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IPC/WHMA-A-620
January 2002
Requirements
and Acceptance
for Cable and
Wire Harness
Assemblies
Developed by the IPC Task Group (7-31f)
of the Product Assurance Subcommittee
(7-30) and the WHMA Industry Technical
Guidelines Committee (ITGC)

The Principles of
Standardization
In May 1995 the IPCs Technical Activities Executive Committee adopted Principles of
Standardization as a guiding principle of IPCs standardization efforts.
Standards Should:
Show relationship to Design for Manufacturability
(DFM) and Design for the Environment (DFE)
Minimize time to market
Contain simple (simplied) language
Just include spec information
Focus on end product performance
Include a feedback system on use and
problems for future improvement
Standards Should Not:
Inhibit innovation
Increase time-to-market
Keep people out
Increase cycle time
Tell you how to make something
Contain anything that cannot
be defended with data
Notice IPC Standards and Publications are designed to serve the public interest through eliminating
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Copyright 2002. IPC, Northbrook, Illinois and Wire Harness Manufacturers Association, Arlington Heights, Illinois. All rights reserved under
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IPC/WHMA-A-620
Requirements and
Acceptance for Cable
and Wire Harness
Assemblies
Developed by the IPC Task Group (7-31f) of the Product
Assurance Subcommittee (7-30) and the WHMA Industry
Technical Guidelines Committee (ITGC)
Users of this standard are encouraged to participate in the
development of future revisions.
Contact:
IPC
2215 Sanders Road
Northbrook, Illinois
60062-6135
Tel 847 509.9700
Fax 847 509.9798
Wiring Harness Manufacturers Assoc.
3335 N. Arlington Heights Road, Suite E
Arlington Heights, Illinois
60004
Tel 847 577.7200
Fax 847 577.7276
ASSOCIATION CONNECTING
ELECTRONICS INDUSTRIES

March 20, 2002


This Page Intentionally LeftB lank
Any Standard involving a com plex technology draw s m aterials from a vastnum berofsources.W hile the principalm em bers ofthe
IPC /W H M A-A-620 jointw orking group com prised ofIPC Task G roup (7-31f)ofthe ProductAssurance Subcom m ittee (7-30)and
the W H M A Industry TechnicalG uidelines C om m ittee (ITG C )are show n below ,itis notpossible to include allofthose w ho assisted
in the evolution ofthis standard.To each ofthem ,the m em bers ofthe IPC and W H M A extend theirgratitude.
Product Assurance Committee IPC/ WHMA-A-620 Joint Working Group
C hair
M elParrish
Soldering Technology International
Technical Liaisons of the
IPC Board of Directors
D r.W illiam B eckenbaugh
Sanm ina
G arry M cG uire,SR SIS
N ASA/G oddard Space
FlightC enter
Jam es M offitt
M offittC onsulting Services
R alph H ersey
R alph H ersey Associates
Vernon Judy,Sr.
Q ualastatElectronics
R ay Sw eeney
U nlim ited Services
John A M astroianni
Intercon,Inc.
Members of the IPC/ WHMA-A-620 Joint Working Group
Troy Agner,ESIAm erica Inc.
Tim Arm strong,G lobalW ire Technologies
R om an B elej,D ata C able C om pany,Inc.
G .Les B ogert,B echtelPlantM achinery,Inc.
Kim B oyce,R eflectScientific
M ark B rockey,G lobalW ire Technologies
B yron C ase,L-3 C om m unications
Alan S.C ash,N orthrop G rum m an C orporation
G ary W .C hance,G nubiC om m unications Inc.
D r.Jam es C .C hiang,N extek,Inc.
Judy C hilders,Electronic Theatre C ontrols
M ark C ross,Lockheed M artin
R am on A.D iaz,Solectron Technology Inc.
B ruce D udley,SAISpectrum Assem bly,Inc.
Eddie Fields,J.C .R .Industries Inc.
Lila Floria,Electronic M anufacturing,Inc.
R ichard Francis,C arlyle Inc.
M ahendra S.G andhi,Space System s/Loral
C onstantino J.G onzalez,AC M E,Inc.
M ichaelR .G reen,Lockheed M artin Space System s
H ue T.G reen,Lockheed M artin Space System s
R alph J.H ersey,R alph H ersey Associates
C harles H ighlan,SC ISystem s Inc.
D avid H ollesen,LucentTechnologies,Inc.
R onald H otchkiss,Innovative Technology
G reg H urst,B AESystem s
Jam es Jenkins,H arris C orporation
Vernon Judy,Sr.,Q ualastatElectronics
B renda Klingenberg,L & L Assem blies
Toru Koizum i,Fujikura Ltd.
R ichard J.LaFay,R F Industries
Leo P.Lam bert,EPTAC C orporation
C harles A.Law son,
Frederic W .Lee,N orthrop G rum m an N orden System s
John A.M astroianni,Intercon,Inc.
M ike M athew s,Electrotest
Karla M axw ell,R F Industries
W illiam D ean M ay,N SW C - C rane
W ade M cFaddin,N extek,Inc.
G arry D .M cG uire,SR SIS,N ASA/G oddard Space
FlightC enter
R andy M cN utt,N orthrop G rum m an
B rettA.M iller,U SA H arness,Inc.
Jam es H .M offitt,M offittC onsulting Services
Anthony M .M onteiro,U nited Technologies
Ken A.M oore,O m niTraining C orp.
Stu M oorhead,U nison Industries
G ordon M orris,R aytheon System Technology
Kirk M ueller,B oeing Phantom W orks
Kirk D .M ueller,R aytheon System s C om pany
M ary M uller,Eldec C orporation
Terry L.M unson,C SL Inc.
C harles C .M yers,Storage Technology C orp.
C onrad N eri,R F Industries
R iley L.N ortham ,EM PF/AC I
John S.N orton,Xerox C orporation
Seppo N uppola,N okia N etw orks O yj
Low ellN utter,Array C onnectorC orporation
G regg O w ens,O m niTraining C orp.
D eepak K.Pai,C .I.D .,G eneralD ynam ics Inform ation
Sys.Inc.
M eena Parkera,W estern Electronics
Acknowledgment
iii IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
M elParrish,Soldering Technology International
Andy Puglisi,Eric Electronics
W illiam A.R asm us,Jr.,Aerojet
Sam R esurreccion,APW eM ech System s
R onnie R ice,R F Industries
W illiam J.R ickett,W oven Electronics
Jon M .R oberts,PEIElectronics,Inc.
Susan R oder,R ochesterIndustrialC ontrolInc.
Teresa M .R ow e,AAIC orporation
C hris La R ue,C rim ping & Stam ping Technologies,Inc.
Jan Saris,O C E Technologies B .V.
M arlin C .Shelley,C irris System s C orporation
Joseph L.Sherfick,N SW C - C rane
R ick B .Sm ith,M otorola,Inc.
D enise Soter,W aters C orporation
R ich Stickler,M W C
B illStrachan,AsTA - H ighbury C ollege
R ay Sw eeney,U nlim ited Services
B len F.Talbot,L-3 C om m unications
R onald E.Thom pson,N SW C - C rane
Linda Tucker,B lackfox Training Institute
Sharon T.Ventress,U .S.Arm y Aviation & M issile C om m and
Steve W hittall,Elite Technical,Inc.
Leo W iem elt,S&C Electric C om pany
W illiam J.W ind,ESIH oldings,Inc.
Jam es W alterW oodford,D epartm entofD efense
Fonda B .W u,R aytheon System s C om pany
SPECIAL ACkNOWLEDGMENT
W e w ould like to provide specialacknow ledgm entto the follow ing m em bers for providing pictures and illustrations thatare used
in this revision.
Troy Agner,ESIAm erica Inc.
R ichard Francis,C arlyle Inc.
R alph J.H ersey
Vernon Judy,Sr.,Q ualastatElectronics
John A.M astroianni,Intercon,Inc.
Karla M axw ell,R F Industries
G arry D .M cG uire,SR SIS,N ASA/G oddard Space Flight
C enter
R andy M cN utt,N orthrop G rum m an
Jam es H .M offitt,M offittC onsulting Services
R iley L.N ortham ,EM PF/AC I
Seppo N uppola,N okia N etw orks O yj
G regg O w ens and Ken A.M oore,O m niTraining C orp.
1
M elParrish,Soldering Technology International
Susan R oder,R ochesterIndustrialC ontrolInc.
R ay Sw eeney,U nlim ited Services
B len F.Talbot,L-3 C om m unications
1.Figures 3-9,4-1,4-3,4-4,4-13,4-14,4-15,4-30,4-33,4-36,4-37,4-39,
4-40,4-44,4-45,4-46,4-47,4-51,4-52,4-53,4-54,4-55,4-56,4-57,
4-58,4-59 are O m niTraining C orporation,used by perm ission.
Acknowledgment (cont.)
iv IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
1 Requirements and Acceptance for Cable
and Wire Harness Assemblies ...................................1-1
1.1 Scope ........................................................................1-1
1.2 Purpose ....................................................................1-1
1.3 Approach To This Document ................................1-1
1.4 Specialized Designs ...............................................1-1
1.5 Terms and Definitions ...........................................1-1
1.6 Classes of Products ...............................................1-1
1.7 Document Hierarchy ..............................................1-2
1.8 Tool and Equipment Control ................................1-2
1.9 Observable Criteria ................................................1-2
1.10 Defects and Process Indicators ..........................1-3
1.11 Inspection Conditions ............................................1-3
1.11.1 Target .................................................................1-3
1.11.2 Acceptable .........................................................1-3
1.11.3 Process Indicator ...............................................1-3
1.11.4 D efect.................................................................1-3
1.11.5 D isposition ..........................................................1-3
1.11.6 ProductC lassification Im plied
R elationships ......................................................1-4
1.11.7 C onditions N otSpecified ....................................1-4
1.12 Electrical Clearance ..............................................1-4
1.13 Measurement Units and Applications ................1-4
1.14 Verification of Dimensions ...................................1-5
1.15 Visual Inspection ....................................................1-5
1.15.1 Lighting ..............................................................1-5
1.15.2 M agnification ......................................................1-5
1.16 Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Protection ..........1-5
1.17 Workmanship/ Handling .........................................1-5
1.18 Cleaning ...................................................................1-5
2 Applicable Documents ................................................2-1
2.1 IPC ...............................................................................2-1
2.2 Joint Industry Standards (ANSI J-STD) ................2-1
2.3 Department of Defense (Military) ..........................2-2
2.4 American National Standards Institute
(ANSI) ...........................................................................2-2
2.5 ESD Assocations (ESDA) .........................................2-2
3 Preparation ....................................................................3-1
3.1 Strand Damage .........................................................3-2
3.2 Conductor - Deformation ........................................3-3
3.3 Wire Separation (Birdcaging) ..................................3-3
3.4 Damaged Insulation .................................................3-5
4 Soldered Terminations ................................................4-1
4.1 Wire Preparation, Tinning .......................................4-2
4.2 Parts Preparation, Gold Removal ..........................4-3
4.3 Cleanliness ................................................................4-4
4.3.1 Priorto Soldering ..................................................4-4
4.3.2 SolderC onnections ..............................................4-4
4.3.3 Particulate M atter ..................................................4-4
4.3.4 Flux R esidue .........................................................4-5
4.4 Insulation ....................................................................4-6
4.4.1 C learance .............................................................4-6
4.4.2 D am age from Soldering ........................................4-7
4.5 Flexible Sleeve Insulation .......................................4-9
4.6 Birdcaged Wire (Soldered) ....................................4-11
Table of Contents
v IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
4.7 Connection Requirements ....................................4-12
4.7.1 Term inals .........................................................4-12
4.7.2 TurretTerm inals ..............................................4-12
4.7.3 B ifurcated Term inals ........................................4-14
4.7.3.1 Side R oute Attachm ents .................................4-14
4.7.3.2 B ottom and Top R oute Attachm ents ..............4-16
4.7.3.3 Staked W ires ...................................................4-17
4.7.4 Slotted Term inals ............................................4-18
4.7.5 Pierced/Perforated/Punched Term inals ...........4-19
4.7.6 H ook Term inals ...............................................4-20
4.7.7 C up Term inals .................................................4-21
4.7.8 Series C onnected Term inals ...........................4-22
4.8 Solder Requirements .............................................4-23
4.8.1 G eneral...............................................................4-24
4.8.2 Fillet ....................................................................4-25
4.8.3 TurretTerm inals ..................................................4-27
4.8.4 B ifurcated Term inals ...........................................4-28
4.8.5 Slotted Term inals ................................................4-29
4.8.6 Pierced/Perforated Term inals ..............................4-30
4.8.7 H ook Term inals ...................................................4-31
4.8.8 C up Term inals ....................................................4-32
5 Crimp Terminations .....................................................5-1
5.1 Stamped and Formed Contacts .............................5-2
5.1.1 Insulation SupportC rim p ......................................5-3
5.1.2 Insulation Inspection W indow ...............................5-6
5.1.3 C onductorC rim p ..................................................5-7
5.1.4 C rim p B ellm outh .................................................5-10
5.1.5 C onductorB rush ................................................5-11
5.1.6 C arrierC utoffTab ...............................................5-14
5.2 Machined Crimp Contacts ....................................5-15
5.2.1 Insulation C learance ............................................5-15
5.2.2 Insulation Support(Insulation Support
Style C ontacts) ...................................................5-17
5.2.3 C onductorLocation ............................................5-18
5.2.4 C rim ping .............................................................5-20
5.2.5 U nderSize C onductor- C M A
B uildup C rim ps ...................................................5-22
6 Insulation Displacement Connection (IDC) .............6-1
6.1 Mass Termination, Flat Cable ................................6-2
6.1.1 End C utting ..........................................................6-2
6.1.2 N otching ...............................................................6-3
6.1.3 PlanarG round Plane R em oval..............................6-4
6.1.4 C onnectorPosition ...............................................6-5
6.1.5 C onnectorSkew and LateralPosition ...................6-7
6.1.6 R etention ..............................................................6-8
6.2 Discrete Wire Termination ......................................6-9
6.2.1 G eneral.................................................................6-9
6.2.2 Position ofW ire ..................................................6-10
6.2.3 O verhang (Extension) ..........................................6-11
6.2.4 W ire H older .........................................................6-13
6.2.5 D am age in C onnection Area ...............................6-15
6.2.6 End C onnectors ..................................................6-16
6.2.7 W irem ountC onnectors .......................................6-18
6.2.8 Subm iniature D -C onnector(Series
B us C onnector)...................................................6-19
6.2.9 M odularC onnectors (R J Type) ...........................6-21
7 Ultrasonic Welding .......................................................7-1
7.1 Insulation Clearance ................................................7-2
7.2 Weld Nugget ..............................................................7-3
7.2.1 G eom etry ..............................................................7-3
8 Splices ............................................................................8-1
8.1 Soldered Splices .......................................................8-2
8.1.1 M esh ....................................................................8-2
8.1.2 W rap .....................................................................8-3
8.1.3 H ook .....................................................................8-4
8.1.4 Lap .......................................................................8-5
8.2 Splices - Crimped .....................................................8-6
8.2.1 B arrel....................................................................8-6
8.2.2 D ouble Sided ........................................................8-8
8.3 Splices - Ultrasonic Welded .................................8-11
9 Connectorization ..........................................................9-1
9.1 Hardware Mounting ..................................................9-2
9.1.1 Jackscrew s ...........................................................9-2
9.2 Strain Relief ...............................................................9-3
9.2.1 Sleeving ................................................................9-3
9.3 Sleeving and Boots ...................................................9-4
9.3.1 Position .................................................................9-4
9.3.2 B onding - C onductive Adhesive ...........................9-5
9.4 Connector Damage ...................................................9-7
9.4.1 C riteria ..................................................................9-7
9.4.2 Lim its - H ard Face - M ating Surface .....................9-8
9.4.3 Lim its - SoftFace - M ating Surface or
R earSealArea .....................................................9-9
9.4.4 C ontacts .............................................................9-10
Table of Contents (cont.)
vi IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
10 Molding/ Potting ........................................................10-1
10.1 Molding ...................................................................10-2
10.1.1 Insulation D am age ............................................10-2
10.1.2 Filling ................................................................10-3
10.1.3 Term inalPositioning .........................................10-5
10.1.4 Fitto W ire orC able ..........................................10-6
10.1.5 Flashing ............................................................10-8
10.1.6 C hillM arks (KnitLines),Stress Lines
orC racks .........................................................10-9
10.1.7 C om pound C olor..............................................10-9
10.2 Potting ..................................................................10-10
10.2.1 Filling ..............................................................10-10
10.2.2 Fitto W ire orC able ........................................10-11
10.2.3 C uring ............................................................10-12
11 Cable Assemblies and Wires .................................11-1
11.1 Cable Assemblies .................................................11-2
11.1.1 R eference Surfaces ........................................11-2
11.1.1.1 Straight/AxialC onnectors ...............................11-2
11.1.1.2 R ight-Angle C onnectors .................................11-2
11.1.2 Length M easurem ent .....................................11-3
11.2 Wires (As an Assembly) .......................................11-4
11.2.1 ElectricalTerm inalR eference Location .............11-4
11.2.2 Length M easurem ent .......................................11-5
12 Marking/ Labeling .....................................................12-1
12.1 Content ...................................................................12-2
12.2 Legibility .................................................................12-2
12.3 Permanency ...........................................................12-4
12.4 Location ..................................................................12-4
12.5 Functionality ..........................................................12-5
12.6 Marker Sleeve .......................................................12-6
12.6.1 W rap Around ....................................................12-6
12.6.2 Tubular .............................................................12-8
13 Coaxial and Twinaxial Cable Assemblies ............13-1
13.1 Stripping .................................................................13-2
13.2 Center Conductor Termination ........................13-4
13.2.1 C rim p ...............................................................13-4
13.2.2 Solder ...............................................................13-6
13.3 Solder Ferrule Pins ............................................13-8
13.3.1 G eneral.............................................................13-8
13.3.2 Insulation ........................................................13-10
13.4 Coaxial Connector - Printed Wire
Board Mount ......................................................13-11
13.5 Coaxial Connector - Center Conductor
Length - Right Angle Connector ....................13-12
13.6 Terminal Cover - Soldering ............................13-14
13.7 Shield Termination ...........................................13-16
13.7.1 C lam ped G round R ings ..................................13-16
13.7.2 C rim ped Ferrule ..............................................13-17
13.8 Center Pin Position ..........................................13-19
13.9 Semirigid Coax ..................................................13-20
13.9.1 B ending and D eform ation ...............................13-20
13.9.2 Surface C ondition ...........................................13-23
13.9.3 D ielectric C utoff ..............................................13-24
13.9.4 D ielectric C leanliness ......................................13-27
13.9.5 Solder .............................................................13-28
13.10 Swage-Type Connector ...................................13-30
13.11 Soldering and Stripping of Biaxial or
Twinaxial Wire - Low Temperature
Insulation ...........................................................13-31
13.11.1 Jacketand Tip Installation .............................13-31
13.11.2 R ing Installation .............................................13-33
14 Wire Bundle Securing .............................................14-1
14.1 Tie Wrap/ Lacing Application ............................14-2
14.1.1 Tightness ..........................................................14-6
14.1.2 D am age ............................................................14-7
14.1.3 Spacing ............................................................14-8
14.2 Breakouts .............................................................14-9
14.2.1 IndividualW ires ................................................14-9
14.2.2 Spacing ..........................................................14-10
Table of Contents (cont.)
vii IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
14.3 Wire Bundles .......................................................14-13
14.3.1 W ire C rossover ...............................................14-13
14.3.2 C oaxialC able R outing ....................................14-14
14.3.3 U nused W ire Term ination ...............................14-15
14.3.4 Ties overSplices and Ferrules ........................14-16
15 Shielding ....................................................................15-1
15.1 Braided ...................................................................15-2
15.1.1 D irectApplied ...................................................15-3
15.1.2 Pre-W oven .......................................................15-4
15.2 Shield Termination ...............................................15-5
15.2.1 Pick O ff ............................................................15-5
15.2.2 N o Pick O ff.....................................................15-11
15.2.3 Low Tem perature Insulated W ire -
W ith Pick O ff ..................................................15-13
15.3 Shield Termination - Shrink and Crimp .........15-15
15.4 Shield Termination - Splicing ...........................15-19
15.5 Tapes - Barrier and Conductive,
Adhesive or Non-Adhesive ................................15-21
15.6 Conduit (Shielding) .............................................12-22
15.7 Conductive Coating ............................................15-23
15.8 Shrink Tubing - Conductive Lined ..................15-24
16 Cable/ Wire Harness Protective Coverings .........16-1
16.1 Braid ........................................................................16-2
16.1.1 D irectApplied ...................................................16-2
16.1.2 Pre-W oven .......................................................16-4
16.2 Taping .....................................................................16-5
16.3 Sleeving ..................................................................16-6
16.3.1 Shrink Tubing ...................................................16-6
16.4 Spiral Plastic Wrap
(Spiral Wrap Sleeving) .........................................16-7
16.5 Conduit (Containment) ........................................16-8
17 Installation ................................................................17-1
17.1 General ...................................................................17-2
17.2 Hardware Installation ..........................................17-3
17.2.1 Sequence .........................................................17-4
17.2.2 Type and M issing .............................................17-6
17.2.3 M inim um Torque forElectrical
C onnections .....................................................17-7
17.2.4 W ires ................................................................17-8
17.2.5 H igh Voltage Applications ...............................17-11
17.3 Wire/ Harness Installation .................................17-12
17.3.1 Stress R elief ...................................................17-12
17.3.2 W ire D ress ......................................................17-13
17.3.3 Service Loops ................................................17-14
18 Solderless Wrap .......................................................18-1
18.1 Number of Turns ...................................................18-2
18.2 Turn Spacing .........................................................18-3
18.3 End Tails, Insulation Wrap ..................................18-4
18.4 Raised Turns Overlap ..........................................18-6
18.5 Connection Position .............................................18-7
18.6 Wire Dress .............................................................18-9
18.7 Wire Slack ............................................................18-10
18.8 Plating ...................................................................18-11
18.9 Damage ................................................................18-12
18.9.1 Insulation ........................................................18-12
18.9.2 W ires and Term inals .......................................18-13
Appendix A .........................................................................A-1
Appendix B ........................................................................B -1
Standard Improvement Form
Table of Contents (cont.)
viii IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
1.1 Scope
This standard is a collection of visual Q uality Acceptability
R equirem ents forC able,W ire and H arness Assem blies.Itw as
prepared by the ITG C Industry TechnicalG uidelines C om m it-
tee of the W ire H arness M anufacturers Association and the
ProductAssurance C om m ittee ofIPC - Association C onnect-
ing Electronic Industries.IPC /W H M A-A-620 can be used as a
stand-alone docum ent for purchasing products, how ever it
does not specify frequency of in-process inspection or fre-
quency of end product inspection. N o lim it is placed on the
num ber of process indicators or the num ber of allow able
repair/rew ork of defects. Such inform ation should be devel-
oped w ith a statisticalprocess controlplan (see IPC -9191).
1.2 Purpose
This publication describes acceptability criteria for producing
crim ped, m echanically secured, or soldered interconnections
and the associated lacing/restraining criteria associated w ith
cable and harness assem blies.Itis notthe intentofthis docu-
m entto exclude any acceptable procedure used to m ake the
electricalconnection; how ever, the m ethods used m ust pro-
duce com pleted assem blies thatconform to the acceptability
requirem ents described in this docum ent.
1.3 Approach To This Document
The illustrations in this docum entportray specific points noted
in the title of each section. A brief description follow s each
illustration.The developm entcom m ittee recognizes thatdiffer-
ent parts of the industry have different definitions for som e
term s used herein. For the purposes of this docum ent, the
term s cable and w ire harness are used interchangeably.
1.4 Specialized Designs
IPC /W H M A-A-620,as an industry consensus docum ent,can-
not address allofthe possible product design com binations.
H ow ever, the standard does provide criteria for com m only
used technologies. W here uncom m on or specialized tech-
nologies are used, it m ay be necessary to develop unique
acceptance criteria.The developm entofunique criteria should
include custom er involvem ent or consent and the criteria
developed should include an agreed upon definition for
acceptance ofeach characteristic.
W henever possible, new criteria, or criteria on specialized
products should be subm itted, using the Standard Im prove-
m ent Form included in this standard, to the IPC Technical
C om m ittee to be considered for inclusion in upcom ing revi-
sions ofthis standard.
1.5 Terms and Definitions
Term s are consistent w ith the definitions provided by IPC -T-
50. For the understanding of this docum ent, selected defini-
tions are listed below and in Appendix A.
Shall or Must M ean that the requirem ent or attribute dis-
cussed is m andatory forallProductC lasses.
Should R eflects recom m endations and is used to reflect
generalindustry practices and procedures for guidance only.
Wire Diameter In this docum ent, w ire diam eter (D )is the
overalldiam eterofconductorplus insulation.
1.6 Classes of Products
The custom erhas the ultim ate responsibility foridentifying the
class to w hich the assem bly is evaluated.Thus,acceptand/or
rejectdecisions m ustbe based on applicable docum entation
such as contracts, draw ings, specifications, standards and
reference docum ents. C riteria defined in this standard reflect
three ProductC lasses,w hich are as follow s:
Class 1 General Electronic Products
Includes products suitable for applications w here the m ajor
requirem entis the function ofthe com pleted assem bly.
Class 2 Dedicated Service Electronic Products
Includes products w here continued perform ance and
extended life is required, and for w hich uninterrupted service
is desired but not critical.Typically,the end-use environm ent
w ould notcause failures.
Class 3 High Performance Electronic Products
Includes products w here continued perform ance or
perform ance-on-dem and is critical,equipm entdow ntim e can-
not be tolerated, end-use environm ent m ay be uncom m only
harsh,and the equipm entm ustfunction w hen required,such
as life supportsystem s and othercriticalsystem s.
1 Requirements and Acceptance for Cable and Wire Harness Assemblies
Foreword
1-1 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
1.7 Document Hierarchy
In the event of conflict, the follow ing order of precedence
applies:
1. Procurem entas agreed betw een custom erand vendor.
2. M aster draw ing or m aster assem bly draw ing reflecting the
custom ers detailed requirem ents.
3. W hen invoked by the custom er or per contractualagree-
m ent,IPC /W H M A-A-620.
4. O therdocum ents to extentspecified by the custom er.
The developing com m ittee recognizes that som e require-
m ents in IPC /W H M A-A-620 differfrom those in otherindustry
standards such as IPC -A-610 and IPC /EIA J-STD -001.W hen
IPC /W H M A-A-620 is cited orrequired by contractas a stand-
alone docum ent for inspection and/or acceptance, the
requirem ents of IPC /EIA J-STD -001 R equirem ents for Sol-
dered Electrical and Electronic Assem blies or IPC -A-610
Acceptability of Electronic Assem blies do not apply unless
separately and specifically required.W hen IPC /W H M A-A-620,
IPC /EIA J-STD -001, IPC -A-610 and/or other related docu-
m ents are cited, the order ofprecedence is to be defined in
the procurem entdocum ents.
The user (custom er) has the opportunity to specify alternate
acceptance criteria.
1.8 Tool and Equipment Control
Each m anufacturershall:
a. Selecttools to be used for crim ping,cabling,w iring,m ea-
suring,inspecting and in w ork preparation areas appropri-
ate to the intended function.
b. C lean and properly m aintain alltools and equipm ent.
c. Exam ine allelem ents oftools,used in cabling,forphysical
dam age.
d. Prohibit unauthorized, defective, or uncalibrated tools in
the w ork area.
e. D ocum entdetailed operating procedures and m aintenance
schedules for tools and equipm ent requiring calibration or
set-ups.
f. M aintain records of tool and equipm ent calibration and
functionaltesting.
The m anufacturer shall have a docum ented calibration sys-
tem in accordance w ith AN SI/N C SL Z540-1 orotherN ational
orInternationalstandard.The m inim um standard shall be:
a. M easurem entstandards used forcalibrating tools shall be
traceable to N ationalInstitute of Standards and Technol-
ogy (N IST). C alibration of tools shall be perform ed in an
environm ent com patible w ith the environm ental require-
m ents ofthe tools.
b. C alibration intervals shall be based on the type oftooland
records of the tools calibration. Intervals m ay be length-
ened or shall be shortened on the basis ofstability dem -
onstrated overprevious calibration periods.
c. Procedures shall be generated and utilized forthe calibra-
tion ofalltooling stated herein. Procedures shall include,
as a m inim um , standards to be used, param eters to be
m easured, accuracy, tolerances, environm ental factors,
and steps in the calibration process.The procedures m ay
be the m anufacturers specifications if judged adequate,
and need not therefore be rew ritten, but shall be docu-
m ented.
d. R ecords shall be m aintained thatdocum entcalibration.
e. Tools shall be labeled to indicate,as a m inim um :
(1)D ate ofcalibration.
(2)C alibration due date.
(3)Any lim itation ofuse. Ifnot practicalto place the label
directly on the tool,then the labelshall be affixed to the
toolcontainer or other location as docum ented in the
procedures.
(4)Toolidentification.
1.9 Observable Criteria
The acceptance criteria of this standard are based on visual
inspection of the assem blies. Visual inspection m ay be
supplem ented by the m easurem ent ofcharacteristics appro-
priate to the product being assem bled (e.g., go/no-go
gauges, pull force m easurem ents, torque m easurem ent).
M easurem ent of dim ensions provided in this standard (i.e.,
insulation extension, solder fillet percentage, crim p depth
dim ensions and determ ination ofpercentages)is notrequired
exceptforreferee purposes.
M any of the exam ples (figures) show n are grossly exagger-
ated to clearly depictthe condition being described.
In the case of a discrepancy, the written description or
written criteria always takes precedence over the illus-
trations.
1 Requirements and Acceptance for Cable and Wire Harness Assemblies
Foreword
1-2 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
1.10 Defects and Process Indicators
C haracteristics or conditions that do not conform to the
requirem ents of this standard that are detectable by inspec-
tion oranalysis are classified as eitherdefects orprocess indi-
cators. N ot allprocess indicators are specified by this stan-
dard. P rocess indicators should be m onitored but the
hardw are need notbe dispositioned (see 1.11.3).
Itis the responsibility ofthe user to define unique defectcat-
egories applicable to the product.Itis the responsibility ofthe
m anufacturer to identify defects and process indicators that
are unique to the assem bly.
1.11 Inspection Conditions
For this docum ent, target, acceptable and defect conditions
are listed for each product class. W here applicable, process
indicator conditions are also listed. The inspector shall not
select the product class for the assem bly under inspection.
D ocum entation that specifies the applicable class for the
assem bly underinspection shall be provided to the inspector.
The descriptions ofthese conditions follow .
1.11.1 Target
A condition thatis close to perfect(in the pasthas som etim es
been labeled as preferred). It is a desirable condition, not
alw ays achievable,and m ay not be necessary to ensure reli-
ability ofthe assem bly in its service environm ent.
1.11.2 Acceptable
This characteristic indicates a condition that,w hile notneces-
sarily perfect, w ill m aintain the integrity and reliability of the
assem bly in its service environm ent.
1.11.3 Process Indicator
A process indicatoris a condition (nota defect)thatidentifies
a characteristic thatdoes notaffectthe form ,fit,function or
reliabilityofa product.
S uch condition is a result of m aterial, design and/or
operator/m achine related causes that create a condition
that neither fully m eets the acceptance criteria nor is a
defect.
Process indicators should be m onitored as part ofthe pro-
cess control system . If the num ber of process indicators
indicates an abnorm alvariation in the process,identifies an
undesirable trend,or displays other conditions thatindicate
the process is (oris approaching)outofcontrol,the process
shall be analyzed. This m ay result in action to reduce the
variation and im prove yields.
D isposition of individualprocess indicators is not required
and affected productshould be used as is.
Process controlm ethodologies are to be used in the plan-
ning, im plem entation and evaluation of the m anufacturing
processes used to produce soldered electrical and elec-
tronic assem blies. The philosophy, im plem entation strate-
gies, tools and techniques m ay be applied in different
sequences depending on the specific com pany, operation,
orvariable underconsideration to relate process controland
capability to end product requirem ents. The m anufacturer
needs to m aintain objective evidence of a current process
control/continuous im provem ent plan that is available for
review .
1.11.4 Defect
A defectis a condition thatfails to m eetthe acceptance crite-
ria ofthis docum entand is insufficientto ensure the form ,fit,
function, or reliability of the assem bly in its end use environ-
m ent.The m anufacturerm ustdocum entand disposition each
defect.
1.11.5 Disposition
D isposition is the determ ination of how defects should be
treated. D ispositions include, but are not lim ited to, rew ork,
use as is, scrap or repair. C ustom er concurrence m ay be
required foruse as is dispositions.
1 Requirements and Acceptance for Cable and Wire Harness Assemblies
Foreword
1-3 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
1.11.6 Product Classification Implied Relationships
A defectfora C lass 1 productm eans thatthe characteristic is
also a defectfor C lass 2 and 3.A defectfor a C lass 2 prod-
uctm eans thatthe characteristic is also a defectfora C lass 3
product,butm ay notbe a defectfora C lass 1 productw here
less dem anding criteria m ay apply.
1.11.7 Conditions Not Specified
C onditions thatare notspecified as defective oras a process
indicator are considered acceptable unless it can be estab-
lished that the condition affects end user defined form , fit,
function orreliability.
1.12 Electrical Clearance
Electricalclearance spacing betw een conductors should be
m axim ized w henever possible. The m inim um spacing
betw een conductors,and betw een conductive m aterials (such
as conductive m arkings or m ounting hardw are)and conduc-
tors should be defined on the applicable draw ings or docu-
m entation.W hen m ixed voltages appearon the sam e assem -
bly, the specific areas and appropriate clearances should be
identified on the m aster draw ing.Failure to adhere to this cri-
teria can cause equipm ent operating problem s, and in the
case of high voltages or high pow er applications, potential
severe dam age/fire.
Although m inim um electricalclearance distances are norm ally
fixed by the design/draw ing (e.g.,m inim um spacing betw een
tw o term inalstuds),itis possible to violate the m inim um spac-
ing by the installation m ethod.Forexam ple,im properorienta-
tion ofan uninsulated term inallug oran excessively long w ire
w rap/solderconnection pigtailw ith orientation thatplaces the
connections closer to non-electrically com m on conductors
could violate the m inim um spacing.
Electricalclearance distance is defined as the shortest point-
to-point distance in air betw een uninsulated energized parts
orbetw een an energized partand ground.The m inim um elec-
tricalclearance distance depends on the circuitvoltage rating
and the norm alvolt-am pere rating. In cases w here no m ini-
m um electricalclearance value is otherw ise defined,the crite-
ria in Table 1-1 (excerpted from M IL-E-917)m ay be used as a
guideline.
1.13 Measurement Units and Applications
Alldim ensions and tolerances as w ellas other form s ofm ea-
surem ent (tem perature, w eight, force, etc.) in this standard
are expressed in SI(System International)units (w ith Im perial
English equivalent dim ensions provided in brackets). D im en-
sions and tolerances use m illim eters as the m ain form of
dim ensionalexpression;m icrom eters are used w hen the pre-
cision required m akes m illim eters too cum bersom e.C elsius is
used to express tem perature. W eight is expressed in gram s.
H ardm easurem ents are used for both SI and Im perial
English. R ounding m ay cause variations betw een the tw o
actualm easurem ents. The order of precedence (SIor Im pe-
rial)is to be defined in the procurem entdocum ents.Appendix
B is a cross-reference ofEnglish (Im perial)to SIunits.
Table 1-1 Electrical Clearance
Voltage Set* Clearance
U p to 64 A
B
C
1.6 m m [0.062 in]
3.2 m m [0.125 in]
3.2 m m [0.125 in]
O ver64-150 A
B
C
1.6 m m [0.062 in]
3.2 m m [0.125 in]
6.4 m m [0.25 in]
O ver150-300 A
B
C
1.6 m m [0.062 in]
3.2 m m [0.125 in]
6.4 m m [0.25 in]
O ver300-600 A
B
C
1.6 m m [0.062 in]
3.2 m m [0.125 in]
6.4 m m [0.25 in]
O ver600-1000 A
B
C
3.2 m m [0.125 in]
6.4 m m [0.25 in]
12.7 m m [0.5 in]
O ver1000-3000 A
B
C
50 m m [2 in]
O ver3000-5000 A
B
C
75 m m [3 in]
*SetA = N orm aloperating volt-am pere rating up to 50.
*SetB = N orm aloperating volt-am pere rating of50 to 2000.
*SetC = N orm aloperating volt-am pere rating over2000.
1 Requirements and Acceptance for Cable and Wire Harness Assemblies
Foreword
1-4 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
1.14 Verification of Dimensions
Actualm easurem entofspecific partm ounting and solderfillet
dim ensions and determ ination of percentages are not
required except for referee purposes. For the purposes of
determ ining conform ance to this specification, all specified
lim its in this standard are absolute lim its as defined in ASTM
E29.
1.15 Visual Inspection
1.15.1 Lighting
Illum ination at the surface of w orkstations should be 1000
lm /m
2
m inim um . 1,000 lm /m
2
at the w ork surface is the
accepted practice for the m inim um level of illum ination in
w hich operators and inspectors should be expected to per-
form their tasks. 1,000 lm /m
2
is approxim ately equivalent to
100 foot-Lam berts m easured using a photographic light
m eter.
1.15.2 Magnification
M agnification aids in accordance w ith Table 1-2 below shall
be used for visual inspection of in-process and com pleted
assem blies.The tolerance form agnification aids is 15% ofthe
selected m agnification pow er, (i.e., 15% or a range of 30%
centered atthe selected m agnification pow er).The m agnifica-
tion pow erofaids used forinspection need to be appropriate
w ith the item being processed.Lighting needs to be adequate
for the m agnification aids used and thus m ay exceed 100
foot-Lam berts in som e cases. The m agnification used is
based on the AW G size (gauge)ofthe w ire being inspected.
The m agnification levels show n in Table 1-2 shall apply:
R eferee m agnification pow er is to be used only to verify a
product rejected at the inspection m agnification. For assem -
blies w ith m ixed w ire size, the greater m agnification m ay be
(butis notrequired to be)used forthe entire assem bly.
1.16 Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Protection
Assem blies that contain com ponents or parts sensitive to
ESD m ust be protected. ESD protection shall be in accor-
dance w ith AN SI/ESD -S20.20-1999 oras otherw ise specified.
1.17 Workmanship/ Handling
C are m ustbe taken during assem bly activities and acceptabil-
ity inspections to ensure product integrity at all tim es.
Im proper handling can readily dam age com ponents and
assem blies (e.g., cracked, chipped or broken com ponents
and connectors,broken w ire strands,orbentorbroken term i-
nals).Physicaldam age ofthis type can ruin the entire assem -
bly orattached com ponents.
1.18 Cleaning
Assem blies produced in accordance w ith this Standard shall
be free of allextraneous m atter (including but not lim ited to:
w ire clippings, insulation slugs, strands of shielding braid or
any other item notrequired to be present).See Section 4 for
cleanliness criteria specific to soldered assem blies.
Table 1-2 Magnication Aids
Inspection Referee
W ire Size AW G
D iam eter
m m [inch]
M agnification
Pow er
M agnification
Pow er
>14 AW G
2.0 m m [0.081]
N /A 1.75X
14 to 22 AW G
1.6 - 0.63 m m
[0.064 to 0.025]
1.75X 4X
<22 AW G
>0.63 m m [<0.025]
4X 10X
1 Requirements and Acceptance for Cable and Wire Harness Assemblies
Foreword
1-5 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
This Page Intentionally LeftB lank
1 Requirements and Acceptance for Cable and Wire Harness Assemblies
1-6 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
IPC-9191 G eneralG uidelines forIm plem entation ofStatisticalProcess C ontrol(SPC )
IPC-T-50 Term s and D efinitions forInterconnecting and Packaging Electronic C ircuits
IPC-CH-65 G uidelines forC leaning ofPrinted B oards and Assem blies
IPC-A-610 Acceptability ofElectronic Assem blies
IPC-TM-650 TestM ethods M anual
IPC/EIA J-STD-001 R equirem ents forSoldered Electricaland Electronic Assem blies
2 Applicable Documents
Applicable Documents
2-1 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
2.1 IPC
2.2 Joint Industry Standards (ANSI J-STD)
MIL-E-917 Electric Pow erEquipm entB asic R equirem ents
ANSI/NCSL Z540-1-1994
ANSI/ESD-S20.20-1999 ESD Association Standard for the D evelopm entofan Electrostatic D ischarge C ontrolProgram for Pro-
tection ofElectricaland Electronic Parts,Assem blies and Equipm ent
2 Applicable Documents
2.3 Department of Defense (Military)
2-2 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
2.4 American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
2.5 ESD Association (ESDA)
This section provides requirem ents and acceptance criteria for
preparation ofw ires thatw illbe used in the cable/w ire harness
fabrication process.
The follow ing topics are addressed in this section:
3.1 Strand Damage
3.2 Conductor - Deformation
3.3 Wire Separation (Birdcaging)
3.4 Damaged Insulation
3 Preparation
Preparation
3-1 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target Condition - Class 1,2,3
Strands are notscraped,nicked,severed orotherw ise dam -
aged.
Acceptable - Class 1
Process Indicator - Class 2,3
Strands scraped, nicked, or severed but does not exceed
the lim its specified in Table 3-1.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Scraped, nicked (1), or severed strands exceed the lim its
specified in Table 3-1.
Table 3-1 Allowable Strand Damage
Number of
Strands
Maximum
Allowable
Strands
Scraped,
Nicked or
Severed for
Class 1,2
Maximum
Allowable
Strands
Scraped,
Nicked or
Severed for
Class 3
Crimped
Terminations
Maximum
Allowable
Strands
Scraped,
Nicked or
Severed for
Class 3
Soldered
Terminations
Less than 7 0 0 0
7-15 1 0 1
16-25 3 0 2
26-40 4 3 3
41-60 5 4 4
61-120 6 5 5
121 orm ore 6% 5% 5%
Note 1: The requirem ents in Table 3-1 are differentthan the w ire/strand
dam age requirem ents ofIPC -A-610 and IPC /EIA-J-STD -001 (see 1.7).
Note 2: N o dam aged strands forw ires used ata potentialfor6 kV or
greater.
Figure 3-1
Figure 3-2
Figure 3-3
3 Preparation
3.1 Strand Damage
3-2 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target Class 1,2,3
Strands are notflattened,untw isted,buckled,kinked orother-
w ise deform ed.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
W ire strands disturbed during insulation rem ovalhave been
restored to approxim ate theiroriginallay.
Target - Class 1,2,3
N o birdcaging.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
W ire strands have separation (birdcaging)butdo notexceed
the lesserof:
O ne strand diam eteror
D o notextend beyond w ire insulation outside diam eter.
Figure 3-4
Figure 3-5
Figure 3-6
3 Preparation
3.2 Conductor Deformation
3-3 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
3.3 Wire Separation (Birdcaging)
Acceptable - Class 1
Process Indicator - Class 2
Defect - Class 3
W ire strands have separation exceeding one strand diam -
eterbutdo notextend beyond w ire insulation outside diam -
eter.
Acceptable - Class 1
Defect - Class 2,3
The general spiral lay of the strands has not been m ain-
tained.
W ire strands extend beyond w ire insulation outside diam -
eter.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
W ire strands are kinked.
Figure 3-7
Figure 3-8
3 Preparation
3.3 Wire Separation (Birdcaging) (cont.)
3-4 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
Insulation has been trim m ed neatly w ith no signs ofpinch-
ing,pulling,fraying,discoloration,charring orburning.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
Slightuniform im pression in the insulation from the gripping
ofm echanicalstrippers.
Insulation thickness is notreduced by m ore than 20% .
U neven or ragged pieces of insulation is less than 50% of
the insulation outside diam eter or 1.0 m m [0.039 in]w hich-
everis less.
Insulation is discolored from the therm alstripping operation.
Figure 3-9
Figure 3-10
3 Preparation
3.4 Damaged Insulation
3-5 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Any cuts orbreaks in insulation (notshow n).
Insulation thickness is reduced by m ore than 20% (Figures
3-11,3-12).
U neven orragged pieces ofinsulation are greaterthan 50%
of the insulation outside diam eter or 1.0 m m [0.039 in]
w hicheveris m ore (Figure 3-13).
Insulation is charred (Figure 3-14).
Insulation is m elted into the w ire strands (notshow n).
Figure 3-11
Figure 3-12
Figure 3-13
Figure 3-14
3 Preparation
3.4 Damaged Insulation (cont.)
3-6 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Soldered term inations are used infrequently in cable/harness
assem bly and forthatreason m ay m eritspecialconsideration.
IPC -H D B K-001 provides additionaltechnicalinform ation and
guidance on how to achieve solder connections that com ply
w ith the requirem ents stated below .
This section separately provides lead form ing/placem ent and
soldering criteria.Form ing and placem entforallterm inaltypes
is provided first,follow ed by soldering criteria beginning at4.8.
Stranded w ires shall be tinned priorto form ing forattachm ent
to solder term inals. (Stranded w ires for attachm ent to crim p
term inals shall not be tinned, see 5 C rim ped Term inations.)
The follow ing topics are addressed in this section.
4.1 Wire Preparation, Tinning
4.2 Parts Preparation, Gold Removal
4.3 Cleanliness
4.3.1 Priorto Soldering
4.3.2 SolderC onnections
4.3.3 Particulate M atter
4.3.4 Flux R esidue
4.4 Insulation
4.4.1 C learance
4.4.2 D am age from Soldering
4.5 Flexible Sleeve Insulation
4.6 Birdcaged Wire (Soldered)
4.7 Connection Requirements
4.7.1 Term inals
4.7.2 TurretTerm inals
4.7.3 B ifurcated Term inals
4.7.3.1 Side R oute Attachm ents
4.7.3.2 B ottom and Top R oute Attachm ents
4.7.3.3 Staked W ires
4.7.4 Slotted Term inals
4.7.5 Pierced/Perforated/Punched Term inals
4.7.6 H ook Term inals
4.7.7 C up Term inals
4.7.8 Series C onnected Term inals
4.8 Solder Requirements
4.8.1 G eneral
4.8.2 Fillet
4.8.3 TurretTerm inals
4.8.4 B ifurcated Term inals
4.8.5 Slotted Term inals
4.8.6 Pierced/Perforated Term inals
4.8.7 H ook Term inals
4.8.8 C up Term inals
4 Soldered Terminations
Soldered Terminations
4-1 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Purpose Tinning is prim arily perform ed to assure thatthe w ire to be soldered has a uniform and readily solderable surface.Tin-
ning ofstranded w ire has the added benefitofbonding the individualw ire strands together,thereby allow ing the w ire to be form ed
to term inals orattachm entpoints w ithoutseparation ofthe individualstrands.
Note: W ires intended to be secured in threaded fasteners orcrim p term inations shall neverbe tinned.
ForC lasses 2 and 3:
Portions ofw ire thatw illbe soldered shall be tinned priorto m ounting.
The soldershall w etthe tinned portion ofthe w ire and penetrate to the innerstrands ofstranded w ire.
Lim ited solderw icking during soldering ofw ire is perm issible as long as the solderdoes notextend to a portion ofthe w ire that
is required to rem ain flexible.
The tinning should leave a sm ooth coating ofsolder,and the outline ofthe strands should be visible.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
W ire is uniform ly coated w ith a sm ooth soldercoat.
Stranded w ire is uniform ly coated w ith a thin coatofsolder
w ith the individualstrands ofthe w ire easily visible.
U ntinned length of strands from end of insulation is not
greaterthan one w ire diam eter(D ).
Process Indicator - Class 2,3
Strands notdiscernible butdoes notinterfere w ith form ,fit,
function orreliability.
Defect - Class 2,3
Stranded w ire nottinned priorto assem bly.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
W ire has pinholes,voids orareas w here solderhas notw et-
ted to the w ire.
Defect - Class 3
Length ofuntinned strands from end ofinsulation is greater
than one w ire diam eter(D ).
Figure 4-1
4 Soldered Terminations
4.1 Wire Preparation, Tinning
4-2 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
G old shall be rem oved from 95% ofallsurfaces to be soldered,regardless ofgold thickness.
A double tinning process or dynam ic solder w ave m ay be used for gold rem oval.These requirem ents m ay be elim inated ifthere
is docum ented objective evidence available for review thatthere are no gold related solder problem s associated w ith the solder-
ing process being used.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
G old plated parts have been tinned to elim inate gold from areas to be soldered.
Process Indicator - Class 2
Defect - Class 3
G old plated parts have notbeen tinned to elim inate gold from areas to be soldered.
4 Soldered Terminations
4.2 Parts Preparation, Gold Removal
4-3 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
C leanliness ofterm inals,com ponentleads,and conductors shall be sufficientto assure solderability priorto soldering operations.
Assem blies using soldered connections shall be visually exam ined to detectthe presence offlux residues and particulate m atter.
The visualexam ination m ay,based on productapplication and custom er/userneeds/requirem ent,need to be supplem ented w ith
extraction based tests.Forinform ation on cleaning assem blies see IPC -C H -65 (C leaning H andbook).Forinform ation on extraction
based tests see IPC /EIA J-STD -001 and/orTestM ethods ofIPC -TM -650.
Solderconnections thatare accom plished using flux chem istries thatare intended to be cleaned,should be cleaned in a m anner
thatassures rem ovalofresidualflux and activators.M ethods and m aterials thatare used to clean soldered assem blies shall be
com patible w ith the productand assem bly m aterials so thatthe cleaning process does notadversely affectthe perform ance char-
acteristics.
N o illustrations.
Target - Class 1,2,3
C lean.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
D irtand particulate m atteron assem bly,e.g.,soldersplatter,solderballs,dirt,lint,dross,m etallic particles,etc.
4 Soldered Terminations
4.3 Cleanliness
4-4 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
4.3.1 Cleanliness Prior to Soldering
4.3.3 Cleanliness Particulate Matter
4.3.2 Cleanliness Solder Connections
Flux residue m ay be presentifitis no-clean flux residue thatis notintended to be cleaned.(N o illustrations)
Target - Class 1,2,3
N o visible flux residue.
Acceptable - Class 1
Process Indicator - Class 2,3
Flux residue does notinhibitvisualinspection.
Flux residue does notinhibitaccess to testpoints ofthe assem bly.
Acceptable - Class 1
Defect - Class 2,3
Flux residue on,around,orbridging betw een noncom m on conductors.
Flux residue inhibits visualinspection.
Flux residue inhibits access to testpoints ofthe assem bly.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
W et,tacky,orexcessive flux residues thatm ay spread onto othersurfaces.
N o-clean flux residue on any electricalm ating surface thatinhibits electricalconnection.
4 Soldered Terminations
4.3.4 Cleanliness Flux Residue
4-5 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
There is an insulation clearance (C ) of one diam eter (D )
betw een the end ofthe insulation and the top ofthe solder
fillet.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
The insulation clearance is tw o w ire diam eters (D ) or less
including insulation or 1.5 m m [0.060 in] (w hichever is
greater).
Insulation clearance does not perm it shorting to adjacent
conductors.
Insulation clearance is nearzero.
Figure 4-2
Figure 4-3
Figure 4-4
4 Soldered Terminations
4.4 Insulation
4-6 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
4.4.1 Insulation Clearance
Process Indicator - Class 2,3
The insulation clearance is greater than tw o w ire diam eters
including insulation or 1.5 m m [0.060 in], w hichever is
greater,butdoes notperm itshorting to adjacentconductor.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Insulation clearance perm its shorting to adjacent conduc-
tors.
Target - Class 1,2,3
Insulation is notm elted,charred orotherw ise dam aged from
the soldering process.
Figure 4-5
Figure 4-6
4 Soldered Terminations
4.4.1 Insulation Clearance (cont.)
4-7 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
4.4.2 Insulation Damage from Soldering
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
Slightm elting ofinsulation.
Acceptable - Class 1
Process Indicator - Class 2
Defect - Class 3
W ire insulation is em bedded in the solder.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Insulation charred.
Solder connection contam inated by burnt or m elted insula-
tion.
Figure 4-7
Figure 4-8
Figure 4-9
4 Soldered Terminations
4.4.2 Insulation Damage from Soldering (cont.)
4-8 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
Insulation sleeving overlaps the connector term inal (at
arrow s)and extends overthe w ire insulation fourw ire diam -
eters (D ).
Insulation sleeving is one w ire diam eter (D ) from the point
w here the connectorterm inalenters the connectorinsert.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
Insulation sleeving overlaps the connector term inaland the
w ire insulation by a m inim um oftw o w ire diam eters,w hich-
everis sm aller.
Insulation sleeving is m ore than 50% w ire diam eter and not
m ore than tw o w ire diam eters from the pointw here the con-
nectorterm inalenters the connectorinsert.
Figure 4-10
Figure 4-11
4 Soldered Terminations
4.5 Flexible Sleeve Insulation
4-9 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Defect - Class 2,3
Insulation sleeving is split(A).
Insulation sleeving overlaps the w ire insulation by less than
tw o w ire diam eters (B ).
Insulation sleeving is m ore than tw o w ire diam eters from the
point w here the connector term inal enters the connector
insert(C ).
Insulation sleeve is loose on the term inal (could slide or
vibrate off,exposing m ore than the allow ed am ountofcon-
ductororterm inal)(D ).
Insulation sleeving is less than 50% w ire diam eter from the
point w here the connector term inal enters the connector
insert(A,B ,D ).
Figure 4-12
4 Soldered Terminations
4.5 Flexible Sleeve Insulation (cont.)
4-10 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
N o birdcaging.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
W ire strands have separation (birdcaging) (see Figure 3-6)
butdo notexceed the lesserof:
O ne strand diam eteror
D o notextend beyond w ire insulation outside diam eter.
Acceptable - Class 1
Process Indicator - Class 2
Defect - Class 3
W ire strands have separation exceeding one strand diam -
eterbutdo notextend beyond w ire insulation outside diam -
eter.
The general spiral lay of the strands has not been m ain-
tained.
Figure 4-13
Figure 4-14
4 Soldered Terminations
4.6 Birdcaged Wire (Soldered)
4-11 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Applies to both w ires and com ponentleads.The preferred w rap conditions achieve a m echanicalconnection betw een the lead/
w ire and the term inalsufficientto assure thatthe lead/w ire does notm ove during the soldering operation.Typically the m echani-
calconnection includes a 180 m echanicalw rap to effectm echanicalconnection.
As an exception to the w rap conditions described above, it is acceptable w hen attaching leads/w ires to bifurcated, slotted,
pierced, punched or perforated term inals for the lead/w ire to extend straight through the opening ofthe term inalw ith no w rap.
Exceptforslotted term inals (4.6.4),leads/w ires w ith no w rap shall be staked,bonded,orconstrained to a degree that:
assures the w ire/term inalinterface w illnotbe disturbed (m oved)during the soldering operation
the solderconnection is protected from any force subsequently exerted on the lead/w ire.
Target - Class 1,2,3
W raps parallelto each otherand to the base.
W ire m ounted againstterm inalbase.
O n straightpins,the top w ire on term inalis one w ire diam -
eterbelow the top ofthe term inal.
W raps are a m inim um of180 and a m axim um of270.
Figure 4-15
4 Soldered Terminations
4.7 Connection Requirements
4-12 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
4.7.1 Connection Requirements Terminals
4.7.2 Connection Requirements Turret Terminals
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
W ires and leads m echanically secure to term inals before sol-
dering.
W ires and leads w rapped a m inim um of 180 and do not
overlap.
Process Indicator - Class 2,3
W ire end overlaps itself.
Defect - Class 2
W rap has less than 90 contact betw een the w ire and ter-
m inal.
Process Indicator - Class 2
Defect - Class 3
M inim um w rap for round posts has less than 180 ofcon-
tactbetw een the w ires and the term inal.
Figure 4-16
1. Upper guide slot
2. Lower guide slot
3. Base
Figure 4-17
4 Soldered Terminations
4.7.2 Connection Requirements Turret Terminals (cont.)
4-13 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
The w ire or lead contacts tw o parallelfaces (180 bend)of
the term inalpost.
The cutend ofthe w ire contacts the term inal(notshow n).
N o overlapping ofw raps.
W ires placed in ascending orderw ith largeston the bottom .
M ultiple w ire attachm ents alternate term inalposts.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
W ire ends m ay extend beyond the base ofthe term inalpro-
viding m inim um electricalspacing is m aintained.
W ire passes through the slot and m akes positive contact
w ith atleastone cornerofthe post.
W ires/leads 0.75 m m [0.030 in] or larger in diam eter are
routed straightthrough the posts.
The num berofattachm ents does notexceed the top ofter-
m inalpost.
Figure 4-18
Figure 4-19
4 Soldered Terminations
4.7.3 Connection Requirements Bifurcated Terminals
4-14 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
4.7.3.1 Connection Requirements
Bifurcated Terminals Side Route Attachments
Acceptable - Class 1
Process Indicator - Class 2
Defect - Class 3
Any portion ofthe w rap extends above the term inalpost.
If w rap is required, m inim um w rap is less than 90 around
the term inal.
W ire does notpass through slot.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
W ire end violates m inim um electricalclearance.See 1.12.
Figure 4-20
Figure 4-21
4 Soldered Terminations
4.7.3.1 Connection Requirements Bifurcated
Terminals Side Route Attachments (cont.)
4-15 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
W ire insulation does notenterbase orposts ofterm inal.
B ottom route w ire w rap contacts tw o parallelsides ofpost
(180).
W ire is againstbase ofterm inal.
Top route w ire has space betw een posts filled by using
separate fillerorbending the w ire double (Figure 4-23 B ,C ).
Acceptable - Class 1
Process Indicator - Class 2
Defect - Class 3
W ire insulation enters base orposts ofterm inal.
Top route w ire is notsupported w ith filler.
B ottom route w ire notw rapped to term inalbase orpostw ith
a m inim um 90 bend.
Figure 4-22
Figure 4-23
Figure 4-24
4 Soldered Terminations
4.7.3.2 Connection Requirements Bifurcated
Terminals Bottom and Top Route Attachments
4-16 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
As an alternative to w rap requirem ents of4.7.3.1,the follow ing criteria apply to w ires/leads/com ponents thatare staked,bonded
orotherw ise constrained to provide supportforthe solderconnection.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
W ire term inated w ith a 90 bend orinserted straightthrough
bifurcated posts or opening in pierced/perforated term inal
w ith m echanicalsupport.
W ire is perm anently staked or com ponent body bonded to
the board or adjacent surface or constrained by a perm a-
nentm ounting device.
W ire contacts base ofterm inalorthe previous w ire.
W ire extends through posts ofbifurcated term inal.
W ire extends beyond the eye of pierced/perforated term i-
nals.
W ire contacts tw o sides ofpierced/perforated term inals.
Process Indicator - Class 2
Defect - Class 3
W ire notstaked orcom ponentbody notbonded to board or
adjacent surface or retained by a m ounting device prior to
soldering.
W ire does notextend through posts ofbifurcated term inalor
the eye ofpierced/perforated term inal.
W ire does not contact base of bifurcated term inalor tw o
sides ofpierced/perforated term inalora previously installed
w ire.
Figure 4-25
Figure 4-26
4 Soldered Terminations
4.7.3.3 Connection Requirements
Bifurcated Terminals Staked Wires
4-17 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
Lead or w ire extends com pletely through slot and is visible
on the exitside.
W ire is in contact w ith base of term inalarea or previously
installed w ire.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
Lead or w ire end is discernible on the exit side ofterm inal.
Note: A Jhook or w rap is notrequired on a slotted term i-
nal.
Process Indicator - Class 2
Defect - Class 3
Lead end notdiscernible on exitside ofterm inal.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
W ire end violates m inim um electricalclearance.
Figure 4-27
Figure 4-28
Figure 4-29
4 Soldered Terminations
4.7.4 Connection Requirements Slotted Terminals
4-18 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
W ire passes through the eye ofthe term inal.
W ire w rapped to contactopposite sides ofthe term inal.
Insulation clearance one w ire diam eter.
Acceptable - Class 1
Process Indicator - Class 2
Defect - Class 3
W ire w rap less than 90.
W ire does not pass through the eye of the term inal (not
show n).
Defect - Class 2,3
Term inalaltered to acceptoversized w ire orw ire group.
C onductorstrands cutorm odified to fitinto the term inal.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
W ire does notcontacttw o sides ofthe term inal.
W ire end violates m inim um electricalclearance to noncom -
m on conductor(notshow n).
W ire is fractured atbends (notshow n).
Figure 4-30
Figure 4-31
Figure 4-32
4 Soldered Terminations
4.7.5 Connection Requirements
Pierced/ Perforated/ Punched Terminals
4-19 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
W ire w rap contacts term inalfora m inim um of180.
M inim um of one w ire diam eter space from end of hook to
the closestw ire.
W ires attached w ithin the 180 arc ofthe hook.
W ires do notoverlap.
Insulation clearance one w ire diam eter.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
W ire contacts and w raps term inalatleast180.
N o overlap ofw ire turns.
M inim um of one w ire diam eter space from end of hook to
the closestw ire.
Acceptable - Class 1
Process Indicator - Class 2
Defect - Class 3
W ire is w rapped less than one w ire diam eter from end of
hook.
W ire w rap is less than 180.
W ire is attached outside the arc ofthe hook and is less than
tw o lead diam eters or 1.0 m m [0.039 in] w hichever is
greaterfrom the base ofthe term inal.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
W ire end violates m inim um electricalclearance to noncom -
m on conductor.
Figure 4-33
Figure 4-34
Figure 4-35
4 Soldered Terminations
4.7.6 Connection Requirements Hook Terminals
4-20 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
Soldercups having the w ire(s)inserted straightin and con-
tactthe back w allorotherinserted w ires forthe fulldepth of
the cup.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
W ire(s) inserted for full depth of cup, not in contact w ith
back w alland does notinterfere w ith subsequentassem bly
operations.
Defect - Class 2,3
Solder cup altered to accept oversized w ire or w ire group.
W ire placem entinterferes w ith subsequentassem bly opera-
tions.
C onductorstrands cutorm odified to fitinto the term inal.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Strand dam age exceeds allow ance ofTable 3-1.
Figure 4-36
Figure 4-37
Figure 4-38
4 Soldered Terminations
4.7.7 Connection Requirements Cup Terminals
4-21 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
W hen a com m on bus w ire connects three or m ore term inals the end term inals shall m eetthe required w rap for individualterm i-
nals.Soldercriteria are based on the individualterm inalattachm ent.
Target - Class 1,2,3
Stress reliefradiibetw een each term inal.
Turrets - W ire contacts base of term inal or a previously
installed w ire,and w raps around orinterw eaves each term i-
nal.
Hooks - W ire w raps 360 around each term inal.
Bifurcated - W ire passes betw een posts and contacts base
ofterm inalorpreviously installed w ire.
Pierced/Perforated - W ire contacts tw o nonadjacent sides
ofeach term inal.
Acceptable - Class 1
Process Indicator - Class 2
Defect - Class 3
Turret Terminals - W ire does not w rap 360 around each
innerterm inaloris notinterw oven betw een term inals.
Hook Terminals - W ire w raps less than 360 around inner
term inal.
Bifurcated - W ire does notpass betw een the posts oris not
in contact w ith the term inalbase or a previously installed
w ire.
Pierced/Perforated - W ire does not contact tw o nonadja-
centsides ofeach innerterm inal.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
N o stress reliefbetw een any tw o term inals.
Figure 4-39
Figure 4-40
4 Soldered Terminations
4.7.8 Connection Requirements Series Connected Terminals
4-22 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
The preferred conditions of the solder to m etalinterface, from the physics of w etting, require low or near zero contact angles.
W etting cannot be judged by surface appearance;it can only be inferred by the presence ofa low or near zero degree contact
angle.
A nonw etted condition is norm ally considered to exist ifthe solder alloy does not w et parts ofthe originalsurface.N orm ally this
im plies thatthe contactangle exceeds 90 (see Figure 4-41).
Alltargetsolder connections have from a shiny to a satin luster,generally sm ooth appearance and exhibitw etting as exem plified
by a concave m eniscus betw een the objects being soldered. H igh tem perature solders m ay have a dullappearance. Touch-up
(rew ork)ofsoldered connections is perform ed w ith discretion to avoid causing additionalproblem s,and to produce results that
exhibitthe acceptability criteria ofthe applicable class.
4 Soldered Terminations
4.8 Solder Requirements
4-23 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
The follow ing generalrequirem ents are applicable to allterm inals herein unless there is a specific requirem entfora given term inal,
i.e.,4.8.4.
Target - Class 1,2,3
Solder fillet appears generally sm ooth and exhibits good
w etting ofthe solderto the parts/w ires being joined.
O utline ofthe part/w ire is easily determ ined.
Solderatthe part/w ire being joined has a feathered edge.
Filletis concave in shape.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
The acceptable solderconnection m ustindicate evidence of
w etting and adherence w hen the solder blends to the sol-
dered surface, form ing a contact angle of 90 or less,
except w hen the quantity of solder results in a contour
w hich is lim ited by the edge ofthe attached surfaces.
Note: B low holes,pinholes,voids,etc.,are process indicators
providing thatthe solderconnection m eets the m inim um cov-
erage and w etting requirem ents.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
N onw etting.
N on-Soldered.
D isturbed solder.
C old solder.
Fractured.
Insufficient.
Inclusions (foreign m aterial).
Solder that violates m inim um electrical clearance (e.g.,
bridges,soldersplashes,solderballs,solderpeaks).
Lead or w ire extensions that violate m inim um electrical
clearance.
C ontam inated solder connections (e.g., flux residues after
cleaning).
W etting contact angle is greater than 90 except w hen the
quantity ofsolderresults in a contourw hich is lim ited by the
edge ofthe attached surfaces.
Figure 4-41
4 Soldered Terminations
4.8.1 Solder Requirements General
4-24 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
Solderfillet100% ofthe circum ference ofthe w ire/lead and
term inalinterface (fullextentofw rap).
H eight(clim b on w ire)ofsolder is greater than 75% ofw ire
diam eter.
Solderw ets the w ire/lead and term inaland form s a discern-
ible filletfeathering outto a sm ooth edge.
W ire/lead is clearly discernible in the solderconnection.
N o blow holes,pinholes orvoids.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
Solder fillet at least 75% of the circum ference of the w ire/
lead and term inalinterface.
H eight(clim b on w ire)ofsolder is greater than 50% ofw ire
diam eter.
W ire/lead is discernible in solder.
Figure 4-42
4 Soldered Terminations
4.8.2 Solder Requirements Fillet
4-25 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Acceptable - Class 1
Process Indicator - Class 2,3
W ire/lead notdiscernible in solderconnection.
B low holes/pinholes/voids,etc.,providing the solderconnec-
tion m eets m inim um requirem ents.
Process Indicator - Class 2
Defect - Class 3
H eight (clim b on w ire)of solder greater than 25% but less
than 50% ofw ire diam eter.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Poorw etting.
Any evidence ofnonw etting to w ires orterm inals.
D ew etting ofeitherw ire orterm inal.
Defect - Class 1,2
H eight (clim b on w ire) of solder is less than 25% of w ire
diam eter.
Figure 4-43
4 Soldered Terminations
4.8.2 Solder Requirements Fillet (cont.)
4-26 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
Lead outline is discernible, sm ooth flow of solder on w ire
and term inal.
Solder fillet at allpoints of w ire/lead and term inalinterface
(see 4.8.2 and Figure 4-42).
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Solderfilletis less than 75% ofthe circum ference ofthe w ire
and term inalinterface.
Poorw etting.
Acceptance criteria of4.8.1 and 4.8.2 are notm et.
Figure 4-44
Figure 4-45
4 Soldered Terminations
4.8.3 Solder Requirements Turret Terminals
4-27 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
Lead outline is discernible; sm ooth flow of solder on w ire
and term inal.
Solderfilletatallpoints ofw ire/lead and term inalinterface.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
Solderis w etted to atleast75% ofthe circum ference ofthe
w ire/lead and term inalinterface or75% ofthe heightfortop
route w ires.
Process Indicator - Class 2
Defect - Class 3
Less than com plete w etting w here 90 bend is used.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Acceptance criteria of4.8.1 and 4.8.2 are notm et.
Less than 75% solderheightfortop route w ires.
Figure 4-46
Figure 4-47
4 Soldered Terminations
4.8.4 Solder Requirements Bifurcated Terminals
4-28 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Solder should form a fillet w ith that portion ofthe lead or w ire that is in contact w ith the term inal.Solder m ay com pletely fillthe
slotbutshould notbe builtup on top ofthe term inal.The lead orw ire should be discernible in the term inal.
Target - Class 1,2,3
Solderform s a filletw ith thatportion ofthe lead orw ire that
is in contactw ith the term inal.
There is visible insulation clearance.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
Solderfills term inalslot.
Lead orw ire end is discernible in the solderon the exitside
ofterm inal.
Process Indicator - Class 2
Defect - Class 3
Lead end notdiscernible on exitside ofterm inal.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
W ire end violates m inim um electricalclearance.
Figure 4-48
Figure 4-49
Figure 4-50
4 Soldered Terminations
4.8.5 Solder Requirements Slotted Terminals
4-29 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
Lead outline is discernible; sm ooth flow of solder on w ire
and term inal.
Solderfilletatallpoints ofw ire/lead and term inalinterface.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
Solder filletjoins the w ire to the term inalfor atleast75% of
the w ire and term inalcontact.
Process Indicator - Class 2
Defect - Class 3
Less than 100% w etting ofterm inal/w ire interface w here 90
bends are used.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Solderdew etted from term inalorw ire/lead.
Soldercontactangle greaterthan 90.
Acceptance criteria of4.8.1 and 4.8.2 are notm et.
Figure 4-51
Figure 4-52
Figure 4-53
4 Soldered Terminations
4.8.6 Solder Requirements Pierced/ Perforated Terminals
4-30 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
Lead outline is discernible; sm ooth flow of solder on w ire
and term inal.
Solderfilletatallpoints ofw ire/lead and term inalinterface.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
Solder filletjoins the w ire to the term inalfor atleast75% of
the w ire and term inalcontact.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
D oes notexhibita solderfilletjoining the w ire to the term inal
foratleast75% ofthe w ire and term inalcontact.
W etting contact angle is greater than 90 except w hen the
quantity ofsolderresults in a contourw hich is lim ited by the
edge ofthe attached surfaces.
Acceptance criteria of4.8.1 and 4.8.2 are notm et.
Figure 4-54
Figure 4-55
Figure 4-56
4 Soldered Terminations
4.8.7 Solder Requirements Hook Terminals
4-31 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
Solderw ets the entire inside ofthe cup.
Solderfillis 100% .
O utside ofcup free ofsolder.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
Thin film ofsolderon the outside ofthe cup.
Solderfillgreaterthan 75% .
Solderbuildup on the outside ofthe cup thatdoes notaffect
form ,fit,function orreliability.
Defect - Class 2,3
Solder buildup on the outside ofthe cup negatively affects
form ,fit,function orreliability (Figure 4-58).
Solderverticalfillless than 75% (Figure 4-59).
Figure 4-57
Figure 4-58
Figure 4-59
4 Soldered Terminations
4.8.8 Solder Requirements Cup Terminals
4-32 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
A critical elem ent of any w ire term ination is the connection
betw een the w ire and the contact.C rim ping ofterm inalcon-
tacts is one m ethod ofachieving this connection.
A good term ination both ensures m echanical integrity and
m eets electricalrequirem ents forthe application.
In addition to the basic requirem ents outlined in this section,
there should also be no dam age to plating or finish,no con-
tactdeform ation thatw ould cause friction orincrease force to
insert or load the contact into the connector body, and no
contact deform ation that does not allow all contact locking
tabs or w ings to fully engage and lock into the connector
body.
C onductors should not be cut or m odified in any m anner in
orderto fitinto the contact.C onductors should notbe tinned
priorto term ination,unless otherw ise specified.
All crim ping needs to com ply w ith the m anufacturerspub-
lished requirem ents, i.e., crim p height, pulltest, etc., w ithout
regard to the specific tooling used.Forcom plete understand-
ing, refer to applicable connector or term inalm anufacturers
requirem ents and instructions. Allcrim ped term inations need
to m eetindustry requirem ents,such as EIA,IEC ,N EM A,U L or
otheras designated.
The follow ing topics are addressed in this section:
5.1 Stamped and Formed Contacts
5.1.1 Insulation SupportC rim p
5.1.2 Insulation Inspection W indow
5.1.3 C onductorC rim p
5.1.4 C rim p B ellm outh
5.1.5 C onductorB rush
5.1.6 C arrierC utoffTab
5.2 Machined Crimp Contacts
5.2.1 Insulation C learance
5.2.2 Insulation Support (Insulation Support Style C ontacts)
5.2.3 C onductorLocation
5.2.4 C rim ping
5.2.5 U nderSize C onductor- C M A B uildup C rim ps
5 Crimp Terminations
Crimp Terminations
5-1 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
C riteria forinsulated lugs is included.
There are differentconfigurations for insulation supportand crim p areas and for the conductor crim p.Additionally,there m ay be
an outerinsulatoroverpartorallofthe crim p area.
Figures 5-1 and 5-2 identify the com ponentparts oftypicalstam ped and form ed contacts.
W hen attaching m ultiple w ires to a single term inal,each w ire is to m eetthe sam e acceptability criteria as a single w ire term ination.
The attachm ent of a single w ire or com bination of m ultiple w ires attached to a term inal/contact m ust m eet the m anufacturers
specifications fora single w ire i.e.,totalw ire area m ay notexceed the circularm ilarea forthe term inalspecified.
Figure 5-1
Figure 5-2
1. Insulation inspection window
2. Bellmouth
3. Brush inspection window
4. Locking tab/tang
5. Insulation crimp area
6. Conductor crimp area
7. Terminal mating area
8. Cut off tab (may be at either end of terminal)
9. Terminal stop ear
5 Crimp Terminations
5.1 Stamped and Formed Contacts
5-2 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
Insulation fully enters and extends past the insulation crim p
tabs.
If m ultiple w ires are used insulation from all w ires extend
pastthe insulation crim p tabs.
Insulation crim p does notcutorbreak insulation.
Insulation crim p tabs fully w rap and supportinsulation.
Forinsulated lugs,the insulation crim p is evenly form ed and
contacts the w ire insulation providing supportw ithoutdam -
aging the insulation (Figure 5-5).
Acceptable - Class 1
Process Indicator - Class 2
Defect - Class 3
Puncturing ofthe insulation surface by the insulation crim p
tabs, provided that the tabs do not penetrate dow n to the
conductor.
Figure 5-3
Figure 5-4
Figure 5-5
Figure 5-6
5 Crimp Terminations
5.1.1 Stamped and Formed Contacts Insulation Support Crimp
5-3 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Acceptable - Class 2,3
M inor deform ation of the insulation surface as long as the
insulation crim p tabs do not cut,break,penetrate or punc-
ture the surface ofthe w ire insulation.
Insulation crim p tabs provide a m inim um side support of
180 to the w ire insulation and both tabs contactthe top of
the w ire insulation.
Insulation rim p tabs do notm eetatthe top,butencircle the
w ire leaving an opening of45 orless atthe top.
The outer insulation sleeve on insulated term inals shall
rem ain secured to the term inalaftercrim ping.
Acceptable - Class 1
Process Indicator - Class 2,3
For insulated term inals, irregular shaped insulation crim p
contacts the w ire insulation providing supportw ithoutdam -
aging the insulation (Figures 5-8 and 5-9).
Figure 5-7
Figure 5-8
Figure 5-9
5 Crimp Terminations
5.1.1 Stamped and Formed Contacts
Insulation Support Crimp (cont.)
5-4 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Defect - Class 1,2,3
The insulation crim p tabs pierce the insulation penetrating
dow n to the conductor(Figure 5-10).
The insulation crim p tabs do not provide support at least
180 around the insulation (Figure 5-11).
C rim p tabs that encircle the w ire but leave an opening of
m ore than 45 atthe top (Figure 5-12).
B oth insulation crim p tabs are notin contactw ith the top of
the insulation (Figure 5-13).
C onductors are in insulation crim p area ofthe contact(Fig-
ures 5-14,5-15).
Figure 5-10
Figure 5-11
Figure 5-12 Figure 5-13
Figure 5-14 Figure 5-15
5 Crimp Terminations
5.1.1 Stamped and Formed Contacts
Insulation Support Crimp (cont.)
5-5 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Figure 5-16 identifies the insulation inspection w indow .
Target - Class 1,2,3
Insulation and conductor transition line centered w ithin the
inspection w indow .
Acceptable - Class 1
Process Indicator - Class 2,3
Insulation is flush w ith butdoes notenterthe w ire crim p area
(1).
Insulation is flush w ith the inspection w indow edge of the
insulation crim p tabs and does notenterthe inspection w in-
dow area (2).
Acceptable - Class 2,3
B oth insulation and conductor are visible w ithin the inspec-
tion w indow .
Figure 5-16
Figure 5-17
Figure 5-18
5 Crimp Terminations
5.1.2 Stamped and Formed Contacts
Insulation Inspection Window
5-6 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Insulation extends into conductor crim p area (Figure 5-19,
arrow points to end ofinsulation w ithin the crim p area).
Insulation and conductor transition line is w ithin insulation
crim p area (Figure 5-20, arrow points to end of insulation
w ithin the crim p area).
Figure 5-21 identifies the conductorcrim p area.
Target - Class 1,2,3
N o insulation in the conductorcrim p area.
C onductorextends to the m iddle ofthe brush area.
N o conductor strands broken,folded back into crim p area,
ornotcaptured by the conductorcrim p tabs.
C rim p centered on the conductor crim p area w ith correct
bellm outh.
C rim p indentations uniform and m eetcontact/tooling m anu-
facturers requirem ents.
N o deform ation of contact such as a banana shape after
crim ping.
Locking tabs in place w ith no signs ofdeform ation or dam -
age.
C onductorstrands nottw isted,cutorm odified to fitinto the
term inal.
Figure 5-19
Figure 5-20
Figure 5-21
5 Crimp Terminations
5.1.2 Stamped and Formed Contacts
Insulation Inspection Window (cont.)
5-7 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
5.1.3 Stamped and Formed Contacts Conductor Crimp
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
N o insulation in the conductorcrim p area.
The conductorend (and fillerw ire ifspecified)is visible w ithin
brush inspection w indow .
N o conductor strands broken,folded back into crim p area,
ornotcaptured by the conductorcrim p tabs.
C rim p indentations uniform and m eetcontact/tooling m anu-
facturers requirem ents.
M inor deform ation ofcontactsuch as a banana shape that
does notaffectform ,fit,function orreliability.
Locking tabs in place w ith no signs ofdeform ation or dam -
age.
Fillerw ire,ifspecified,is w ithin insulation crim p and does not
extend beyond the edge ofthe lug insulation.
Ifdraw ings require foldback ofconductorin the crim p area,
the fold is visible in the brush area and the cutend is visible
atthe entry bellm outh.
Acceptable - Class 1,2
Process Indicator - Class 3
M inor deform ing of the contact does not alter its form , fit,
function orreliability.
Note: A trialm ating m ay be required forfinalacceptance.
Acceptable - Class 1
Process Indicator - Class 2,3
C onductoris flush to end ofconductorcrim p area.
C rim p indentations not uniform but do not affect form , fit,
function orreliability.
Figure 5-22
Figure 5-23
5 Crimp Terminations
5.1.3 Stamped and Formed Contacts Conductor Crimp (cont.)
5-8 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Acceptable - Class 1
Defect - Class 2,3
Fillerw ire extends beyond edge ofthe lug insulation.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Insulation extends into conductor crim p area (Figure 5-25,
arrow points to end ofinsulation w ithin the crim p area).
C onductordoes notextend outofthe crim p area and is not
visible w ithin the brush-end bellm outh (Figure 5-26 and Fig-
ure 5-28).
D eform ation (banana) of the contact/term inal that affects
form ,fit,function orreliability (Figure 5-27).
Any loose conductor strands that are outside the crim p
area,trapped strands,folded back strands (Figure 5-29).
Figure 5-24
Figure 5-25
Figure 5-26
Figure 5-28
Figure 5-27
Figure 5-29
5 Crimp Terminations
5.1.3 Stamped and Formed Contacts Conductor Crimp (cont.)
5-9 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
The bellm outh areas identified in Figure 5-30 are considered to be partofthe conductorcrim p area.
Target - Class 1,2,3
B ellm outh ateach end ofthe conductorcrim p area.
B ellm outh heightatthe conductorentry end is 2X the thick-
ness ofthe contact/term inalbase m etal.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
B ellm outh only atthe conductorentry end (1)and notatthe
conductorbrush end ofthe crim p (2).
B ellm outh atconductor entry is visible butless than 2X the
thickness ofthe m etal.
Figure 5-30
1. Entry bellmouth
2. Brush-end bellmouth
Figure 5-31
1. Metal thickness
2. Bellmouth height 2X metal thickness
Figure 5-32
1. Conductor entry bellmouth
2. Brush-end bellmouth
5 Crimp Terminations
5.1.4 Stamped and Formed Contacts Crimp Bellmouth
5-10 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Defect - Class 1,2,3
N o visible bellm outh atthe conductorentry end ofthe crim p
(1).
Excessive bellm outh indicating over crim ping or undersize
w ire gauge (2).
Figure 5-34 identifies the conductorbrush area.
Target - Class 1,2,3
The conductor strands protrude slightly pastthe end ofthe
conductorcrim p form ing a conductorbrush.
The conductor strands form ing the brush are kepttogether
as a group and notflared out.
Figure 5-33
1. Conductor entry bellmouth
2. Brush-end bellmouth
Figure 5-34
5 Crimp Terminations
5.1.4 Stamped and Formed Contacts Crimp Bellmouth (cont.)
5-11 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
5.1.5 Stamped and Formed Contacts Conductor Brush
Acceptable - Class 1
Process Indicator - Class 2,3
C onductor strands not protruding past but flush w ith the
end ofthe conductorcrim p area ofthe contact(Figure 5-35
(1)).
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
C onductor strands flared out but not extending outside of
the contact(Figure 5-35 (2)).
C onductorstrands extend pastthe end ofthe crim p ofinsu-
lated term inal.
Figure 5-35
Figure 5-36
5 Crimp Terminations
5.1.5 Stamped and Formed Contacts Conductor Brush (cont.)
5-12 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Acceptable - Class 1
Defect - Class 2,3
Any conductor strands extending outside of the contact
(Figures 5-37,5-38).
The conductor strands extend into the m ating area of the
contact(Figures 5-39,5-40).
Defect - Class 1,2,3
O uter insulation of insulated term inalis dam aged exposing
m etal(Figure 5-40).
Figure 5-37
Figure 5-38
Figure 5-39 Figure 5-40
5 Crimp Terminations
5.1.5 Stamped and Formed Contacts Conductor Brush (cont.)
5-13 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Figure 5-41 identifies a carriercutofftab atthe w ire entry end.Itis located atthe m ating end ofsom e term inaltypes.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
N o dam age to contactorterm inal.
C utoff does not prevent com plete m ating of the contact/
term inal.
Process Indicator - Class 2,3
C utofftab length atm ating end is greater than 2X its thick-
ness butdoes notim pede m ating.
C utoff tab length at w ire entry end is greater than 2X its
thickness butdoes notprotrude w hen inserted into connec-
torbody.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
C arriercutofftab length is greaterthan 2X its thickness (Fig-
ure 5-43).
R em ovalofcutofftab has dam aged contactorterm inal.
C utofftab protrudes from connectorbody w hen contacthas
been inserted.
M ating end cutofftab prevents com plete m ating.
N o carrier cutoff tab visible and contact/term inal is dam -
aged.
Note: C ontact/term inalneeds to m eet form , fit, function and
reliability requirem ents.A trialm ating m ay be required forfinal
acceptance.
Figure 5-41
Figure 5-42
Figure 5-43
5 Crimp Terminations
5.1.6 Stamped and Formed Contacts Carrier Cutoff Tab
5-14 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
These criteria are also applicable to closed barrelstam ped insulated and uninsulated lugs and term inals.
Figure 5-44 defines the parts ofa m achined crim p contact.See 5.2.2 for m achined crim p contacts - insulation supportstyle cri-
teria.
Target - Class 1,2,3
50% overall w ire diam eter (D ) clearance (C ) betw een the
insulation and contactbarrel.
Figure 5-44
1. Insulation clearance
2. Conductor crimp area
3. Inspection window
Figure 5-45
5 Crimp Terminations
5.2 Machined Crimp Contacts
5-15 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
5.2.1 Machined Crimp Contacts Insulation Clearance
Acceptable - Class 2,3
C onductoris visible betw een the insulation and contactbar-
relbutno greaterthan one w ire diam eter(Figure 5-46).
Acceptable - Class 1
Process Indicator - Class 2,3
Insulation is flush to the end of the contact barrel (not
show n).
Acceptable - Class 1
Process Indicator - Class 2,3
Insulation is greater than one but less than tw o w ire diam -
eters from the end ofthe contactbarrel(Figure 5-47).
Defect - Class 2,3
Insulation is greaterthan tw o w ire diam eters from the end of
the contactbarrel(Figure 5-48).
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Exposed conductorviolates m inim um electricalclearance.
Insulation enters barrelofterm inal(Figures 5-49,5-50).
Figure 5-47
Figure 5-46
Figure 5-48
Figure 5-49 Figure 5-50
5 Crimp Terminations
5.2.1 Machined Crimp Contacts Insulation Clearance (cont.)
5-16 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Figure 5-51 defines the parts ofan insulation supportstyle m achined crim p contact.
Target - Class 1,2,3
W ire insulation seated in the insulation support entry funnel
(Figure 5-52).
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
W ire insulation enters insulation supportbarrel(Figure 5-53).
Defect - Class 1,2,3
W ire insulation notinserted into the insulation supportbarrel
ofthe contact.
Figure 5-51
1. Insulation support barrel
2. Insulation funnel
3. Inspection window
Figure 5-52
Figure 5-53
Figure 5-54
5 Crimp Terminations
5.2.2 Machined Crimp Contacts Insulation
Support (Insulation Support Style Contacts)
5-17 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
This section is applicable to allm achined crim p contacts.
Target - Class 1,2,3
C onductorbottom ed in the contact.
C onductorstrands fillthe inspection w indow .
N o conductorstrands outside ofthe contact.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
C onductorpartially visible in the inspection w indow .
N o conductorstrands outside ofthe contact.
Figure 5-55
Figure 5-56
5 Crimp Terminations
5.2.3 Machined Crimp Contacts Conductor Location
5-18 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Defect - Class 1,2,3
C onductor strands not visible in the inspection w indow of
the contact(Figure 5-57).
Insulation visible in the inspection w indow of the contact
(Figure 5-58).
C onductors tw isted together before insertion into the con-
tact(Figure 5-59).
Any conductorstrands outside ofthe conductorcrim p area
(Figure 5-60).
Figure 5-57
Figure 5-58
Figure 5-59 Figure 5-60
5 Crimp Terminations
5.2.3 Machined Crimp Contacts Conductor Location (cont.)
5-19 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
The crim p area is defined as the area betw een the w ire entry end ofthe contactand the closestedge ofthe inspection w indow .
Target - Class 1,2,3
C rim p indent is centered betw een the inspection w indow
and the w ire entry end ofthe barrel.
C rim p indents around the contact barrelare evenly spaced
and ofequaldepth.
N o loose w ire strands.
C ontact has no visible fractures, cracks, or exposed base
m etal.
Acceptable - Class 1
Defect - Class 2,3
The crim p indentis outside the crim p area.
W ire entry end ofthe barrelis deform ed by the crim p.
Figure 5-61
Figure 5-62
Figure 5-63
5 Crimp Terminations
5.2.4 Machined Crimp Contacts - Crimping
5-20 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Acceptable - Class 2,3
The crim p is notcentered and the inspection w indow is not
deform ed.
The w ire entry end of the barrel is not deform ed by the
crim p.
Defect - Class 2,3
The crim p touches the top edge ofthe inspection w indow .
C ontacthas exposed base m etal.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
W ire is notsecured by crim p.
C ontacthas visible fracture orcracks.
D ouble crim ping ofelectricalterm inations orconnectorcon-
tacts unless otherw ise specified.
C ontactbarrelis deform ed orbent.
Figure 5-64
Figure 5-65
Figure 5-66
Figure 5-67
5 Crimp Terminations
5.2.4 Machined Crimp Contacts - Crimping (cont.)
5-21 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
C ircularm ilarea (C M A)is notto be builtup unless specified on design draw ings.
Target - Class 1,2,3
The circular m ilarea of the conductor is built up so that it
falls w ithin the m inim um and m axim um C M A range of the
contact.
The C M A range is built up using one ofthe m ethods listed
below :
The conductor is folded or bent back to achieve the cor-
rectC M A buildup.
The conductor area is increased by the use ofbare (non-
insulated)filler conductors as needed to achieve the cor-
rectC M A buildup.
A com bination of both the foldback and the filler m ethod
are used to achieve the correctC M A buildup.
SpecialC M A Adapter B ushingsare used w hen called
outon the assem bly docum entation.(U se ofthese adapt-
ers w illusually require specialadditionalinsulating cover-
age requirem ents.)
The filleris visible atthe w ire entry end ofthe barrel.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
The filler conductors and the w ire conductor are visible in
the inspection w indow ofthe contact.
The filler conductor is of the sam e type conductor as the
w ire being crim ped into the contact.(G auge can be different
as needed but the base m etaland the plating ifany needs
to be the sam e.)
Figure 5-68
Figure 5-69
5 Crimp Terminations
5.2.5 Machined Crimp Contacts Under
Size Conductor CMA Buildup Crimps
5-22 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Defect - Class 1,2,3
A single solid conductorused to build up the C M A.
The filler conductors and/or the w ire conductor are notvis-
ible in the inspection w indow .
Defect - Class 2,3
Fillw ire extends beyond the insulation ofthe prim ary w ire.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
The flairorsplay ofconductorused extends pastorexceeds
the contactdiam eter.
Exposed conductorviolates m inim um electricalclearance.
Figure 5-70
Figure 5-71
Figure 5-72
5 Crimp Terminations
5.2.5 Machined Crimp Contacts Under
Size Conductor CMA Buildup Crimps (cont.)
5-23 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
This Page Intentionally LeftB lank
5 Crimp Terminations
5-24 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Insulation displacem entconnection (ID C ),som etim es referred
to as insulation displacem entterm ination (ID T)is a m ethod for
term inating an insulated w ire to a connector or term inalw ith-
outpre-stripping the insulation from the conductor.H ow ever,
this m ethod m ay be used foran uninsulated w ire as w ell.Itis
recognized that this technology is utilized by a significant
num berofdifferentconnectortypes.This section attem pts to
define com m on acceptance criteria regardless ofthe connec-
tortype.
It is extrem ely im portant to recognize that the w ire, the con-
nector,and the assem bly process are com patible,as norm ally
specified by the connector m anufacturer. Variations in w ire
gauge,w ire-to-w ire spacing (form ultiple conductorflatorrib-
bon cable), insulation thickness, insulation type, application
tooling,oralignm entofthe cable to the connectorm ay result
in an unreliable connection or in an electricalopen or short
circuit.
It is also recognized that in som e insulation displacem ent
products,visualinspection ofthe w ire/term ination connection
is notpossible w ithoutdestructive analysis.
The follow ing topics are addressed in this section:
6.1 Mass Termination, Flat Cable
6.1.1 End C utting
6.1.2 N otching
6.1.3 PlanarG round Plane R em oval
6.1.4 C onnectorPosition
6.1.5 C onnectorSkew & LateralPosition
6.1.6 R etention
6.2 Discrete Wire Termination
6.2.1 G eneral
6.2.2 Position ofW ire
6.2.3 O verhang (Extension)
6.2.4 W ire H older
6.2.5 D am age in C onnection Area
6.2.6 End C onnectors
6.2.7 W irem ountC onnectors
6.2.8 Subm iniature D -C onnector(Series B us C onnector)
6.2.9 M odularC onnectors (R J Type)
6 Insulation Displacement Connection (IDC)
Insulation Displacement Connection (IDC)
6-1 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
The cable is cutperpendicularto the cable edge.
C able is cut straight w ith no visible variation (w ave or
unevenness).
N o conductorstrands protrude beyond the insulation ofthe
cable.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
The cable end is cutso thatitallow s com pliance to allother
assem bly requirem ents.
C onductorprotrusion from the end ofthe cable 50% diam -
eterofthe conductor.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
U neven or w avy cutting ofthe cable end precludes com pli-
ance to any otherassem bly requirem ent.
C onductorprotrusion from the end ofthe cable >50% diam -
eterofthe conductor.
Figure 6-1
Figure 6-2
Figure 6-3
6 Insulation Displacement Connection (IDC)
6.1 Mass Termination, Flat Cable
6-2 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
6.1.1 Mass Termination, Flat Cable End Cutting
Target - Class 1,2,3
The connectorm ounting notches are cutparallelto the con-
ductors and does notreduce the w ire insulation.
The notch length and w idth allow s correct connector
m ounting including strain reliefclips orcovers ifused.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
Variations in parallelism ofthe notch do notinterfere w ith the
m ounting and crim ping ofthe connectororreduce conduc-
torinsulation.
Tooling m arks do notbreak the surface ofthe insulation.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
N otching thatcuts,nicks orexposes the conductors.
Variations in parallelism of the notch interfere w ith the
m ounting and crim ping ofthe connectororreduce conduc-
torinsulation.
Tooling m arks break the surface ofthe insulation.
Figure 6-4
Figure 6-5
6 Insulation Displacement Connection (IDC)
6.1.2 Mass Termination, Flat Cable Notching
6-3 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
Planarground screen rem oved priorto installing and crim p-
ing an ID C connectorto the cable.
N o insulation dam age such as cuts ornicks.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
M inor tooling m arks that do not break the surface of the
insulation.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Planar ground screen not rem oved from connector crim p
area.
N icked or cut insulation after rem ovalofthe planar ground
screen layer.
C onnectorcrim ped on any portion ofthe cable thathas not
had the planarground screen rem oved.
Figure 6-6
Figure 6-7
6 Insulation Displacement Connection (IDC)
6.1.3 Mass Termination, Flat Cable
Planar Ground Plane Removal
6-4 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
C ut end of the cable is flush w ith the outside edge of the
connectorbody.
The connector cover is fully com pressed to the connector
body along its entire length.
C overhold dow n latches are fully engaged and latched.
C able foldback inside radius, if applicable, is tw o cable
thicknesses.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
The cable end is flush or extends beyond the outside edge
ofthe connector one cable thickness or less and does not
violate m inim um electricalclearance
M inor tooling m arks that do not break the surface of the
insulating m aterialofthe connectororcable.
C able foldback inside radius,ifapplicable,is flush w ith con-
nector body and does not interfere w ith installation of the
connector.
Figure 6-8
6 Insulation Displacement Connection (IDC)
6.1.4 Mass Termination, Flat Cable Connector Position
6-5 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Defect - Class 1,2,3
C over hold dow n latches are notfully engaged and latched
(Figure 6-9).
Any broken cover hold dow n latches or barbs (not show n).
C able does not extend into ID C contacts for allw ires (not
show n).
Exposed w ires violate m inim um electrical clearance (not
show n).
C able foldback,ifapplicable,interferes w ith m echanicalfitof
the connector(Figure 6-10).
Acceptable - Class 1
Defect - Class 2,3
C able extends beyond the edge of the connector greater
than one thickness ofcable (Figure 6-11).
Figure 6-9
Figure 6-10
Figure 6-11
6 Insulation Displacement Connection (IDC)
6.1.4 Mass Termination, Flat Cable Connector Position (cont.)
6-6 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
C onnector is aligned perpendicular to the edge of the flat
cable.
C able end is flush along the entire length ofthe outside edge
ofthe connector.
Allconductors are centered w ithin the v-notch of the con-
nectorcontacts.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
C onnector is aligned so that allconductors are centered in
theirrespective v-notches ofthe cable.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
C onnector m isalignm ent precludes contact of all w ires to
the ID C contacts.
C onnector m isalignm ent perm its shorting of conductors in
the ID C contactarea.
C onnector m isalignm ent precludes assem bly of connector
cover.
C onnectorm isalignm entcauses w ire dam age during crim p-
ing.
Face ofthe cable is notparallelto the face ofthe connector
(Figure 6-14).
Figure 6-12
Figure 6-13
Figure 6-14
6 Insulation Displacement Connection (IDC)
6.1.5 Mass Termination, Flat Cable
Connector Skew and Lateral Position
6-7 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
W ires are retained in the connector.
Strain relieffeatures ofthe connector, ifapplicable, are uti-
lized.
W here present, connector-locking tabs are properly
engaged.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
W ires are notretained in the connector(Figure 6-16).
Strain relieffeatures ofthe connector, ifapplicable, are not
utilized.
W here present, connector-locking tabs are not engaged
(Figure 6-17).
Figure 6-15
Figure 6-16
Figure 6-17
6 Insulation Displacement Connection (IDC)
6.1.6 Mass Termination, Flat Cable Retention
6-8 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Figure 6-18 show s construction ofan insulation displacem entconnection.
O nly accepted m aterials and appropriate equipm entand m ethods shall be used in insulation displacem entconnections.
Insulation displacem ent connections shall not be m echanically stressed after m aking the connection,e.g.,the connection m ust
notbe repairedafterw ards by m oving the w ire orthe m echanics ofthe slot.
Figure 6-19 is an exam ple ofconnectortab.
Figure 6-18
1. Electrical slot
2. Mechanical slot
3. Connection area
Figure 6-19
1. Dual cantilever contact
2. Contact points
3. Electrical contact
4. Mechanical contact
5. Strain relief
6 Insulation Displacement Connection (IDC)
6.2 Discrete Wire Termination
6-9 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
6.2.1 Discrete Wire Termination General
Target - Class 1,2,3
C onnection area ofthe w ire is in the center in the connec-
tion area ofthe slot.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
C onnection area ofthe w ire is com pletely in the connection
area ofthe slot.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
C onnection area ofthe w ire is notcom pletely in the connec-
tion area ofthe slotin both the frontand back w ire slots of
a dualslotcontact.
C onductor is not com pletely w ithin the connection area of
the slot.
Figure 6-20
Figure 6-21
Figure 6-22
6 Insulation Displacement Connection (IDC)
6.2.2 Discrete Wire Termination Position of Wire
6-10 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
These criteria are notapplicable to pass-through ID C connectors.
Target - Class 1,2,3
O verhang (L)ofthe w ire extends to the far edge ofthe ID C
connectors.
Acceptable - Class 1
W ire end is flush w ith electrical(second)contact.
Acceptable - Class 2,3
O verhang ofL ofthe w ire is equalorgreaterthan 50% over-
allw ire diam eter.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
W ire does notpass through both ID C contacts.
Exposed conductors violate m inim um design electrical
clearance.
Figure 6-23
Figure 6-24
Figure 6-25
6 Insulation Displacement Connection (IDC)
6.2.3 Discrete Wire Termination Overhang (Extension)
6-11 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Defect - Class 2,3
O verhang L ofthe w ire is less than 50% overallw ire diam -
eter(Figure 6-26).
W ire is deform ed and extends out ofthe connector (Figure
6-27).
Figure 6-26
Figure 6-27
6 Insulation Displacement Connection (IDC)
6.2.3 Discrete Wire Termination Overhang (Extension) (cont.)
6-12 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
The requirem ents of5.2.1 Insulation SupportC rim p also applies.
Target - Class 1,2,3
B oth holders bentsnug to insulation.
M axim um heightofthe holders is below the top ofthe hous-
ing.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
W ire is contained (space is perm itted betw een insulation
and holders).
Figure 6-28
Figure 6-29
6 Insulation Displacement Connection (IDC)
6.2.4 Discrete Wire Termination Wire Holder
6-13 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Defect - Class 2,3
B oth crim p tabs are notcrim ped to preventthe w ire escap-
ing the holders.
C rim p tabs violate electricalisolation distance.
C rim p tabs pierce insulation.
Figure 6-30
Figure 6-31
6 Insulation Displacement Connection (IDC)
6.2.4 Discrete Wire Termination Wire Holder (cont.)
6-14 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
There is no dam age in the construction ofthe slot(s)on the
circled area show n in Figure 6-32.
Acceptable - Class 2,3
M inordeform ation notpiercing w ire insulation on both sides
ofthe slots.
M inor dam age in the holder tabs does not affect func-
tionality.
Defect - Class 2,3
Tooldam age on the connection area.
Slot(s)tw isted,bentorotherw ise dam aged.
C orrosion dam age or other detrim ental im purities on the
surface ofthe slot.
P lating of holder dam aged so that the base m etal is
exposed.
C ontactdam age thatcauses the side beam s ofthe w ire slot
to notbe parallelw ith each other.
Figure 6-32
Figure 6-33
Figure 6-34
6 Insulation Displacement Connection (IDC)
6.2.5 Discrete Wire Termination Damage in Connection Area
6-15 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
W ire fully seated into the contact.
W ire extends atleast50% ofthe distance betw een the con-
tactedge and the back w allofthe connector.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
W ire touches back w allw ith slight deform ation but the top
ofthe w ire does notrise above the back w all.
Portions ofbare conductor are visible but no bare conduc-
torextends outside the connectorbody.
Exposed conductors do notviolate m inim um design electri-
calclearance.
Figure 6-35
Figure 6-36
6 Insulation Displacement Connection (IDC)
6.2.6 Discrete Wire Termination End Connectors
6-16 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Defect - Class 1,2,3
W ire stripped or partially stripped before being inserted into
the connector.
W ire notw ithin retaining barbs.
Tw o w ires into a single contact unless the contact or con-
nectorspecifications indicate thatthis is acceptable.
D eform ation ofthe connector body due to w ires w ith over-
size insulation.
Insufficientstress reliefon w ires entering connector.
W ire size does notm eetconnectorparam eters.
W ire not fully seated in both sets of v-notches of the ID C
contact.
The w ire extends less than one w ire diam eteroutofthe rear
contact.
B roken retaining barbs on the connector.
Figure 6-37
Figure 6-38
6 Insulation Displacement Connection (IDC)
6.2.6 Discrete Wire Termination End Connectors (cont.)
6-17 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
C onnector perpendicular in relation the cable/w ire center-
line.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
C ontactnotat90 in relation to the w ire centerline and this
position does notcause any w ire stress.
W ire position is w ithin the w ire connection area (see 6.2.2).
Defect - Class 1,2,3
W ire stripped or partially stripped before being inserted into
the connector(notshow n).
W ire notw ithin retaining barbs (A and G ).
W ire not fully seated in both sets of v-notches of the ID C
contact(A and E).
W ire size does notm eetconnectorparam eters (notshow n).
Tw o w ires into a single contact unless the contact or con-
nector specifications indicate that this is acceptable (not
show n).
D eform ation ofthe connector body due to w ires w ith over-
size insulation (notshow n).
Insufficient stress relief on w ires entering connector (not
show n).
B roken retaining barbs on the connector(G ).
Figure 6-39
Figure 6-40
Figure 6-41
6 Insulation Displacement Connection (IDC)
6.2.7 Discrete Wire Termination Wiremount Connectors
6-18 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
W ire ends flush w ith term ination coverplates orextend less
than 0.5 m m [0.02 in].
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
W ire m ay extend to the end offree space.
Figure 6-42
Figure 6-43
6 Insulation Displacement Connection (IDC)
6.2.8 Discrete Wire Termination
Subminiature D-Connector (Series Bus Connector)
6-19 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Defect - Class 1,2,3
W ire recessed (Figure 6-44).
W ire is bent upw ards in the free space over the top ofthe
connectorbody (Figure 6-45).
Term ination coverplate is broken ordeform ed (Figure 6-46,
47).
C ontactbase m etalis exposed (notshow n).
C ontactis bentafter term ination and does notfitw ithin the
term ination coverslots (notshow n).
C overs are not fully seated against connector housing at
cover ends or cover is clearly convex at the center (not
show n).
Figure 6-44
Figure 6-45
Figure 6-46 Figure 6-47
6 Insulation Displacement Connection (IDC)
6.2.8 Discrete Wire Termination Subminiature
D-Connector (Series Bus Connector) (cont.)
6-20 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
The follow ing criteria apply to Type R J telecom m unications connectors w ith orw ithoutloading bar.
Target - Class 1,2,3
Allw ires are bottom ed in connector and visible through the
frontofthe connector.
The prim ary strain reliefis crim ped tightly against the cable
jacket.
The cable jacketextends pastthe pointofthe strain relief.
For connector w ithout a loading bar, the secondary strain
reliefis crim ped so thatitis in contactw ith the insulation.
The contacts are crim ped so thatno partofthe contacts are
above the plane created by the top of the plastic dividers
betw een the contacts.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
W ires are not bottom ed but allare w ithin 0.5 m m [0.02 in]
or less ofthe end w allbut allare inserted at least past the
term inal.
C ontacts m eet the connector m anufacturers crim p height
specification.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
The prim ary strain relief is not in tight contact against the
cable jacketoris notlatched.
The cable jacket does not extend past the prim ary strain
relief.
W ire ends are notw ithin 0.5 m m [0.02 in]orless ofthe con-
tactend w all.orare notinserted pastthe term inal.
Allw ire ends are notvisible through the face ofthe connec-
tor.
C onnector w ithout loading bar the secondary strain reliefis
notin contactw ith the w ires oris notlatched.
The contacts are notcrim ped sufficiently and extend above
the plane created by the top ofthe plastic dividers betw een
the contacts.
Figure 6-48
1. Loading bar
2. Wire end clearance
3. Secondary strain relief
4. Primary strain relief
6 Insulation Displacement Connection (IDC)
6.2.9 Discrete Wire Termination Modular Connectors (RJ Type)
6-21 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
This Page Intentionally LeftB lank
6 Insulation Displacement Connection (IDC)
6-22 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
The follow ing topics are addressed in this section:
7.1 Insulation Clearance
7.2 Weld Nugget
7.2.1 G eom etry
7 Ultrasonic Welding
Ultrasonic Welding
7-1 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
End of Insulation is betw een one and tw o w ire diam eters
from w eld nugget.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Insulation is em bedded in w eld nugget.
Insulation gap is so large that it causes the conductor to
violate m inim um electricalspacing.
Defect - Class 2,3
End ofinsulation is less than one w ire diam eterorm ore than
tw o w ire diam eters from w eld nugget.
Figure 7-1
Figure 7-2
Figure 7-3
7 Ultrasonic Welding
7.1 Insulation Clearance
7-2 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
N uggetw idth to heightratio is 1.5 to 1.
Individualw ire strands are not distinguishable on com pres-
sion surfaces (top & bottom )ofnugget.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
N ugget w idth to height ratio is m ore than 1 to 1 but does
notexceed 2 to 1.
Figure 7-4
Figure 7-5
7 Ultrasonic Welding
7.2 Weld Nugget
7-3 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
7.2.1 Weld Nugget Geometry
Acceptable - Class 1,
Process Indicator - Class 2,3
Individualw ire strands are distinguishable on com pression
surfaces,butthere are no loose strands.
Defect - Class 2, 3.
Any loose w ire strands.
Defect - Class 1, 2, 3
Any discoloration ofthe conductors.
Figure 7-6
Figure 7-7
Figure 7-8
7 Ultrasonic Welding
7.2.1 Weld Nugget Geometry (cont.)
7-4 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
The follow ing topics are addressed in this section.
8.1 Soldered Splices
8.1.1 M esh
8.1.2 W rap
8.1.3 H ook
8.1.4 Lap
8.2 Splices - Crimped
8.2.1 B arrel
8.2.2 D ouble Sided
8.3 Splices - Ultrasonic Welded
8 Splices
Splices
8-1 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
U sing splices to repairbroken ordam aged conductors are notperm itted forC lasses 2 and 3 w ithoutend-userconcurrence prior
to the repair.
Forsolderand cleanliness requirem ents,see 1.18 and 4.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
Interlocking ofconductive strands into a sm ooth joined sec-
tion for a m inim um of three but not m ore than five w ire
diam eters.
Insulation covers splice and overlaps w ire insulation a m ini-
m um ofone w ire diam eter.
N o conductive strands piercing the insulation.
Process Indicator - Class 2,3
W ire bulges the insulation butdoes notpierce it.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
There are sharp points orprojections.
C onductive strands pierce the insulation.
W ire splice area is exposed.
Insulation does notoverlap w ire splice area fora m inim um of
one w ire diam eter.
Figure 8-1
Figure 8-2
Figure 8-3
Figure 8-4
Figure 8-5
8 Splices
8.1 Soldered Splices
8-2 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
8.1.1 Soldered Splices Mesh
The contactarea betw een the tw o w ires shall be a m inim um ofthree w raps (nottw ists)ofeach w ire around the other.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
Interlocking oftw o w ire strands into a sm ooth joined section
fora m inim um ofthree w raps ofeach conductor.
N o conductive strands piercing the insulation.
Insulation covers splice and overlaps w ire insulation a m ini-
m um ofone w ire diam eter(notshow n).
Process Indicator - Class 2,3
W ire bulges the insulation butdoes notpierce it.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
There are sharp points orprojections.
C onductorstrands pierce the insulation.
W ire splice area is exposed.
Insulation does notoverlap w ire splice area fora m inim um of
one w ire diam eter.
Less than three w raps ofeach conductor.
Figure 8-6
Figure 8-7
Figure 8-8
Figure 8-9
8 Splices
8.1.2 Soldered Splices Wrap
8-3 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
The contactarea betw een the tw o w ires shall be a m inim um ofthree w raps (nottw ists)ofeach w ire around the other.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
Interlocking oftw o w ire strands into a sm ooth joined section
fora m inim um ofthree w raps.
N o conductive strands piercing the insulation.
Insulation covers splice and overlaps w ire insulation a m ini-
m um ofone w ire diam eter(notshow n).
C onductive strands form a sm ooth joined section.
C onductive strands are covered w ith insulation.
Process Indicator - Class 2,3
W ire bulges the insulation butdoes notpierce it.
Defect - Class 2,3
W ire splice area is exposed.
Insulation does notoverlap w ire splice area fora m inim um of
one w ire diam eter.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
There are sharp points orprojections.
C onductorstrands pierce the insulation.
Less than three w raps ofeach conductor.
3 Wraps Min.
Figure 8-10
Figure 8-11
Figure 8-12
Figure 8-13
8 Splices
8.1.3 Soldered Splices Hook
8-4 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
W ires are parallelfor at least three but not m ore than five
w ire diam eters.
C onductive strands form a sm ooth joined section.
Insulation covers splice and overlaps w ire insulation a m ini-
m um ofone w ire diam eter.
N o conductive strands piercing the insulation.
Process Indicator - Class 2,3
W ire bulges the insulation butdoes notpierce it.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
There are sharp points orprojections.
C onductorstrands pierce the insulation.
W ires notparallelatleastthree w ire diam eters.
W ire splice area is exposed.
Figure 8-14
Figure 8-15
Figure 8-16
Figure 8-17
Figure 8-18
8 Splices
8.1.4 Soldered Splices Lap
8-5 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
W ire insulation is flush againstend ofbarrelsplice (A).
B are w ire ends are flush w ith barrelsplice,bellm outh is evi-
dent(B ).
C rim p is centered and properly form ed to retain w ires (C ).
B arrelsplice is notcracked.
Sleeving extends pastthe bare w ire conductors 6 m m [0.25
in]m inim um on both sides ofthe barrelsplice (not show n).
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
W ire insulation gap is w ithin tw o w ire diam eters (A).
B are w ire end is less than flush,but is visible and included
in crim p indentation (B ).
C rim p slightly offset but properly form ed, bellm outh is evi-
dent(C ).
B arrelsplice is notcracked.
Sleeving extends past the (D ) bare w ire conductors 6 m m
[0.25 in] m inim um on both sides of the barrel splice (not
show n).
D oes notviolate m inim um electricalclearance.
Figure 8-19
Figure 8-20
8 Splices
8.2 Splices Crimped
8-6 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
8.2.1 Splices Crimped Barrel
Acceptable - Class 1,2
Process Indicator - Class 3
B are w ire ends extend no m ore than tw o w ire diam eters
including insulation.
Acceptable - Class 1,2
Process Indicator - Class 3
C rim p notcorrectly positioned butbellm outh is evident.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Insulation gap exceeds tw o w ire diam eters.
W ire ends protrude greaterthan tw o w ire diam eters.
Insulation extends into barrelsplice crim p (notshow n).
Figure 8-21
Figure 8-22
Figure 8-23
8 Splices
8.2.1 Splices Crimped Barrel (cont.)
8-7 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Defect - Class 1,2,3
B arrelsplice is cracked (Figure 8-24 arrow ).
C rim p indentation is off the end of the barrel splice, bell
m outh is evident.
W ires are notcontained in the crim p.
Target - Class 1,2,3
Ends ofw ires are visible through the inspection w indow and
are flush to the w ire stop (A)(B ).
B ellm outh is evident.
W ire insulation is flush w ith ends ofsplice.
C rim p is centered and properly form ed to retain w ires.
H eatshrinkable sleeve is centered and overlaps both insula-
tion gaps (notshow n).
Figure 8-24
Figure 8-25
8 Splices
8.2.1 Splices Crimped Barrel (cont.)
8-8 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
8.2.2 Splices Crimped Double Sided
Target - Class 1,2,3
C orrectcolor-coded heatshrinkable sleeve used (A).
H eatshrinkable sleeve is centered on the ferrule.
M eltable sealing rings have flow ed.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
Ends ofw ires do not butt against w ire stop. W ires are vis-
ible through inspection w indow s (arrow s).
W ire insulation gap is less than tw o w ire diam eters including
insulation.
B ellm outh is evident.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
W ire insulation gap is w ithin tw o w ire diam eters including
insulation on both ends (notshow n).
H eatshrinkable sleeve ends are sealed to the w ire insulation
(no w ire strands are exposed).
Figure 8-26
Figure 8-27
Figure 8-28
8 Splices
8.2.2 Splices Crimped Double Sided (cont.)
8-9 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
C rim p indents are rotated (seam less splices only).
Acceptable - Class 1
Process indicator - Class 2,3
H eat shrinkable sleeve is not centered yet sleeve ends are
sealed to the w ire insulation.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
W ire insulation extends into the w ire crim p barrel(A).
C rim p indentis offthe end ofthe splice (B ).
W ire end(s)are notvisible through the inspection w indow (s)
(C ).
W ire insulation gap is greater than tw o w ire diam eters
including insulation (D ).
H eat shrinkable sleeve does not overlap both insulation
gaps (notshow n).
Figure 8-29
Figure 8-30
Figure 8-31
8 Splices
8.2.2 Splices Crimped Double Sided (cont.)
8-10 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Defect - Class 1,2,3
W ire strands extend outofinspection w indow .
Defect - Class 1,2,3
W ire strands have pierced the heatshrinkable sleeve.
R eferto Section 7 forultrasonic splice requirem ents.
Figure 8-32
Figure 8-33
8 Splices
8.2.2 Splices Crimped Double Sided (cont.)
8-11 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
8.3 Splices Ultrasonic Welded
This Page Intentionally LeftB lank
8 Splices
8-12 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
The follow ing topics are addressed in this section.
9.1 Hardware Mounting
9.1.1 Jackscrew s
9.2 Strain Relief
9.2.1 Sleeving
9.3 Sleeving and Boots
9.3.1 Position
9.3.2 B onding - C onductive Adhesive
9.4 Connector Damage
9.4.1 C riteria
9.4.2 Lim its - H ard Face - M ating Surface
9.4.3 Lim its - Soft Face - M ating Surface or R ear SealArea
9.4.4 C ontacts
9 Connectorization
Connectorization
9-1 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
This section covers the heightrelationship ofthe face ofthe jackscrew to the associated connectorface.This is criticalto obtain
m axim um connectorpin contact.
H ardw are stack-up for m ounted connectors m ay be varied in order to locate the face ofthe jackscrew flush to 0.75 m m [0.030
in]below the face ofthe connector.
Target - Class 1,2,3
Jackscrew face is flush to 0.75 m m [0.030 in] below the
face ofthe connector.
H eightis obtained by adding orrem oving w ashers (supplied
w ith jackscrew s).
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Jackscrew face extends above the connector face (Figure
9-2).
Face ofJackscrew is greaterthan 0.75 m m [0.030 in]below
the connectorface (Figure 9-3).
Figure 9-1
Figure 9-2
Figure 9-3
9 Connectorization
9.1 Hardware Mounting
9-2 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
9.1.1 Hardware Mounting Jackscrews
Strain reliefsleeving (e.g.,insulating tape orsleeving orm ulti-conductorcable outerjacket)used to preventw ire m ovem entw hen
pushed orpulled length w ise ofthe cable.
Target - Class 1,2,3
Sleeving is visible betw een the clam p and the connector.
The split-lock w ashers are collapsed.
Note: C lam ps m ust be tightened to secure the bundle but
need notbe fully closed (touching).
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
Sleeving is flush w ith the end ofclam p (arrow ).
Tape/sleeving is secured by the clam p to m aintain sufficient
strain relief.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Sleeving inserted beyond connector causing stress on the
w ires (A).
The splitlock w ashers are notcollapsed (B ).
D am age to sleeving thatexposes the harness or other pro-
tected m aterial(N otShow n).
Figure 9-4
Figure 9-5
Figure 9-6
9 Connectorization
9.2 Strain Relief
9-3 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
9.2.1 Strain Relief Sleeving
C riteria applies to both adhesive and non-adhesive lined boots.
Target - Class 1,2,3
B oot(A)is securely shrunk on the rearofconnectoradapter
(crim p ring area).
B ootdoes notcoverthreaded adapterring (B ).
B ootoverlap (C )ofcable sleeving or jacketis atleastthree
cable diam eters in length to preventexposed w ires orbraid
w hen flexed.
B ootoverlap does notinterfere w ith operation oflocking ring
(D ).
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
B ootis shrunk overthreaded adapterring.
B ootdoes notinterfere w ith locking ring ring.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
B ootinterferes w ith locking ring.
Defect - Class 2,3
B ootoverlap ofcable sleeving orjacketis insufficientto pre-
ventexposure ofw ires orbraid w hen flexed.
Figure 9-7
Figure 9-8
Figure 9-9
9 Connectorization
9.3 Sleeving and Boots
9-4 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
9.3.1 Sleeving and Boots Position
Target - Class 1,2,3
The bootis bonded to the connectoron allsides w ith m ini-
m al adhesive buildup. The structural adhesive (typically
black)filletis visible.
The boot is parallelw ith the face of the connector in both
axis.
There is no conductive adhesive (typically silver)outside the
boot.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
The bootis parallelw ithin 10 to the connectorface in both
axes.
The boot is bonded to the connector on allsides, and the
structuraladhesive is visible.Pin-holes are allow ed.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
There is conductive adhesive outside the boot w ithin the
structuraladhesive.
B ootand adhesive buildup does notexceed 3 m m [0.12 in]
from connectorsurface (arrow ).
Figure 9-10
Figure 9-11
Figure 9-12
9 Connectorization
9.3.2 Sleeving and Boots Bonding Conductive Adhesive
9-5 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Acceptable - Class 1
Defect - Class 2,3
Void orseparation betw een the bootand connector.
N on-parallelism ofbootand connector face exceeds 10 in
eitheraxis.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
B ootand adhesive buildup exceeds 3 m m [0.12 in]from the
connectorsurface.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Adhesive interferes w ith subsequentassem bly steps.
Figure 9-13
Figure 9-14
Figure 9-15
9 Connectorization
9.3.2 Sleeving and Boots Bonding Conductive Adhesive (cont.)
9-6 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
Shellsurface is clean,unm arked and undam aged.
Key or keyw ays are not distorted or dam aged or m isposi-
tioned.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Shell or positioning keys are dam aged or contain deep
scratches orburrs (A).
D am aged innerorouterring (out-of-round condition)(B ).
Key w idth orheighthas been reduced (C ).
Key is m ispositioned (N otShow n).
C onnector shellor body is cracked, fractured or otherw ise
dam aged.
Figure 9-16
Figure 9-17
9 Connectorization
9.4 Connector Damage
9-7 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
9.4.1 Connector Damage Criteria
Target - Class 1,2,3
C onnector face is intact w ith no evidence of chipping,
cracks orotherdam age.
Acceptable - Class 1
Process Indicator - Class 2,3
C onnector face has been chipped but dielectric betw een
seals is intact.
C hipping does not extend from one pin to the outer diam -
eterofany adjacentpin.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
C hipping of the dielectric extends from pin to the outside
diam eterofany adjacentpin.
C rack extends from one pin to another.
Figure 9-18
Figure 9-19
Figure 9-20
9 Connectorization
9.4.2 Connector Damage Limits Hard Face Mating Surface
9-8 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
C onnector face is intact,w ith no evidence ofcracks,chips,
ordam age.
Acceptable - Class 1
Process Indicator - Class 2,3
M aterial is m issing w ith no dam age to dielectric betw een
cups (A).
C ut,fracture ortearthatdoes notextend beyond cup diam -
eter(B ).
C ut, fracture or tear in dielectric face does not extend into
the cup area (C ).
Defect - Class 1,2,3
C ut,fracture ortearin dielectric extends beyond cup diam -
eter.
C ut, fracture or tear that extends from cup through dielec-
tric face orfrom one cup into another.
Figure 9-21
Figure 9-22
Figure 9-23
9 Connectorization
9.4.3 Connector Damage Limits Soft Face
Mating Surface or Rear Seal Area
9-9 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
U nless otherw ise specified allunused contactlocations w illbe filled w ith non-crim ped contacts.
W hen the contact m ust be crim ped in order to installit in the connector housing, then the unused locations w illbe filled w ith
crim ped contacts.
C ontacts w illbe inspected forseating / locking position using a push force notto exceed 3.5 lbs.m axim um .This Inspection is a
check forloose contacts only.C are m ustbe taken to use a probe thatis com patible to the contactsize and the push force m ust
be parallelto the contactto preventdam age.
Exceptions to the inspection include:
Prew ired m olded connectors.
Potted orm olded connectors afterm olding/potting.
N ote:Inspection forcontactseating is priorto potting orm olding.
SolderC up connectors.
C onnectorcontactlead ends thatare soldered into position (i.e.,C C As).
C onnectorcontactlocking device thatis visible through an inspection w indow .
M iniaturized connectors w here contactsize and configurations are vulnerable to push force dam age.
9 Connectorization
9.4.4 Connector Damage Contacts
9-10 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
Allconnectorcontacts are to be installed in the connectorto
ensure they are fully seated and locked into position.
Alllocations in connectorhave been filled.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
W hen connector contacts have an assigned part num ber
and contacts are not provided for all positions, it is not
required to fillunused positions.
C onnectors that are designed w ith coax contacts are
exem ptfrom the fillrequirem entforunused locations unless
otherw ise specified on the draw ing.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Socketis notfully seated and locked.
Process Indicator - Class 2
Defect - Class 3
C ontact(s) m issing w hen unused positions are required to
be filled.
Figure 9-24
Figure 9-25
9 Connectorization
9.4.4 Connector Damage Contacts (cont.)
9-11 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Pin is notseated and locked into position.
D am aged contact.
C ontactis bent.
Figure 9-26
Figure 9-27
9 Connectorization
9.4.4 Connector Damage Contacts (cont.)
9-12 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
The requirem ents in this chapterare im posed prim arily to give
confidence in the reliability ofthe w ire orcable.Any allow able
cosm etic anom alies should be agreed upon betw een the
m anufacturer and the user prior to the m olding or potting
operation.
The follow ing topics are addressed in this section.
10.1 Molding
10.1.1 Insulation D am age
10.1.2 Filling
10.1.3 Term inalPositioning
10.1.4 Fitto W ire orC able
10.1.5 Flashing
10.1.6 C hillM arks (KnitLines),Stress Lines orC racks
10.1.7 C om pound C olor
10.2 Potting
10.2.1 Filling
10.2.2 Fitto W ire orC able
10.2.3 C uring
10 Molding/ Potting
Molding/ Potting
10-1 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
N o insulation dam age.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
The m olding process has not dam aged insulation beyond
criteria listed in 3.4.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Insulation is dam aged beyond the insulation dam age criteria
listed in 3.4.
Figure 10-1
Figure 10-2
10 Molding/ Potting
10.1 Molding
10.1.1 Molding Insulation Damage
10-2 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
M old filled com pletely w ith no recessions, bubbles, blow -
through orothercosm etic orfunctionalabnorm alities.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
Parthas allfeatures required by the draw ing orspecification.
Allrequired m arking is legible.
Acceptable - Class 1
Process Indicator - Class 2
B low through that is not on an electricalm ating surface or
does not prevent proper m ating or function ofthe connec-
tor.
Figure 10-3
Figure 10-4
Figure 10-5
10 Molding/ Potting
10.1.2 Molding Filling
10-3 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Voids w here m olding m aterialshould be present.
M arking is incom plete ornotlegible.
Defect - Class 1,2
B low through presenton an electricalm ating surface orpre-
vents properm ating orfunction ofthe connector.
Defect - Class 3
B low through is present.
Figure 10-6
Figure 10-7
10 Molding/ Potting
10.1.2 Molding Filling (cont.)
10-4 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
Term inals fully inserted and aligned as required by draw ing
orspecification.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
Any variation in contact height or alignm ent that does not
com prom ise the electricalor physicalfunction of the con-
nector.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Any variation in contact height or alignm ent that com pro-
m ises the electricalorphysicalfunction ofthe connector.
Figure 10-8
Figure 10-9
10 Molding/ Potting
10.1.3 Molding Terminal Positioning
10-5 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
M olded m aterialprovides intim ate contact w ith the w ire or
cable jacketforentire circum ference ofthe w ire orcable.
Acceptable - Class 1
N o exposed conductors.
M olded m aterialadheres to at least 75% of the circum fer-
ence ofthe w ire orcable jacket.
Acceptable - Class 2,3
N o exposed conductors.
N o exposed innerw ires form ulti-w ire cables.
N o gaps betw een m olded m aterialand w ire or cable jacket
w hen the assem bly is in the as-m olded configuration.
M olded m aterialadheres to the entire circum ference ofthe
w ire orcable jacket.
Figure 10-10
10 Molding/ Potting
10.1.4 Molding Fit to Wire or Cable
10-6 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Defect - Class 1
Any exposed conductors.
M olded m aterialthatdoes notadhere to atleast75% ofthe
circum ference ofthe w ire orcable jacket.
Defect - Class 2,3
Any exposed conductors.
Any exposed innerw ires form ulti-w ire cables.
Any gaps betw een m olded m aterialand w ire orcable jacket
w hen the assem bly is in the as-m olded configuration.
M olded m aterialthat does not adhere to the entire circum -
ference ofthe w ire orcable jacket.
Figure 10-11
10 Molding/ Potting
10.1.4 Molding Fit to Wire or Cable (cont.)
10-7 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
N o flashing.
Acceptable - Class 1,2
Flashing is notpresenton electricalm ating surfaces.
N o exposed sharp edges.
Flashing does notinterfere w ith m ating ofthe connector.
Defect - Class 1,2 (notillustrated)
Flashing on electricalm ating surfaces.
Any sharp edges.
Any flashing thatinterferes w ith m ating ofthe connector.
Defect - Class 3 (notillustrated)
Any Flashing.
Figure 10-12
Figure 10-13
10 Molding/ Potting
10.1.5 Molding Flashing
10-8 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
N o chillm arks orstress lines (notillustrated).
Process Indicator - Class 2
Defect - Class 3
Any chillm arks,stress lines orcracks.
N otillustrated.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
C oloris uniform and in accordance w ith draw ing orspecification.
Defect - Class 2,3
C oloris notin accordance w ith draw ing orspecification.
C oloris notconsistentacross the surface(s).
Figure 10-14
10 Molding/ Potting
10.1.6 Molding Chill Marks (Knit Lines), Stress Lines or Cracks
10-9 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
10.1.7 Molding Compound Color
There are no illustrations forthe potting section.
Target - Class 1,2,3
Potting m aterialextends overinsulation ofallw ires.
N o potting m aterialon the m ating surfaces ofthe connector.
N o bubbles orentrapped air.
N o spillage.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
N o bubbles orcavities thatbridge betw een conductors.
N o spillage presentthatinterferes w ith the electricalorphysicalfunction ofthe connector.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Potting m aterialpresenton electricalm ating surfaces ofconnector.
Any exposed conductors.
Any spillage thatinterferes w ith the electricalorphysicalfunction ofthe connector.
Defect - Class 2,3
Potting m aterialthatdoes notextend atleasttw o w ire diam eters ofthe largestw ire in the bundle above the end ofthe insula-
tion ofthe w ire(s).
Any bubbles orcavities thatbridge betw een conductors.
10 Molding/ Potting
10.2 Potting
10-10 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
10.2.1 Potting Filling
Target - Class 1,2,3
Potting m aterialprovides intim ate contactw ith the w ire(s)orcable jacketforentire circum ference ofthe w ire(s)orcable.
Acceptable - Class 1
Potting m aterialadheres to atleast75% ofthe circum ference ofthe w ire(s)orcable jacket.
N o exposed conductors.
Acceptable - Class 2,3
N o exposed innerw ires form ulti-w ire cables.
N o gaps betw een potting m aterialand w ire(s)orcable jacketw hen the assem bly is in the as-potted configuration.
Potting m aterialadheres to the entire circum ference ofthe w ire(s)orcable jacket.
N o exposed conductors.
Defect - Class 1
Potting m aterialthatdoes notadhere to atleast75% ofthe circum ference ofthe w ire orcable jacket.
Any exposed conductors.
Defect - Class 2,3
Any exposed innerw ires form ulti-w ire cables.
Any gaps betw een potting m aterialand w ire orcable jacketw hen the assem bly is in the as-potted configuration.
Potting m aterialthatdoes notadhere to the entire circum ference ofthe w ire orcable jacket.
Any exposed conductors.
10 Molding/ Potting
10.2.2 Potting Fit to Wire or Cable
10-11 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
Potting m aterialis w ithin m anufacturers specified hardness range and tack free to the touch after follow ing the m anufacturers
recom m ended cure schedule.
Acceptable - Class 1,2
Potting m aterialhas hardened and is tack free to the touch afterfollow ing the m anufacturers recom m ended cure schedule.
Acceptable - Class 3
Potting m aterialis w ithin the m anufacturers specified hardness range after follow ing the m anufacturers recom m ended cure
schedule.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Potting m aterialis tacky afterfollow ing the m anufacturers recom m ended cure schedule.
Defect - Class 3
Potting m aterialis notw ithin the m anufacturers specified hardness range afterfollow ing the m anufacturers recom m ended cure
schedule.
10 Molding/ Potting
10.2.3 Potting Curing
10-12 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
The follow ing topics are addressed in this section.
11.1 Cable Assemblies
11.1.1 R eference Surfaces
11.1.1.1 Straight/AxialC onnectors
11.1.1.2 R ight-Angle C onnectors
11.1.2 Length M easurem ent
11.2 Wires (As an Assembly)
11.2.1 ElectricalTerm inalR eference Location
11.2.2 Length M easurem ent
11 Cable Assemblies and Wires
Cable Assemblies and Wires
11-1 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Figure 11-1 identifies the points on a cable thatare to be used as the reference surfaces.
Figure 11-2 identifies the points on a cable thatare to be used as the reference surfaces.
A
B
C
D
Figure 11-1
A
B
C
D
Figure 11-2
11 Cable Assemblies and Wires
11.1 Cable Assemblies
11-2 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
11.1.1 Cable Assemblies Reference Surfaces
11.1.1.2 Cable Assemblies Reference
Surfaces Right-Angle Connectors
11.1.1.1 Cable Assemblies Reference
Surfaces Straight/ Axial Connectors
The length ofa cable is m easured from one end ofthe cable assem bly to the other end.Ifreference surfaces are not specified
on docum entation,the reference surfaces shall be as specified in 11.1.1.1 and 11.1.1.2.C able length m easurem enttolerance is
provided in Table 11-1.
Table 11-1 Cable Length Measurement Tolerance
Cable Length Tolerance
Metric English
0.3 m m +25 m m -0 m m 1 ft + 1 in -0 in
>0.3 m m - 1.5 m +50 m m -0 m m >1 ft- 5 ft + 2 in -0 in
>1.5 m - 3 m +100 m m -0 m m >5 ft- 10 ft + 4 in -0 in
>3 m - 7.5 m +150 m m -0 m m >10 ft- 25 ft +6 in -0 in
>7.5 m +5% -0% >25 ft +5% -0%
Target - Class 1,2,3
C able length m eets specified nom inaldraw ing length.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
C able length is equalto or less than m axim um acceptable.
C able length is equalto or greater than m inim um accept-
able.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
The cable length is less than m inim um (A,D ).
The cable length exceeds m axim um (B ,C ).
Figure 11-3
min
max
Figure 11-4
min
max
A
B
C
D
Figure 11-5
11 Cable Assemblies and Wires
11.1.2 Cable Assemblies Length Measurement
11-3 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
W ires as a finished assem bly or product generally consists ofan insulated w ire w ith one or both ends ofthe w ire installed into
electricalterm inal(s).
Ifreference locations are notspecified on docum entation,use the reference surfaces specified in 11.2.1 and 11.2.2.
Figure 11-6 illustrates the dim ensionalreference location (R L)or surface (R S)for severaltypes ofinsulated and uninsulated elec-
tricalterm inals.For ring (A),hook (B )and fork (C )term inals the fastener hole centershall be used as the reference location (R L).
Forquick-disconnect(D )and bullet(E)term inals the end ofthe term inalshall be used as the reference surface (R S).
Figures 11-7,11-8 and 11-9 illustrate the dim ensionalreference location forw ires and cables.
A B C
D D E
RL
RS
Figure 11-6
11 Cable Assemblies and Wires
11.2 Wires (As an Assembly)
11-4 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
11.2.1 Wires Electrical Terminal Reference Location
The overallw ire length,as an assem bly,ofa w ire includes allora portion ofthe electricalterm inal(s)from theirreference location
orreference surface.
Target - Class 1,2,3
The w ire lengths from one w ire end reference location or
reference surface to the other are equalto the nom inal
w ire length (nom ).
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
W ire length is equalto orless than m axim um acceptable.
W ire length is equalto orgreaterthan m inim um acceptable.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
The w ire length exceeds m axim um acceptable (A).
The w ire length is less than m inim um acceptable (B ).
nom
Figure 11-7
min
max
Figure 11-8
A
B
min
max
Figure 11-9
11 Cable Assemblies and Wires
11.2.2 Wires Length Measurement
11-5 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
This Page Intentionally LeftB lank
11 Cable Assemblies and Wires
11-6 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Note: For the purposes ofthis section,m arking and labeling
are referred to as m arking.
M arking is not required unless specified on the controlling
docum ent.Ifa m arking m ethod has notbeen specified by the
controlling docum ent, any m arking m ethod that m eets the
requirem ents ofthis section is acceptable.
R egardless ofthe m arking m ethod used,m arkings m ustcon-
tain the required inform ation,be legible,be perm anent in the
intended application, and m ust not dam age the product nor
im pairits function.
Note: Additional (non-required) inform ation m ay be m arked
onto the product for internal purposes. This m arking is not
subjectto the provisions ofthis section,provided that:
The m arking does not conflict w ith, and is separated from ,
required inform ation;and,
Priorto delivery non-perm anentinternalm arkings should be
rem oved for C lass 2 and shall be rem oved for C lass 3
products.
C riteria w ith obvious understanding m ay nothave illustrations.
The follow ing topics are addressed in this section.
12.1 Content
12.2 Legibility
12.3 Permanency
12.4 Location
12.5 Functionality
12.6 Marker Sleeve
12.6.1 W rap Around
12.6.2 Tubular
12 Marking/ Labeling
Marking/ Labeling
12-1 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
M arkings include the contentspecified by the controlling docum ent.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
M arking contentincorrect.
M arking m issing.
Target - Class 1,2,3
M arkings legible w hen view ed w ithout m agnification. M ark-
ings are distinct,ofuniform height,and ofa color thatcon-
trasts w ith the background.
M achine-readable m arkings (bar codes) m ust be of the
properspecified industry standard form at.
B arcodes can be read successfully w ith one attem ptusing
eithera w and orlasertype scanner.
Figure 12-1
12 Marking/ Labeling
12.1 Content
12-2 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
12.2 Legibility
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
M arking legible butblurred.
B ar codes can be successfully read w ith three or few er
attem pts using a w and type scanner.
B ar codes can be successfully read w ith tw o or few er
attem pts using a laserscanner.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
M arking notlegible.
B ar codes cannot be successfully read w ith three or few er
attem pts using a w and type scanner.
B ar codes cannot be successfully read w ith tw o or few er
attem pts using a laserscanner.
Figure 12-2
Figure 12-3
12 Marking/ Labeling
12.2 Legibility (cont.)
12-3 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Note: M arking should be resistantto its handling,assem bly and service environm ent.The service environm entshould be defined
in the procurem entdocum ents.H andling is the norm alexposure to assem bly,storage and transportenvironm ents.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
M arkings rem ain legible afterexposure to handling,assem bly and required environm entaltesting.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
M arkings notlegible orpresentafterexposure to handling,assem bly and required environm entaltesting.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
M arking presentin location(s)designated by controlling docum ent.
Acceptance - Class 1
Defect - Class 2,3
M arking notin specified location(s).
Ifthe location is notspecified on an individualconductor or breakout,the m arking is m ore than 150 m m [6 in]from the end of
the conductororbreakout.
12 Marking/ Labeling
12.3 Permanency
12-4 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
12.4 Location
Target - Class 1,2,3
The m arking does not im pair the function ofthe product in
its intended application.
The m arking process has notdam aged the product.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
Insulation deform ation does not exceed 50% ofthe insula-
tion thickness for20 AW G and sm allerw ire diam eters.
Insulation deform ation does not exceed 25% ofthe insula-
tion thickness for18 AW G and largerw ire diam eters.
Insulation exhibits slightdiscoloration as a resultofm arking.
Insulation deform ation does notreduce insulating properties
to less the m inim um dielectric requirem ents.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Insulation deform ed m ore than 50% ofthe insulation thick-
ness for20 AW G and sm allerw ire diam eters.
Insulation deform ed m ore than 25% ofthe insulation thick-
ness for18 AW G and largerw ire diam eters.
Insulation scorched,charred,m elted or brittle as a resultof
the m arking process.
M arking present on exposed (uninsulated) conductor in
region w here conductor w illconnect to m ating surface or
hardw are.
Figure 12-4
Figure 12-5
Figure 12-6
12 Marking/ Labeling
12.5 Functionality
12-5 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
The m arkersleeve w raps around the cable 1.5 tim es and is
secure.
The overlap ofthe m arkersleeve is aligned atthe edges.
The m arkersleeve is sm ooth.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
The m arker sleeve w raps around the cable a m inim um of
1.25 tim es to a m axim um of2 tim es and is secure.
The m arkersleeve is slightly w rinkled and skew ed.
The identification legibility is m aintained.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
The m arkersleeve is severely w rinkled,orskew ed.
Figure 12-7
Figure 12-8
Figure 12-9
12 Marking/ Labeling
12.6 Marker Sleeve
12-6 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
12.6.1 Marker Sleeve Wrap Around
Defect - Class 1,2,3
The m arkersleeve overlap is notsecure.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
The m arkersleeve does notoverlap.
Figure 12-10
Figure 12-11
12 Marking/ Labeling
12.6.1 Marker Sleeve Wrap Around (cont.)
12-7 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
The identification m arking reads tow ards the connector.
The m arkersleeve is com pletely shrunk and secure.
The m arkersleeve is positioned nextto the boot(orconnec-
torw hen no bootexists).
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
The identification m arking reads aw ay from the connector.
The m arker sleeve is shrunk sufficient to rem ain secure (no
sliding).
The m arkersleeve is positioned on the boot.
M arker sleeve m ay be positioned over ferrules and splices
(notshow n).
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Any splits orholes.
Figure 12-12
Figure 12-13
Figure 12-14
12 Marking/ Labeling
12.6.2 Marker Sleeve Tubular
12-8 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
For coaxialand tw inaxialassem blies to function properly,itis
critical to follow all assem bly instructions provided by the
m anufacturer. In general, the pieces of the connectors m ust
rem ain as concentric as possible.The relationship ofthe out-
side diam eter (O D ) of the cable center conductor/connector
contact, the thickness of the dielectric, and the inside diam -
eter(ID )ofthe connectorbody and cable shielding are critical
to electricaland m echanicalfunction ofthe assem bly.Insula-
tion integrity is im portant to preclude shorting of shields to
each otherorshorting ofshields to the centerconductor.
The follow ing topics are addressed in this section:
13.1 Stripping
13.2 Center Conductor Termination
13.2.1 C rim p
13.2.2 Solder
13.3 Solder Ferrule Pins
13.3.1 G eneral
13.3.2 Insulation
13.4 Coaxial Connector - Printed Wire Board Mount
13.5 Coaxial Connector - Center Conductor Length -
Right Angle Connector
13.6 Terminal Cover - Soldering
13.7 Shield Termination
13.7.1 C lam ped G round R ings
13.7.2 C rim ped Ferrule
13.8 Center Pin Position
13.9 Semirigid Coax
13.9.1 B ending and D eform ation
13.9.2 Surface C ondition
13.9.3 D ielectric C utoff
13.9.4 D ielectric C leanliness
13.9.5 Solder
13.10 Swage-Type Connector
13.11 Soldering and Stripping of Biaxial or Twinaxial
Wire - Low Temperature Insulation
13.11.1 Jacketand Tip Installation
13.11.2 R ing Installation
13 Coaxial and Twinaxial Cable Assemblies
Coaxial and Twinaxial Cable Assemblies
13-1 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
C oaxialcable is m anufactured w ith severalprim ary am ounts of braid/shield coverage. The m ajority of cable fits into just a few
groups.Som e cable is identified as double shieldbut the shield is a foilw rap rather than a second braid.The foilis not used
during m echanicalattachm entso this type ofcable w ould stillbe identified as a single braid.
The largestgroup ofcoaxialcable types has approxim ately 90% braid coverage and can tolerate a greaterquantity ofm issing or
dam aged braid thatm ay resultfrom the stripping operation.
Anothergroup ofcoaxialcable types,typified by R G -6/U ,has approxim ately 61% braid coverage.W ith this am ountofcoverage,
effectively 40% is already m issingand additionaldam age requirem ents are m uch tighter.
D ouble braid coverage is the m osttolerantofm issing strands w hile stillm aintaining the required functionality.
Table 13-1 provides the dam aged orm issing braid allow ances.
Table 13-1 Damaged or Missing Braid Allowances
Specied Braid Coverage
Maximum Amount of Missing
or Damaged Braid
<63% 10%
63% 25%
D ouble B raid
O uterB raid 50%
C um ulative 25%
Target - Class 1,2,3
Sm ooth,clean cut;no jagged edges.
N o burn m arks ordam age on insulation ordielectric.
B raid/shield cuteven;no long strands.
B raid lies sm ooth and flat after cut w ith no dam aged or
loose pieces.
Figure 13-1
13 Coaxial and Twinaxial Cable Assemblies
13.1 Stripping
13-2 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
Slightm arks on dielectric.
M inorunraveling ofbraid.
Slightdiscoloration on dielectric from therm alstripping.
Acceptable - Class 1
Process Indicator - Class 2,3
M issing ordam aged braid (circum ference)does notexceed
requirem ents ofTable 13-1.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
B raid tw isted/birdcaged.
Scored braid (circum ference) exceeds the allow ance of
Table 13-1.
O uterjacket/insulation frayed,dam aged.
M issing or dam aged braid (circum ference) exceeds the
allow ance ofTable 13-1.
U neven cuton braid;any long strands.
D iscernible nicks orcuts in centerconductor.
B urns orm elted areas on dielectric.
D am age to centerdielectric reducing insulation diam eterby
m ore than 10% .
Figure 13-2
Figure 13-3
1. Braid twisted
2. Braid scored
3. Outer jacket frayed
4. Unwoven braid, missing strands
5. Ragged dielectric, tool marks
6. Incomplete removal of strands
13 Coaxial and Twinaxial Cable Assemblies
13.1 Stripping (cont.)
13-3 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
C rim p is centered on crim p area ofterm inal.
N o dam age to term inalordielectric.
Equalcom pression on allcrim p surfaces.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
C rim p not centered on crim p area ofterm inalbut does not
cause dam age to term inal.
D ielectric does notenterbarrelofterm inal.
Figure 13-4
13 Coaxial and Twinaxial Cable Assemblies
13.2 Center Conductor Termination
13-4 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
13.2.1 Center Conductor Termination Crimp
Defect - Class 1,2,3
C rim p is notcentered in crim p area ofterm inaland causes
dam age to term inal(Figure 13-5).
C onductor strand(s)not captured in term inal(Figure 13-6).
Term inaldam aged by crim p (Figures 13-5,7 and 8).
Pin show s dog earofexcess m aterial(Figure 13-7).
C rim p loose - does nothold term inal(notshow n).
B raid strand(s)caughtin term inal(notshow n).
Figure 13-5
Figure 13-6
Figure 13-7
Figure 13-8
13 Coaxial and Twinaxial Cable Assemblies
13.2.1 Center Conductor Termination Crimp (cont.)
13-5 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
D uring assem bly center conductor visible across fulldiam -
eterofinspection w indow .
The inspection w indow is filled w ith solder.
N o solderon outside ofterm inal.
Solder in inspection w indow does notprotrude beyond ter-
m inalbarrel.
Solderis w etted to both the term inaland the conductor.
N o m elt/dam age to dielectric orterm inal.
N o residue w hen connection is required to be clean.
Term inalis flush againstdielectric.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
Solder slightly protrudes from inspection w indow , but w ill
notinterfere w ith assem bly.
M inor flare of dielectric due to heat from solder does not
interfere w ith assem bly ofconnector.
G ap betw een dielectric and term inalm eets m anufacturers
requirem ents.In the absence ofm anufacturers specs,there
is no gap.
Figure 13-9
Figure 13-10
13 Coaxial and Twinaxial Cable Assemblies
13.2.2 Center Conductor Termination Solder
13-6 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Defect - Class 1,2,3
B raid extends into barrelofterm inal(notshow n).
Strand(s)of center conductor not captured in term inal(not
show n).
Soldernotvisible in inspection w indow (Figure 13-11).
N o discernible solder fillet or w etting betw een term inaland
conductor(Figure 13-11).
C enter conductor not visible in inspection w indow (not
show n).
Excess solder prevents proper assem bly of connector and
electricalim pedance ofthe connector(Figure 13-12).
D am age to dielectric due to heatfrom solder(Figure 13-12).
R esidue rem ains w hen connection is required to be clean.
Term inalem bedded into dielectric.
G ap betw een term inaland dielectric exceeds m anufactur-
ers requirem ents.
Figure 13-11
Figure 13-12
13 Coaxial and Twinaxial Cable Assemblies
13.2.2 Center Conductor Termination Solder (cont.)
13-7 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
Solderfilletis evidentin inspection holes.
Shield w eave pattern is intact.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
W ire tw istform is disturbed.
Solderfilletis evidentin inspection holes.
Figure 13-13
Figure 13-14
13 Coaxial and Twinaxial Cable Assemblies
13.3 Solder Ferrule Pins
13-8 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
13.3.1 Solder Ferrule Pins General
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Shield strand is protruding through sleeving oroutofinspec-
tion hole.
Solderring is im properly flow ed.
Solderbuildup on outside surface ofcontact.
Figure 13-15
Figure 13-16
13 Coaxial and Twinaxial Cable Assemblies
13.3.1 Solder Ferrule Pins General (cont.)
13-9 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
Pin tip insulation show s no evidence ofm elting.
Insulation in inspection hole is flush w ith outside pin surface.
Acceptable - Class 1,2
Process Indicator - Class 3
Pin tip insulation has m elted flush to the surface ofcontact,
and contacthole is free ofinsulation obstruction.
Insulation in inspection hole is protruding beyond the pin
surface.D oes notpreventcontactm ating.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Insulation has m elted beyond the outside surface ofcontact,
and contacthole is obstructed (notshow n).
Insulation in inspection hole is protruding beyond the pin
surface.Prevents contactm ating.
Figure 13-17
Figure 13-18
Figure 13-19
13 Coaxial and Twinaxial Cable Assemblies
13.3.2 Solder Ferrule Pins Insulation
13-10 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
W ire is positioned and centered betw een the fourconnector
leads.
Shield w eave pattern is intact.
Solderfilletis evidentbetw een shield and connector.
Sleeve com pletely covers shield.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
W ire is positioned 0.75 m m [0.03 in]or less from center of
the fourconnectorleads.
Solderfilletis evidentbetw een shield and connector.
Shield w eave pattern is slightly disturbed.
Figure 13-20
Figure 13-21
13 Coaxial and Twinaxial Cable Assemblies
13.4 Coaxial Connector Printed Wire Board Mount
13-11 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Acceptable - Class 1
Process Indicator - Class 2
Defect - Class 3
Shield extends beyond sleeving (A).
Shield is piercing sleeving (B ).
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Solderfilletis notevidentbetw een shield and connector.
W ire is positioned greater than 0.75 m m [0.03 in]from the
center(C )ofthe fourconnectorleads.
Target - Class 1,2,3
C enter conductor is flush w ith edge ofthe slotted term inal.
End ofdielectric is flush w ith inside ofconnector cavity (not
show n).
Figure 13-22
Figure 13-23
13 Coaxial and Twinaxial Cable Assemblies
13.4 Coaxial Connector Printed Wire Board Mount (cont.)
13-12 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
13.5 Coaxial Connector Center
Conductor Length Right Angle Connector
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
C enter conductor extends beyond the edge of the slotted
term inalno greaterthan one centerconductordiam eter.
C enterconductordoes notcontactconnectorhousing.
D ielectric extends into connector cavity. Air gap is m ain-
tained betw een slotted term inaland dielectric.
Acceptable - Class 1
Process Indicator - Class 2
Defect - Class 3
C enterconductoris notflush,orvisible beyond the edge of
the slotted term inal.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
C enter conductor extends beyond the edge of the slotted
term inalgreaterthan one centerconductordiam eter.
C enterconductorcontacts connectorhousing.
Acceptable - Class 1
Process Indicator - Class 2,3
D ielectric extends into connector cavity and touches the
slotted term inal.
Figure 13-24
Figure 13-25
Figure 13-26
13 Coaxial and Twinaxial Cable Assemblies
13.5 Coaxial Connector Center Conductor
Length Right Angle Connector (cont.)
13-13 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
C ontinuous solderfilletbetw een connectorbody and cover.
Acceptable - Class 1
Solder fillet, although non-continuous, exists greater than
330 around connectorbody and cover.
Acceptable - Class 2,3
Filletis continuous betw een connectorbody and cover.
Figure 13-27
Figure 13-28
13 Coaxial and Twinaxial Cable Assemblies
13.6 Terminal Cover Soldering
13-14 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
Solderbuildup overentire cover,butdoes notinterfere w ith
subsequentassem bly steps.
Defect - Class 1
Solderfilletis non-continuous orless than 330 around con-
nectorbody and cover.
Defect - Class 2,3
Solderfilletis non-continuous orless than 360 around con-
nectorbody and cover.
Figure 13-29
Figure 13-30
13 Coaxial and Twinaxial Cable Assemblies
13.6 Terminal Cover Soldering (cont.)
13-15 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
B raid/shield evenly distributed around the ground ring.
Shield w ires are close to,but not in contact w ith,the outer
shoulderflange ofthe shield ground ring.
Shield ground w ires hold the shield ground ring in tightcon-
tactw ith the cable outerjacket.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
Shield w ires not uniform ly distributed around the ground
ring.
Shield w ires contact outer shoulder flange of the shield
ground ring but do not im pede assem bly ofthe connector.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Shield w ires do nothold the shield ground ring in tightcon-
tactw ith the cable outerjacket.
The connectorturns on the cable.
Figure 13-31
1. Braid
2. Ground Ring
Figure 13-32
13 Coaxial and Twinaxial Cable Assemblies
13.7 Shield Termination
13-16 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
13.7.1 Shield Termination Clamped Ground Rings
Target - Class 1,2,3
C rim p on ferrule located tightagainstconnectorbody.
Ferrule butted up tightto connectorbody.
C onnectorand/orferrule do notturn orm ove on cable after
crim ping.
Acceptable - Class 1
Ferrule notbutted up tightto connectorbody butgap is less
than 25% offerrule length.
Acceptable - Class 2,3
G ap betw een connector body and ferrule is less than 0.75
m m [0.030 in].
D istance betw een connectorbody and startofcrim p is less
than 0.75 m m [0.030 in].
Figure 13-33
Figure 13-34
13 Coaxial and Twinaxial Cable Assemblies
13.7.2 Shield Termination Crimped Ferrule
13-17 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Defect - Class 1,2,3
C rim p extends overthe cable.
D ouble crim ps on ferrule (Figure 13-36).
Ferrule and/orconnectorturns/m oves on cable aftercrim p-
ing.
G ap betw een ferrule and connector body is m ore than the
m axim um allow ed.
D istance betw een connector body and crim p is m ore than
the m axim um allow ed.
Ferrule show s dog earof excess m aterial(Figure 13-37
show s cross section exam ple ofdog ear).
Figure 13-35
Figure 13-36
Figure 13-37
1. Acceptable
2. Dog ear
13 Coaxial and Twinaxial Cable Assemblies
13.7.2 Shield Termination Crimped Ferrule (cont.)
13-18 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
The location ofthe centerconductors connectorcontactis criticalto m eeting the electricalsignals integrity requirem ents.In the
case of fixedcoaxialcable center conductor contacts, the position of the center contact is determ ined by the design of the
connector,and the assem bly process generally m inim ally affects the position ofthe center conductors contact.The position of
floatingcenterconductorcontacts is greatly affected by the assem bly,prim arily due to shield term ination and w ire preparation
cut/trim lengths.
Target - Class 1,2,3
C enterpin fully seated into housing ofconnector.
Pin heightis correct.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
C enterpin notfully seated into housing ofconnector.
C enterpin is bent.
Figure 13-38
Figure 13-39
13 Coaxial and Twinaxial Cable Assemblies
13.8 Center Pin Position
13-19 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
The acceptability ofsem irigid cable assem blies is greatly affected by three factors.
Application - B end radiiand deform ation ofa cable assem bly have a greaterorlessereffectdepending upon the frequency the
cable w illcarry.
Cleanliness - M ating surfaces,including test equipm ent m ust be free ofallforeign m aterial(i.e.,flux residue,m etallic or other
particles).
Tooling - Propertooling w illpreventcable deform ation and surface dam age.
The criterion thatfollow s w illestablish acceptance conditions forthe m ostcom m on applications.
Visualinspection ofthe cable cannot,in allcases determ ine its fitness foruse.W ith the exception ofobvious dam age orim proper
solderconnections,the correctfunction ofthe cable assem bly w illbe the determ ining factorofacceptance.
Target - Class 1,2,3
B end is uniform and has an inside radius greater than 3.5
tim es the cable diam eter.
D iam eter of cable is constant and does not deform in the
bend area.
N o evidence ofw rinkles.
Figure 13-40
13 Coaxial and Twinaxial Cable Assemblies
13.9 Semirigid Coax
13-20 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
13.9.1 Semirigid Coax Bending and Deformation
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
Inside bend radius is equal to or greater than the lim its
show n in Table 13-2.
N o obvious w rinkles.
Table 13-2
Nominal Cable Diameter Inside Bend Radius
0.141 in 2.5 m m [0.100 in]m in
0.086 in 1.25 m m [0.050 in]m in
0.047 in 1.25 m m [0.050 in]m in
Note: N om inalcable diam eters are industry-defined using only the Im perial
m easurem ents show n.
Acceptable - Class 1,2
Process Indicator - Class 3
D eform ation (eccentricity)ofthe cable is w ithin the lim its of
Table 13-3.
Table 13-3
Nominal Cable
Diameter
Cable Eccentricity Limits
in any Dimension
Maximum Minimum
0.141 in 0.151 in 0.131 in
0.086 in 0.092 in 0.080 in
0.047 in 0.051 in 0.043 in
Note: N om inalcable diam eters are industry-defined using only the Im perial
m easurem ents show n.
Figure 13-41
Figure 13-42
13 Coaxial and Twinaxial Cable Assemblies
13.9.1 Semirigid Coax Bending and Deformation (cont.)
13-21 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Defect - Class 1,2,3
C able bend is distorted and notuniform .
M inim um bend radius is less than the lim its ofTable 13-2.
D eform ation (out-of-round) is beyond the lim its of Table
13-3.
C able jackethas obvious w rinkles.
Figure 13-43
13 Coaxial and Twinaxial Cable Assemblies
13.9.1 Semirigid Coax Bending and Deformation (cont.)
13-22 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
O utside surface ofthe cable is sm ooth.
N o toolm arks,scratches orabrasions.
Acceptable - Class 1,2
Process Indicator - Class 3
O utside surface of the cable has m inor tooling m arks,
scratches orabrasions.
B ase m etal(copper)is notexposed.
Acceptable - Class 1
Defect - Class 2,3
C able has deep toolm arks,scratches orabrasions.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
B ase m etal(copper)is exposed.
Figure 13-44
Figure 13-45
Figure 13-46
13 Coaxial and Twinaxial Cable Assemblies
13.9.2 Semirigid Coax Surface Condition
13-23 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
D ielectric is flush w ith connectorface.
N o airgap betw een dielectric and cable shield.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
D ielectric is flush w ith connectorface.
C enter conductor is perpendicular to dielectric/connector
face.
Acceptable - Class 1
Process Indicator - Class 2
Defect - Class 3
D ielectric is below flush w ith connectorface.
Figure 13-47
Figure 13-48
Figure 13-49
13 Coaxial and Twinaxial Cable Assemblies
13.9.3 Semirigid Coax Dielectric Cutoff
13-24 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
Shield rollover is m inim al. D istance from the edge of the
centerconductor(A)to the shield is equalto,orgreaterthan
the values in Table 13-4.
Table 13-4
Nominal Cable Diameter
Minimum Distance - Edge of
Center Conductor to Shield
0.141 in 0.75 m m [0.03 in]
0.086 in 0.50 m m [0.02 in]
0.047 in 0.25 m m [0.01 in]
Note: N om inalcable diam eters are industry-defined using only the Im perial
m easurem ents show n.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Airgap betw een dielectric and cable shield.
Figure 13-50
Figure 13-51
Figure 13-52
13 Coaxial and Twinaxial Cable Assemblies
13.9.3 Semirigid Coax Dielectric Cutoff (cont.)
13-25 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Defect - Class 1,2,3
D ielectric protrudes above connectorface.
C enterconductoris bent.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Shield rollover reduces the distance from the edge of the
center conductor to the shield less than the lim its ofTable
13-4.
Figure 13-53
Figure 13-54
13 Coaxial and Twinaxial Cable Assemblies
13.9.3 Semirigid Coax Dielectric Cutoff (cont.)
13-26 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
D ielectric m aterialhas no foreign particles (m etallic or non-
m etallic)em bedded in oron its surface.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
D ielectric m aterialis contam inated w ith foreign particles.
Figure 13-55
Figure 13-56
13 Coaxial and Twinaxial Cable Assemblies
13.9.4 Semirigid Coax Dielectric Cleanliness
13-27 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
Solderfillet100% around the connectorbody and cable.
N o solderoutside jointregion.
N o residue w hen connection is required to be clean.
N o voids orseparation betw een connectorbody and cable.
N o solderon connectorbody.
Shield inserted in connectorbody.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
Solderfilm /build-up on connectorbody butw illnotinterfere
w ith subsequentassem bly steps.
Acceptable - Class 1
Defect - Class 2,3
Insufficientsolder.
Solderfilletgreaterthan 270 butless than 360.
Solderfillethas voids oris dew etted (notshow n).
Figure 13-57
Figure 13-58
Figure 13-59
13 Coaxial and Twinaxial Cable Assemblies
13.9.5 Semirigid Coax Solder
13-28 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Defect - Class 1
Solderfilletis less than 270.
Defect - Class 2,3
Solderfilletis less than 360.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Voids orareas ofm issing solder.
Excess solderonto cable orconnectorim pedes subsequent
assem bly operations.
R esidue w hen connection is required to be clean.
Evidence ofdew etting.
Solder buildup on connector body that interferes w ith sub-
sequentassem bly steps.
Solderis nonw etted ordew etted.
Shield strand is not contained in connector barrel (not
show n).
Figure 13-60
Figure 13-61
Figure 13-62
13 Coaxial and Twinaxial Cable Assemblies
13.9.5 Semirigid Coax Solder (cont.)
13-29 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
Sw age ferrule is com pressed into the connectorbody.
G ap betw een ferrule shoulderand nutface does notexceed
0.5 m m [0.02 in].
Defect - Class 1,2,3
G ap betw een ferrule shoulderand nutface exceeds 0.5 m m
[0.02 in].
Sw age ferrule is notcom pressed into connectorbody.
Figure 13-63
Figure 13-64
13 Coaxial and Twinaxial Cable Assemblies
13.10 Swage-Type Connector
13-30 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Figure 13-65 show s the parts ofthis connector.Alladjacentparts need to contacteach otherto insure the stability ofconnector.
This criteria applies to both m ale and fem ale connectors.
Target - Class 1,2,3
C one is undershield and jacket.Shield is flush w ith edge of
cone (A).
Tip conductorinsulation is extended m ore than 50% ofw in-
dow length in (notched insert),and there is no exposed w ire
show ing (B ).
Solderon the soldersection oftip is flush to slightly concave
(C ).
Note: C om plete connectorassem bly notshow n.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7 8
Figure 13-65
1. Tip
2. Cone
3. Shield
4. Nut
5. Jacket
6. Dielectric
7. Conductors
8. Ring
Figure 13-66
13 Coaxial and Twinaxial Cable Assemblies
13.11 Soldering and Stripping of Biaxial or
Twinaxial Wire Low Temperature Insulation
13-31 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
13.11.1 Soldering and Stripping of Biaxial or Twinaxial Wire
Low Temperature Insulation Jacket and Tip Installation
Acceptable - Class 1
Process Indicator - Class 2,3
Shield and jacketextends over m ore than 50% ofcone (A).
Tip conductor exposed w ire is less than 50% of w indow
length (notched insert)(B ).
A thin film of solder is on the outside solder section of tip
surface. (Solder film is not allow ed on contact m ating sur-
face.)
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Jacketextends less than 50% overcone as required secur-
ing nut(A).
Insulation on both conductors is less than 50% of notch
insertw indow (B ).
Solderbuildup on soldersection oftip (C ).
Solder film on the m ating end of tip (D ). (Solder film is not
allow ed on m ating surface oftip.)
Figure 13-67
Figure 13-68
13 Coaxial and Twinaxial Cable Assemblies
13.11.1 Soldering and Stripping of Biaxial or Twinaxial Wire
Low Temperature Insulation Jacket and Tip Installation (cont.)
13-32 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
W ire, Insulation, or solder does not extend above ring pro-
file.
Acceptable - Class 1,2
Process Indicator - Class 3
The ring (A)has a thin film ofsolder on the outside surface.
Solderfilm is noton m ating surface (B ).
Defect - Class 1,2,3
W ire,insulation,orsolderextends above ring profile.
Solderon m ating surface.
Figure 13-69
Figure 13-70
Figure 13-71
13 Coaxial and Twinaxial Cable Assemblies
13.11.2 Soldering and Stripping of Biaxial or Twinaxial
Wire Low Temperature Insulation Ring Installation
13-33 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
This Page Intentionally LeftB lank
13 Coaxial and Twinaxial Cable Assemblies
13-34 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
The follow ing topics are addressed in this section:
14.1 Tie Wrap/ Lacing Application
14.1.1 Tightness
14.1.2 D am age
14.1.3 Spacing
14.2 Breakouts
14.2.1 IndividualW ires
14.2.2 Spacing
14.3 Wire Bundles
14.3.1 W ire C rossover
14.3.2 C oaxialC able R outing
14.3.3 U nused W ire Term ination
14.3.4 Ties overSplices and Ferrules
14 Wire Bundle Securing
Wire Bundle Securing
14-1 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Figures 14-1,14-2 and 14-3 are provided as guidance for applying lacing.The ends start and finish w ith clove-hitches that are
secured w ith square knots.Figure 14-1 also show s running lock stitches.Figure 14-3 is an exam ple ofa surgeons knot.
Note: D o notsubjectw ax im pregnated lacing tape to cleaning solvents.
Figure 14-1
Figure 14-2
Figure 14-3
14 Wire Bundle Securing
14.1 Tie Wrap/ Lacing Application
14-2 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
The first and last stitch of continuous lacing is tied w ith a
clove hitch and secured w ith a square knot,surgeons knot,
orotherapproved knot(1).
C ontinuous lacing is done w ith lock stitches (2).
C ontinuous lacing utilizes a double lock stitch before and
aftereach breakoutoffourorm ore w ires (3).
C ontinuous branch lacing is started on the trunk.
Lacing is trim m ed 10 m m [0.40 in]afterthe knot(4).
R estraining devices are locking.(They should rem ain secure
forthe expected service life ofthe product.)
C utend oftie w rap is square and flush to the face ofthe tie
w rap.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
The end of the tie w rap is cut off not greater than one tie
w rap thickness and is reasonably square to the face ofthe
tie w rap.
Acceptable - Class 1
Process Indicator - Class 2
Defect - Class 3
C utend protrusion (1)greaterthan tie w rap thickness.
Figure 14-4
Figure 14-5
14 Wire Bundle Securing
14.1 Tie Wrap/ Lacing Application (cont.)
14-3 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
C able lacing begins and ends w ith a locking knot.
Lacing is tightand w ires are keptsecure in a neatbundle.
Acceptable - Class 2,3
C ontinuous lacing m ay utilize a single lock stitch on a
branch aftera double lock stitch.
Defect - Class 1
Square knot, surgeons knot, or other approved knot not
used w here required (1).
Defect - Class 2,3
Lock stitches notused.
D ouble lock stitch notused w here required.
B ranch lacing notstarted on trunk.
Excess lacing trim m ed either too close to knot (less than 6
m m [0.25 in])(2),or too far from knot (greater than 25 m m
[1.0 in])(3).
Figure 14-6
Figure 14-7
Figure 14-8
14 Wire Bundle Securing
14.1 Tie Wrap/ Lacing Application (cont.)
14-4 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Lacing or spot tie is loose, leaving w ires loose in the w ire
bundle (1).
Lacing orspottie is too tight,cutting into insulation (2).
C ontinuous lacing does notuse lock knots.
W ires not constrained securely and uniform ly or are bird-
caged.
C able tied w ith a bow knotorothernon-locking knot.This tie
m ay eventually loosen.
Figure 14-9
Figure 14-10
14 Wire Bundle Securing
14.1 Tie Wrap/ Lacing Application (cont.)
14-5 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
R estraining devices do notm ove.
R estraining devices do not cause noticeable indentation or
distortion ofthe w ires ofthe assem bly.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
B undle is distorted by the restraining devices.
Insulation is com pressed or dam aged by the restraining
device.
C ontinuous lacing does notem ploy lock stitches.
Tie w raps are inverted ornotlocked.
R estraining devices m ove.
Figure 14-11
Figure 14-12
14 Wire Bundle Securing
14.1.1 Tie Wrap/ Lacing Application Tightness
14-6 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
R estraining devices are notw orn,frayed,nicked,or broken
in any location.
R estraining devices do nothave sharp edges thatm ay be a
hazard to personnelorequipm ent.
Acceptable - Class 1,2
Defect - Class 3
R estraining devices exhibit m inor fraying, nicks, or w ear of
less than 25% ofthe device thickness.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
D am age orw earto restraining device (1).
Sharp edges that are a hazard to personnelor equipm ent
(2).
B roken lacing ends are nottied offusing a square knot,sur-
geons knot,orotherapproved knot(3).
Figure 14-13
Figure 14-14
14 Wire Bundle Securing
14.1.2 Tie Wrap/ Lacing Application Damage
14-7 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
Spacing (S) of restraining devices from the rearm ost con-
nector accessory or betw een each other is three diam eters
ofthe w ire bundle or10 cm [4 in]w hicheveris less.
Spacing ofrestraining devices is uniform .
Acceptable - Class 1
Process Indicator - Class 2,3
R estraining devices are irregularly spaced.
Acceptable - Class 2,3
Spacing ofrestraining devices is not greater than four w ire
bundle diam eters or13 cm [5 in],w hicheveris less.
Defect - Class 1
Spacing ofrestraining devices is so large that the shape of
the w ire bundle is notm aintained.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
W ire bundles show evidence ofbirdcaging.
Defect - Class 2,3
Spacing of restraining devices is greater than four w ire
bundle diam eters or10 cm [4 in],w hicheveris less.
Figure 14-15
14 Wire Bundle Securing
14.1.3 Tie Wrap/ Lacing Application Spacing
14-8 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
A restraining device is used priorto each breakout.
Ifcontinuous lacing is used,the firstw ire breakoutin a series
is double lock stitched (notshow n).
A double lock stitch is used before and after any breakout
offourorm ore w ires.
Figure 14-16
14 Wire Bundle Securing
14.2 Breakouts
14-9 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
14.2.1 Breakouts Individual Wires
Defect - Class 2,3
Spottie ortie w rap notused priorto w ire breakout(1).
Spottie ortie w rap notused priorto breakoutofup to three
w ires in close proxim ity.
D ouble lock stitch notused before and afterbreakoutoffour
orm ore w ires w hen continuous lacing is used.
Target - Class 1,2,3
R estraining device is used im m ediately before and after
each branch.
The closest restraint on any branch of a breakout is tw o
diam eters (D )ofthatbundle or1.25 cm [0.5 in]w hicheveris
greater.
Figure 14-17
Figure 14-18
14 Wire Bundle Securing
14.2.1 Breakouts Individual Wires (cont.)
14-10 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
14.2.2 Breakouts Spacing
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
R estraining devices are placed before and after allbreak-
outs.
Spacing of first restraint from the breakout is three diam -
eters ofthe w ire bundle or10 cm [4 in]w hicheveris less.
Note: Figures 14-19 through 14-25 provide exam ples oftypi-
cally acceptable restraining configurations.
Figure 14-19
Figure 14-20
Figure 14-21
Figure 14-23
1. Single lock stitch
2. Double lock stitch
Figure 14-25 Figure 14-24
Figure 14-22
14 Wire Bundle Securing
14.2.2 Breakouts Spacing (cont.)
14-11 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Acceptable - Class 1
Process Indicator - Class 2
Defect - Class 3
Spacing of first restraint from the breakout is m ore than
three diam eters ofthe w ire bundle or10 cm [4 in]w hichever
is less.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
R estraining device notused ateach branch (1).
R estraining device located too farfrom junction (2).
R estraining device im parts stress on any w ires in the bundle
by deform ing the radius (3).
Figure 14-27
Figure 14-26
14 Wire Bundle Securing
14.2.2 Breakouts Spacing (cont.)
14-12 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
W ire lay is essentially parallelto the axis ofthe bundle w ith
no crossover.
Spotties ortie straps around the bundle are tightbutnotto
the pointofcutting orperm anently dam aging w ire insulation.
Spot ties or tie straps are spaced evenly and at an incre-
m entthatw illm aintain the bundles rigidity and desired form .
Acceptable - Class 1
Process Indicator - Class 2
Defect - Class 3
W ires tw istand crossover,butbundle is essentially uniform .
W ires are notkinked sharply noris w ire insulation dam aged
atcross overortie points.
Defect - Class 2,3
B undle has lostuniform ity.
Figure 14-28
Figure 14-29
Figure 14-30
14 Wire Bundle Securing
14.3 Wire Bundles
14-13 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
14.3.1 Wire Bundles Wire Crossover
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
Inside bend radiiforcoaxialcable is equalto orgreaterthan
five tim es the coax cable diam eter(including insulation).
Defect - Class 1,2,3
C oaxialcable inside bend radius is less that five tim es the
coax cable diam eter(including insulation).
Figure 14-31
Figure 14-32
14 Wire Bundle Securing
14.3.2 Wire Bundles Coaxial Cable Routing
14-14 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
Ends ofunused w ires are covered w ith shrink sleeving.
W ire is folded back inside the sleeving.
Sleeving covers end ofw ire.
U nused w ire is tied into the w ire bundle.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
Ends ofunused w ires are covered w ith shrink sleeving.
W ire m ay extend straight dow n length of bundle w ithout
foldback (see Figure 14-34).
Sleeving extends atleasttw o w ire diam eters beyond end of
w ire.
Sleeving extends on to the w ire insulation for a m inim um of
four w ire diam eters or 6 m m [0.25 in],w hichever is greater.
U nused w ire is tied into the w ire bundle.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Ends ofunused w ires are exposed.
U nused w ire is nottied into the w ire bundle.
Acceptable - Class 1
Process Indicator - Class 2
Defect - Class 3
Insulating sleeving extends beyond end ofw ire less than tw o
w ire diam eters and end ofw ire is notexposed.
Insulating sleeving extends onto w ire insulation less than
four w ire diam eters or 6 m m [0.25 in]w hichever is greater.
Figure 14-33
Figure 14-34
Figure 14-35
14 Wire Bundle Securing
14.3.3 Wire Bundles Unused Wire Termination
14-15 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
Spotties orstraps are placed overornearsplices contained
in the w ire bundle.
N o stress on w ires exiting splices.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
Spot ties or straps are placed over or near solder ferrules
contained in the w ire bundle.
N o stress on w ires exiting splices.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Spot tie or strap is placing stress on the w ire(s)exiting the
splice.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Spot tie or strap is placing stress on the w ire(s)exiting the
ferrule.
Figure 14-36
Figure 14-37
Figure 14-38
Figure 14-39
14 Wire Bundle Securing
14.3.4 Wire Bundles Ties over Splices and Ferrules
14-16 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
The follow ing topics are addressed in this section:
15.1 Braided
15.1.1 D irectApplied
15.1.2 Pre-W oven
15.2 Shield Termination
15.2.1 Pick O ff
15.2.2 N o Pick O ff
15.2.3 Low Tem perature Insulated W ire - W ith Pick O ff
15.3 Shield Termination - Shrink and Crimp
15.4 Shield Termination - Splicing
15.5 Tapes - Barrier and Conductive, Adhesive or
Non-Adhesive
15.6 Conduit (Shielding)
15.7 Conductive Coating
15.8 Shrink Tubing - Conductive Lined
15 Harness/ Cable Electrical Shielding
Shielding
15-1 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
M etalbraid shielding can eitherbe w oven directly overa core orobtained in prefabricated form and installed by sliding itoverthe
w ire bundle.Allbreakouts need to be properly secured prior to applying the braid.Figure 15-1 show s using tape to provide the
breakouts.Lacing orcable ties m ay also be used,see 14 Securing/H arnessing.
To preventpotentialdam age,(e.g.,cold flow orshorting to)ofthe underlying w ire,a separatorsuch as the tape show n in Figure
15-2 needs to be applied overthe w ire bundle.
D irectly applied braid is to be back braided to lock w eave.Pre-w oven braids are to be secured atthe ends by cable straps,spot
ties,clam ps (backshelltype),ora potting m aterial.W hen using cable straps orspotties,fold the braid overitself,secure,and cover
the end w ith heatshrink tubing or tape.D epending on finalusage,pre-w oven m etallic braid m ay need to be cleaned to rem ove
contam ination priorto installation overthe harness.
Figure 15-1 Figure 15-2
15 Harness/ Cable Electrical Shielding
15.1 Braided
15-2 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
B raid coverage m eets draw ing requirem ents.
B raiding is not so tight as to causes indention or distortion
to the w ires ofthe assem bly.
B raid is free ofloops.
Allloose strands are trim m ed flush and term inated w ith sol-
derortape.
N o fraying orunraveling ofbraid ends.
N o visible w ire orshield braid through the fabric braid.
B raid strands sm ooth and evenly placed.
38 m m [1.5 in]overlap of m aterialat branches and break-
outs.
B ack braid lock stitch is a m inim um of13 m m [0.5 inch].
Defect - Class 2
B raiding atbreakouts and branches does notoverlap.
Defect - Class 2,3
B raid strands bunched (excess overlap).
B raid coverage does notm eetdraw ing requirem ents.
W ire orshield braid visible through braid.
Defect - Class 3
B raiding overlap less than 13 m m [0.5 in]at breakouts and
branches.
Figure 15-3
15 Harness/ Cable Electrical Shielding
15.1.1 Braided Direct Applied
15-3 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Defect - Class 1,2,3
B raid has loops.
Ends notsecured,frayed orunraveling.
Tears and/orcuts ofbraiding.
B roken/end strands nottrim m ed.
Target - Class 1,2,3
B raid is sm ooth w ith firm contactagainstthe w ires.
Free ofballooning orbunching.
Ends secured w ith no fraying orunraveling.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Ends notsecured.
Tears and/orcuts ofbraiding.
Defect - Class 2,3
Ends frayed orunraveling.
Loose ends protruding from potting orshrink sleeving.
Defect - Class 3
B raid ballooned orbunched.
Figure 15-4
Figure 15-5
15 Harness/ Cable Electrical Shielding
15.1.1 Braided Direct Applied (cont.)
15-4 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
15.1.2 Braided Pre-Woven
Shield should term inate as close as possible to innerconductorterm ination point.Term inations m ade w ith self-sealing heatshrink-
able devices shall be exem pt from the cleaning requirem ents. Solder ferrules, including those supplied w ith an integralpick off
w ire,can be changed one size up ordow n to achieve correctfit.
Target - Class 1,2,3
The solder preform (ring) is m elted and a fillet is visible
betw een shield and pick off.Shield and pick offlead contour
is tinned and discernible (A).
Shield and pick offstrip length are the sam e length and are
lined up (B ).
M eltable sealing rings have flow ed.
Sleeve and w ire insulation show s no discoloration due to
excessive heat.
Shield w eave pattern is intact.
Figure 15-6
Figure 15-7
1. Sleeve removed for clarity.
15 Harness/ Cable Electrical Shielding
15.2 Shield Termination
15-5 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
15.2.1 Shield Termination Pick Off
Target - Class 1,2,3
Solder ferrules used in a daisy chain application are stag-
gered w ithin the specified lim its from the end ofthe w ire (to
m inim ize buildup).
Note: Ferrules/splices m ay be located under clam ps as long
as protection is provided under the clam p,i.e.,tape/sleeving
orgrom m et.
Target - Class 1,2,3
Shield used as a pick off,shield w eave pattern is intact.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
Solderfillethas form ed betw een the shield and pick off(see
4.8).
Shield and pick offlead is discernible.
Figure 15-8
Figure 15-9
Figure 15-10
Figure 15-11
1. Sleeve removed for clarity.
15 Harness/ Cable Electrical Shielding
15.2.1 Shield Termination Pick Off (cont.)
15-6 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
Strip length on braid and pick off does not exceed 6 m m
[0.25 in]and is greaterthan 4 m m [0.15 in].
P lastic sleeve is slightly discolored but not burned or
charred.
Shield w eave pattern is disturbed but a sm ooth concave
solderfilletis visible.
M inim um solder fillet has form ed betw een shield and pick
off.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
Solderferrules are staggered w ithin the specified lim its from
end of w ire. (Som e ferrules are not staggered as m uch as
targetcondition.)
Figure 15-12
Figure 15-13
1. Sleeve removed for clarity.
Figure 15-14
15 Harness/ Cable Electrical Shielding
15.2.1 Shield Termination Pick Off (cont.)
15-7 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
S hield used as a pick off, shield is com bed out and
re-tw isted.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
M eltable sealing ring has flow ed overthe outside ofthe sol-
derfilletbutis notaffecting the solderfillet.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Pick offis notaligned w ith the stripped portion ofthe shield.
Solder fillet betw een pick off and shield does not m eet
requirem ents (see 4.8).
Figure 15-15
Figure 15-16

Figure 15-17
Figure 15-18
1. Sleeve removed for clarity.
15 Harness/ Cable Electrical Shielding
15.2.1 Shield Termination Pick Off (cont.)
15-8 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Pick offw ire extends beyond stripped surface ofshield pre-
venting w ire from contacting shield (A).
Pick offlead has pierced the ferrule sleeve (B ).
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Shield strand is protruding from end offerrule (A).
Shield strand has pierced the sleeving (B ).
Figure 15-19
Figure 15-20
1. Sleeve removed for clarity.
Figure 15-21
15 Harness/ Cable Electrical Shielding
15.2.1 Shield Termination Pick Off (cont.)
15-9 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Insufficientsolderflow ,contourofsolderpreform is discern-
ible.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Plastic sleeve burned/charred,obscuring the solderconnec-
tion.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Ferrule is not properly positioned on the shield and bare
shield is exposed.
Figure 15-22
Figure 15-23
1. Sleeve removed for clarity.
Figure 15-24
Figure 15-25
15 Harness/ Cable Electrical Shielding
15.2.1 Shield Termination Pick Off (cont.)
15-10 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
W hen the braid is notterm inated itshall be covered w ith heatshrink sleeving.
Target - Class 1,2,3
Exposed shield is less than 3 m m [0.12 in]in length (A).
Sleeving overlaps 6 m m [0.25 in]beyond the exposed shield
in each direction (B ).
Loose strands are notevidentunderthe sleeving.
N o discoloration on sleeving orw ire insulation.
Target - Class 1,2,3
Shield term inations are staggered w ithin the specified lim its
from end ofw ire.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
Exposed shield is equalto orless than 3 m m [0.12 in].
Sleeving or w ire insulation m ay be discolored but m ay not
be burned orcharred.
Figure 15-26
Figure 15-27
Figure 15-28
15 Harness/ Cable Electrical Shielding
15.2.2 Shield Termination No Pick Off
15-11 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Sleeving pierced by w ire strand (notshow n).
Process Indicator - Class 1,2,3
Stripped shield length exceeds 3 m m [0.12 in].
Acceptable - Class 1
Defect - Class 2,3
Sleeving overlap is less than 6 m m [0.25 in].
Sleeve orw ire insulation is burned orcharred.
Any splitin sleeving (notshow n).
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Sleeving is loose.
Figure 15-29
Figure 15-30
Figure 15-31
15 Harness/ Cable Electrical Shielding
15.2.2 Shield Termination No Pick Off (cont.)
15-12 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
Sm ooth, concave solder fillet betw een shield and pick off,
Shield and pick offlead is tinned and is discernible.
Flux residue from cleanable flux has been rem oved prior to
shrinking ofthe sleeving.
Sleeve and w ire insulation show s no discoloration or m elt-
ing.
Shield w eave pattern is intact.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
Sufficient solder fillet has form ed betw een the shield and
pickofflead,solderjointindicates m inim um flow (A).
Strip length on shield and pick off does not exceed 6 m m
[0.25 in]and is greaterthan 4 m m [0.15 in](B ).
Plastic sleeve is slightly discolored butnotcharred.
Shield w eave pattern is disturbed buta properly w etted sol-
derfilletis visible.
Figure 15-32
Figure 15-33
15 Harness/ Cable Electrical Shielding
15.2.3 Shield Termination Low temperature
Insulated Wire With Pick Off
15-13 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Insulation is m elted on the innerconductors.
Im properly w etted solderfillet(notshow n).
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Insulation is m elted on the outerjacket.
Acceptable - Class 1
Defect - Class 2,3
Any splitin sleeving.
Figure 15-34
Figure 15-35
Figure 15-36
15 Harness/ Cable Electrical Shielding
15.2.3 Shield Termination Low temperature
Insulated Wire With Pick Off (cont.)
15-14 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
Shrinkable ring is shrunk (A). N o m ovem ent of the ring or
shield is evident.(R ing has lostits originalcolor.)
Shield is visible betw een shrinkable ring and the backshell
(B ).
Shield is approxim ately 3 m m [0.12 in]from backshell(C ).
Shield w eave pattern is intact.
Target - Class 1,2,3
B and is w rapped around the shield tw ice and clinched (A).
N o m ovem entofthe ring orshield is evident.
Sharp edges of the band cut off area have been rem oved
(B )orcovered w ith epoxy.
Shield is approxim ately 3 m m [0.12 in]from backshell(C ).
Shield is visible betw een band and the backshell(D ).
Shield w eave pattern is intact.
Figure 15-37
Figure 15-38
15 Harness/ Cable Electrical Shielding
15.3 Shield Termination Shrink and Crimp
15-15 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
Shrinkable ring is shrunk (A). N o m ovem ent of the ring or
shield is evident.(R ing has lostits originalcolor).
Shield is visible betw een shrinkable ring and the backshell
(B ).
Shield w eave pattern is disturbed (notshow n).
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
Shield is against backshelland is visible betw een backshell
and ring.
Figure 15-39
Figure 15-40
15 Harness/ Cable Electrical Shielding
15.3 Shield Termination Shrink and Crimp (cont.)
15-16 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
Shield w eave pattern is disturbed;gaps in w eave pattern are
present(A).
Shield is visible betw een ring and the backshell(B ).
C rim p ring is crim ped.N o m ovem entofthe ring orshield is
evident.
Shield strands not contained prior to the crim p ring are
trim m ed and do notexceed 10% oftotalstrands.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
C rim p ring extends greater than 10% of the crim p ring
length beyond backshell.
Figure 15-41
Figure 15-42
15 Harness/ Cable Electrical Shielding
15.3 Shield Termination Shrink and Crimp (cont.)
15-17 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Shield is not visible betw een shrinkable ring and backshell.
Shrinkable ring is not shrunk, m ovem ent of the ring and
shield is evident.(R ing has retained its originalcolor.)
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Shield extends beyond backshellcrim p area (A).
Sharp edges are presentin the band cutoffarea (B ).
Shield strands not contained w ithin crim p ring have not
been trim m ed (C ).
B and is notw rapped around backshelltw o tim es.
Figure 15-43
Figure 15-44
15 Harness/ Cable Electrical Shielding
15.3 Shield Termination Shrink and Crimp (cont.)
15-18 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Defect - Class 1,2,3
B ackshellis dam aged (A).
Shield is notvisible atedge ofcrim p ring (B ).
Target - Class 1,2,3
Tack solderis attaching allbreakouts (arrow s).
The spliced area is flexible.
Shield overlap is tw o tim es the diam eter ofthe large (com -
bined)w ire bundle.
Shield w eave pattern is undisturbed.
Figure 15-45
Figure 15-46
15 Harness/ Cable Electrical Shielding
15.3 Shield Termination Shrink and Crimp (cont.)
15-19 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
15.4 Shield Termination Splicing
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
Tack solder is attaching allbreakouts w ith sufficient solder
flow .
Shield overlap is from one to three tim es the diam eterofthe
large (com bined)w ire bundle.
Process Indicator - Class 1,2,3
A solderfilletis presentaround the entire shield overlap area
(arrow ).
Shield overlap area is stillflexible.
Shield w eave pattern is disturbed.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Tack solderhas notflow ed to innershields (arrow s).
Shield overlap is less than one tim es the diam eter of the
large (com bined)w ire bundle (notshow n).
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Solder flow in the shield overlap area is excessive w ith no
flexibility.
Figure 15-47
Figure 15-48
Figure 15-49
Figure 15-50
15 Harness/ Cable Electrical Shielding
15.4 Shield Termination Splicing (cont.)
15-20 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
50% overlap oftape.
C onform s to bundle.
Tape ends secured.
Acceptable
M eets requirem ents ofTable 15-1.
Table 15-1 Tape Overlap
Minimum Tape Overlap
Class 1 Class 2,3
25% oftape w idth 50% oftape w idth
Process Indicator - Class 1,2,3
Tape does notconform to bundle.
Tape overlap notin conform ance w ith Table 15-1.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Tape loose orunraveling.
Ends notsecure.
Figure 15-51
Figure 15-52
15 Harness/ Cable Electrical Shielding
15.5 Tapes Barrier and Conductive, Adhesive or Non-Adhesive
15-21 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
(N otillustrated.)
Target - Class 1,2,3
C onduitis free ofdents,kinks orcracks.
N o sharp edges orburrs atconduitends.
Ifconduitis plated no base m etalexposed.
Acceptable - Class 1
C racks thatdo notexpose w ire bundle.
Acceptable - Class 2
D ents that do not com press or restrict passage of w ire
bundle.
Defect - Class 2,3
Any cracks.
Exposed base m etalw hen plating is required.
Any kinks.
Sharp edges orburrs atconduitends.
Defect - Class 3
Any dents ordeform ation.
15 Harness/ Cable Electrical Shielding
15.6 Conduit (Shielding)
15-22 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
(N otillustrated.)
Target - Class 1,2,3
C onductive coating show s no loss of adhesion from the
base m aterial.
C oating is free ofvoids,bubbles,blisters,peeling orflaking.
C oating does notcontain foreign m aterial.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Any foreign m aterialin coating.
Any void,bubbles,blisters,adhesion loss,peeling orflaking.
C oating has notbeen applied to required areas.
C oating on areas required to be free ofcoating.
15 Harness/ Cable Electrical Shielding
15.7 Conductive Coating
15-23 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
(N otillustrated.)
Target - Class 1,2,3
Tubing is tighton cable and connector/cable accessories.
N o cracks ortears.
N o overlapping oftubing.
M ultiple pieces electrically connected.
Acceptable - Class 1
Tubing tight on connector/cable accessories, but not tight
on cable.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Tubing nottighton connector/cable accessory.
C racks ortears in the tubing.
M ultiple pieces notelectrically connected.
Defect - Class 3
Tubing is nottighton cable.
15 Harness/ Cable Electrical Shielding
15.8 Shrink Tubing Conductive Lined
15-24 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Protective coverings can take several form s and they m ay
com pletely cover a cable harness or only selected portions.
The prim ary purpose is abrasion resistance to protectinternal
w ires.Ifw oven,they can eitherbe w oven directly overa core
or obtained in prefabricated form and installed by sliding it
over the w ire bundle. O ther types of protective covering
include heatshrink tubing,extruded jacket,spiralw rap sleev-
ing,and taping.
The follow ing topics are addressed in this section:
16.1 Braid
16.1.1 D irectApplied
16.1.2 Pre-W oven
16.2 Taping
16.3 Sleeving
16.3.1 Shrink Tubing
16.4 Spiral Plastic Wrap (Spiral Wrap Sleeving)
16.5 Conduit (Containment)
Figure 16-1
16 Cable/ Wire Harness Protective Coverings
Cable/ Wire Harness Protective Coverings
16-1 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Fabric braids w oven directly on interconnecting harnesses or cables m ay be loose or tight,as necessary to produce the degree
offlexibility required.The braid shall be sm ooth and shall be free ofgaps through w hich w ires can be seen.N o frayed ends shall
be visible. Allpigtails shall be secured. B raids applied tightly shall not term inate so close to connectors that they stress w ires
attached to soldercups oropen connectorsealing grom m ets.Spotties,plastics straps,lacing and othertem porary holding m eans
shall be rem oved from w ire bundles priorto braid application.Flattapes m ay be leftunderbraid ifthe tape has a low profile.
Target - Class 1,2,3
B raiding is notso tightas to cause indention ordistortion to
the w ires ofthe assem bly.
N o fraying orunraveling ofbraid ends.
B raid strands sm ooth and evenly placed.
1
1
2 inch overlap ofm aterialatbranches and breakouts.
B ack braid lock stitch is a m inim um of13 m m [0.5 in].
Figure 16-2
Figure 16-3
16 Cable/ Wire Harness Protective Coverings
16.1 Braid
16-2 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
16.1.1 Braid Direct Applied
Acceptable - Class 2,3
Sm allopening in overbraid but no visible w ire through the
fabric braid.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Ends notsecured.
Tears and/orcuts ofbraiding.
B roken/end strands nottrim m ed.
Defect - Class 2,3
Ends notsecured,frayed orunraveling.
Defect - Class 2
B raiding atbreakouts and branches does notoverlap.
Defect - Class 3
G ap orabsence ofbraid w here coverage is required.
W ire orshield braid visible through braid.
B raiding overlap less than 13 m m [0.5 in]at breakouts and
branches.
Figure 16-4
Figure 16-5
16 Cable/ Wire Harness Protective Coverings
16.1.1 Braid Direct Applied (cont.)
16-3 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Pre-w oven braid orsleeving is to be secured atthe ends by spotties,clam ps,tape orheatshrink tubing.W hen secured,the cov-
ering w illnotslide freely.Adhesive,a hotknife orotherprocess is used to preventend fraying.
Forbreakouts and branches the sleeving is notto be cutto allow passage ofthe w ire.D epending on the w eave the strands m ay
be separated to allow w ires to pass through.The num berofw ires is notto cause deform ation orbunching ofthe sleeving.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Ends notsecured.
Tears and/orcuts ofbraiding.
Defect - Class 2,3
Ends notsecured,frayed orunraveling.
Defect - Class 3
Loose ends protruding from potting orshrink sleeving.
B raid ballooned orbunched up.
Figure 16-6
Figure 16-7
16 Cable/ Wire Harness Protective Coverings
16.1.2 Braid Pre-Woven
16-4 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
Tape is installed w ith a 50% overlap.
Tape does notbunch oradd excessive bulk to bundle.
Ends are secured.
Acceptable - Class 1
O verlap is atleast25% .
Acceptable - Class 2,3
O verlap is atleast50% .
Process Indicator - Class 2,3
Tape overlap is less than 50% .
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Tape loose orunraveling.
Ends notsecure.
Tape too tightcausing indenture ordistortion ofbundle.
Defect - Class 3
O verlap causes excess bulk.
Tape is bunched.
16 Cable/ Wire Harness Protective Coverings
16.2 Taping (Not Illustrated)
16-5 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
Tubing is tighton cable and connector/cable accessories.
N o cracks ortears.
M ultiple pieces overlapped by atleast13 m m [0.5 in].
Acceptable - Class 1
Tubing is tighton connector/cable accessories,butnottighton cable.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Tubing is nottighton connector/cable accessory.
There are cracks ortears in the tubing.
O verlap is less than 13 m m [0.5 in].
16 Cable/ Wire Harness Protective Coverings
16.3 Sleeving
16-6 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
16.3.1 Sleeving Shrink Tubing (Not Illustrated)
Spiralw rap sleeving is used for tw o purposes.O ne is to contain a group ofw ires/cables.Spiralw rap sleeving used for contain-
m entm ay orm ay notbe overlapped and frequently the innercables and w ires are visible.The sleeving m ay be butted orapplied
as an open spiral.
The otherpurpose is forabrasion protection.Forthis use,the sleeving needs to be overlapped (see 16.2).
The ends ofthe spiralw rap need to be trim m ed to elim inate sharp edges orpoints thatm ightdam age the insulation.W hen spiral
sleeving is applied,the ends ofthe w ire bundle need to be secured by string tie orotherm eans.
There are no illustrations forthese criteria.
Target - Class 1,2,3
Spiralsleeving m akes firm contactw ith the bundle.
Ends trim m ed to elim inate sharp edges orpoints.
The sleeving is applied buttoropen spiral,butdoes notoverlap.
The ends ofthe w rap are secured.
Defect - Class 2,3
Ends notsecured.
Ends have sharp edges orpoints.
Defect - Class 3
Spiralsleeving overlaps.
Process Indicator - Class 1
Ends have sharp edges orpoints.
16 Cable/ Wire Harness Protective Coverings
16.4 Spiral Plastic Wrap (Spiral Wrap Sleeving)
16-7 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
See 15.3.
16 Cable/ Wire Harness Protective Coverings
16.5 Conduit (Containment)
16-8 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
The follow ing topics are addressed in this section:
17.1 General
17.2 Hardware Installation
17.2.1 Sequence
17.2.2 Type and M issing
17.2.3 M inim um Torque forElectricalC onnections
17.2.4 W ires
17.2.5 H igh Voltage Applications
17.3 Wire/ Harness Installation
17.3.1 Stress R elief
17.3.2 W ire D ress
17.3.3 Service Loops
17 Installation
Installation
17-1 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
In m any cases cable and w ire harness assem blies are m anufactured at one facility and shipped w ith or w ithout end term ination
as a com pleted harness assem bly to another facility w here the harnesses are installed into an end-item (e.g.,chassis,draw er or
enclosure).This section provides acceptance criteria forinstallation ofa harness.
M echanicalassem bly refers to m ounting ofassem blies requiring the use ofany ofthe follow ing:screw s,bolts,nuts,w ashers,fas-
teners,clips,com ponentstuds,adhesives,tie dow ns,rivets,connectorpins,etc.
This section covers visualcriteria.C om pliance to torque requirem ents is to be verified as specified by custom er docum entation.
W here the criteria are self-explanatory,no illustrations are provided.
W hen no specific requirem ents have been established by otherdocum entation,the follow ing criteria apply.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
W ires and cables are positioned or protected to avoid contact w ith rough or irregular surfaces and sharp edges and to avoid
dam age to conductors oradjacentparts.
M inim um electricalclearance is m aintained.
Installation hardw are is tight,including applicable torque ifrequired.
W iring connections to ground are free ofany protective finishes (e.g.,paint,anodize coating,etc.)thatcan preclude an adequate
ground connection.
W ire routing m eets requirem ents fordrip loops,no m echanicalinterference,etc.
Soldered connections m eetthe requirem ents of4 Soldering.
C rim ping m eets the requirem ents of5 C rim ping.
Splice connections m eetthe requirem ents of8 Splices.
W iring is term inated atthe destination specified by the w ire m arker/docum entation.
W ire is notrouted through keep outzones,e.g.,hotsurfaces orm echanicalinterference areas.
Adhesives are applied atthe required location and properly cured.
W ire(s)notstressed.
D esign cable w ire/harness bend radius m aintained.Ifnototherw ise specified,the m inim um bend radius is five to ten tim es the
diam eterofthe w ire orbundle,w hicheveris larger.
W ire and cable are supported w ith m ounting hardw are to preclude stress.
C able ties,straps orclam ps do notcom press ordam age w ire insulation.
Ifrequired,a service loop is provided to allow atleastone (1)field repair.
Defect Class - 1,2,3
Productthatdoes notconform to the above criteria.
17 Installation
17.1 General
17-2 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
This section illustrates severaltypes ofm ounting hardw are.
Process docum entation w illspecify w hatto use (draw ings,prints,parts list,build process);deviations need to have priorcustom er
approval.
Visualinspection is perform ed in orderto verify the follow ing conditions:
a. C orrectparts and hardw are.
b. C orrectsequence ofassem bly.
c. C orrectsecurity and tightness ofparts and hardw are.
d. N o discernible dam age.
e. C orrectorientation ofparts and hardw are.
17 Installation
17.2 Hardware Installation
17-3 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
A m inim um ofone and one halfthreads need to extend beyond the threaded hardw are,(e.g.,nut)unless otherw ise specified by
engineering draw ing.B olts orscrew s m ay be flush w ith the end ofthe threaded hardw are only w here threads could interfere w ith
othercom ponents orw ires and w hen locking m echanism s are used.
Thread extension should notbe m ore than 3.0 m m [0.12 in]plus one and one-halfthreads forbolts orscrew s up to 25 m m [0.984
in]long or m ore than 6.3 m m [0.248 in]plus one and one-halfthreads for bolts or screw s over 25 m m [0.984 in].This is provid-
ing thatthe extension does notinterfere w ith any adjacentpartand thatthe designed electricalclearance requirem ents are m et.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
Properhardw are sequence.
1
2
2
3
4
3
4
1
Figure 17-1
1. Lock washer
2. Flat washer
3. Nonmetal
4. Metal (not conductive pattern or foil)
17 Installation
17.2.1 Hardware Installation Sequence
17-4 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Defect - Class 1,2,3
H ardw are m aterial or sequence not in conform ance w ith
draw ing.
Lock w asheragainstnonm etal/lam inate.
Flatw asherm issing.
2
3
1
2
1
3
Figure 17-2
1. Lock washer
2. Nonmetal
3. Metal (not conductive pattern or foil)
17 Installation
17.2.1 Hardware Installation Sequence (cont.)
17-5 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
Slotis covered w ith flatw asher.
H ole is covered w ith flatw asher.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
H ardw are m issing orim properly installed.
1
2
3
2
3
1
Figure 17-3
1. Slot or hole
2. Lock washer
3. Flat washer
1
2
Figure 17-4
1. Slot or hole
2. Lock washer
17 Installation
17.2.2 Hardware Installation Type and Missing
17-6 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
W hen electricalconnections are m ade using threaded fasteners they m ustbe tightto ensure the reliability ofthe connection.W hen
split-ring type lock w ashers are used,the threaded fastener m ustbe tightenough to com press the lock w asher.W hen required,
fasteners are tightened to the specified m inim um torque value.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
Fasteners are tightand split-ring lock w ashers,w hen used,
are fully com pressed.
Propertorque applied w hen torque is a requirem ent.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Lock w ashernotcom pressed.
Figure 17-5
Figure 17-6
17 Installation
17.2.3 Hardware Installation Minimum
Torque for Electrical Connections
17-7 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
W hen the use ofterm inallugs is not required,w ires are w rapped around screw type term inals in a m anner that precludes loos-
ening w hen the screw is tightened,and the ends ofthe w ire are keptshortto preclude shorting to ground orothercurrentcarry-
ing conductors.
Ifa w asheris used,the w ire/lead is to be m ounted underthe w asher.
U nless otherw ise noted,allrequirem ents apply to both stranded and solid w ires.
Target - Class 1,2,3
Strands ofw ire tightly tw isted together(stranded w ire).
W ire w rapped a m inim um of270 around the screw body.
W ire end secured underscrew head.
W ire w rapped in the correctdirection.
Allstrands are underscrew head.
Figure 17-7
17 Installation
17.2.4 Hardware Installation Wires
17-8 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
W ire w rapped around the screw body in the correct direc-
tion, but a few strands have unraveled in tightening the
screw .
Less than
1
3 ofthe w ire diam eter protrudes from under the
screw head.
W ire extending outside the screw head does not violate
m inim um electricalclearance.
M echanicalattachm entofthe w ire is in contactbetw een the
screw head and the contactsurface fora m inim um of180
around the screw head.
N o insulation in the contactarea.
W ire does notoverlap itself.
Figure 17-8
Figure 17-9
17 Installation
17.2.4 Hardware Installation Wires (cont.)
17-9 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Defect - Class 1,2,3
W ire notw rapped around screw body (A).
W ire is overlapped (B ).
Solid w ire w rapped in w rong direction (C ).
Stranded w ire w rapped in w rong direction (tightening the
screw unw inds the tw isted w ire)(D ).
Insulation in the contactarea (E).
W ire w as tinned.
Figure 17-10
17 Installation
17.2.4 Hardware Installation Wires (cont.)
17-10 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
This section provides the unique requirem ents ofm echanicalassem blies thatare subjectto high voltages.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
There is no evidence ofburrs or frayed edges on the hard-
w are.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
H ardw are has burrs orfrayed edges.
Figure 17-11
Figure 17-12
17 Installation
17.2.5 Hardware Installation High Voltage Applications
17-11 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
The w ire approaches the term inalw ith a loop or bend suffi-
cient to relieve any tension on the connection during
therm al/vibration stress.
Acceptable - Class 1
Process Indicator - Class 2
Defect - Class 3
There is insufficientstress relief.
The w ire is understress atthe w rap.
Figure 17-13
Figure 17-14
17 Installation
17.3 Wire/ Harness Installation
17-12 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
17.3.1 Wire/ Harness Installation Stress Relief
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
The direction ofthe stress-reliefbend places no strain on the
m echanicalw rap orthe solderconnection.
Acceptable - Class 1
Defect - Class 2,3
The w ire is form ed around the term inal opposite to the
feed-in direction.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
B ends are notkinked.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
B ends are kinked.
r
Figure 17-15
Figure 17-16
B
Figure 17-17
B
Figure 17-18
17 Installation
17.3.2 Wire/ Harness Installation Wire Dress
17-13 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
Sufficientservice loop is provided to allow one field repairto
be m ade.
Acceptable - Class 1
Process Indicator - Class 2
Defect - Class 3
The w ire is too short to allow an additionalw rap ifrepair is
necessary.
Figure 17-19
Figure 17-20
17 Installation
17.3.3 Wire/ Harness Installation Service Loops
17-14 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
This section establishes visual acceptability criteria for con-
nections m ade by the solderless w rap m ethod.
It is assum ed that the term inal/w ire com bination has been
designed forthis type ofconnection.
It is also assum ed that a m onitoring system exists using test
connections to verify that the operator/tooling com bination is
capable of producing w raps that m eet strip force require-
m ents.
D epending on the service environm ent, the connecting
instructions w illspecify w hether the connection w illbe con-
ventionalorm odified.
O nce applied to the term inal, an acceptable solderless w rap
connection m ustnotbe subjected to excessive heatnorhave
any m echanicaloperations perform ed on it.
N o attem pt to correct a defective connection by reapplying
the w rapping toolorby applying othertools is to be m ade.
The reliability and m aintainability advantages ofthe solderless
w rap connection m ethod are such that no repair ofa defec-
tive w rap by soldering is to be m ade.
The defective connections m ust be unw rapped using a spe-
cial tool (not stripped off the term inal) then a new w ire
w rapped. N ew w ire m ust be used for each rew rap, but the
term inalpostm ay be rew rapped.
The follow ing topics are addressed in this section:
18.1 Number of Turns
18.2 Turn Spacing
18.3 End Tails, Insulation Wrap
18.4 Raised Turns Overlap
18.5 Connection Position
18.6 Wire Dress
18.7 Wire Slack
18.8 Plating
18.9 Damage
18.9.1 Insulation
18.9.2 W ires and Term inals
18 Solderless Wrap
Solderless Wrap
18-1 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
For this requirem ent,countable turns are those turns ofbare
w ire in intim ate contactw ith the corners ofthe term inals start-
ing atthe firstcontactofbare w ire w ith a term inalcornerand
ending at the last contact ofbare w ire w ith a term inalcorner
(see Table 18-1).
A m odified w rap is required for C lass 3. It has an additional
am ount of insulated w ire w rapped to contact at least three
corners ofthe term inal.
Target - Class 1,2,3
O ne half(50% )m ore turn than the m inim um show n in Table
18-1.
Acceptable - Class 1,2
C ountable turns m eetthe requirem ents ofTable 18-1.
Acceptable - Class 3
C ountable turns m eet the requirem ents of Table 18-1 and
there is an additionalam ount ofinsulated w ire w rapped to
contactatleastthree corners ofthe term inal.
Note: M axim um turns ofbare and insulated w ire is governed
only by tooling configuration and space available on the term i-
nal.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
N um ber of countable turns does not com ply w ith Table
18-1.
0 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Figure 18-1
Table 18-1 Minimum Turns of Bare Wire
Wire Gauge (AWG) Turns
28 - 34 7
26 6
24 5
22 5
20 4
18 4
18 Solderless Wrap
18.1 Number of Turns
18-2 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
N o space betw een any turns.
Acceptable - Class 1
N o space overone w ire diam eter.
Acceptable - Class 2
N o space over50% diam eterofw ire w ithin countable turns;
no space overone w ire diam eterelsew here.
Acceptable - Class 3
N o m ore than three turns spaced apart,notm ore than 50%
w ire diam eterapart.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Any space overone w ire diam eter.
Defect - Class 2
Any space overhalfw ire diam eterw ithin countable turns.
Defect - Class 3
Any space m ore than half w ire diam eter, m ore than three
spaces any size.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Figure 18-2
Figure 18-3
Figure 18-4
18 Solderless Wrap
18.2 Turn Spacing
18-3 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
N o w ire clippings present.
Target - Class 1,2
End tail does not extend beyond outer surface of w rap.
Insulation reaches term inal.
Target - Class 3
End taildoes notextend beyond outersurface ofw rap w ith
insulation m odified w rap (see 18.1).
Acceptable - Class 1
Insulation back and end tailany distance from outersurface,
but does not violate clearance requirem ents to other cir-
cuitry.
Acceptable - Class 2
Insulation end m eets clearance requirem ents to other cir-
cuitry and is not over 3.2 m m [0.125 in]from outer surface
w rap.
Acceptable - Class 3
End tailprojects no m ore than one w ire diam eterfrom outer
surface ofw rap.
Insulation m ustcontactm inim um ofthree corners ofpost.
Figure 18-5
1
1
2
Figure 18-6
1. Insulation clearance
2. Wire diameter
18 Solderless Wrap
18.3 End Tails, Insulation Wrap
18-4 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Acceptable - Class 1
Defect - Class 2,3
End tailis greaterthan 3.2 m m [0.125 in].
Defect - Class 3
End tailis greaterthan one w ire diam eter.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
End tailviolates m inim um electricalclearance requirem ents.
Any w ire clippings.
Figure 18-7
Figure 18-8
18 Solderless Wrap
18.3 End Tails, Insulation Wrap (cont.)
18-5 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
R aised turns are squeezed out ofthe helix and are no longer in contact w ith the term inalcorners. R aised turns m ay overlap or
override otherturns.
Target - Class 1,2,3
N o raised turns.
Acceptable - Class 1
R aised turns anyw here provided rem aining totalturns stillin
contactm eetm inim um turns requirem ent.
Acceptable - Class 2
N o m ore than half turn raised w ithin countable turns, any
am ountelsew here.
Acceptable - Class 3
N o raised turns w ithin countable turns, any am ount else-
w here.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
R em aining totalturns stillin contact do not m eet m inim um
turn requirem ents
M ore than halfraised turn w ithin countable turns.
Defect - Class 3
Any raised turns w ithin countable turns.
Figure 18-9
Figure 18-10
Figure 18-11
18 Solderless Wrap
18.4 Raised Turns Overlap
18-6 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Target - Class 1,2,3
Allturns ofeach connection on w orking length ofterm inal,
visible separation betw een each connection.
Acceptable - Class 1,2
Extra turns of bare w ire or any turns of insulated w ire
(w hether or not for m odified w rap)beyond end of w orking
length ofterm inal.
Acceptable - Class 1
Extra turns ofbare w ire or any turns ofinsulated w ire over-
lap a preceding w rap.
Acceptable - Class 2
Turns ofinsulated w ire only overlap a preceding w rap.
Acceptable - Class 3
W raps m ay have an insulated w ire overlap the last turn of
uninsulated w ire.
N o turns of bare or insulated w ire beyond either end of
w orking length.
Figure 18-12
1
2
Figure 18-13
1. Wrap extends above contact length
2. Insulation turn overlaps previous wrap
18 Solderless Wrap
18.5 Connection Position
18-7 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Any countable turns of bare w ire off either end of w orking
length.
Any countable m inim um turns ofbare w ire overlapping w ire
turns ofa preceding connection.
Figure 18-14
Figure 18-15
18 Solderless Wrap
18.5 Connection Position (cont.)
18-8 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
Wire Dress: The dress ofw ire needs to be so oriented that
force exerted axially on the w ire w illnottend to unw rap the
connection, or to relieve the bite of w ire on the corners of
the term inalpost.This requirem entis satisfied w hen the w ire
is routed so as to cross the 45 line as show n.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Wire Dress: Axially externalforces on the w rap w illcause
the w rap to unw ind or loosen the w ire bite atthe postcor-
ners.
45
1
2
Figure 18-16
1. Direction of turns
2. Proper radius
45
1
2
Figure 18-17
1. Direction of turns
18 Solderless Wrap
18.6 Wire Dress
18-9 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
W iring needs to have sufficient slack so that it w illnot pull
around corners of the other term inal posts or bridge and
load otherw ires.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
Wire Slack: Insufficientw ire slack causing:
Abrasion betw een w ire insulation and w rap post.
Tension on w ires betw een w rap postand possible distor-
tion ofposts.
C ausing pressure on w ires thatare crossed by a tautw ire.
Figure 18-18
1
Figure 18-19
1 Wire crossing
18 Solderless Wrap
18.7 Wire Slack
18-10 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Tin orsilverplating on the w ire enhances the reliability ofthe connection.
C opper w ire used for solderless w rap is norm ally plated w ith tin or silver to im prove jointreliability and m inim ize subsequentcor-
rosion.
Target - Class 1,2,3
Afterw rapping,uninsulated w ire has no exposed copper.
Acceptable - Class 1
C ountable turns m ay show exposed copper.
Acceptable - Class 1,2
U p to 50% ofcountable turns show exposed copper.
Defect - Class 2
M ore than 50% ofcountable turns show exposed copper.
Defect - Class 3
Any exposed copper (last halfend and w ire end excluded).
Figure 18-20
18 Solderless Wrap
18.8 Plating
18-11 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
Afterinitialcontactw ith post:
Insulation dam age.
Splits.
C utand fraying on the w rap.
Defect - Class 1,2,3
M inim um electricalspacing requirem ents are violated.
Defect - Class 2,3
Splits, cuts or fraying of insulation betw een w rap term inals
(priorto initialcornerofpost).
Spacing requirem ents are violated.
1
Figure 18-21
1. Initial corner
Figure 18-22
1
2
Figure 11-23
1. Initial corner
2. Split insulation, etc., between wrap terminal. Conductor is exposed.
18 Solderless Wrap
18.9 Damage
18-12 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
18.9.1 Damage Insulation
Target - Class 1,2,3
W ire finish is not burnished or polished, nicked, scraped,
gouged orotherw ise dam aged.
W ire w rap term inals shall not be burnished, scraped or
otherw ise dam aged.
Acceptable - Class 1,2,3
Finish on the w ire is burnished orpolished (slighttoolm arks)
(A).
The top or last turn dam aged from the w rap toolsuch as
nicks, scrapes, gouges, etc., not exceeding 25% of w ire
diam eter(B ).
D am age to term inal caused by tool such as burnishing,
scraping,etc.(C ).
Acceptable - Class 1,2
Defect - Class 3
B ase m etalis exposed on term inal.
C
B
A
Figure 18-24
18 Solderless Wrap
18.9.2 Damage Wires and Terminals
18-13 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
This Page Intentionally LeftB lank
18 Solderless Wrap
18-14 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
D efinitions m arked w ith an * are from IPC -T-50 Term s and D efinitions forInterconnecting and Packaging Electronic C ircuits.Addi-
tionalterm s and definitions applicable to cables and w ire harnesses m ay be found in:
SAE ARP 914A G lossary ofElectricalC onnection Term s
SAE ARP 1931A G lossary ofTerm s w ith Specific R eference to ElectricalW ire and C able.
ISO 8815 AircraftElectricalC ables and C able H arnesses - Vocabulary,1stEdition
American Wire Gage
(AWG)
A standard system fordesignating w ire diam eter.Prim arily used in the U nited States.
Ampacity See currentcarrying capacity
Annealed Wire W ire,w hich after finaldraw dow n,has been heated and slow ly cooled to rem ove the effects ofcold
w orking.
Armored Cable A cable provided w ith a w rapping ofm etal,usually steelw ires or tapes,prim arily for the purpose of
m echanicalprotection.
AWG Equivalent The Am erican W ire G auge (AW G )round-conductornum berthatis used to designate a flatconduc-
torw ith an equalcross-sectionalarea.
Bellmouth The raised portion atthe frontand/orback ofthe w ire barrelcrim p thatprovides a gradualentrance
and exitforthe w ire strands w ithoutcausing dam age.
Binder A spirally served tape or thread used for holding assem bled cable com ponents in place aw aiting
subsequent m anufacturing operations. (The IPC -T-50 binderdefinition is not applicable to this
docum ent.)
Boot A form placed around w ire term ination ofa m ultiple-contact connector to contain the liquid potting
com pound before ithardens.Also,a protective housing usually m ade from a resilientm aterialto pre-
vent entry of m oisture into a connector. C an also be preform ed, heat shrinkable and can be pur-
chased w ith self-adhesive orbonded w ith an adhesive.
Braid W oven bare m etallic ortinned copperw ire used as shielding forw ires and cables and as ground w ire
for batteries or heavy industrialequipm ent. Also, a w oven fibrous protective outer covering over a
conductororcable.
Braid Angle The sm allerofthe tw o angles form ed by the shielding strand the axis ofthe cable being shielded.
Braid Carrier A spoolor bobbin on a braider w hich holds one group ofstrands or filam ents consisting ofa spe-
cific num berofends.The carrierrevolves during braiding operations.
Braid Ends The num berofstrands used to m ake up one carrier.The strands are w ound side by side on the car-
rierbobbin and lie parallelin the finished braid.
Breakdown Voltage The voltage atw hich the insulation betw een tw o conductors ruptures
Breakout The pointatw hich a conductororgroup ofconductors is separated from a m ulticonductorcable or
w iring harness to com plete circuits atotherpoints.
BusBar Wire U ninsulated tinned copperw ire used as a com m on lead.
Butt Splice D evice forjoining conductors by butting them end to end.
Cable A group of individually insulated conductors in tw isted or parallelconfiguration under a com m on
sheath.
Cable, Assembly A cable w ith plugs orconnectors attached.
Cable, Camber *The planardeflection ofa flatcable orflexible lam inate from a straightline.
Appendix A
Terms and Definitions
A-1 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Cable, Clamp A device used to give m echanicalsupportto the w ire bundle orcable atthe rearofa plug orrecep-
tacle.
Cable, Coaxial (1) A cable consisting oftw o cylindricalconductors w ith a com m on axis separated by a dielectric.
(2)*A cable in the form ofa centralw ire surrounded by a conductortubing orsheathing thatserves
as a shield and return.
Cable, Flat (1) Any cable w ith tw o sm ooth orcorrugated butessentially flatsurfaces.
(2)*Tw o or m ore parallel, round or flat, conductors that are contained in the sam e plane of a flat
insulating base m aterial.
Cable, Flat Conductor A planarconstruction w ith tw o orm ore flatconductors.
Cable, Flat, Margin *The distance betw een the reference edge ofa flatcable and the nearestedge ofthe firstconduc-
tor.
Cable, Reference Edge *The edge ofa cable orconductorfrom w hich m easurem ents are m ade.
Cable, Ribbon (1) A flat cable of individually insulated conductors lying parallel and held together by m eans of
adhesive film lam inate.
(2)*A flatcable w ith round conductors.
Cable, Transmission *Tw o orm ore transm ission lines in the form ofan interconnection-w iring cable.
Cable/Harness,
Indoor Use
(Also H arness)Productintended and designed forindooruse only.
Cable/Harness,
Outdoor Use
(Also H arness)O utdoorU se C ables/H arnesses:Productexpected to w ithstand exposure to the ele-
m ents ofw eather.
Camber *The planardeflection ofa flatcable orflexible lam inate from a straightline.
Circular Mil The area ofa circle one m il[0.001 in]in diam eter;7.845 x 10
-7
sq.in.U sed in expressing w ire cross
sectionalarea.
Circular Mil Area C ross-sectionalarea ofa currentcarrying portion ofa conductorexpressed in circularm ils.
Circumferential Crimp Finalconfiguration ofa term inalbarrelm ade w hen crim ping dies com pletely surround the barreland
form sym m etricalindentations.
Closing An operation w here allleads are to be covered and the jacketinsulation is captured by a type ofhood
orcover.
CMA See C ircularM ilArea
Cold Flow D eform ation ofthe insulation as a resultofm echanicalforce orpressure (notdue to heatsoftening).
Compression
Connector
C onnectorcrim ped by an externally applied force;the conductoris also crim ped by such force inside
the tube-like connector body. C om pression connectors are in very intim ate contact w ith the tw o
ends ofthe conductors being spliced.
Concentricity In a w ire or cable, concentricity is the m easurem ent ofthe location ofthe center ofthe conductor
w ith respectto the geom etric centerofthe surrounding insulation.
Conductor An uninsulated w ire orthe conductorofan insulated w ire suitable forcarrying electricalcurrent.
Conductor, Flat *A rectangularconductorthatis w iderthan itis high.
Conduit A tube in w hich insulated w ires and cables are passed.
Connector (1) A device used to physically and electrically join tw o orm ore conductors.
(2)*A device used to provide m echanicalconnect/disconnectservice forelectricalterm inations.
Contact The conducting partofa connector thatacts w ith another such partto com plete or break a circuit.
Appendix A
Terms and Definitions (cont.)
A-2 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Contact Angle
(Bonding)
*The angle betw een the bonding lead orw ire and the bonding land.
Contact Angle
(Soldering)
*The angle ofa solderfilletthatis enclosed betw een a plane thatis tangentto the solder/basis-m etal
surface and a plane thatis tangentto the solder/airinterface (see Figure 4-41).
Contact Area *The com m on area betw een a conductorand a connectorthrough w hich the flow ofelectricity takes
place.
Contact Length *The distance oftravelm ade by a contactin touch w ith anotherduring the insertion and rem ovalof
a connector.
Contact Resistance *The electricalresistance of m etallic surfaces, under specified conditions, at their interface in the
contactarea.
Contact Retention The m axim um axialload in eitherdirection thata contactm ustw ithstand w hile rem aining firm ly fixed
in its norm alposition w ithin the connectorinsertorhousing.
Contact Retention
Force
*The m inim um axialload in eitherdirection thata contactw ithstands w hile itis in its norm alposition
in a connectorinsert.
Contact Size D efines the largestsize w ire thatcan be used w ith the specific contact.B y specification dim ension-
ing,italso defines the diam eterofthe engagem entend ofthe pin.
Continuity (1) A continuous path forthe flow ofcurrentin an electricalcircuit.
(2)*An uninterrupted path forthe flow ofelectricalcurrentin a circuit.
Core In cables, a com ponent or assem bly of com ponents over w hich additional com ponents (shield,
sheath,etc.)are applied.
Corona A discharge due to ionization ofairaround a conductordue to a potentialgradientexceeding a cer-
tain criticalvalue.
Coupling Ring A device used on cylindricalconnectors to lock a plug and receptacle together.
Creep (1) The dim ensionalchange w ith tim e ofa m aterialunderload.
(2)*Tim e-dependentstrain occurring understress.
Crimp Finalconfiguration ofa term inalbarrelform ed by the com pression ofterm inalbarreland w ire.
Crimp Height A m easurem enttaken ofthe overallw ire barrelheightafterthe term inalhas been crim ped.
Cut Off Tab The sm alltabs thatrem ain on the frontand back ofa term inalafterithas been applied.
Daisy Chain C onnections in series thatrenderallofthe connections com m on.
Dielectric (1) Any insulating m edium thatintervenes betw een tw o conductors.
(2)*A m aterialw ith a high resistance to the flow of direct current, and w hich is capable of being
polarized by an electricalfield.
Dielectric Breakdown *The com plete failure ofa dielectric m aterialthatis characterized by a disruptive electricaldischarge
through the m aterialthatis due to deterioration ofm aterialordue to an excessive sudden increase
in applied voltage.
Dielectric Strength *The m axim um voltage thata dielectric can w ithstand underspecified conditions w ithoutresulting in
a voltage breakdow n,usually expressed as volts perunitdim ension.Also called D isruptive G radient
ofElectric Strength.
Dielectric Withstanding
Voltage
M axim um potentialgradientthata dielectric m aterialcan w ithstand w ithoutfailure.
Discontinuity (1)A broken connection,orthe loss ofa specific connection characteristic.
Appendix A
Terms and Definitions (cont.)
A-3 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Dot Coding Process oftoolim printing a 22-10 AW G PID G term inal.D otcoding indicates w hetherthe propertool
has been used.
Double Crimp The process oftw o orm ore m echanicalcrim ping operations on the sam e location in a single term i-
nal.
Drain Wire In a cable,the uninsulated w ire in intim ate contact w ith a shield to provide for easier term ination of
such a shield.
Electromagnetic
Compatibility (EMC)
D escribes a devices ability to function properly in the custom ers environm entw ithoutcausing elec-
trom agnetic interference to otherequipm ent,oritselfbeing susceptible to externalinterference.
Electromagnetic
Interference (EMI)
(1) The U ndesirable electrom agnetic em issions from a product,w hich can interfere w ith the proper
operation ofotherdevices.
(2)*U nw anted radiated electrom agnetic energy thatcouples into electricalconductors.
EMC See electrom agnetic com patibility.
EMI See electrom agnetic interference.
End Bell An accessory sim ilarto a cable clam p thatattaches to the back ofa plug orreceptacle.Itserves as
an adaptorforthe rearofconnectors.
End Cap Splice An insulated splice in w hich tw o orm ore w ires overlap and enterthe splice from the sam e end ofthe
barrel.
Ferrule (1) A shorttube.U sed to m ake solderless connections to shielded orcoaxialcable.
(2) An item m olded into the plastic inserts ofm ultiple contactand fiber optic connectors to provide
strong,w ear-resistantshoulders on w hich contactretaining springs can bear.
(3) A term inalcrim ped onto stranded w ire to allow insertion into term inalblocks.
Filler (1) A m aterialused in m ulticonductorcables to occupy voids form ed by the assem bled conductors.
(2) An inertsubstance added plastics to im prove properties ordecrease cost.
(3)*A substance thatis added to a m aterialto im prove its solidity,bulk,orotherproperties.
Gas-Tight (1) The characteristic ofa contactthatis im pervious to ingress by corrosive gases.
(2)*The com m on area betw een m ated-m etalsurfaces from w hich gas vapors and im purities are
excluded.
Grommet A rubber sealused on the cable side of m ultiple contact connector to sealthe connector against
m oisture,dirtorair.
Harness A group ofw ires and cables,usually m ade w ith breakouts,w hich are tied together or pulled into a
rubberorplastic sheath.A harness provides interconnection ofan electric circuit.
Harness, Indoor Use (Also C able)Productintended and designed forindooruse only.
Harness, Outdoor Use (Also C able)O utdoor U se C ables/H arnesses: Product expected to w ithstand exposure to the ele-
m ents ofw eather.
Hipot Test (1) A testdesigned to verify the integrity ofa w ires insulation w hen subjected to high voltage.
(2)*A m ethod in w hich the unitundertestis subjected to a high alternating current(AC )voltage.
Hood A type ofcoverused to enclose w ires thatare assem bled into a connector.
Hook-Up Wire A single insulated conductorused forlow current,low voltage (usually under1000 volts)applications
w ithin enclosed electronic equipm ent.
Hot Stamping Perm anentm arkings in letters ornum bers thatare stam ped by heatunderpressure onto w ire.
Hygroscopic The characteristic ofa m aterialto absorb m oisture from the air.
IDC See insulation displacem entconnector.
Appendix A
Terms and Definitions (cont.)
A-4 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Insert, Connector *The elem entthatholds connectorcontacts in theirproperarrangem entand electrically insulates the
contacts from one anotherand from the connectorshell.
Insert Retention Axialload in either direction that an insert m ust w ithstand w ithout being dislocated from its norm al
position in the connectorshell.
Insertion Force The effort,usually m easured in ounces,required to engage m ating com ponents.
Insertion Tool A sm all,hand-held toolused to insertcontacts into a connector.
Insulation A m aterialthatoffers high electricalresistance m aking itsuitable forcovering com ponents,term inals
and w ires to preventthe possible future contactofadjacentconductors resulting in a shortcircuit.
Insulation Crimp Area ofa term inal,splice orcontactthathas been form ed around the insulation ofthe w ire.
Insulation Displacement
Connector (IDC)
A m ass term ination connector for flat cable w ith contacts that displace the conductor insulation to
establish sim ultaneous contactw ith allconductors.
Insulation Resistance *The electrical resistance of an insulating m aterial that is determ ined under specific conditions
betw een any pairofcontacts,conductors,orgrounding devices in various com binations.
Insulation Support An extension ofthe rear portion ofthe contactthatgives the w ire side support,butnotlongitudinal
support.This section is notcrim ped.
Insulation Thickness The w allthickness ofthe applied insulation.
Insulator *A m aterialw ith a high resistance to the flow ofelectricalcurrent.(See also D ielectric.)
Interconnection M echanically joining devices togetherto com plete an electricalcircuit.
Interstices Voids orvalleys betw een individualstrands in a conductororbetw een insulated conductors in a m ul-
ticonductorcable during extrem e flexing.
Jacket An outercovering,usually non-m etallic,m ainly used forprotection againstthe environm ent.
Jackscrew A screw attached to one half of a tw o-piece, m ultiple-contact connector and used to draw both
halves togetherand to separate them .
Jumper Cable A shortflatcable interconnecting tw o w iring boards ordevices.
Keying M echanicalarrangem entofguide pins and sockets,keying plugs,contacts,bosses,slots,keyw ays,
inserts orgrooves in a connectorhousing shellorinsertthatallow s connectors ofthe sam e size and
type to be lined up w ithoutthe dangerofm aking a w rong connection.
Keying Plug Contact A com ponentthatis inserted into a cavity ofa connectorhousing orinsertto assure engagem entof
identically m atched com ponents.
Kinked An abruptbend from w hich a w ire strand is noteasily restored to its originalcondition.
Lacing Cord or Twine U sed for lacing and tying cable form s,hook-up w ires,cable ends,cable bundles and w ire harness
assem blies.Available in various m aterials and im pregnants.
Lanyard A device attached to certain connectors thatperm its uncoupling and separation ofconnectorhalves
by a pullon a w ire orcable.
Lap Joint Tw o conductors joined by placing them side by side so thatthey overlap.See ParallelSplice.
Lead (1) A w ire,w ith orw ithoutterm inals,thatconnects tw o points in a circuit.
(2)*A length ofinsulated oruninsulated m etallic conductorthatis used forelectricalinterconnections.
Locator D evice forpositioning term inals,splices orcontacts in crim ping dies.
Lug A w ire term inal.
Appendix A
Terms and Definitions (cont.)
A-5 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Mastic A m eltable coating used on the inside ofsom e shrink products w hich w hen heated flow s to encap-
sulate the interstitialairvoids.
Mate To join tw o connectorhalves in a norm alengaging m ode.
MCM O ne thousand circularm ils.
Multiple-Conductor
Cable
A com bination oftw o orm ore conductors cabled togetherand insulated from one anotherand from
sheath orarm orw here used.
Nest Part ofa crim ping die set,the nestprovides the location and supportfor the term inalbarrelas itis
being deform ed into the desired crim p configuration by the indentor.Also called Anvil.
O Crimp An insulation support crim p for open barrelterm inals w ith a crim ped form resem bling an O .It con-
form s to the shape ofround w ire insulation.
Parallel Splice A parallelsplice is a device for joining tw o or m ore conductors in w hich the conductors lie parallel
and adjacent.See Lap Joint.
Pick D istance betw een tw o adjacent crossover points ofbraid filam ents.The m easurem ent in picks per
inch indicates the degree ofcoverage.
Pitch (1) In flatcable,the nom inaldistance betw een the index edges oftw o adjacentconductors.
(2)*The nom inal center-to-center distance of adjacent conductors. (W hen the conductors are of
equalsize and theirspacing is uniform ,the pitch is usually m easured from the reference edge of
the adjacentconductors.)
Plenum The air return path ofa centralair handling system ,either ductw ork or open space over a dropped
ceiling.
Plenum Cable C able approved by U nderw riters Laboratories forinstallation in plenum s w ithoutthe need forconduit.
Plug The partofthe tw o m ating halves ofa connectorthatis free to m ove w hen notfastened to the other
m ating half.
Polarization Polarization is a m echanicalarrangem entofinserts and/orshellconfiguration (referred to as clocking
in som e instances)that prohibits the m ating ofm ism atched plugs and receptacles.This is to allow
connectors ofthe sam e size to be lined up,side by side,w ith no dangerofm aking the w rong con-
nection.
Polarizing Pin A pin located on one halfofa tw o-piece connectorin such a position thatby m ating w ith an appro-
priate hole on the otherhalfduring assem bly ofthe connector,itw illassure thatonly related connec-
torhalves can be assem bled.
Polarizing Slot *A slotin the edge ofa printed board thatis used to assure the properinsertion and location ofthe
board in a m ating connector.(See also Keying Slot.)
Positioner A device attached to the crim ping toolto position conductorbarrelbetw een the indentors.
Potting Sealing ofa com ponent(e.g.,the cable end ofa m ultiple contactconnector)w ith a plastic com pound
orm aterialto exclude m oisture,preventshortcircuits and provide strain relief.
Potting Compound *A m aterial,usually organic,thatis used forthe encapsulation ofcom ponents and w ires.
Potting Cup An accessory that, w hen attached to the rear ofa plug or receptacle, provides a pouring form for
potting the w ires and the w ire entry end ofthe assem bly.
Potting Mold An item ,solid orsplit,designed to be used as a hollow form into w hich potting com pound is injected
and allow ed to cure orsetto sealthe back ofan electricalconnector.
Ratchet Control A ratchetcontrolis a device to ensure the fullcrim ping cycle ofa crim ping tool.
Ratchet Hand Tool Tooldesigned w ith ratchetdevice to insure com pletion ofthe crim ping cycle.
Appendix A
Terms and Definitions (cont.)
A-6 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Recovered Diameter D iam eterofshrinkable products afterheating has caused itto return to its extruded diam eter.
Reference Edge *The edge ofa cable orconductorfrom w hich m easurem ents are m ade.
RF Connector C onnectorused forconnecting orterm inating coaxialcable.
RFI Abbreviation forradio frequency interference.
RG/U Abbreviation for R adio G overnm entU niversal,R G is the m ilitary designation ofcoaxialcable in M IL-
C -17 and U stands forgeneralutility.
Ribbon Cable See cable,ribbon.
Ring Tongue Terminal R ound-end tongue term inalw ith hole to accom m odate screw orstud.
Sealing Plug A plug thatis inserted to fillan unoccupied contactaperture in a connector insert.Its function is to
seal,especially in environm entalconnectors.
Sheath The outercovering orjacketofa m ulticonductorcable.
Shell The outside case ofconnectorinto w hich the insertand contacts are assem bled.
Shield (1) A m etallic layerplaced around a conductororgroup ofconductors to preventelectrostatic inter-
ference betw een the enclosed w ires and externalfields.
(2)*The m aterialaround a conductororgroup ofconductors thatlim its electrom agnetic and/orelec-
trostatic interference.
Shield Adapter An interm ediate device thatallow s the term ination ofthe cable shield to the connectorshell.
Shield Coverage The physicalarea ofa cable thatis covered by the shielding m aterialand is expressed in percent.
Shielding, Electronic *A physicalbarrier, that is usually electrically conductive, that reduces the interaction of electric or
m agnetic fields upon devices,circuits,orportions ofcircuits.
Solder Terminal *An electrical/m echanicalconnection device thatis used to term inate a discrete w ire orw ires by sol-
dering. (See also Solder Term inal, B ifurcated,C up Solder Term inal,H ook Solder Term inal,
Perforated (Pierced)SolderTerm inal,and TurretSolderTerm inal.)
Solder Terminal,
Bifurcated
*A solderterm inalw ith a slotorslitopening through w hich one orm ore w ires are placed priorto sol-
dering.
Solder Terminal, Cup *A cylindricalsolderterm inalw ith a hollow opening into w hich one orm ore w ires are placed priorto
soldering.
Solder Terminal, Hook *A solder term inalw ith a curved feature around w hich one or m ore w ires are w rapped prior to sol-
dering.
Solder Terminal,
Perforated (Pierced)
*A flat-m etalsolder term inalw ith an opening through w hich one or m ore w ires are placed prior to
soldering.
Solder Terminal, Turret *A round post-type stud (stand-off)solder term inalw ith a groove or grooves around w hich one or
m ore w ires are w rapped priorto soldering.
Solderless Contact A contactw ith a back portion thatis a hollow cylinderw hich allow s itto accepta w ire.Aftera bared
w ire is inserted,a crim ping toolis applied to crim p the contactm etalfirm ly againstthe w ire.U sually
called a crim p contact.
Solderless Wrap *The connecting ofa solid w ire to a square,rectangular,orV-shaped term inalby tightly w rapping a
solid-conductorw ire around the term inalw ith a specialtool.
Splice (1)A joint connecting conductors w ith good m echanicalstrength and w hich provide good conduc-
tivity.
(2)A term inalthatperm anently joins tw o orm ore w ires.
Appendix A
Terms and Definitions (cont.)
A-7 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Strain Relief A technique oritem w hich reduces the transm ission ofm echanicalstresses to the conductorterm i-
nation.
Strain Relief Connector *A receptacle connectordevice thatprevents the disturbance ofthe contactand cable term inations.
Strain Relief Clamp An adjustable collar,usually secured by a nutand bolt,thatclam ps the w ire orcable attached to the
connectorso as to relieve the strain on the contactterm inations.See C able C lam p.
Strands, Nicked N icked strands have been partially cut or broken but are stillattached.Severed strands have been
cutorbroken to w here they are no longerattached.
Strands, Scraped Strands have been dam aged due to a stripping instrum entrem oving m aterialfrom strand.
Stress Relief (1) A predeterm ined am ountofslack to relieve tension in com ponentorlead w ires.
(2)*The portion of a com ponent lead or w ire lead that is form ed in such a w ay as to m inim ize
m echanicalstresses afterthe lead is term inated.
Tab (1) The flatblade portion ofcertain term inals.
(2) O n strip term inals,the projection thatresults w hen the point-of-shearis notflush w ith the term i-
nalbody (i.e.,cut-offtab).
Tensile Am ountofaxialload required to break or pulla w ire from the crim ped barrelofa term inal,splice or
contact.
Tensile Strength The pullstress required to break a given specim en.
Terminal (1)A device designed to term inate a conductorthatis to be affixed to a post,stud,chassis,another
conductor, etc., to establish an electrical connection. Som e types of term inals include ring,
tongue,spade,flag,hook,blade,quick-connect,offsetand flanged.
(2)*A m etallic device thatis used form aking electricalconnections.(See also SolderTerm inal.)
Thermocouple A device consisting oftw o dissim ilar m etals in physicalcontact,w hich w hen heated w illdevelop an
EM F output.
Tinned Copper Tin coating added to copperto aid in soldering and inhibitcorrosion.
Tinning *The application ofm olten solderto a basis m etalin orderto increase its solderability.
Tracer Stripe W hen m ore than one color-coding stripe is required, the first (w idest)stripe is the base stripe, the
others usually narrow erstripes,being term ed tracerstripes.
Tray Cable A factory-assem bled m ulticonductororm ulti-paircontrol,signalorpow ercable specifically approved
underthe N ationalElectricalC ode forinstallation in trays.
Tubing A tube ofextruded non-supported plastic orm etallic m aterial.
Wetting, Solder *The form ation ofa relatively uniform ,sm ooth,unbroken,and adherentfilm ofsolderto a basis m etal.
Wire A w ire is a slenderrod orfilam entofdraw n m etal.
Wire Diameter The overallconductorplus insulation thickness.
Wire Wrap See solderless w rap.
Appendix A
Terms and Definitions (cont.)
A-8 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
micrometers
(microns) mm inch
FIVE DECIMAL PLACES
0.05 0.00005 0.000002
0.06 0.00006 0.000002
0.07 0.00007 0.000003
0.08 0.00008 0.000003
0.09 0.00009 0.000004
0.10 0.00010 0.000004
0.11 0.00011 0.000004
0.12 0.00012 0.000005
0.13 0.00013 0.000005
0.14 0.00014 0.000006
0.15 0.00015 0.000006
0.20 0.00020 0.000008
0.25 0.00025 0.000010
FOUR DECIMAL PLACES
0.1 0.0001
0.2 0.0002 0.00001
0.3 0.0003 0.00001
0.4 0.0004 0.00002
0.5 0.0005 0.00002
0.6 0.0006 0.00002
0.7 0.0007 0.00003
0.8 0.0008 0.00003
0.9 0.0009 0.00004
1.0 0.0010 0.00004
1.1 0.0011 0.00004
1.2 0.0012 0.00005
1.3 0.0013 0.00005
1.4 0.0014 0.00006
1.5 0.0015 0.00006
2.0 0.0020 0.00008
2.5 0.0025 0.00010
3.0 0.0030 0.00012
3.5 0.0035 0.00014
4.0 0.0040 0.00016
4.5 0.0045 0.00018
5.0 0.0050 0.00020
5.5 0.0055 0.00022
6.0 0.0060 0.00024
6.5 0.0065 0.00026
7.0 0.0070 0.00028
7.5 0.0075 0.00030
8.0 0.0080 0.00032
8.5 0.0085 0.00034
micrometers
(microns) mm inch
FOUR DECIMAL PLACES (cont.)
9.0 0.0090 0.00036
9.5 0.0095 0.00038
10.0 0.0100 0.00040
10.5 0.0105 0.00041
11.0 0.0110 0.00043
11.5 0.0115 0.00045
12.0 0.0120 0.00047
12.5 0.0125 0.00050
13.0 0.0130 0.00050
13.5 0.0135 0.00053
THREE DECIMAL PLACES
1 0.001 0.00004
2 0.002 0.00008
3 0.003 0.00012
4 0.004 0.00016
5 0.005 0.00020
6 0.006 0.00024
7 0.007 0.00028
8 0.008 0.00032
9 0.009 0.00036
10 0.010 0.00040
11 0.011 0.00043
12 0.012 0.00047
13 0.013 0.00050
14 0.014 0.00055
15 0.015 0.00060
20 0.020 0.00080
25 0.025 0.00100
30 0.030 0.00120
35 0.035 0.00140
40 0.040 0.00160
45 0.045 0.00180
50 0.050 0.00200
55 0.055 0.00220
60 0.060 0.00240
65 0.065 0.00260
70 0.070 0.00280
75 0.075 0.00300
80 0.080 0.00320
85 0.085 0.00340
90 0.090 0.00360
95 0.095 0.00380
100 0.100 0.00400
Appendix B
Metric Conversion Table
B -1 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
micrometers
(microns) mm inch
THREE DECIMAL PLACES (cont.)
105 0.105 0.00410
110 0.110 0.00430
115 0.115 0.00450
120 0.120 0.00470
125 0.125 0.00500
130 0.130 0.00500
135 0.135 0.00530
TWO DECIMAL PLACES
10 0.01 0.0004
20 0.02 0.0008
30 0.03 0.0012
40 0.04 0.0016
50 0.05 0.0020
60 0.06 0.0024
70 0.07 0.0028
80 0.08 0.0032
90 0.09 0.0036
100 0.10 0.0040
110 0.11 0.0043
120 0.12 0.0047
130 0.13 0.0050
140 0.14 0.0055
150 0.15 0.0060
160 0.16 0.0063
170 0.17 0.0067
180 0.18 0.0070
190 0.19 0.0075
200 0.20 0.0080
250 0.25 0.0100
300 0.30 0.0120
350 0.35 0.0140
400 0.40 0.0160
450 0.45 0.0180
500 0.50 0.0200
550 0.55 0.0220
600 0.60 0.0240
650 0.65 0.0260
700 0.70 0.0280
750 0.75 0.0300
800 0.80 0.0320
850 0.85 0.0340
900 0.90 0.0360
950 0.95 0.0380
micrometers
(microns) mm inch
TWO DECIMAL PLACES (cont.)
1000 1.00 0.0400
1.05 0.0410
1.10 0.0430
1.15 0.0450
1.20 0.0470
1.25 0.0500
1.30 0.0500
1.40 0.0550
1.50 0.0600
1.60 0.0630
1.70 0.0670
1.80 0.0700
1.90 0.0750
2.00 0.0800
2.10 0.0830
2.20 0.0870
2.30 0.0900
2.40 0.0950
2.50 0.1000
2.60 0.1030
2.70 0.1050
2.80 0.1100
2.90 0.1150
3.00 0.1200
3.10 0.1230
3.20 0.1250
3.30 0.1300
3.40 0.1330
3.50 0.1370
3.60 0.1400
3.70 0.1450
3.80 0.1500
3.90 0.1530
4.00 0.1570
4.10 0.1600
4.20 0.1650
4.30 0.1700
4.40 0.1730
4.50 0.1770
4.60 0.1800
4.70 0.1850
4.80 0.1900
4.90 0.1930
Appendix B
Metric Conversion Table (cont.)
B -2 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
micrometers
(microns) mm inch
TWO DECIMAL PLACES (cont.)
5.00 0.1970
5.10 0.2000
5.20 0.2050
5.30 0.2100
5.40 0.2130
5.50 0.2170
5.60 0.2200
5.70 0.2250
5.80 0.2300
5.90 0.2330
6.00 0.2350
6.10 0.2400
6.20 0.2450
6.30 0.2500
6.40 0.2500
6.50 0.2550
6.60 0.2600
6.70 0.2630
6.80 0.2670
6.90 0.2700
7.00 0.2750
7.10 0.2800
7.20 0.2830
7.30 0.2870
7.40 0.2900
7.50 0.2950
7.60 0.3000
7.70 0.3030
7.80 0.3070
7.90 0.3100
8.00 0.3150
8.10 0.3200
8.20 0.3230
8.30 0.3270
8.40 0.3300
8.50 0.3350
8.60 0.3400
8.70 0.3400
8.80 0.3450
8.90 0.3500
9.00 0.3550
9.10 0.3600
9.20 0.3630
micrometers
(microns) mm inch
TWO DECIMAL PLACES (cont.)
9.30 0.3650
9.40 0.3700
9.50 0.3750
9.60 0.3770
9.70 0.3800
9.80 0.3850
9.90 0.3900
10.00 0.3930
ONE DECIMAL PLACE
0.1 0.004
0.2 0.008
0.3 0.012
0.4 0.016
0.5 0.020
0.6 0.024
0.7 0.028
0.8 0.032
0.9 0.036
1.0 0.040
1.1 0.043
1.2 0.047
1.3 0.050
1.4 0.055
1.5 0.060
2.0 0.080
2.5 0.100
3.0 0.120
3.5 0.140
4.0 0.160
4.5 0.180
5.0 0.200
5.5 0.220
6.0 0.240
6.5 0.260
7.0 0.280
7.5 0.300
8.0 0.320
8.5 0.340
9.0 0.360
9.5 0.380
10.0 0.400
10.5 0.410
11.0 0.430
Appendix B
Metric Conversion Table (cont.)
B -3 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
micrometers
(microns) mm inch
ONE DECIMAL PLACE (cont.)
11.5 0.450
12.0 0.470
12.5 0.500
13.0 0.500
NO DECIMAL PLACES
1 0.04
2 0.08
3 0.12
4 0.16
5 0.20
6 0.24
7 0.28
8 0.32
9 0.36
10 0.40
11 0.43
12 0.47
13 0.50
14 0.55
micrometers
(microns) mm inch
NO DECIMAL PLACES (cont.)
15 0.60
20 0.80
25 1.00
30 1.20
35 1.40
40 1.60
45 1.80
50 2.00
55 2.20
60 2.40
65 2.60
70 2.80
75 3.00
80 3.20
85 3.40
90 3.60
95 3.80
100 4.00
Appendix B
Metric Conversion Table (cont.)
B -4 IPC /W H M A-A-620 January 2002
Standard Improvement Form IPC/ WHMA-A-620
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ASSOCIATION CONNECTING
ELECTRONICS INDUSTRIES
ANSI/IPC-T-50 Terms and Denitions for
Interconnecting and Packaging Electronic Circuits
Denition Submission/Approval Sheet
The purpose of this form is to keep
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the industry and their denitions.
Individuals or companies are
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Acceptability of Electronic Assemblies
The industrys most widely used acceptability document. IPC-A-610C illustrates
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Requirements for Soldered Electrical and Electronic Assemblies
Its the essential companion to IPC-A-610C that contains comprehensive, critical
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Handbook & Guide to Supplement J-STD-001 with Amendment 1
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Wire Harness Assembly Methods Video
A visual introduction to the wire harness manufacturing process that explains basic
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Introduction to Wire Crimping Video
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criteria for open and closed barrel crimps.
Wire Preparation Video
A visual introduction to wire preparation for wire harness manufacturing. Explains wire
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Related IPC Documents and Videos
IPC-A-610C
IPC/EIA J-STD-001C
IPC-HDBK-001
IPC-EA-100K
VT-56
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VT-59
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