings each year.

KIRBY people are all dedicated to provide buildings specifically designed to your
requirements. Skilled structural engineers familiar with state-of-the-art technology are
part of the KIRBY team. Our professionals use the very latest in computerized
engineering design and drafting systems, permitting the selection of the most
economical and efficient framing systems, as well as accurate design and drawings.
Other skilled technicians also use computerized systems for estimation, inventory
control, job tracking, scheduling and accounting applications. Courtesy of the computer,
quotations are provided in just a few days for even the more complex projects.

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Quality assurance at KIRBY is a total system of management, which applies as much to


initial design as to final construction. Skilled structural engineers, talented designers and
professional managers consistently make KIRBY your first choice when it comes to
your building. The KIRBY product range is broad and diversified. Primary framing
systems are available in clear span rigid frames, beam and column frames, space saver
frames, single slope, multi-span and lean-to frames.

These framing systems are available in a variety of sidewall heights, bay spacings, and
loading conditions, including seismic loads. The high quality and attractive Kirby-Rib
Roof Panel and Kirby Architectural Wall Panel complement the various framing
systems. For those clients requiring special Architectural features, Kirby offers a
complete line of fascias, canopies, roof overhangs, parapet walls, and curved panels.
Kirby offers rock wool blanket insulation and a wide variety of accessories such as
skylights, wall lights, roof vents, wall louvers, windows, personnel doors and sliding
doors. Kirby buildings are ideally suited for a wide range of uses, such as
manufacturing, warehouses, supermarkets, auto agencies, commercial buildings,
recreational buildings, camps workshops, and agricultural buildings.

Research and development of new products used in the buildings play a particularly
important role within the company. KIRBY is constantly improving its products. We
listen to our clients when we consider new product lines and product improvements.

The stamp represents KIRBY’S commitment to Total Quality Control. Every major
fabricated steel section must be approved before it is stamped by one of our qualified
inspectors. KIRBY uses the latest test methods, including ultrasonic and radiographic
equipment. In addition, the Total Quality Control System ensures that all purchased
materials received are exactly to our high quality specifications and that it is
manufactured exactly to KIRBY’s Quality Control Standards.

KIRBY appoints, trains and certifies a highly experienced team of local builders who
work closely with the company to offer the client efficient and economical construction
service. KIRBY builders also become involved in much more than merely erecting a
building. Many are capable of offering complete turnkey construction services.

KIRBY BUILDING SYSTEMS – INDIA LTD


Plot No.: 8 to 15, IDA Phase III,
Pashamylaram, Medak Dist. - 502 307.
Andhra Pradesh.
Tel: (08455) 226901/2/3/4
Fax: (08455) 226887/226919
e-mail : kirby@kirby-india.com
Website : www.kirby-india.com

PEB-KBSIL-Rev-1 18.11.05