'.


Memo To:
Copies To:
Subject:
Enclosure:
Bel e If c te'f l:,i      
. ,   .
.
Mr. L. Hochreiter
8 March 19.7-7.'
81 :JSD: .'
Messrs. W. Byrd, T. Eidson, G. Grimes,
L. Lortz, O .. K. }'1ccaskill" W. Thatcher
Holes -
Allowal:le Diameter
Table I
,
various maintenance manuals do have a consistent
for al16wqbll; hq.le 55 zes for the four tailboom to fuselage
attachment holes .. ":Also, the manner in which these allowables are
is not qonsistent.
For .. field the Airframe Structures Group rec-
._Dm.mends the maximum allo\-iable hole size be set at .. 015 above ·the---
blue" prin't minimum hole for these attachment holes. It
is suggested that these allowable sizes be pres2nted in
,.tciilboom' s,ection of the ,various maintenance-manuals and hole allow-
ables for both the tailboom- ana. fus.elage be addressed in' this
"
..
The Airframe Structures Group also that bushing of,'
holes by l-iaterial Review.Board <1-IRB) disposition be limited to holes
t.rt'at: exceed one hc:!lf (bl)' the .difference between. the maximum hole
allowed fbI:' wear 'and the maximum blue print hole diameter.
''', ' .
Tabl.e I the   maximum hole diameters for field
.f.\a.ir.tenance ai{d J.iRB o.ction.
..   the aliowable wear limits from Table I to
the Sroup and request that they revise the
maintenance manua"ls accordingly.
-,'
o. Baker
. Group Engineer
Airframe structures
,I'



----
TABLE I
______ -r ___ __ H_O_L_E_S __ - __ __ __ ------__
Maximum Maximum I ..
Model .'
205
206
206L
212
Drawing No.
( Re f • )
205-030-713
2'05-031-801
206-031-003
206-031-004
206-033::-003
206-033-004
212-030-156
212-030-128
urr & Lwr
(4 lIole,s)
Upr & Lwr
(4 Holes)
Upr L.H.
Upr R.H.
D/P I
Hole Size
.501/.506
.376/.381
.376/.378
.376/.378
Allowable Allowab1e
Hole Size Hole Size· -
.(l"!eld Maintenance) (MRS "
, . 'i
• 516 . • :"
• 3 91 • 3 8 6·... "'!:-
. · ' -''''':1,):,'
.391 .384 ,,'
.391
.578
.5).6
.384
.573
.511
.3£1 .386

• 7 50/ • 7 5 6 • 7 6 5 • 7 6' 0
,Lwr L. Ii. & R. H.
.563/ .568·
.501/ ... 506

214 214-030-24B
214-030-314
214-030-315
AII-1G I 209-030-11::
Upr L.H.
Upr R.B.
Lwr L. It. & R. H •
.625/.6jl .640 .635
  .640 .635
.5:01/.506 .516 \ .511
Upr " Lwr
(4'Holes)
-------
Alt-1J I U p,;- L. n • & R. H.
Lwr Tit H, & R. H.
.625/.631
.563/.568
.640
.578
.635
.573
209-031-113
2'0 9 - 0 J 1 - n 7 G
209 .. 031-000
________ r ___________ • _______________ __
All-IS 209-033-002
209-033-114
209-033-810
209-033-811
upr & Lwr
(4 Holes)
506 .516
.511
,

209-031-227 Upr L.H. & R.B. .640
.635,
.573
209-032-000 Lwr L H & R.B. .5'53/.568 .578
(. " \ ___ · __ · ____ ..... ___ ..  
----. ----- t
\.
·0
I
{
Memo To:
Copies To:
Subject:
lNTER-OFFJCE MEMO
Production Airframe Stress
9- March 1978
8l:GRA: jo-705
Messrs. o. Baker, P. Bauer, L. Lortz,
o. K. McCaskill, J. McGuigan,
n.. Pos te: r, r:. Sc r.oq Q!1, H..  
MINIMUM Thickness of Aluminum Airframe Parts
The purpose of this memo is to establish the procedure to use
when specifying thicknesses and conducting analyses on Aluminum
Airframe parts. Airframe Design prefers that we sepcify the
MINIHUH thickness required for structural consideration. There-
fore, the procedure to use for analysis of all Aluminum Airframe
parts with the exception of basic extrusion (shapes), drawn
tubing, and sheet stock, shall be the same as defined for chern
milled Aluminum parts in BHT IOH dated 3 February
1978 and repeated below. Analyses of basic extrusion (shapes),
drawn tubing and sheet stock should be conducted using NOMINAL
dimensions ..
Calculate the required thickness for consideration
based on standard analysis procedures. Specify the MINIHU!t1
thickness to be the required thickness minus the tolerance shown
bela,'; :
Thickness Range Tolerance
.012 to .036 .002
.037 to .045 .003
.046 to .096 .004
.097 to .140 .005
.141 to .172 .008
.173 to .203 .010.
.204 to .249 .011
.250 to .320 .011
Note: If it is possible to hold htcr tolerances
than shown above, use NOMINAL thickness in
the analysis.
The above table is based on the standard tolerances specified
for 36 to 48 inch wide aluminum sheet stock shown in ANSI H35.2 -
1975. It is standard practice to use nominal sheet stock thick-
nesses for analyses with the above tolerances. Therefore, the
same tolerance is acceptable for analysis of other aluminum parts.
Page Ttvo
.l'-\.s an example t
9 March 1978
81:GRA:jo-70S
If you calculate treqd = .035 in., you should specify
tmin = .035 - .002 = .033 in. The tmax will be based
on Design and Manufacturing considerations. The final
analysis will be based on tmin + tolerance from the
table. For our example, the analysis would be
based on tmin + ttol = .033 + .OOL= .035 in.
It is in our best interest to try to influence Design and Manu-
facturing to maintain as tight a tolerance as possible in order
to minimize weight.
G. R. A   Jr.
Group F.nqinccr
Production Airframe Stress

TO:
C:JPIES 70:

Bell Helicopter i i :):1 i it. J : I
INTER-OFFICE MEMO
19 June 1985
81 : .:'1EG : q 1 v- 21 5
T. Attridge, C. Baskin, R. Battles, J. Braswell,
M. Ernest, W. Koch, L. Lortz, M. Lufkin, R. Murray.
P. Patel, G. Perry, J. Reynolds, E. Schellhase,
W. Sundland, K. Tessnow, R. Wardlaw
R .. ';lsmi l1er, R. Barrett, F. House, A. Fountain,
L. Lynch, E. Rose1e"r, O. Sims, H. Thomas
Diagram for Metallurgical :est Locations on Forging/
Cas tin 9 0 r a vii n 9 s
immediately, all new forging and designated casting drawing3
shall include a diagram which defines locations for metallurgical tests.
for grain flow, tensile bars, and microstructure Evaluations,
a sap p 1 i cab 1 e , 5 h a 11 be s hOltm i n th e d i a gram .
r all forgings, a ll?rototype Forging Test Diagram
il
shall be required.
7his diagram will be similar to the x-ray diagram required for most
castings. 1

/0 or :nree reduced size vielt/s of the ;::a(t ''''; 11 be reQuired
:0 grain flow, bar, and microstructure test locations.
','/hich make a critical or primary   part shall have
=n ":<_?AY lHin CONTROL TEST DIAGRAW'. Since these castings
require an x-ray diagram, tensile bar and test
c,)n be snovm on the viettls of the dia"9ram.
one tQl Group will coordinate with Stress, Desi;n Group,
snd Laboratory to determine and designate the
!o be tested. The Metals Grou8 test
on a check print for the Design Group to incorporate on the
drawing prior to submitting to the Check GrouD.
information on the engineering drawing will eliminate oroblems
encoun[ered over the past years.
o Metallurgical test locations designated with design and
stress input will insure that critical or highly stressed
areas are adequately evaluated. This v-1i1l eliminate requesting
additional tests after reviewing forging or
foundry control casting reports.
...

o
o
10 ,June 1985
3 1 : 2·1EG : Cj 1 - 21 S
?age 2
Test locatiol1s on cra'.-/ina \.Ji 11 ::ssure :i1at
ella 1 ua ted t:le same · .. :nen ;Jroduced by ':';:0 v::!ldors ::r '.'ihen
vendors are changed.
for destructive by vendors can be compared and
cantroiled at time or Charges. (:7etalL1rgiC31 f:\/a1uations
vary considerably from vendor to vendor aeoending on the number
of tests they perform. When the same tests are soecified for
each vendor, direct comparison of costs can be
The requirements for the forging and casting teSt diagram · .. ii11 be
incorporated into the DRM at next revision.

Director
Vehicle Design
 
.1. t. llreene
Group Enqineer
j-1etal
,   .. ;;.J.

-,
/ t
Memo to:
Copies to:
Subject:
. BELL HELIC8PTER COMPANY
Inter-Office Heme
Airframe Desi&n Gr.up
5 December 1974
81:LL: 5w-3013
Messrs. R. Alsmiller. Baker, D. Braswell, B. DeLorme,
T. Eidson, E. Fischer, D. Higby, L. Hochreiter.
R. Lynn, O. McCaskill. J. McGuigan. D. Poster
NUTPLATE POLICY IN AIRFRAME DESIGN
It has recently been established that the airframe drawings have an
inconsistency in types of nutplates/hole sizes in both basic structure
and removable panels. This memo is written to clarify the g·roups
position pertaining to structural applications and standardization of nut-
plates. For all future designs the following parameters will be used for
hole sizes and nutplate selection except where structural requirements
dictate a closer tolerance hole to guarantee of the airframe
design. The use of reduced spacing nutplates and regular fixed nutplates
will be used only with the approval of airframe supervision.
For 3/16 inch threaded fasteners using nutplates:
a. In the base structure (frame caps, doublers, etc.), use a .193/.198
diameter hole and a floating type nutplate. Do not attach nutplates
to materials less than .032 thickness for structural application.
b. In the removable pariel/door/structure, .203/.208 diameter hole.
A larger hole might be authorized if stress levels permit.
For 1/4 inch threaded fasteners using nutplates:
a. In the base structure, use a .256/.262 diameter hole and a floating,
type nutplate. Do not attach nutplates to materials less than .040
inch thickness for structural applications.
. h. In the removable panel/door/structure, usa a .264/.270 diameter hole.
A larger hole eight be authorized if stress levels permit.
For 5/16 threaded fasteners using nutplates:
a. In the base structure, usc a .316/.322 diameter hole and a floating
type nutplatc. Do not attach nutplates to materials less than .050
inch thickness for structural applications.
h. In the removable panel/door/structure, use a .327/.333 diameter hole.
.. A'larger hole might be authorized if stress levels permit.

Page 2
For 3/8 inch threaded fasteners using nutplates:
S December 1974
81:LL:sw-J013
a. In the base structure. use a .378/.384 diameter hole and a floating
type nutplate. Do not attach nutplates to materials less than .050
inch thickness for structural applications.
b. In the removable panel/door/structure, use a .391/397 diameter hole.
A larger hole might be authorized if stress levels permit.
-.

-
Memo To: .
Copies To:
Subject:
Bell  
DIVISIOn 01 It:.tlrotl Inc
INTER-OFFICE MEMO
3,.February 1978
Bl:GRA:jo-693
Production Airframe Stress Group
Messrs. o. Baker, P. Bauer, L. Lortz,
O. K. McCaskill, J. McGuigan, D. Poster,
E. Scroggs,.R. Scoma
Minimum Thickness on Chern r4illed Aluminum
Sheet or Wrought Alloys
Due to the increased use of chern milling for weight and cost
reduction, it is necessary to clarify the Structures Group
position on the chern milled thickness to use in analyses and
reports. The following procedure should be used when specifying
thicknesses and conducting analyses on sheet or wrought alumi-
num alloys.
Calculate the required thickness for structural consideration
based on standard analysis procedures. Specify the minimum
. thickness to be the thickness minus the tolerance shown
below:
Thickness
Ransre Tolerance
.012 to .036 .002
.037 to .045 .003
.046 to .09'6 .004
·.097 to .140 .005
.141 to .172 .008
.173 to .203 .010
.204 to .249 .011
.250 to .320 .013
Note: If it is possible to hold tight.er tolerances
than shown above, it is permissible to use
nominal thickness.
The above table is based on the standard tolerances specified
for 36 to 48 inch wide aluminum sheet stock shown in ANSl H35.'2
1975. It is standard practice to use nominal sheet stock thick-
nesses for analyses with the above tolerances. Therefore, the
same tolerance is acceptable for analysis of chern milled aluminum
parts.
I
Page Two
3 February 1978
Bl:GRA:jo-693
As an example,
-
If you treqd = .035 in., you should specify
tmin = .035 - .002 = .0)3 in. The tmax will be based
on Design and Manufacturing considerations. The final
analysis will be based on trnin + tolerance from the
above table. For our example, the analysis would be
based on tmin + ttol = .033 +" .002 = .035 in.
It is in our best interest to try to influence Design and Manu-
facturing to maintain as tight a tolerance as possible in order
to minimize weight.
 
G. R. Alsmiller,
Group Engineer
Production Airframe Stress
\
Jell II , , ;. •
1 Oth   1988
MEMO TO: ALL STRUCTURES AND DESIGN (INCLUDING LIAISON) PERSONNEL,
G.M. GRITZKA, R. FEWS
FROM: A. WATERHOUSE
SUBJECT: USE OF 7075-173 FOR PRIMARY AND CRITICAL PARTS
A copy of the attached memo must be inserted in the rel evant pl ace(s)
of all copies of Structures and Design manuals, i.e. the Airframe Design
Manual, Rotor Systems Design Manual, Landing Gear Design Manual t
Structural DeSign Manual, Fatigue Design Handbook, Rotor Stress Group
Manual, and any other des; gn or anal ysi s gui del ines used.
-
A. Waterhouse
Chief of Structures
Attachment: rOM F. Wagner to Vehicle Design Managers, "Shot-Peening
Requirements for Primary and Critical Parts made from
7075-T73
11
, 27 April 1984.
AW/dd/19/031
e,
S '
I
\,

..
Memo to:
Copies to:
Subj ect:
Bel.' Helicopter' j j:; itt.] :t
OMIIOI'IOf f.-,ron Inc,
INTER·OFFICE MEMO
April 27,.1984
Messrs. B. Alapic, o. Baker, W. Cresap, R. Duppstadt,
s.   E. Roseler
Messrs. C. Davis, M. Glass, R. Lynn, G. Rodriguez,
S. Viswanathan
Shot-Peening Requirements for Primary and Critical Parts
made from 707S-T73
The following normal design procedure is to be implemented on all future designed
707S-T73 parts as a result of a recently completed fatigue committee study:
All primary and critical parts made from 707S-I73 will require
BPS 4409 shot-peening.
Since this is a structural shot-peening as compared to Mil Spec peening, those
parts which require fatigue testing will be tested in the peened condition. Field
repairs of damage will only be authorized in locations on the subject parts which
would not require a peening of the repaired area.
You are requested to inform your designers and insert a copy of this memo into the
DeSign Manual of each appropriate Design Group.
Director
Vehicle Design
..
, .... ,
, .II 'OATt --__ ------
r""'c:. ____ .......... ---_
ftfro;'tT _____ _
.-t:VIS(O ____ -----
IotOO[L
·1
THItEl\DJ::n CONNECTIONS
The {ollo\-,.'ing rules are sta.ted   the case of threaded·
betv.rcen 1'\'0 tubes subjected to axial tensile {orcc. P. For bQlt-and-
nut asscn1blics, the same rul:s apply, by substituting Di = O.
InvestiGate follovling stresses:
(1) Tensile stress in outer tube at root section of thread
ft
p
.'
(2) Ten.sile stress ,in outer tube at relic! groove
(3) Tensile stress in inner tube at root scctiO:1 of thread
." .

..
, .
-e
R(VaStO ______ --__ _ 10400tl.
• ,
"-
,'"<:-
....
/
' \-;


TI-IREJ\DED CONNECTIONS Conttd
"
(4) 'rensilc stress in inner tube at relief groove
(5)
:
..
Shear stres s ac ros s threads. along 2. cylindrical surface having
a diameter c,:,.ual to the lninixnum pitch' diameter •
.
F--" LJf\H_OJ\DED '. -TOO-fH HEiGriT
. .- -'TOADED TOOTH HEIGHT
...
. ,I
Unloaded Tooth Height =   ma.jor diamete:- of tt:be'min'·.!.s
ma)drnum minor dia.metc r of outer tube. (- - :'-
Loa.ded Tooth H clGM ; heiGht mim:..s!j 6
1
'. 0
.
. .
(6) Bearing stress on the surface of contact n.:1d outer
threads.
,
p
where:
L -lcnC!h ,of cn:;."q;cmcnt
diarnctcro! inner tt.:oc •
IJ. () = e 1.1 5 lie inc,. c :l. c i n G i mel c r o! 0 ul e r t l\ be
'.'
..,
"
. '
... DATE: _____ - ___ _
  _________ _
RErORT ______________ __
RCVlStD ________ _
MOOfL, ____________ __
.----.- "' .. _.;.._ .
i
....
Tf-lREi\DED CONNECTIONS Contto.
..
• •
(7) 11:oop compressi.on in inner tube
..
The corresponding elastic decreas'c in ,dia,meter or inner tube is
(8)
&... •
'.
-.
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....
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Hoop tension str'ess in outer tube
'.
'.
... :
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. .
-6 ==2L D -cj
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(On - b) = 1 ..     l":11:10r ci;ln1..:::tcr OL outer
• (D n - c) = : .. Ii n i: n \! i t c h d i:1. nl etc r
(I;:> n - d) }. i rn"'! 1' pit c 11 c1 i :t i 71 etc r
(Dn - c) = )!iuir:-H.!rn root 01 on int"'4cr Lttbc
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Related Interests

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DESIGN STANDARD
- ." ............ al ...... ..,. ..... .,.tftf • ".u .........

STANDARD DESIGN BEND RADII&
AN 0 CONDITION __ r----'r--_"'-_"'-_""--_-I
FOR.'£O AT ROOM T£.MP .012 .. 016 .. 020 .025 .032\.. .. .063}.071 .. 080 .090 .100 .. 125 .160 .190\-250
202 .... 0 .03.03 .06 .06 .0& 1.':9 .09 :;'1:"%"" .1b • .LO .US .25 .25 .Jl • .Ja I ....
  .06 06 06 .09 .12 !.l6 .18 .25 .. 31 .31 .37 .37 .SO .:"S .90 .2S
l 50S !-O ;-:--____ . 03 06 I 06 .06 .. 06 .09 .09 Jig .12 .16 .. 25 ..J8-
u50sr.:Hj4.1 ,,03 03 .06 .06 .06 +.09 .09 .12 .16 .L6 .18 .25 .25 .31 .38 ..56
M 50S .02 .03 ... OJ"I :0:" ,06 09 .09 .09 .l2
I 606 ____ ...... i.06 06 .06 09 09 09 12 ,16 18
N'606:'-T( l .06.06 ..... 06 -,-09 _ .. _12 I 16 ,18 lS 31 31 .l7 .l7 SO.l .75   rt.2S
.l!707s-o .06 .06 .06 .06 .06 1.09 09 .12 .. 16 .16 _18 .25 .. 31 .37_ ...
707i-T{ I .09 .09 .09 .l2 .16 .25 .25 .31 .Ji .37 .50 .50 ,75 .87 ,-SO
. - .09 .I:pi!- .1C!;1I :-25_ :25 :31 .37 I-50 !.1S   -r ::-
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N I. CDHE' C .02tc .e32 .. 0l.4(] .osa .06':' .080 .100 .. 126 .. 177 .200 .225 .250 .3t2
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... *FOR NON-SnucnJRA.t. USE ONLY



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TITANIUM
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TYPE I, COMP A
TYPE I, COMP B
TYPE I, COMP C
TYPE II, COMP
TI'PE II!, COMP
TYPE Illy COMP
SHEET 1 REVISED.
COMMON
DESIGNATION
COMMERCIALLY
PURE
A Ti-SA1- 2. SSn
C Ti .. 6Al-4V
D Ti-6Al-4V ELI
BELL DESIGN STANDARD
BEND RADII-STANDARD
DESIGN
COOE 'DENT .1'40. 91""
Drawinq Number.-
160- 001
SHEET 2 OF 2
.'


Bell Helicopter' i j:, i.t·;:)
STRUCTURAL INFORMATION MEMO NO TBD
July 26th, 1993
MEMO TO:
COPIES TO:
SUBJECT:
BHTI/BHTC AIRFRAME STRUCTURES GROUPS
G.R. ALSMtLLER, K.M. STEVENSON
MINIMUM THICKNESS FOR STRUCTURAL STATIC
ANAL VSIS OF AIRFRAME pARTS.
The purpose of this memo is to establish the policy with respect to the thickness
to be used in structural static analysis and reports.
Analyses of all airframe forgings, castings, machinings and chern-mill parts
shall be conducted using minimum drawing thicknesses. Analyses of stock
material (such as extrusion. drawn tubing, sheet. plate, bar, etc) should be
conducted using nominal thicknesses.
Airframe Structures
BHTI
GUkd
Technology
BHTC
t:
!
'e
\

e
m, )''-f/
-

61,1l.
standard tolerances/sheet and plate
TABLE 7.7 Thickness TolerancesID
",UOYS 20.... 2036, 2124, 2219. 300", SQ.S2. S083,
5086, .51 SA. 5252, 525", $4S6. .5652. 606'. 7075. 7G79, 717.. ....ND
BRAZING SHEET NOS. 11. 12. 21. 22. 21. AND 24..
NOTE: AlSO APPLICABLE TO THE ALLOYS USTED WHEN SUPPLIED AS ALct.AO.
SPECIFIED WIDTH-i ...
0_
O"er : Ow.r Ov.r : O_r Over . Ow«
Sprc.FIED Up ,
.s.c 60 66 i 72 i
78 84
i
90
THICKNESS
thru
thru thru thru thru
I
i
thru thrv thN
In.
18
60 66
:
72 78
!
U 90 96
TOURANCI-in, p'us ..... nUn ••
,001
I
j •••• :

......
.0015
! . - i
.00.4 : .004 j
J
.... I
.005 .005
I
.006
. .006
.007 .009
1
.00S .005
!
.006 : .Q06 Jla1 .011
I .006 .006 .006 .001
I .007
.008 .012
.00 .006 .006 .006 .007 J .007 .012 .012
.0035 .00.4 .006 .006 .006 .007 : .007 .012 .012
.00,( .004 .005 .007 .007 .007 .008 I .008 .016 : .018
.00"'5 ; .0045 : .OOS .007 .001 .007 .008
I .008 .016 : .018
I
0.126·0. t 40
.00.45 ! .0045 I .OOS I .005 iJm .010 .012 .013 j.Ol ... .016 i .018
0.1-41.0.112 .006 I .006 .008
! .008
i .012 .OU .015 .016 .011 j .019
0.173·0.203 .007 ! .007 i .010 ' .010 I .011 .ou .016 .017 ; .017 .017 ; .022
: .009
j .011
! .Q1B
1.02",
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i
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0.439·0.625 .025 .025 .025 i .025
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0.626.0.875 .030 ; .030
1
0030 . .030
1.
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1.
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1.876·'2.250
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1
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i .OBO
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2.751 ·l.ooo .090 .090
I .090
.090 .090 .090 .090 .120 ; .120
! .120 .150
3.00\·-4.000 .110 .110
I
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1 .110
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i .140
.UQ .160
".001·5.000 .125 .IlS .125 .t25
I .125
.125 .125 .150 .ISO .150 .. 160
S.OOI·iI.OOO .135 ! .135 .135 .1l.5 .135 .IlS .135 .160 ! .160 .160 1.170
TABLE 7.9 Width Tolerances SHEARED FLAT SHEET AND PLATE
SPEC1flED WIDtH-id.
SPECIFIED
Up ,hru Ow ... 6 Ow., 24 0'11." &0
tHICKNESS
in.
,
thnI 24 thru 60 ,h,u 96
TCLERANClt.;;-ea.

0.006-0.124
='h6 =¥lz
o. I 25·0.249
=-¥.J2 =lh
.• 99
+o/t, +-Ma
TABLE 7.10 Length Tolerances SHU.IEO FU.T SHEET AND PUTE
SPECtflEO UNGtH-in.
SPECIFIED
Up thru O"er 3Q 0"., 6Q ay., 120 OVM 240 0.,., 360
THICKNlSS
30 tlu" 60 th,u 120 thn. HO thr" 360 tl"" 480
h"
TOLERANCES:1) -i ...
Q.006·0. t 2-'
:: Yi,   =%2
=*6
 
0.125-0.24.9

=¥'!Z

0.2!i0·0.499

+*.
+*6
For all numbertd footnotes, see 120
O".r O"er
96 112
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: .12.5
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0 ... 1' £80
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0.50 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01
0 .. 75 0.00 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02
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3.50
3.75
4.00
..
G. J..()..e':)tr 1/ E lelNlt",t", .. y Th<!'oYy of e { .. st:<. Plo.:tu"
    PrtSr,  


Revision F
"# l1-1--S
·STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
VOLUME I
RESTRICTED DISCLOSURE NOnCE
THE DRAWINGS. SPECIFICATIONS, DESCRIPTIONS. AND OTHER
TECHNICAL DATA ATTACHED HERETO ARE PROPRIETARY AND
CONfiDENTIAL TO BEll HELICOPTER TEXTRON INC. AND  
TRADE SECRETS FOR PURPOSES OF THE TRADE SECRET AND FREEDOM
OF INFORMATION ACTS. NO DISCLOSURE TO OTHERS, EITHER IN THE
UNITED STATES OR ABROAD, OR REPRODUCTION OF ANY PART OF
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SALE. OR USE OF ANY INVENTION OR DISCOVERY DISCLOSED HfREIN
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DISCLOSED TO PERSONNEL OF 8ElL HELICOPTER TEXTRON INC. FOR
THE PURPOSES(S) OF INTERNAL USE AND DISTRIBUTION ONLY.
Bell Helicopter' i i:j i .t • ] : I
Memo To:
Subject:
Bell Helicopter iii:; i it·
DlIiIslOO 01 Inc.
INTER-OFFICE MEMO
27 October 1977
S1:GLJ:jo-666
Holders of Structural Design Manual
Revision A
Changes to the Structural Design Manual made by Revision A are
listed below. Please remove superseded pages and add revised
pages and new pages to your copy_
Revised pages: 2-1, 2-5, 2-6, 3-18, 3-19, 3-27, 3-57, 4-13,
4-17, 6-1, 6-2, 6-44, 6-52, 6-58, 6-63 thru 6-67, 6-80, 6-81,
6-82, 7-50, 8-11, 9-9, 9-24, 10-4, 10-20, 10-22 thru 10-26,
10-37, 10-39 thru 10-42, 10-44 thru 10-47, 10-49, 10-50, 10-52,
10-57, 10-58, 10-71, 10-73, 11-9, 11-10, 11-11, 11-73, 11-74,
12-93, 12-94, 13-5, 13-7, 13-57, 14-10.
New pages: 10-20a, 10-20b, 13-6a.

G. L .. Jor
  Airframe Stress
Approved:
Bell Helicopter' itt i tI.]: I
DIIIISIon of Texlron Inc
MEMO
.-
12 May 1978
8l:GLJ:jo-726
Memo To: Holders of Structural Design Manual
Subject: Revision B
Changes to the Structural Design Manual made by Revision Bare
listed below. Please remove superseded pages and add revised
pages and new pages to ,your copy. Insert this memo preceding the
Table of Contents in Volume I.
Volume I revised pages: Title Page, v, vi, V111, 2-2, 3-4, 3-11,
3-57, 3-79, 4-16, 4-22, 4-23, 4-34, 4-46, 6-11, 6-15, 6-18, 6-24,
6-32 thru 6-36, 6-38, 6-41, 6-61, 6-62, 6-64 thru 6-67, 6-80,
6-82, 6-87, 6-88, 8-5, 9-18, 9-19, 9-34, 9-38.
Volume I new pages: 6-65a, 6-65b, 6-67a, 6-67b, 6-89 thru 6-94.
Volume II revised pages: Title Page, v, vi, viii, 10-7, 10-22,
10-58, 10-70, 10-71, 10-75, 11-74, 12-8.
Approved:
  o::L'
M. J. CGiligan; . /
Chief of Structures Technology
G. an
Experimental Airframe Stress
"
I
Memo To:
Subject:
lleU :tcr ij-:);.j
()IIISlon ollelrronll'lC,
INTER-OFFICE MEMO
9 October 1979
Sl: ELB: jo-908
Holders of Structural Design Manual
Revision C
Please ihsert the following revised pages in your copy of the
Structural Design Manual and insert this memo preceding the
Table o·f Contents in Volume I as a summary of the changes of
, Revision C .
I
\,-'
;";,",,
.... :;i:.:_ •••
. Additional corrections and suggested inclusions may be sub-
mitted to the undersigned for incorporation in the next revi-
sion.
Volume I changes:
Revised Title Page, vi, 2-1, 2-2, 2-3, 2-4, 2-5, 3-2,
3-64, 4-24, 5-2, 6-7, 6-8', 6-54, 7-4, 8-5, 8-6,
9-26, 9-58
Added Pages 6-93, 6-94, 6-95/6-96
Changed Page number 6-93, 6-94 to 6-97, 6-98
Volume II changes: '
Revised Title Page, vi, 10-15, 11-18, 11-25, 11-30, 11-31,
  '13"':23, 13-47
E. L. Brach
Experimental Airframe Stress
APPROVED: .

. ,
. , . .:..
Bell Helicopter i i i hI.]: I
A   01 Ie." nn
INTER·OFFICE MEMO
j.
2 September 1983
8l:DL:wc-1475
MEMO TO: Holders of Structural Design Manual
SUBJECT: REVISION D
Please insert the following pages in your copy of the
Structural Design Manual and insert this memo preceding
the Table of Contents in Volume I as a summary of the
changes of Revision D.
Volume I changes:
Revised Title Page, iii, 2-1, 2-4 thru 2-12.
Added Pages:
2-13, 2-14, 2-15.
Volume II changes:
Revised Title Page, page iii.
Approved:
Manager of Structural Analysis
D. Lindsay
Airframe Structures
Bell Helicopter' i :   i hI.': I j,
INTER·OFFICE MEMO
17 April 1985
81:DL:db-1475
MEMO TO: Holders of Structural Design Manual
SUBJECT: REVISION E
Please insert the following pages in your copy of the Structural
Design Manual apd insert this memo preceding the Table of Con-
tents in Volume I as a summary of the changes of Revision E.
Volume I changes:
Revised Title Page, 3-17, 4-11, 4-24, 5-18, 6-13, 6-39, 6-52,
6-56, "6-59, 6-64, 6-73, 6-82, 6-68, 6-69, 7-19, 7-27, 7-31,
8-3, 8-15, 9-52, 9-113.
Volume II changes:
Revised Title Page, 10-19, 10-21, 10-24, 10-26, 10-28, 10-31,
10-35, 10-39, 10-40, 10-41, 10-45, 10-47, 10-70," 10-71, 11-82,
11-101, 11-112, 11-113, 12-20, 12-.21.
D. L1ndsay (
Airframe Structures
Approved:
Materials
(

MEMO TO:
SUBJECT:
Bell Helicopter' i :t:, i It.]: I
INTER-OFFICE MEMO
Holders of Structural Design Manual
REVISION F
81:JCS:jw-2110
22 October 1987
Please insert the following pages in your copy of the Structural
Design Manual· and insert this memo preceding the Table of Con-
tents in Volume I as a summary of the changes of Revision F.
Volume I changes:
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to 3-83, 4-9, 4-11, 6-6, 6-58, 7-9, 7-11, 7-71.
Volume II changes:
Title Page, Table of Contents, 10-26, 10-41, 10-47, 11-28, 13-7.
J. . S
Structural Methods
Approved:
D. R. Lindsay  
Group Engineer, Structural Methods

STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
TABLE OF CONTENTS
VOLUME I
REFERENCES
[NTRODUCTION
SECTION 1 - PROCEDURES
1.1
1.2
1.2.1
1.2.2
1.2.3
1.2.4
1.3
1 .. 4
1.4.1
1.4.2
1.4.3
1.5
1.5.1
1.5.2
1.5.3
General
Design Coverage
Critical Parts
Flight Safety Parts
Check List for Drawing Review
,Envelope, Source   and SpeCification Control
Drawings
Stress Analysis
Structures Report
Introductory Data
Body of the Report
General Information
Structural Information Memos
Purpose
Preparation
Published SIM·s
SECTION 2 - COMPUTER PROGRAMS
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.3.1
2.3.2
2.4
2 .. 4.1
2.4.2
2.4.2 .. 1
2.4.2 .. 2
2.4.2 .. 3
2.4.3
2.4.4
2.5
2.5 .. 1
2.5.2
2.5.3
General
Computer Facilities
Finite Element and Supplementary Programs
Finite Element Programs
Finite Element Preprocessors and Postprocessors
Approved Structural Analysis Methodology (ASAM)
The LODAM System
The CASA System
CASA System Features
CASA System Architecture
CASA Programs Description
The CPS2TSO System
Other Programs
Miscellaneous Programs
Load Programs Unrelated to Finite Element Analysis
DynamiC Structures Analysis
Fatigue Evaluation
SECTION 3 - GENERAL
3.1
3.1.1
Properties of Areas
Areas Centroids
Revision F
xiii
xv
1-1
1-1
1-1
1-2
1-2
1 5
1-6
1-8
1-8
1-9
1-10
1-11
1-11
1-11
1-11
2 1
2-1
2-1
2-1
2-2
2-5
2-5
2-5
2-6
2-7
2-9
2-12
2-16
2-17
2-17
2-17
2-17
3-1
3-1
i ; ;
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUA.L
TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)
SECTION 3 - GENERAL (Continued)
3. 1.2
3.1.3
3.1.4
3.1 .. 5
3. 1.6
3. 1.7
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3 .. 7
3.8
3.9
3.9.1
3.9.2
3.10
3.11
3.11.1
3.11.2
3.12
3. 12. 1
3.12.2
3.12.3
3.12.4
3.12.5
3.12.6
3.13
3 .. 13.1
3.13.2
3.13.3
3.13.4
3.14
Moments of Inertia
Polar Moment of Inertia
Product of Inertia
Moments of Inertia About Inclined Axes
Principal Axes
Radius of Gyration
Mohr's Circle for Moments of Inertia
Mass Moments of Inertia
Section Properties of Shapes
Bend Radi i
Hardness Conversions
Graphical Integration by Scomeano Method
Conversion Factors
The International System of Units
Basic SI Units
Symbols and Notation
Weights
Shear Centers
Shear Centers of Open Sections
Shear Center of Closed Cells
Strain Gages
The Wire Strain Gage
The Foil Strain Gage
The Weldable Strain Gage
The Strain Gage Rosette
Strain Gage Temperature Compensation
Stress Determination from Strain Measurements
Acoustics and Vibrations
Uniform Beams
Rectangular Plates
Columns
Stress and Strain in Vibrating Plates
Bell Process Standards
SECTION 4 - INTERACTION
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.4.1
4.4.2
4.5
4.S.1
iv
Material Failures
Theories of Failures
Determination of Principal Stresses
Interaction of Stresses
Procedure for M.S .. For Two Loads Acting
Procedure for M.S. for Three loads Acting
Compact Structures
Biaxial Stress Interaction Relationships
3-2
3-3
3-5
3-6
3-7
3-7
3-8
3-9
3-10
3-36
3-36
3-36
3-45
3-45
3-45
3-45
3-52
3-52
3-53
3-68
3-70
3 70
3-71
3-71
3-72
3-73
3-73
3-76
3-79
3-81
3-81
3-84
3-85
4-1
4-2
4-3
4-5
4-11
4-11
4-12
4-12

)

)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)
SECTION 4 - INTERACTION (Continued)
4.5.1.1
4.5.1.2
4.5.1.3
4.5.2
4.5.3
4.5.4
4.5.5
4.5.6
Max Shear Stress Theory Interaction Equations
Octahedral Stress Theory Interaction Equations
M.S. Determination
Uniaxial Stress InteractiOn Relationships
Thick Walled Tubular Structures
Unstiffened Panels
Unstiffened Cylindrical Shells
Stiffened Structures
SECTION 5 - MATERIALS
5.1
5.1.1
5.1.2
5 .. 1.3
5.2
5.2.1
5.2.2
5.2.3
5.3
5.3.1
5.3.2
5.3.3
5.3.4
5.3.5
5.4
5.4.1
5.4.2
5.4.3
5.5
5.6
5.7
5 .. 7.1
5.7.2
Genera 1
Material Properties
Selection of Design Allowables
Structural Design Criteria
Material Forms
Extruded, Rolled and Drawn Forms
Forged Forms
Cast Forms
Aluminum A 11 oys
Basic Aluminum Temper Designations
Aluminum Alloy Processing
Fracture Toughness of Aluminum Alloys
Resistance to Stress-Corrosion of Aluminum Alloys
Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Alloys
Steel Alloys
Basic Heat Treatments of Steel
Fracture Toughness of Steel Alloys
Mechanical Properties of Steel Alloys
Magnesium Alloys
Titanium Alloys
Stress-Strain Curves
Typical Stress-Strain Diagram
Ramberg-Osgood Method of Stress-Strain Diagrams
SECTION 6 - FASTENERS AND JOINTS
6.1
6.2
6.2.1
6.2.2
6.2.2.1
6.2.2.2
6.2.2.3
General
Mechanical Fasteners
Joint Geometry
Mechanical Fastener Allowables
Protruding Head Solid Rivets
Flush Head Solid Rivets
Solid Rivets in Tension
Revision F
4-13
4-13
4-17
4-19
4-19
4-19
4-20
4-20
5-1
5-1
5-1
5-3
5-3
5-3
5-5
5-6
5-8
5-8
5-9
5-13
5-13
5-19
5-21
5-22
5-23
5-24
5-24
5-28
5-29
5-29
5-31
6-1
6-1
6-2
6-3
6-3
6-3
6-6
v
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DESlG:N· MANUAL
I I
:""<.. J
Rev i s i on- --
TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)
SECTION 6 - FASTENERS AND JOINTS (Continued)
6.2.2.4
6.2.2 .. 5
6.2.2.6
6.2.2.7
6.2.2.8
6.3
6.3.1
6.3.2
6 .. 3.3
6.3.4
6.3.5
6.4
6.4.1
6.4.1.1
6.4.1.2
6.4.1.3
6 .. 4.1.4
6.4.1.5 _
6.4.2
6.4.2.1
6.4.2.2
6.4.3
6.4.3.1
6.4.3.2
6.4.4
6.4.4.1

6.4.4.3
6.4.4.4
6 .. 4.4.5
6.4.4.6
6.4.4.7
6.4.5
6.4.6
6.4.7
6.4.8
6.4.9
6.4.10
6 .. 5
Threaded Fasteners
Blind Rivets
Swaged Collar Fasteners
Lodcbo 1 ts
Torque Values for Threaded Fasteners
Metallurgical Joints
Fusion Welding - Arc and Gas
Flash and Pressure Welding
Spot and Seam Welding
Effect of Spot Welds on Parent Metal
Welding of Castings
Mechanical Joints
Joint Load Analysis
One-Dimensional Compatibility
Constant Bay Properties - Rigid Sheets
Constant Bay Properties - Rigid Attachments
The Influence of Slop
Two-Dimensional Compatibility
Joint Load Distribution - Semi Graphical Method
Fastener Pattern Center of Resistance
Load Determination
Attachment Flexibility
Method I - Generalized Test Data
Method II - Bearing Criteria
Lug Design
Nomenclature
Analysis of Lugs with Axial Loads
Analysis of Lugs with Transverse Loads
Analysis of Lugs with Oblique Loads
Analysis of Pins
Lugs with Eccentrically Located Hole
Lubrication Holes in Lugs
Stresses Due to Press Fit Bushings
Stresses Due to Clamping of Lugs
Single Shear Lug Analysis
Socket Analysis
Tension Fittings
Tension Clips
Cables and Pulleys
SECTION 7 - PLATES AND MEMBRANES
7 " 1
7.2
vi
Introduction to Plates
Nomenclature for of Plates
6-6
6-10
6-10
6-11
6-11
6-15
6-15
6-15
6-15
6-15
6-18
6-19
6-19
6-19
6-41
6-42
6-42
6-48
6-50
6-50
6-51
6-52
6-52
6-54
6-55
6-56
6-57
6-58
6-60
6-60
6-71
6-71
6-74
6-79
6-79
6-82
6-87
6-93
6-96
7-1
7-1
)

)
)
7 .. 3
7.3.1
7.3.2
7.3.3
7.4
7.4.1
7.4.2
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7 .. 8 .. 1
7.8.2
7.9
7.10
7.11
7.12
7.13
7.14
7 .. 15
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8 .. 6
9.1
9.2
9.2.1
9.2.2
9 .. 2.3
9.3
9.3.1
9.3 .. 2
9.3.3
9.3 .. 4
9.3.5
9.3.6
9 .. 3.7
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)
SECTION 7 - PLATES AND MEMBRANES (Continued)
Axial Compression of Flat Plates
Buckling of Unstiffened Flat Plates ;n Axial Compression
Buckling of Stiffened Flat Plates 'in Axial Compression
(rippling Failure of Flat Stiffened Plates in Compression
Bending of Flat Plates
Unstiffened Flat Plates, In-Plane Bending
Unstiffened Flat Plates, Transverse Bending
Shear Buckling of Flat Plates
Axial Compression of Curved Plates
Shear Loading of Curved Plates
Plates Under Combined Loadings
Flat Plates Under Combined Loadings
Curved Plates Under Combined Loadings
Triangular Flat Plates
Buckling of Oblique Plates
Introduction to Membranes
Nomenclature for Membranes
Circular Membranes
Long Rectangular Membranes
Short Rectangular Membranes
SECTION 8 - TORSION
Torsion of Solid Sections
Torsion of Thin-Walled Closed Sections
Torsion of Thin-Walled Open Sections
Multicell Closed Beams in Torsion
Plas·tic Torsion
Allowable Stresses
SECTION 9 - BENDING
General
Simple Beams
Shear, Moment and Deflection
Stress Analysis of Symmetrical Sections
Stress Analysis of Unsymmetrical Sections
Strain Energy Methods
Castiglianols Theorem
Structural Deformation Using Strain Energy
Deflection by the Dummy Load Method
Analysis of Redundant Structures
Analysis of Redundant Built-Up Sheet Metal Structures
Analysis of Structures with Elastic Supports
Analysjs of Structures with Free Motion
7-2
7-3
7-15
7-27
7-34
7-34
7-37
7-50
7-50
7-58
7-58
7-58
7-58
7-70
7-70
7-74
7-74
7-74
7-76
7-79
8-1
8-2
8-8
8-11
8-14
8-15
9-1
9-1
9-1
9-23
9-24
9-25
9-25
9-25
9-27
9-36
9-40
9-46
9-46
vii
~ .     ~ .   .. -
S,TRUCTURAL DESIGN MANU,AL
TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)
SECTION 9 - BENDING (Continued)
9.4
9.5
9.5.1
9 .. 5.2
9 .. 6
9.6 .. 1
9.6.2
9.6.3
9.6 .. 4
9.6.5
9.6.6
9.7
9.8
9.9
viii
Continuous Beams by Three-Moment Equation
Lateral Buckling of Beams
lateral Buckling of Deep Rectangular Beams
lateral Buckling of Deep I Beams
Plastic Analysis of Beams
Bending About a ~ Axis of Symmetry
Bending in a Plane of Symmetry
Complex Bending
Evaluation of Intercept Stress, fo
Plastic Bending Modulus, Fb
Application of Plastic Bending
Curved Beam Correction Factors for Use in Straight Beam
Formula
Bolt-Spacer Combinations Subjected to Bending
Standard Bending Shapes
9-49
9-51
9-52
9-54
9-58
9-58
9-105
9-105
9-107
9-113
9-113
9-116
9-118
9-118
)
')
)
T- .. ,
(',;,1' \ \
 
STRuc-rURAl DESIGN MANUAL
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I I
SECTION 10 - BUCKLING
10.1 Shear Resistant Beams
10.1.1 Introduction
10.1.2 Unstiffened Shear Resistant Beams
10.1.3 Stiffened Shear Resistant Beams
10.2 Shear Web Reinforcement for Round Holes
10.2.L Doubler Reinforcement
10.2.2 45° Flange Reinforcement
10.3 -Shear Beams with Beads
10.4 Shear Buckling
10.5 Incomplete Diagonal Tension
10.5.1 Effective Area of Uprights
10.5.2 Moment of Inertia of Uprights
10.5.3 Effective Column Length
10.5.4 Discussion of the End Panel of a Beam
10.5.5 Analysis of a Flat Tension Field Beam with
Uprights
10.5.6 Analysis of a Flat Tension Field Beam with
Uprights
10.5.7 Analysis of a Flat Tension Field Beam with
Uprights and Access Holes
Single
Double
5i ng1 e"
10.5.8 Analysis of a Tension Field Beam with Curved Panels
10.6 Inter-Rivet Buckling
10.7 Compressive Crippling
10.8 Effective Skin Width
10.9 Joggled Angles
SECTION 11 - COLUMNS AND BEAM COLUMNS
11. 1
11.1.1
11.1.2
11.1.3
11.1.4
11.2
11.2.1
11.2.2
11.2.3
11.2.4
11.2.5
11.3
11.3.1
11.3.1.1
Simple Columns
Long Elastic Columns
Short Columns
Columns with Varying Cross Section
Column Data for Both Long and Short Columns
Beam Columns
Beam Columns with Axial Compression Loads
Beam Columns with Axial Tension Loads
Multi-Span Columns and Beam Columns
Control Rod Design
Beam Columns by the Three-Moment Procedure
Torsional Instability of Columns
Centrally Loaded Columns
Two Axes of Symmetry
Revision F
10-1
10-1
10-1
10-5
10-13
10-13
10-17
10-17
10-20
10-20
10-21
10-21
10-22
10-22
10-22
10-37
10-42
10-49
10-60
10-69
10-73
10-75
11-1
11-3
11-3
11-18
11-33
11-72
11-72
11-79
11-79
11-100
11-100
11-101
11-101
11-101
ix
TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)
SECTION 11 - COLUMNS AND BEAM COLUMNS (Continued)
11.3.1.2
11.3.1.3
11.3.2
General Cross Section
Cross Sections with One Axis of Symmetry
Eccentrically Loaded Columns
SECTION 12 - FRAMES AND RINGS
12.1
12.2
12.2.1
12.2.2
12.2.3
12.3
12.4
12.4.1
12.4.2
12.4.3
12.4.4
General
Analysis of Frames by Moment Distribution
Sign Convent ion .
Moment Distribution Procedure
Sample Problem
Formulas for Simple Frames
Analysis of Rings
Analysis of Rigid Rings with In-Plane Loading
Analysis of Rigid Rings with Out-of-Plane Loading
Analysis of Frame Reinforced Cylindrical Shells
Frame Analysis by the Dummy Load Method
SECTION 13 - SANDWICH ANALYSIS
13.1
13.1.1
13.1.2
13.1.3
13.2
13.2.1
13 .. 2.1.1
13.2.1.2
13.2.2
13.2.3
13 .. 2.4
13.2.5
13.2.6
13.2.7
13.2.8
13.2.9
13.3
13.3.1
13.3.2
13.3.3
Materials
Facing Materials
Core Materials
Adhesives
Methods of Analysis
Wrinkling of Facings Under Edgewise Load
Continuous Core
Honeycomb Core
Dimpling of Facings Under Edgewise Load
Flat Rectangular Panels with Edgewise Compression
Flat Rectangular Panels Under Edgewise Shear
Flat Panels Under Uniformly Distributed Normal Load
Sandwich Cylinders Under Torsion
Sandwich Cylinders Under Axial Compression
Cylinders Under Uniform External Pressure
Beams
Attachment Details
Edge Design
Doublers and Inserts
Attachment Fittings
SECTION 14 - SPRINGS
14.1 Abbreviations and Symbols
x
11-102
11-102
11-109
)
12-1
12-1
12-1
12"-2
12-5
12-7
12-22
12-22
12-53
12-53
12-91
-
13-1
13-3
13-4
13-7
13-15
13-16
13-17
13-17
13-17
13-21
13-43
)
13-48
13-62
13-65
13-77
13-80
13-101
13-101
13-103
1 103
14-1
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STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL

Related Interests

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TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)
SECTION 14 - SPRINGS (Continued)
14.2
14.2.1
14.2.2
14.2.3
14.2.4
14.2.5
14.2.6
14.2.7
14.2 .. 8
14 .. 2.9
14.2 .. 10
14.3
14.3.1
14.3.2
14 .. 3 .. 3
14.3.4
14.4
14.4.1
14.4.2
14 .. 4.3
14.4 .. 4
14.4 .. 5
14.4 .. 6
14.5
14.5 .. 1
14.6
14.7
14.7.1
14.7.2
14.7.3
14 .. 7 .. 4
14.8
14.8 .. 1
14.8.2
14.8.3
14.8.4
14.8.5
14.8.6
Compression Springs
Design Formulas
Buckling
Helix Direction
Natural Frequency, Vibration and Surge
Impact
Spring Nests
Spring Index (Old)
Stress Correction Factors for Curvature
Keystone Effect
Design Guidelines for Compression Springs
Extension springs
Design Formulas
End Design
Initial Tension (Preload)
Design Guidelines for Extension Springs
Torsion Springs
Design Formulas
End Design
Change in Diameter and Length
Helix of Torsion Springs
Torsional Moment Estimation
Design Guidelines for Torsion Springs
Coned Disc (Belleville) Springs
Design Formulas
Flat Springs
Material Properties
Fatigue Strength
Other Materials
Elevated Temperature Operation
Exact Fatigue Calculation
Spring Manufacture
Stress Relieving
Cold Set to Solid
Gri nd i ng
Shot Peening
Protective Coatings
Hydrogen Embrittlement
SECTION 15 THERMAL STRESS ANALYSIS
15 .. 1
15.1.1
15.2
Strength of Materials Solution
General Stresses and Strains
Uniform Heating
Revision F
14-2
14-4
14-4
14-7
14-7
14-8
14-8
14-8
14-8
14-9
14-9
14-10
14-10
14-10
14-12
14-13
14-15
14-15
14-15
14-17
14-18
14-18
14-18
14-20
14-20
14-22
14-22
14-22
14-26
14-26
14-27
14-28
14-28
14-30
14-30
14-30
14-31
14-31
15-1
15-2
15-3
xi
ST.RUCT.URAlDESIGN MANUAL
TABLE OF CONTENTS (Concluded)
SECTION 15 - THERMAL STRESS ANALYSIS (Continued)
15.2.1
15.2.2
15 .. 2.3
15.2.4
15.2.5
15.2.6
15.3
15.3.1
15 .. 3.2
15.4
15.4.1
15.4.2
15.5
15.6
15.6.1
15.6.2
15.6.3
15.7
15.7.1
15.7.2
15.8
xii
Bar Restrained Against Lengthwise Expansion
Restrained Bar with a Cap at One End
Partial Restraint
Two Bars at Different Temperatures
Three Bars at Different Temperatures
General Equations for Bars at Different Temperatures
Non-Uniform Temperatures
Uniform Thickness
Varying Thickness
Linear Temperature Variations
Restrained Rectangular Beam. Uniform Face Temperatures
Pin-Ended Beams
Combined Mechanical and Thermal Stresses
Flat Plates
Plate of General Shape
Square Plates
Flat Plates with Uniform Heating
Temperature Effects on Joints
Preload Effects Due to Temperature
Thermally Induced Loads in Material
Thermal Buckling
15-3
15-3
15-4
15-4
15-5
15-5
15-5
15-6
15 6
15-6
15-7
15-7
15-8
15-8
15-9
15-9
15-9
1"5-12
15-12
15-13
15-15
)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
REFERENCES
1. MIL-HDBK-5, Metallic Materials and Elements for Aerospace Vehicle
Struetures, Department of Defense, 1974.
2. Stress Analysis Manual, Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory,
Wright-patterson Air Force Base, 1969.
3. Astronautic Structures Manual, Structures and Propulsion Labora-
tory, Marshall Space Flight Center, 1975.
4. Griffel, W., Handbook of Formulas for Stress and Strain, Frederick
Ungar Publishing Company, 1966.
5. Roark, R. J., Formulas for Stress and Strain, McGraw-Hill Book
Company, 1965.
6. Baker, E': H., Capelli, A. P., Kovalevsky, L., Rish, F. L., and
Verette, R. M., Shell Analysis Manual, North American Aviation,
Inc., SID-66-398, 1966.
7. Reissner, E., On the Theory of Thin Elastic Shells, H. Reissner
Anniversary Volume, 1949.
8. Clarke, R. A., On the Theory of Thin" Elastic Toroidal Shells,
Journal of Mathematics and Physics, Volume 29, 1950.
9. Ramberg, W. and Osgood, W., Description of Stress-Strain Curves
by Three Parameters, NACA TN 902, 1943.
10. Switzky, H., Forray, M., and Newman, M., Thermo-Structural Analy-
sis Manual, Technical Report Number WADD-TR-60-5l7, 1962.
11. Gerard, G. and Becker, H., Handbook of Structural Stability,
Part I - Buckling of Flat Plates, NACA TN 3781, 1957.
12. Becker, H., Handbook of Structural Stability, Part II - Buckling
of Composite Elements, NACA TN 3782, 1957.
13. MIL-STD-29A, Drawing Reiuirements for Mechanical Springs, U. s.
Govt. printing Office, 962.
14. MIL-HDBK-23, Structural Sandwich Composites, Department of De-
fense, 1968.
15. Peery, D. J., Aircraft Structures, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1950.
16. Bruhn, E. F., Analysis and Design of Flight Vehicle Structures,
Tri-State Offset Company, 1965.
xiii
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
REFERENCES (Continued)
17. Niles, A. S. and Newell, J. S., Airplane Structures, John Wiley
and Sons, 1943.
18. Sechler, E. E. and Dunn, L. G. , Airplane Structural Analysis and
Design, John Wiley and Sons, 1942.
xiv
eli
)
INTRODUCTION
The purpose of the Bell Helicopter Structural Design Manual is to provide a source
of structural analysis methods, material data, procedures and policies applicable
to structural design. The data contained herein are largely condensations of   n ~
formation obtained from the Federal Government, universities, textbooks, techni-
cal publications and Bell reports and memoranda. As much as possible the sources
are noted and shown in a list of references at the beginning of the manual.
This manual is intended to provide the structural designer with necessary design
information in the form of equations, curves, tables and step-by-step procedures.
Derivations are purposely omitted to make the manual easier to use. Corrments
and suggestions regarding this manual are encouraged. They should be directed
to the Chief of Structural Technology, Bell Helicopter Textron.
)
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xv /xvi
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
SECTION 1
PROCEDURES
1.1 General
The Structures Technology Section of Engineering has the primary responsi-
bilityof insuring structural integrity of all Bell Helicopter products at
minimum weight and cost. To this end, the.following procedures are outlined.
) 1.2 Design Coverage
)
The Structures Engineer must follow a design from its inception. His re-
quirements and suggestions must be submitted to the Design Engineer as the
design progresses. The Structures Engineer must frequently review the work
of the designer and if possible be ready to sign the drawing when it is com-
p 1 ete. I n most cases, no changes shou 1 d have to be made to a draw; ng ,after
it has been submitted to the Structures Group for signature.
Structures Engineers are ,responsible for obtaining concurrence, and signa-
tures where required, of Materials Technology and Fatigue Groups.
Components should be substantiated by using established and recognized stress
analysis methods or by comparison to existing test data. If, for specific
problems design support test data are needed, Structures Engineers should
initiate test requests.
1.2.1 Critical Parts
All parts of the helicopter structure which are subjected to significant os-
cillatory loads, or which are of prime importance to safety of flight, will
come under the heading of critical parts and will be treated as follows:
- All critical parts will be evaluated for static design loading, fatigue,
fretting. corrosion, residual stress corrosion, corrosion
fatigue and other environmental  
- Analysis should include primary and secondary modes of failures as well
as the effects of bearing friction or stiffness under load. 'All such
analysis should be kept in a drawing check notebook.
- any significant design changes, alternate parts or materials will be
reviewed with special care. The requirement for reQualification tests
will be a Joint decision of the Structures Group Engineer and Project
Engineer (and D.E.R. where applicable).
In all tests conducted, the objectives of the test will be stated prior
to the test. where possible, the method of interpretation of test
results will be defined prior to the test. Test results that are
unexpected or unexplained will be pursued to a solution.
1-1
STRUCTURAL DESIGN ·MANUAL
Revision F
- Flight and laboratory test requests should be accompanied by a brief
writeup of expected results where possihle and Lab and Flight Test
personnel will be requested to alert affected groups of any unexpected
results.
- All Structures personnel will work with the Fatigue Group, Materials
Technology Group, Laboratory personnel and the appropriate design group
in the design of new parts to reduce stress concentrations and stress
corrosion susceptibility and to improve fretting characteristics.
- In all new designs, maximum use will be made of service experience from
similar parts of structural. configurations used on previous models.
1.2.2 Flight Safety Parts
A flight safety part ;s defined as any part, assemblj or installation whose
failure, malfunction or absence could cause loss or seiious damage to the
aircraft and/or serious injury or death to the occupants or group support
personnel.
A part is considered a FSP if item 1.2.2.1 is affirmative and anyone of item
1.2.2.2 is affirmative.
1.2.2.1 Primary failure or malfunction affects the safe operation of the
aircraft.
1.2.2.2
a. The part has a predicted or demonstrated finite life.
b. A 10% reduction in laboratory working strength would result in an
unlimited life becoming a finite life.
c. Loss of function could occur due to improper assembly or·operation.
d. Fabrication of the part involves a manufacturing process which, if
improperly performed, has high probability of changing material
properties significantly impacting life.
Flight Safety Parts are further governed by BHTI Requirements Specification
299-947-478. Each FSP must show at least one critical characteristic.
1.2.3 Check List for Drawing Review
The following check list ;s a guide for drawing review:
General Considerations
Are critical net sections okay?
- Take into       reductions for stretched formed parts.
1-2
)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
Be aware of clamp-up stresses and associated stress corrosion problems.
- Account for all local discontinuities and centroid shifts.
Consider all secondary effects such as tension field loads.
Avoid abrupt changes in area.
Use no one-rivet shear clips.
Check for column stability on all compression members.
Stress relieve and heat treat after welding.
- Specify machine finishes.
Design for thermal stresses and strains.
Reduce allowables for temperature.,
Check for no yield at limit load as well as no failure at ultimate since
some materials have low yield/ultimate relationship.
For material allowables. use "A" values with all statically determinate
structures. Use "B" values with redundant structures and structures
designed for crash conditions, if specifically approved by the procuring
agency.
Investigate stiffness requirements.
Check strain compatibility of joined structures.
- Check structural deflection.
- When necessary to use dissimilar metals, design for their use,
especially in joints.
Design for wear, abrasion and fretting.
- Design for corrosion and stress corrosion due to residual stresses.
- Account for friction.
Check for surface treatments such as paint, chrome, hard anodizing,
cadmium, etc.
Proof load parts per specification requirements (such as hoists, control
systems, hydraulics, etc.).
- Make the structure as light as possible.
1-3
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STRUCTURAL DESIGN· MANUAL

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Revision F
- Verify that all processes necessary to the strength of the structure are
properly called out.
Fasteners
Verify that bolt grip lengths are adequate to prevent threads in
bearing ..
Avoid using rivets in primary tension applications.
Make joint critical in sheet bearing rather than of fasteners.
Specify torque requirements on all bolts. Do not use bolts less than
! inch diameter in load carrying capacity without specific approval of
Structures Group Engineer.
- Avoid using blind fasteners in engine inlets or by the tail rotor side
of a fin.
00 not use nutplates with reduced rivet spacing.
Avoid using rivets less than 1/8, inch in diameter in structural
applications.
- Avoid mixing bolts and rivets in shear jOints.
Avoid using tension and shear fasteners as load sharing attachments in
joint design.
Examine hole tolerances and fits.
- Avoid using screws in primary tension applications with repeated loads.
- NAS quality bolts shall be installed in the movable portion of all
control system joints.
- Commercial applications require dual locking devices on threaded
fasteners or analysis to show fail safe with one fastener missing.
Composite Structures
- Verify the use of appropriate adhesive and supporting .BPS.
- Complete and check the destructive test diagram for sandwich con-
struction.
- Assure that appropriate extensions or cutoffs are included for
destructive test of laminates.
Verify that the structure carries the appropriate classification.
1-4

)


STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
Identify critical areas on the destructive test diagram.
- that processes called out will produce the desired structure.
- Verify that the part or assembly carries the appropriate classification.
See the DRM, Section 2H-13 for definitions.
Castings
Verify that the casting carries the appropriate classification.
- Review for approval of weld repair and the associated reduction in
strength. (Reference SIM No.9)
- Verify that x-ray standards are appropriate for the casting classi-
fication.
Identify critical areas on the x-ray diagram.
1.2.4 Envelope, Source Control,   Specification Control Drawings
All Structures personnel who have occasion to sign Envelope, Source Control,
or Specification Control Drawings shall, as a minimum, establish that the
drawing adequately defines the following:
- Configuration
- Mounting and mating dimensions
- Dimensional limitations (interferences)
- Performance (loads, environment, life, etc.)
- Weight limitations
- Reliability requirements
Interchangeability requirements
- Test requirements
- Verification requirements (analysis or test)
- Material limitations (example, no castings allowed, etc.)
- Casting classification if allowed (also casting factor)
- Primary Part designation
- Reference to applicable specification.
1- 5
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Revision
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Also, if special inspections and tests such as x-rays and static tests are
required, the Project Engineer should be alerted so that plans can be made to
procure parts for the required tests.
"Approved Sources of Supplyll or IISuggested Sources of Supply" shall be
approved by Structures only if the proposed vendor item meets all structural
requirements. This may mean vendors must submit stress analyses of their
design or test data as a part of their proposal.
On all Primary Parts or other items with significant structural requirements,
the Structures Engineer shall retain a copy of the approved design, vendor
stress analysis and test data and file this information in the proper drawing
check notebook.
1.3 Stress Analysis
A stress analysis of each component of the helicopter structure ;s required.
The analysis should be in the following format:
- at x 11 paper (BHTI stress pad)
- Analyst1s name (no initials) and date at the top of each page
- Part number of the part being analyzed at the top right hand corner of
each page
- Number all pages (1 of 10, etc.).
Each analysis must contain the following information:
- Sketch of ' the part being analyzed. Should be to scale but must contain
enough dimensions to derive loads or calculate critical sections.
- Free body diagram. Must contain all loads for a particular
Must be in static equilibrium in all views.
- All the loads cases necessary to determine the critical cases for the
part. Various sections of the part may be designed by different loads
conditions. Be careful to identify loads as limit or ultimate.
- Material of which the part ;s made.
- Material allowable stresses and source. The source must be approved by
the procuring agency.
- Step by step procedure for the stress analysis of all failure modes. If
equations being used are not widely recognizable standard stress
equations (i.e., PlAt Me/I, Vqjlt, etc.) the source of the equation must
be stated ..
1-6
)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
- Margin of safety calculation.
Any information which was used in the design of the part must be
included.
- Specify applicable factors (casting, fitting, etc.).
- Assumptions that you made in order to "idealize" a structure, unless
they would be clearly understood by another person.
Calculations that are superseded by a redesign must be clearly marked
"void
ll
or lIobsolete
U
and referenced to the new calculations.
The stress notes must be kept up to date by the Structures Engineer until the
time the engineering drawing is approved by the Structures Group. At this
time the stress notes are filed in a master file from which they will not be
removed. This file is maintained in each project area by the Lead Structures
Eng i neer.
Drawing Tolerances for Section Properties and Stress Analysis
For analyses of basic extrusion (shapes), drawn tubing and sheet stock,
nominal dimensions will be used. Nominal dimensions are defined as those
from which tolerance is added or subtracted. If a dimension is given as
an upper and lower limit, the nominal dimension is the mean value.
For aluminum airframe parts other than those specified above where it is
desirable to specify a min-max thickness, the following procedure will be
used:
- Calculate lne required thickness for structural consideration based on
standard analysis methods. Specify the minimum thickness to be the
required thickness minus the tolerance shown below:
Thickness Range Tolerance Examl2le
.012
.037
• 046
.097
.141
.173
.204
.. 250
to .036 .002 If t (required) .120
to .003 Specify: t (min) = .120-.005
to .096 .004 = .115 in .
to .. 14iJ .005 t (max) may be .125, .130,
to .172 .008 depending on the material
to . 20" .010 thickness tolerance •
t(!   .011
to .320 .013
NOTE: If it ;s possible to hold tighter tolerances
than shown above, use nominal thickness in the
analysis. The Structures Engineer should seek
the closest tolerance possible commensurate with
cost considerations in order to minimize weight.
132 ••.
1-7

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STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
1.4 Structures Report
The following informatipn is submitted as a format for structures reports.
It ;s necessarily a general outline but should be adhered to in order to
produce a document that has clearly defined subject matter, is accurate in
technical aspects and is clearly readable as well as reproducible.
1.4.1 Introductory Data
Preceding the technical content or body of the report is:
a. Title Page - Must contain all authors, group and project approval, OER
approval if commercial, contract number if military and revision status.
b. Revision Status Listing (for a multi-volume report)
c. Revision Summary Page
d. Proprietary Rights Notice
e. A page of individual author signatures (when too numerous for the Title
Page)
f. Table of Contents - must contain all the major section headings and
basic divisions within each section. Each topic will have the approp-
riate page number. If the report is multi-volume, each volume will
contain a full Table of Contents for all volumes.
g. References - (See General Information)
h. list of Figures (not included in reports having less than 200 pages)
i. List of Tables (not included in reports having less than 200 pages)
j. Definitions and Symbols
k. Three-View Drawing (basic design criteria, loads and fuselage reports)
1. Basic Lines Data (loads report and airframe analysis)
m. Sign Convention
n. Table of Minimum Margins of Safety"- On a part with multiple margins,
both high and low, no margin greater than .25 will be Minimum
margins of safety include only the minimums on each part analyzed- and
generally speaking, margins greater than 1.0 are not shown. Discretion
must be used and margins greater than 1.0 may be shown on critical parts
or system such as controls if all margins are greater than 1.0.
1-8
)

)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
o. Introduction - The report introduction should always refer to the Basic
Design Criteria Report as a source of helicopter data, horsepower, C.G.
vs G.   load conditions, load factors, etc.
1.4.2 Body of the Report
The body of the report ;s the structural analysis and should be broken down
into major c'omponents, parts or system and conform to the outl ine as shown in
the Table of Contents. Pages will be numbered sequentially within major
sections; i.e., 1.001 •• , 2.001 •.. , etc. Page numbers for all pages
preceding the body of the report shall be small Roman numerals, as i, iv,
xii .. • •
Stress analysis of components, details or systems:
d. Should be written on Bell stress pad ( originals should always be used
in a report and copies filed in drawing checks or elsewhere).
b. A discussion should precede the analysis of each major component, part
or system. This should include a description of the system or
structures being analyzed, a reference to the loading conditions or
design criteria, a summary of the methods of analysis used, the assump-
tions made and should often include statements regarding parts that are
not analyzed as "being not critical.
11
load configurations or conditions
not analyzed should also be noted as "not critical."
c. Page headings will include nomenclature and part number.
d. A sketch and/or geometry of the part or component being analyzed with
the critical loan condition and load direction shown. Reactions shall
be shown lne part or component will be statically balanced. When
the axis shown should conform to the helicopter sign con-
vention in the preface of the report, location of the part should be
identified in d positive manner such as W.l.ls, B.l.ts or STA's and when
not clear IIUp!!, II fwd II , etc. should be noted. Should the analysis to
follow include several details, sections, or panels, etc., these should
be lettered for identification.
e. Identification of material(s) and properties. Note the allowable
stresses and/or loads and a leference to the source by page number or
show the computed all ...... able.
f. Special accounting for stress concentrations, cast materials,
fatigue considerations, etc. should be identified together with their
source. These factors will appear not in loads but in margin of safety
calculations. .
g. The analysis is generally written for ultimate loads unless it ;s
necessary to show compliance with limit load or fatigue criteria.
1-9
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
h. A margin of safety or fatigue life calculation concludes the analysis.
The correct should be shown. If a part is loaded in tension and
bending. stress ratios for tension and bending modulus should be
calculated ang a margin of safety based on the sum of the stress ratios
shown. Show margin calculation at the extreme right hand side of
the page. "
i. When the analysis is extensive and it is deemed advisable to summarize
results in a table, shown the tabulated results with reference to pages
from which the results were obtained.
This table of IISummary of Results" should precede the analysis. " The entire
picture is, therefore, shown in the   the "Geometry and Loads
ll
,
and the "Summary of Results"".
1.4.3 General Information
a. Since our reports are reproduced, write with a soft lead for maximum
reproducibility.
b. Extensive usage of flag notes and footnotes is not advised.
c. Adequately reference what you put down; i.e., do not assume the reader
knows where this information came from. Many of our readers are in
foreign countries. When making the reference, give page number as well
as the title. "
d. Use of the Tenses - Computations appearing in the report should be
referred to in the present tense. The past tense is used when referring
to work not appearing in the but which was done as a
prerequisite to data in the report. Do not slip into the present
imperative or past or future tenses. Use the third perso"n throughout.
e. Be neat; do not overcrowd the page.
f. Avoid the usage of 11 x 17 pages, if practical. Proper planning will
minimize this ..
g. A "List of References
u
, nproprietary Rights Notice", a IIRevision
li
page
and a "Distribution List
ll
will be in a1' volumes.
h. Coordinate with the project office and/or contractual data to determine
who is on the distribution list.
i. References should list Bell reports first, generally beginning with the
nBasic Design Criteria", other reports, textbooks such as npeery",
"Bruhn
u
, IlTimoshenko"" etc., MIL-HBDKs, NACA Technical notes and vendor
data, i.e., honeycomb data, bearing catalogs, etc., in the order shown.
j. Discussions, references, general data, table of contents, etc., on all
reports shall be typed.
1-10
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
1.5 Structural Information Memos
1.5.1 Purpose
Structural Information Memos (SIM) are distributed by the Director of
Structures Technology to make new and unique structural design information
available to members of the Structures groups and appropriate design groups.
1.5.2 Preparation
Each new SIM submitted for approval shall include a cover memo addressed to
the Director of Structures Technology, giving a brief synopsis of the
Material. The memo shall be signed by the originator and approved by the SIM
coordinator. The originator of each SIM shall be responsible for
establishing the credibility and accuracy of his information and for
preparing the SIM for distribution. Each SIM shall "stand on its own" and be
thoroughly checked and referenced. Format of the material is left to the
discretion of the originator.
1.5.3 Published SIM's
Previously published SIM's are included in the following pages. The
signatures have been removed, but the originals of the SIM's are available
from structures technology.
1-11
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
STRUCTURES INFORMATION MEMO NO.1
SUBJECT: PROCEgURE FOR STRUCTURES INFORMATION MEMO (SIM)
REFERENCES: (a) As required
(b) As required
ENCLOSURES: (a) SIM Index
(b) SIM Distribution
June 15, 1972
This memo is written to establish a procedure for making new and unique
structural design information available to members of the Structures groups
and appropriate design groups. Much useful information is either generated
or collected by members of the Structures groups during the norma1
performance of their duties. This information ;s usually available to a
limited number of persons and ;s often filed away and forgotten. In order to
prevent valuable information from becoming useless and forgotten, the
Structures Information Memo ;s hereby established as the vehicle for
conveying this information.
The Methods and Materials Structures Group Engineer will be the coordinator
for all SIM's and will assist in determining what information is valuable
enough to publish. He will retain all   will assign SIM index
number, and update the index and distribution list as required.
Each SIM shall include a cover memo, addressed to the Chief of Structural
Design, giving a brief synopsis of the material. The memo shall be signed by
the originator and approved by the SIM coordinator. The originator of each
SIM shall be responsible for establishing the credibility and accuracy of his
information and for preparing the SIM for distribution. Each SIM shall
"stand on its ownl! and be thoroughly checked and referenced. Format of the
material is left to the discretion of the originator, however, it should be
remembered that all SIMas will be considered for incorporation in a
Structures Manual to be issued at a later date. Similar significant
structural information originating in any design group will be welcomed and
handled in the same manner. Any additions or deletions to the distribution
list should be directed to the SIM coordinator.
1-12
)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
STRUCTURES INFORMATION MEMO NO.2
August 27, 1973
SUBJECT: REPORT FORMAT FOR STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
The following information is submitted in an effort to clarify questions
regarding the above subject by persons involving in writing stress Analysis
reports. It is necessarily a general outline but should be adhered to in.
order to produce a document that has clearly defined subject matter, ·is
accurate in technical aspects and is clearly readable as well as
reproducible. This is our product.
1.
2.
Preceding the technical content or body of the report is:
a. Title Page
b. Proprietary Rights Notice
c. Revi s ion Status L; sti ng (when a report has mu 1 t ipl e va lume·s)
d. A ~ v   s   o n page .(blank in a new report except for report number and
volume number in place of page number)
e. A page of individual author signatures (when too numerous to be listed
on the Title Page).
f. Table of Contents (the first numbered page)
g. References (see General Information)
h. List of Figures (not included in reports having less than 200 pages)
i. List of Tab 1 e s (II II II II " II \I II II)
j. Definitions and Symbols
k. Three-View Drawing (basic design criteria, loads and fuselage reports)
1. Basic Lines Data (loads report and airframe analysis)
m. Sign Convention
n. Table of Minimum Margins of Safety
On a part with multiple margins, both high and low, no margin greater
than .25 will be shown. Minimum margins of safety include only the
minimums on each part analyzed and generally speaking, margins greater
than 1.0 are not shown. Discretion must be used and margins greater
than 1.0 may be shown on critical parts .or system such as controls if
a 11 marg; ns are gr·eater than 1.0.
o. I nt roduct i on
The report introduction should always refer to the Basic Design Criteria
Report as a source of helicopter data, horsepower, C.G. vs G. Wt. load
conditions, load factors. etc.
Body of the report:
The body of the report ;s the structural analysis and should be broken
down into major components, parts or systems and conform to the outline
as shown in the Table of Contents. Pages will be numbered sequentially
within major sections; i.e., 1.001 ... , 2.001 ..• , etc. Page numbers
1-13


;,' 1/\ \  

  J.- _\_
Bleil

....... 01"" ..
, ). /
".' / -:f .
Revision F
STRUCTURAL .D.ESIG" MANUA_L
for all pages preceding the body of the report shall be small roman
numerals, as i, iv, xii •..
3. Stress analysis of components, details or systems:
a. Should be written on Bell stress pad (see example on page 1-12;
originals should always be used in a report and copies filed in drawing
checks or elsewhere).
b. A discussion should precede the analysis of each major component, part
or system. This should include a description of the system or structure
being analyzed, a refetence to loading conditions or design
criteria. a summary of the methods of analysis used, the assumptions
made and should often include statements regarding parts that are not
analyzed as "being not Load configurations or conditions
analyzed should also be noted as "not critical". .
c. Page headings will include nomenclature and part number. (See example
on page 1-16).
d. A sketch and/or geometry of the part or component being analyzed with
the critical load condition and load direction shown. Reactions shall
be shown and the part or component will be statically balariced. When
possible the axis shown should conform the helicopter sign convention
in the preface of the location of the part should be identified
in a positive manner such as W.L.'s, B.l.IS or STA's and when not clear
"UpU, ufwd
u
, etc. should be noted. Should the analysis to follow
include several details, sections, or etc., these should be
lettered for identification. '
e. Identification of material(s) and properties. Note the allowable
stresses and/or loads and a reference to the source by page number or
show the computed allowable.
f. Special factors accounting for stress concentrations, cast materials,
fatigue considerations
9
etc. should be identified together with their
source. These factors will appear not in loads but in margin of safety
calculations.
g. The analysis is generally written for ultimate loads unless it is
necessary to show compliance with limit load or fatigue criteria.
h. A margin of safety or fatigue life calculation concludes the analysiS.
Show the margin calculation at the extreme right hand side of the page.
No negative margins of safety may be shown; however, zero margins are
acceptable.
i. When the analysis is extensive and it is deemed advisable to summarize
results in a table, show the tabulated results with reference to pages
from which the results were obtained. This table of IISummary of
Resultsil should precede the analysis. The entire picture is therefore
.
1-14
)
s-rRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
shown in the IIDiscussion
lt
, the "Geometry and Loads
ll
, and the "Summary of
Results
lt

4. General Information
a. Since our reports are reproduced, write with a soft lead, such as "F"
grade for maximum reproducibility.
b. Extensive usage of flag notes and footnotes is not advised.
) c. Adequately reference what you put down; i.e., donlt assume the reader
knows where this information came from. Many of our readers are in
foreign countries.
d. Be neat. dont' overcrowd the page.
e. Avoid the usage of 11 x 17 pages, if practical. Proper planning will
minimize this.
f. For multi-volume reports, a complete table of contents will be shown for
all volumes in Volume I.
g. A table of contents for that volume will be shown in volumes other than
Volume I.
h. A "List of References
t
ll
"Proprietary Rights Notice't" a "Revision
u
page
and a UDistribution Listll will be in all volumes.
i. Co-ordinate with the project office and/or contractual data to determine
who is on t ~ e distribution list.
j. References should list Bell reports first, generally beginning with the
"Basic Design Criteria,U other reports, textbooks such as IIPeery,1J
"Bruhn," uTimoshenko," etc., MIL-HOBK's, NACA Technical notes and vendor
data ~   e   Hexcel data, bearing catalogs, etc. in the order shown. Note:
~ Structures manuals from other companies are not legitimate references.
i. Oiscussions, references, general data, table of contents, etc. on all
reports shall be typed.
1 15
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Your Marne Here
MODEL PAGE ___ _
Leave Blank on Com.
ey ____________________
.ell Helicopter' i =t:t i .t., : I
CM EC KE 0 _______ --1
RPT
1-16
I
Add dwg. number part being
analyzed in this box.
TITLE HERE
Leave space for
revision letter later
PART, NOMENCLATURE HERE
I
State loads. detan and location or reference Sect. A., Pg. ___
where this is shown. See 13.
Compute the actual ultimate stress level. gene1al1y from limit loadS,
referencing a report or page number for the loads.
[t may be necessary to compute section loads on the section being
analyzed or to determine and show a static balance prior to computation of
the stress level.
Compute an allowable or state a reference for the allowables being used.
State limit loads and yield a110wables when these are used to prove structure
is non-yielding at limit load.
State the margin of safety.
This is the pyrpose and conclusion of the analysis. Be sure to include
fitting factors, casting factors in the M.S. and so state
9
i.e. t lIusing l.15
fitting factor
u
• State which formula is used such as.
M.S .. =
1
-1 =
(R
t
+ R.) (Factor)
+.xx
L
Conftne the analysiS within these limits and thereby preserve the
neatness of the report
• Vl,e Of disclosure of aata 01'1 this polqe 1\   to the reUrlctlon on tl'le ,We Olloqe.
Cl

)
.7
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
STRUCTURES INFORMATION MEMO NO.3
August 28, 1973
SUBJECT: LOAD SHEETS FOR STATIC TEST OF CASTINGS
This memo is written to standardize the data furnished on the load Sheets
prepared for the Mechanical laboratory and .used by them in the static tests
of castings.
The following   as a minimum. should be included on all Load
Sheets.
1. Title, part no., and name, thus:
CASTING LOAD SHEET
Part No. 204-XXX-XXX-X, Bellcrank, Cyclic Control
2. Indicate loads as 1l1imit" or Uultimate
ll
• Ultimate preferred.
3. Draw sketches of part showing the external load application, direction
and magnitude, and the reactions (usually designed by t
, and ). Sufficient views shall be used to completely define
the critical loading condition. Each view shall show the reactions
necessary to place the part, with its applied external load(s), in a
state of static equilibrium. The loads and reactions shall be the same
as those used in the structural analysis to insure that the part will be
tested in the same manner as it was analyzed. Where moment vectors (
) are used a note shall be included to indicate whether the right or
left hand rule is applicable.
4. When available the report number from which loads and reactions were
obtained shall be referenced. thus:
Ref. Report 205-XXX-XXX
5. A note shall give a brief description of the loading condition! thus:
Loading condition: 8G Forward Crash
6. A note shall indicate the casting factor, thus:
Loads inc1ude a 1.33 casting factor
Where the casting factor is unity, so indicate, thus:
Casting factor of 1.00 is applicable
1-17
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
7. Any other special information necessary to assure that the casting will
be tested as It was analyzed.
8. All Load Sheets shall be prepared on stress pad paper.
An example Load   h ~ e t is attached. Note that the rule for the moment vectors
was omitted.
1-18
\
\

STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
BY -------1 ••• ,lIeIIcopteriitii,t.J:1 MOOEL ____ PAGE __ _
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1-19
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
STRUCTURES INFORMATION MEMO NO.4
27 February 1974
SUBJECT: BOLTS IN MOVEABLE CONTROL SYSTEM JOINTS
In order to avoid the possibility of installing an understrength bolt and to
provide increase resistance to repeated loads. the following policy shall be
implemented on the Model 409, Model D 3   6 ~ Model 301; the production series of
the Model 214 and Model 206L; and all future designs.
- NAS quality bolts shall be installed in the movable portion of all
control system joints.
1-20
)


)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
STRUCTURES INFORMATION MEMO NO.5
12 March 1974
SUBJECT: JUMP TAKEOFF LOADS
  it has come to my attention that we are not addressing the rotor
tilt for the jump takeoff conditions in a consistent manner. In order to
provide a uniform approach, the following procedure shall be followed:
- Assume the helicopter has landed on a slope of specified magnitude ;n
any direction (normally 6°) and executes a vertical takeoff at maximum load
factor for this condition. The rotor tilt will be that which is necessary
to execute this maneuver.
1-21
STRUC.TU.RAL DESIGN MANUAL
STRUCTURES INFORMATION MEMO NO.6
2 August 1974
SUBJECT: DETERMINATION OF FAILURE MODES
ENCLOSURE: Suggested Form for Recording Failure Modes
Beginning with the Model 222, and effective for all future design activity,
the Airframe and Dynamic Structures Groups will establish and maintain a
notebook which shows the first and second predicted failure modes for all
structural elements. The maintenance of these notebooks will be the
responsibility of the lead structures engineer for each project.
The determination of these failure modes will consider static and dynamic
loads along with other contributing factors, such as temperature, corrosion,
and fabrication effects. The primary control will be maintained at the
subassembly level (i.e., engine mount, bulkhead, main beam, etc.). Primary
and secondary failure modes for static and fatigue loading will be determined
for each subassembly. For those elements which are subjected to static or
fatigue testing, the results of those tests will be entered in the notebook.
In addition, any service problems encountered in the production cycle of the
element will be entered. A suggested form for these records is enclosed.
To aid the designer in his determination of these failure modes, the
structural design groups will supply the deSigner with the critical loads for
the structural element under consideration. These will be supplied in the
form of a sketch or free body of the element with the applied loads and
reactions. These loads will be updated as the mathematical model is refined
during the design process.
The establishment and maintenance of these records can mean much in
establishing the rationale for a particular design, tracking its performance
and guiding similar designs in the future. Your cooperation in implementing
the procedure is essential to its success.
1-22
)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
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1-23
STRU,CTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
STRUCTURES INFORMATION MEMO NO.7
8 August 1974
SUBJECT: STRUCTURES APPROVAL OF ENVELOPE, SOURCE CONTROL, AND SPECIFICATION
CONTROL DRAWINGS
It has recently come to my attention that some of the subject type drawings
do not always contain adequate information to allow us to properly validate
the item to the government or the FAA. For example, castings may be
purchased from a Source Control Drawing without proper inspection or test
requirements being fully met within the company_ The Source Control Drawing
may make no reference to x-ray requirements, static test requirements or any
other special inspections required on castings.
Therefore, all Structural Design personnel who have occasion to sign
Envelope, Source Control, or Specification Control Drawings shall, as a
minimum, establish that the drawing adequately defines the following:
o Configuration
o Mounting and mating dimensions
o Dimensional limitations (interferences)
o Performance (loads, environment, life, etc.)
o Weight limitations
o Reliability requirements
o Interchangeability requirements
o Test requirements
o Verification requirements (analysis or test)
o Material limitations (example, no castings allowed, etc.)
o Casting classification if allowed (also casting factor)
o Primary Part designation
o Reference to applicable specification
Also, if special inspections and tests such as x-rays and static tests are
required, Project should be alerted so that plans can be made to procure
parts for the required tests.
UApproved Sources of Supply" or "Suggested Sources of Supplyll shall not be
approved by Structures until we are completely satisfied that the proposed
vendor item does meet all structural requirements. This may mean vendors
must submit stress analyses of their deSign or test data as a part of their
proposal.
On all Primary Parts or other items with significant structural requirements,
the Structures Engineer shall retain a copy of the approved design, vendor
stress analysis and test data and file this information in the proper Drawing
Check Notebook.
,)
)
Revision F
It is hoped that other design groups will use this or some other check list
for processing these type drawings.
1-25
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
STRUCTURES INFORMATION MEMO NO.8
26 February 1975
SUBJECT: EDGE DlSTANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR NAS 1738 AND HAS 1739 BLIND RIVET
INSTALLATION
As stated in MIL-HDBK-5B, paragraph 8.1.4, Blind Fasteners, liThe strength
values were established from test data and are applicable to joints having
values of elD equal to or greater than 2.0. Where ejD values less than 2.0
are used, tests to SUbstantiate yield and ultimate strengths must be made.
1I
On page 1-11 of MIL-HOBK-5B, e is defined as the distance from a hole
centerline to the edge of the sheet and 0 is the hole diameter.
The ultimate and yield strength values for NAS 1738 locked spindle blind
rivets are based on a hole diameter of 0.144 for a 1/8 rivet, 0.177 for a
5/32 rivet, and 0.2055 for a 3/16 rivet, reference MIL-HDBK-5B, Table
8.1.4.1.2{d). The shank diameter for the HAS 1738 and HAS 1739 rivets are
0.140 for a 1/8 rivet, 0.173 for a 5/32 rivet, and 0.201 for a 3/16 rivet.
Loft and sometimes Engineering Design will dimension edge distances and parts
for the NAS 1738 blind rivet based on two times the 5/32 value (.31) rather
than two times the 0.177 MIL-HDBK-58 value (.36), for example. This practice
results in a rivet edge distance of less than 2.0; therefore, the MI HOBK-S8
strength values in Table 8.1.4.1.2(1) for HAS 1738B rivets are not
applicable.
In conclusion, to ensure the correct edge distance is used when planned
patterns of NAS 1738 and HAS 1739 rivets are installed, Structures Group
recommends that the correct edge distance dimension be specified on the face
of the drawing for rivet patterns rather than using the drawing note that
states rivet elO is equal to two times the rivet shank diameter. Also,
special attention must be given to skin overlaps, and bulkhead and stiffener
flange dimensioning. The edge distance for the countersunk NAS 1739 rivet of
2.5 times the rivet shank diameter is valid because MIL-HDBK-58 "values for
the HAS 1739 rivet are based on two times the hole diameter. The table below
summarizes the recommended minimum nominal edge distance values for NAS 1738
and HAS 1739 blind spindle locked rivets.
1-26
Rivet
. Size
1/8
5/32
3/16
EDGE DISTANCE
NAS 1738 NAS 1739
.29
.36
.41
.32
.39
.. 47
)
SUBJECT:
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
STRUCTURES INFORMATION MEMO NO.9
4 May 1976
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES REDUCTION FACTORS FOR CASTINGS WITH
FOUNDRY WELD REPAIR
REFERENCES: a) BHC Report 599-233-909, liThe Effect of Weld Repair on the
Static and Fatigue Strengths of Various Cast Alloys"
b) BPS FW 4470 - In Process Welding of Castings
c) ASM Technical Report W 6-6.3, IIStatic and Fatigue
Properties of Repair Welded Aluminum and Magnesium Premium
Quality Castings"
Future casting drawings should have a note that permits the in process
welding of castings per BPS 4470. To allow for this weld repair, parts
should be analyzed using the following reductions in allowables.
Reduction Factors for Foundry Weld Repair
Material
Ultimate Yield
Elongation
Endurance
Tensile Tens i le Limit
·356-T6 10% 5% 0 10%
A356-T6 10% 13% 0 10%
AZ91-T6 25% 22% 50% 10%
ZE41-T5 10% 0 50% 10%
17-4 PH 0 2% 30% 10%
In those circumstances where the part cannot be sized to allow for weld
repair throughout the part, a weld map should be provided on the drawing to
indicate those areas which may receive weld repair.
If the entire part is so critical that no weld repair can be permitted and
the part cannot be redesigned, the drawing and all analysis should be clearly
marked "No Weld Repair Allowed". All 201 Aluminum Alloy castings shall be
marked IINo Weld Repair Allowed
ll

1-27
STRUCTURAL DESIGN. MANUAL
STRUCTURES INfORMATION MEMO NO. 10
9 March 1978
SUBJECT: DESIGN CRITERIA FOR DOORS AND HATCHES
Unless otherwise specified in a Detail Specification or Structural Design
Criteria Report, the Structural Design Criteria presented herein should be
used on new designs for the following:
1. Access doors
2. Hinged or sliding canopies
3. Sliding doors
4. Passenger doors
5. Crew doors
6. Cargo compartment doors
7. Emergency doors
8. Escape hatches
All loads associated with the use and operation of doors and hatches
terminated in the latches and hinges and their attachment to the airframe.
The sources of these loads are:
1. Open canopy during approach or taxi operation
2. Gusts
3. Outward push from personnel
4. Air loads
5. Rough handling
1. Open canopy during approach or tax; operation
If a sliding or hinged canopy is used, it should be designed to withstand an
air load from tax; operations of up to 60 kt.
2. Gusts
All doors that are subject to damage by ground gusts and wind loads from
other helicopters being run up or taxied nearby or flown close overhead,
should be provided with a means to absorb the energy resulting from a 40 kt
ground gust occurring during opening or closing. Doors and access doors or
panels that have a positive hold-open feature should be capable of
withstanding gust loads to 65 kt when the door or panel is in the open
position and unattended.
3. Outward push from personnel
Due to possible inadvertent loading by personnel, passenger doors should be
capable of withstanding an outward load of 200 lb. without opening. Also,
1-28
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
doors between occupied compartments shall be capable of withstanding a load
of 200 lb. in either direction without opening. These loads are assumed to
be applied upon a 10 sq. in. area at any point on the surface of the door.
Yielding and excessive deflections are permitted but the door 'must not open.
4. Air loads
The air loads on doors and hatches for helicopters probably are minimal when
compared to the many personnel-oriented loads. The air loads, however,
should be investigated, including the application of the appropriate gust
criteria. All doors should be capable of withstanding air loads up to VD in
the closed position. All sliding cargo and passenger doors should be capable
of withstanding air loads up to 120 knots in the full open position and up to
80 knots in any partially open position.
5. Rough handling
All doors and hatches that are likely to recelve rough handling during their
lifetime should be capable of withstanding loads they are expected to receive
in operation. Passenger and crew doors should withstand a 150 pound load
applied downward at the most critical location without permanent deformation.
All other doors that are unlikely to be stepped on or used as a handhold or
which are marked with a IINO STEP" or liND HANDHOLD
II
decal should withstand a
50 pound load parallel to the hinge pin axes and a 50 pound load
perpendicular to the surface without permanent deformation.
1-29
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
STRUCTURES INFORMATION MEMO NO. 11
16 January 1980
SUBJECT: EMERGENCY FLOAT KIT LOADS
In addition to the existing design conditions, emergency float kit loads must
be developed for the following conditions:
1. Floats in the water at 0.8 bag buoyancy and combined with salt water
drag for 20 knots forward speed. These loads will be treated as limit
loads. These loads will be applied at angles corresponding to the
righting moments, but not to exceed 20°.
2. For skid mounted floats;
1-30
a) A computer drop will be done in a tail down attitude for limit sink
speed. Skids will be checked for a positive M.S. at yield.
b) Crosstubes will not yield with the helicopter in the water, floats
inflated and no rotor lift.
)
)

)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
STRUCTURES INFORMATION MEMO NO. 12
7 August 1981
. SUBJECT: 7050-T73 RIVETS IN LIEU OF 2024-T31 (ICE BOX) RIVETS
7050-T73 rivets will be utilized in lieu of 2024-T31 "00
11
(ice bOX) rivets as
of 20 July 1981. The 7050 rivets can be stored at room temperature, thereby
eliminating numerous problems that exist with the 2024 rivets.
The following policy will be implemented.
1. Manufacturing will utilize the 7050-T73 rivets to supersede the MS
2024600 and MS 204700D rivets (Reference, the SUPER SESSION LIST, BHT
Standard 170-001, Revision "G
II
), effective the target date of 20 July
1981.
2. The 100
0
flush and protruding head 7050 aluminum alloy rivets are
delineated in BHT Standards 110-174 and 110-175. respectively.
3. All new drawings initiated after this date will callout the 7050 rivets
for 3/16 and 1/4 inch diameters. Approval for other diameters MUST be
obtained from applicable Structures and DeSign Group Engineers prior to
utilization.
4. The 7050 rivets "will not" be utilized to replace IIADI! rivets (generally
used in 5/32 inch diameters and smaller) at this time (not cost
effective).
5. The driven shear strengths for both the 7050 and 2024 rivets are
established for an Fsu = 41 ksi. Until MIL-HDBK-5 allowables are
available, 2024-T31 MIL-HDBK-5 data in the 3/16 and 1/4 inch diameters,
for both protruding and 100
0
flush heads, are acceptable for 7050-T73
installations and should be so identified for report referencing. It;s
antiCipated that 7050-T73 MIL-HDBK-5 allowables will be available during
the 1981-1982 time frame.
1-31
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
STRUCTURES INFORMATION MEMO NO. 13
31 August 1981
SUBJECT: FITTING FACTORS, THEIR DEFINITION AND APPLICABILITY
Reference: FAR 29.623, 29.619
A fitting factor is a 1.15 load f   c t o r ~ applied to limit loads, and is in
addition to the 1.50 factor of safety. It accounts for uncertanties such as
deterioration in service manufacturing process variables and unaccountability
in the inspection processes.
For design considerations, a fitting shall be defined as part(s) used in a
primary structural load path whose principal function is to provide a load
path through the joint of one member to another. The connecting means is
generally a single fastener.
A fitting factor is applicable to the fitting, the fastener bearing on the
joined members, as well as the attachments joining the fitting(s) to the
structure. It is particularly considered when failure of such fitting should
not allow load redistribution in a manner that would provide continued safe
flight and that load redistribution cannot be verified by analysis or test.
Obviously then, a fitting factor is applied to non-redundant connecting
members in primary load path applications the failure of which may affect
safety of the aircraft and its occupants. It is applied until the load is
distributed into the surrounding back-up structure to which the fitting ;s
attached.
A fitting factor is not applicable to:
a) Crash load factors that are the only design condition and/or crash load
factors that exceed limit load factors x 1.5 x 1.15.
b) A continuous riveted joint(s) ;n basic structure when section properties
remain consistent throughout the joint and the joint consists of
approved practices and methods such as splices of main beam caps -
riveted door post caps to bulkheads, riveted skin splice doublers,
continuous riveted skins to longerons, continuous riveted structure such
as bulkheads to beams or intercostals, or frames, etc.
c) An integral fitting beyond the point where section properties become
typica1 of the part. Example, integrally fabricated lug on a forging,
or machining.
d) Welded joints.
1-32
)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
e) To a member when a larger load factor is used such as a larger special
bearing factor, a 1.25 casting factor, a 1.33 fatigue factor, a 1.33
retention factor of seats and safety belts.
f) Systems or structure when they are verified by limit or ultimate load
tests. The fixed control system is an example of this exception.
g) Bonded inserts and/or fittings in sandwich panels.
h) A fitting in redundant connecting members.
1-33
STRUCT·U·RAL :DESIGN'MANUAL
STRUCTURES INFORMATION MEMO NO. 14
25 January 1982
SUBJECT: STRUCTURAL APPROVAL POLICY
Reference: Structures Information Memo No.7 - "Structures Approval of
Envelope. Source Control and Specification Control Drawings"
Structures Group approval of any drawing is defined as structural approval of
all parts called out on that drawing regardless of whether or not they are
Bell designed parts.
It is therefore the responsibility of the Structures Engineer who signs a
drawing to satisfy himself that all components of that drawing, including
vendor part numbers, standard parts and speCification controlled items, meet
Bellis structural requirements for that particular installation. For
components that are defined by Bell Procurement Specification, Specification
Control Drawing or Source Control Drawing, the guidelines of SIM No.7, as
amplified here, are to be followed. The Structures Engineer must be assured
that the controlling Bell speCification or drawing contains adequate
requirements for vendor stress analysis and/or structural test proposal and
results report to assure that strength requirements are met. Provision
should be made for FAA conformity and for Bell witness of testing, if
required.
In the case of a product defined entirely by vendor1s drawings and procured
by their part number, the Structures Engineer must notify the Project
Engineer in writing of the extent of structural sUbstantiation by analysis or
testing required from the vendor. Provision should be made for FAA
conformity and for Bell witness of testing, if required. It must be made
clear that drawing approval ;s contingent upon successful completion of
analysis or testing and submittal of these data for structures approval. If
Bell testing is indicated, EWAs and schedules must be written to establish
these tests.
1-34

)
~ \
    ~ .   . . STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
STRUCTURES INFORMATION MEMO NO. 15
(This memo is not published)
)
1-35
SUBJECT:
Reference:
STR.U·CTURAL .DESIGN MANUAL
STRUCTURES INFORMATION MEMO NO. 16
22 February 1983
PROPERTIES FOR CRES 17-4 PH CASTINGS
(a) MIL-HDBK-5
t
51st Meeting Agenda, Item 79-21, "Design
Allowables (Derived Properties) for 17-4PH (HIOOO)
Castings
t
" April 1981, Pg. 2-166 Attached
MIL-HOBK-5 does not currently contain shear and bearing properties for 17-4PH
castings. Properties to be used for analysis of 17-4PH castings shall be as
shown in Table I. This table includes properties for the two recommended
and most often used tensile strength ranges at BHTI. Properties for 17-4PH
castings in the tensile range of 150-170 KSI per Reference (a) have been
derived for and approved by the Mll-HDBK-5 committee. These properties are
scheduled for inclusion in MIl-HDBK-5, Revision D.
The properties in Table I were established or derived as follows:
(1) Tensile Ultimate - Minimum tensile strengths and tensile strength ranges
are those most commonly used at SHTI.
(2) Tensile Yield - Tensile yield strengths were established by comparing
yield to ultimate ratios obtained from a large quantity of tensile test
results. Test data from separately cast test bars and bars cut from
castings were evaluated. These data came primarily from lot
certifications submitted to BHTI by casting suppliers. Tensile yield
strengths shall be 20 KSI lower than the ultimate tensile for tensile
strengths equal to or less than 155 KSI minimum and 25 KSI for tensile
strengths greater than 155 KSI minimum.
(3) Tensile Range of 155-175 KSI - Properties for compressive yield, shear
and bearing for the tensile range of 155-175 KSI in Table I were derived
by direct ratio of Reference (a) properties with ultimate tensile
strengths as reference.
(4) Tensile Range of 170-200 KSI - Properties for compressive yield, shear
and bearing for the tensile range of 170--200 KSI in Table I were derived
by direct ratio of the 155-175 KSI tensile range properties, as shown in
Table I, plus a conservative 5% reduction with ultimate tensile strength
as reference.
Properties for tensile ranges not shown in Table I shall be derived in
accordance with Items (2) and (4) except properties for the tensile range of
150-170 KSI shall be as identified in the attached Table 2.6.9.0(j) of MIL-

HOBK-50. Properties shown in Table I and the procedures herein shall also be  
applicable to 15-5PH castings.  
1-36
• .J
)
)
If/Tr ###BOT_TEXT###quot;\
  ~ ' C . : ~   STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
Applicable casting factors or minimum margins of safety shall be maintained
per appropriate Design Criteria. Note the design approach to minimize or
eliminate static test of castings due to cost and schedule impacts.
TABLE I
*PROPERTIES FOR CRES 17-4PH CASTINGS
Tensile Range
155 - 175 KSI
Ftu - 155
Fty - 135
Fcy - 136
Fsu - 101
Fbru(1.5) - 262
Fbru(2.0) - 340
Fbry(1.5} - 195
Fbry(2.0) - 229
e 8%
Tensile Range
170 - 200 KSI
Ftu
Fty
Fey
Fsu
Fbru (1.5)
Fbru(2.0)
Fbry(1.5)
Fbry(2.0)
e
- 170
- 145
- 141
- 105
- 272
- 354
- 203
- 239
6%
*Some property values may be higher than those
previously derived and shown in MIL-HDBK-SC for
wrought products.
1-37
tf!f0
..
.
/r- +\--:
.4 t - . \

STRUCTU.RA·L DESIGN MANUA.L
Revision F
t June 1983 MIL .. HDBK-5D
TABLE 2.6.9.0U}. Design and Physical Properties of 11-4PH Stainless Steel Casting
Specification II" •• It; <II .. " • " " ....... AMS 5355 AMS 5398
Form ............. , ....... Investment casting Sand casling
Condition .............•... H900 H9.25 Hlooo H 1100 H925
Thickness. in ............... · ..
. .. . .. . .. . .
Basis .....................
Sa Sa Sa Sa Sa
Mechanical properties:
FIIJ . ksi .. " ................... " ...... 180 180 150 130 180
F", ksi .......... " ................... 160 ISO 130 120 150
F(\. ksi .. .. .. . .. . .. " '" .... " ........ · ..
... 132 . .. . ..
Fsu. ksi • .. " ....... 1\ ..... if. • .,. " ...
· ..
. .. 98 .. . . ..
F
bru
• b ksi:
(ej D= 1.5) ........•.... .. . . .. 254 .. . . ..
(e/ D=2.0) .....•.......
· ..
. .. 329 . .. . ..
Fh,p bleSt:
(e/D=l.S) ............. . .. .. . 189 .. . . ..
(e/ D=2.0) ............. · ..
. .. 222' .. . . ..
e, percent .............. "' ........ " .. 6 6 8 8 6
RAt percent ......... " ........... 15 IS 20 15 12
E. 10
3
ksi ... "" ...... t .. ., « .... ., 28.5
Ec.
10) ksi .. ................... ., .. 30.0
G, 10) ksi ............... 12.7
}J ... ;II .......... " ... II .. & ., ......... 0.27
p
hysical properties:
w.lbiin.
J
................ ., ., .. ;II III 0.282 (H900)
C. K, and a ....•...••.•• See Figure 2.6.9.0
'For cast bars. of test specimens machined from caslings shall be as agreed upon by   and suppllef
DIkanng values are "dry pm" values per Scclion 1.4.7.1
(1) This Table is sCheaule for publication in the futu.re MIl-HDBK-5,
Revision 0 ..
1-38

)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
STRUCTURES INFORMATION MEMO NO. 17
24 January 1984
SUBJECT: LATERAL LOAD CRITERIA FOR COLLECTIVE CONTROL
To preclude inadvertent damage from handling. the following additional
criteria will be met on all future collective control systems:
170 pound limit load applied separately
in a horizontal plane inboard or
outboard at the center of the collective
handgrip.
1 39
2.1 GENERAL
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
SECTION 2
COMPUTER PROGRAMS
Revision F
This section presents the computer aided analyses available to the structure
engineers at Bell Helicopter. It provides a brief description of the
computer program systems and associated computer programs. More detailed
information can be obtained from relevant documentation available in the
\ Structural Methods Group.
)
2.2 Computer Facilities
The major computer facilities used by structure engineers are the IBM main-
frame computing system, which utilizes an IBM 3081 and an IBM 3090 computers,
and the TSO (Time Sharing Option) operating system. TSO video terminals.
supporting text and graphics, are located in all engineering departments.
CADAM scopes, the special purpose graphics terminals, are also available for
access to the Computer Aided Design package CADAM.
Depending on the setup of the computer programs, a computer job can be tun in
an interactive mode or a batch mode. The resulting printout and plotting
wil', by default, be sent to the computing center for process, but can also
be routed to one of the local printers if preferred. Permanent datasets are
stored and managed by the PANVALET data base management system. Magnetic
tapes can be used to store large or inactive data, or for exchange of infor-
mation with outside sources (approval required).
A number of VAX super mini-computers and IBM PC's are available for
engineering use. They are usually installed for the purpose of running
certain special purpose programs.
2.3 Finite Element and Supplementary Programs
The finite element method has become one of the most important techniques for
determining structural loads and performing stress analysis for sophisticated
aircraft structures. The two major and very time-consuming steps in the
finite element analYSis are the model generation and output interpretation.
Many finite element preprocessors and postprocessors have been developed for
these purposes. The preprocessors are used for automatic finite element mesh
generation. The postprocessors are used for checking and plotting the model,
as well as sorting, plotting, and processing the results for a variety of
purposes. This section will introduce the finite element programs and their
preprocessors and postprocessors available at Bell.
2.3.1 Finite Element Programs
NASTRAN - General Purpose Finite Element Analysis
I
2-1
 
d/-jt-
.STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
",*LH!oP"I!.R
- ; /
NASTRAN was originally developed by NASA. many enhanced
versions of NASTRAN have been developed thereafter. Bell has two
versions: MSC/NASTRAN and COSMIC/NASTRAN.
The MSC/NASTRAN is developed and maintained by MacNeal-Schwendler
Corporation (MSC). It is a large-scale general purpose digital computer
program which solves a wide variety of engineering problems, including
static and dynamic structural analyses, acoustics, etc., by the finite
element method. MSC/NASTRAN has made many additions and changes to the
original NASTRAN; such as additional elements, composite laminate
analysis, improved dynamic analysis methods, etc.
The COSMIC/NASTRAN ;s the NASTRAN version currently maintained by the
COSMIC. It is more like the original NASTRAN and does not have many
features of MSC/NASTRAN.
ANSYS - Engineering Analysis System
The ANSYS software is developed and maintained by Swanson Analysis
Systems, Inc. It is a large-scale general purpose finite element
program •. Analysis capabilities include static and dynamic; elastic,
plastic, creep a-nd swelling; buckli"ng; small and large def1ections; and
other engineering analyses.
SECR02 - Static Finite Element Program (RPT 599-272-001)
This program utilizes the stiffness approach to perform a static finite
element analysis of a structure. Contained in the program ;s a fracture
mechanics element that calculates the stress intensity factor of a
crack.
2.3.2 Finite'Element Preprocessors and Postorocessors
PAT RAN - Finite Element Preprocessor and Postprocessor
2-2
The PATRAN software is developed and maintained by POA Engineering.
PATRAN has extensive geometric modeling and graphic capabilities. Its
capabilities are numerous but include the finite element preprocessing
and postprocessing; such as creating a finite element model and
presenting the output graphically. PATRAN consists of many processing
modules; including Conceptual Solid Modeling
t
Advanced Geometry
Modeling, Finite Element Modeling, Linear Statics and Dynamics Analysis,
Composite Materials Design and Analysis, Results Evaluation, X-V
Plotting, Engineering Animation, etc. PATRAN itself does not contain a
finite element solver. PATRAN data have to be translated to and from
finite element programs (including NASTRAN and ANSYS) through interface
programs ..

STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
ANASYS Preprocessor (PREP7) and Postprocessor
The ANSYS program has a preprocessor (PREP7) and a postprocessor of its
own. The preprocessor contains mesh generation capability and geometric
plotting. The postprocessor routines will plot distorted geometries,
stress contours, safety factor contours, temperature contours, mode
shapes, time history graphs, and stress-strain curves. The
postprocessor also has the routines for algebraic modification,
differentiation, integration of calculated results, and other functions.
) CADAM - Computer Aided Design Package
)
The CADAM software is primarily a computer aided design tool. However,
its CADAM/FEM module is capable of creating and editing a 3-D finite
element model. CADAM and NASTRAN data can be translated through the
interface programs. The most important advantage of this approach is
that the finite element model of a structure can be created directly
from design drawings so that accurate modeling and time savings can be
obtained.
GIGN01 (old program NASPLOT) - NASTRAN Model Plotter
This program is a NASTRAN postprocessor and will process NASTRAN data
deck directly. It can plot the finite   l   ~   n t model grid points and
element numbers for a specified subsections and arbitrary views. The
program must be executed on a graphics terminal.
SECR64 - Model Generation and AnalysiS of Cutouts in Composite Materials
(RPT 599-162-919)
This program generates a NASTRAN finite element model of a rectangular
orthotropic plate containing popular cutout shapes in.order to calculate
the strains and margins of safety for each lamina.
SECR64 - Model Generator for Rectangular Plates with Circular Patches
(RPT 599-162-922)
This program generates a NASTRAN finite element model of a flat
composite rectangular panel containing a circular hole with a flat
circular composite patch.
SESN04 - Finite Element Model Data Generator for Shells
(RPT 599-162-912)
This program generates a NASTRAN finite element model for any shell type
structure which can be mathematically defined.
SESN05 - Finite Element Model Data Generator for Rectangular Plates, Solids,
and Laminated Plates (RPT 599-162-913)
2-3
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
This program generates a NASTRAN finite element model for a rectangular
plate, doubler stack, or a laminated plate.
SESN06 - Finite Element Data Generator for Pin-Loaded lugs
(RPT 599-162-917)
This program generates a NASTRAN finite element model for   pin-loaded
lug. The hole in the lug can be either concentric or eccentric. The
lug can be modeled with a bushing and a pin.
SE1703 - Finite Element Data Generator for Truss Tailboom
This program generates d NASTRAN finite element model of a truss
tailboom. Arbitrary station input and number of longerons are allowed.
SDSSOl - Unit Inertia Forces and Weight Generator (RPT 299-099-252)
This program uses a WAVES weights file and a NASTRAN grid deck to obtain
an inertia representation of the helicopter. The option is given to
have either weights or equivalent unit inertia forces.
SiSS12 - NASTRAN Critical Loading Selector (RPT 299-099-252)
This program is used with SESBIO and compares the forces and stresses
calculated during the execution of SESBIO. It selects the critical load •
and loading condition for each member in the finite element model. The '
critical loads selected are printed in report format and saved on-tape.
SESN09 - Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams Generated from NASTRAN Force Input
(RPT 299-099-252)
This program uses the inertia loads and corresponding applied loads for
a NASTRAN airframe finite element model to create the shear forces and
bending moment diagram associated with _each given design load condition
and gross weight configuration. The program generates the diagram as
Calcomp plots and tabular tables.
SESN13 - Element Grouping Program
This program groups the NASTRAN output for a particular area of the
structure regardless of the element numbering sequence. It;s
particularly useful for bulkheads, skins, stringers, tailboom, etc.
SESSOl - Automatic NASTRAN Element Sizing
2-4
This program will generate a NASTRAN model with more representative
element size early in a project design phase; A NASTRAN model with unit
element areas is run against a set of design conditions. Selected
elements are sized for these internal loads. New NASTRAN property cards
are punched for rod, bar and shear panel elements.
)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
SESBIO - Basic NASTRAN Airframe Output Option {RPT 299-099-252}
This program transforms NASTRAN output into a form more suitable for
structural analysis. Shear flows, end loads and moments are generated.
2.4 Approved Structural Analysis Methodology (ASAM)
The computer programs approved for structural analysis at Bell are collected
in the ASAM (Approved Structural Analysis Methodology) system. The
documentation for the system overview and individual programs are on file in
the Structural . Methods Group. These documents are also on line of the
computer and can be obtained by request thru a self instructive procedure on
a TSO terminal.
The ASAM software currently contains three computer systems; which are lOOAM,
CASA, and CPS2TSO in addition to separate individual programs categorized
under the title IIProgram
u
• The ASAM system is not static; it is constantly
being revised and expanded. The user should consult the active system for
the latest system capabilities.
ASAM ;s a TSO based system. The user can access the system by logging onto
TSO and entering the command IIASAM"; this will bring the primary analysis
menu to the screen. ASAM is a menu directed system, i.e. by selecting a menu
option the system will display successive menus, for option selection, until
the desired program or function is reached.
It ;s suggested that before using the system the user accesses ASAM to
request for the documentations for system overview and to get familiar with
its menus and structure. In addition, he should request the .documentation
for the program of his interest prior to attempting the analysis. The
documentation of the program includes an explanation of the
theory/methodology, technical references, and major analytical equations
used, if practical. It also contains user instructions for proper execution
of the program, along with example problems with their associated input and
output data. The ASAM documentation can be referenced in the Bell IS official
reports to meet government agency's or customer's requirements.
) 2.4.1 The lOOAM System
The lODAM is a system for structural loads development. This system is
currently under development and will be available for use at a future date.
2.4.2 The CASA System
The CASA (Computer Aided Stress Analysis) system contains a group of matured
analysis programs. It provides the structures engineer with a consolidated
stress information system. The primary goal of CASA is to increase the
efficiency of engineers by reducing the manhours required to perform
structural analysis and to produce reports. The description of the system
and its features. as given next, are general in nature.
2-5
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
2.4.2.1 CASA System Features. The Primary CASA system features are as
follows:
1. A computer stored stress information system accessed through TSO
The CASA System collects the stress disCipline into a computer stored
stress information system. It uses computing facilities to provide the
computations, the utility linkag-es, and the high speeds required to
process the information efficiently. It eliminates time consuming data
manipulations which were previously done by hand. It accomplishes these
tasks within the CASA System itself and also allows access to external
programs and systems such as NASTRAN,   and CADAM.
2. Automated Modular Stress Analysis Programs
The CAS A application are a collection of automated stress
analysis programs with the following features:
- They are structured to be used by both entry level and experienced
stress analysts.
- They all are interfaced bY.the user through interactive menus and
prompting on TSO terminals.
- The inputs to the programs require the minimum amount of manual
calculations.
- The programs create an input dataset when they are run. This dataset
can be edited and used to run the program without the user having to
answer each prompt on an individual basis.
- The programs provide the user with options as to the format of the
output data. He may choose either temporary output format or the
report format (Form 8441).
- The output from .the calculations performed by the programs are
presented on standard formats that are concise and easily understood.
- All application programs provide the user with an automated .system for
the permanent saving of input datasets on the CASA system database.
- The flexibility and applicability of the programs are maintained by
speCifying general solutions of basic theory such as tension,
compression, and shear. When combined with appropriate utilities and
interface, the analysis of airframe fuselage sections, tailbooms,
bulkheads, and mechanical systems can be attained.
3. CASA has self contained tutorial and documentation functions.
2-6
The CAS A system provides an up to date tutorial and set of documentation
for each application program. The tutorial function presents the user
)
4.
5.
6 ..
7.
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
with an introduction, a set of program capabilities and limitations, and
a detailed step by step set of user instructions on how to execute the
program. The documentation function provides the user with a printed
copy of the methodology/description of each option and includes the
necessary graphics.
Report ready formatted output.
Where possible, the CAS A programs perform analysis to the compilation of
margin of safety summaries on an output report format. This format is
the standard stress pad format (including heading, border, proprietary
note, etc.). Where graphics are required space is left on the pages.
This report ready format (8.5 inches by 11.0 inches with holes punched)
is ready for immediate cataloging and inclusion into stress reports.
Each application program presents its output in a standardized, concise,
and readable form.
Secured and protected data and programs.
The CASA system provides the user with an automated system to
permanently identify and save all input datasets that have been used to
produce final report analysis. Once an analysis is designated as a
final report analysis the security function automatically labels it with
all the information required to save it on a permanent database. This
dataset can be recalled and used to rerun the analysis in the future to
obtain the same results. The CASA programs in all revisions are also
saved. In addition, all current programs are protected from
unauthorized changes to the source code. The final report datasets that
are saved on the database are protected from any alteration to their
contents. The database automatically names its datasets to prevent
duplication or overwriting.
Uses structural design manual methods.
The application programs utilize BHT approved methodologies and/or
structural deSign manual (SDM) methods. SDM variable identification ;s
maintained, where   for ease of reference and identification.
Produces reports and documentation suitable for submittal to regulating
and procuring agencies.
The documentation and analysis produced by the CASA system for both
reports and methodology has been formatted and produced in a manner so
that it is suitable for submittal to the FAA and Military authorities.
The methodology for all CASA programs can be found in BHT Report No.
299-099-252, Volume IV.
2.4.2.2 CASA System Architecture. The CASA System architecture (see Figure
1) gives the CASA user an overview of the capabilities of the present (Phase
IV) and future systems. Each item on the figure can be associated with
software that is used by the CASA System in performing its functions. The
2-7
STRUCTURAL DESIGN, MANUAL
COMPUTER AIDED S TRESS ANAL YSIS
CASA EXECUTIVE
MODULE
I I
)
DATABASE/
ANALYSIS
DOCUMENTATION/
EXT . INTERFACES
MODULE
TUTORIAL
MODULE MODULE
ARCHIVAL
I EXlERNAL
I
INTERACTIVE CONTROL
I
USER I ANALVSIS I   ~
~ T A 1 N1ERF AlIS PR(M>llNG I TSO MENUS T U T ~ I A L OUTPUT TATICH
I I
I
I I
NIL-SC NAS'TRAN APPlICATION PROGRAMS
TEJ4'OftAA

Related Interests

1
I
F'lNAL
ANALYSIS REPCRTS

MSC
INTERNAL INTERFACES
r:::t3M
NASl'RN>I
I I I


CADAH
M5IC:
t€5tt
ANALYSES MENUS ANALYSES
DATABASE
esrros •
tCAD
SON ANAl... YSES TUTORIAl. CONTROL. L INtCAGE
LUG ~ PIN ANAlYSIS DOCUMENTATIDN NASTRAN LOADS
e

LOAD CASE SELECTION LOADS TAPE COPYI
SPECS NlN4
FOR DIAS. TEN. SAVE UTILITY
• •
DATA PREPARATIct4 THREE OIMENSIONAl
I:AM C-61 FOR DIAG. T04. fASTENER LOADS
DATA PREPARATION UNSYMETRICAl aEND
[)A.TASETS
...
• DIAG_TEN. ANAL EXTERNAL DAHSET
WAVES
DIAB. TEN. USIfi"G UNSVMETRICAL BEND
EXTERNAL DATASET t DUG TEN
LOAD SELECTION FeR STEP COLUMN 8UCK
AXIAL L St€AR ELEH FOR CONTROL TUBES
)
.. FUT1..AE r:::.APMILITY
AX1AL ELEM. TEN. L REPORT OF OATA&ASE
c:otP. ALLOWAISLES OATASETS
AXlAL £lEM. DATABASE STORAGE
MARQINS Cf!' SAFETY FOR INPUT OATASETS
Sl£AR ELEM. (WEB) SECTION ANAL.YSIS
AlL.OWABLES PROGRAM
StEAR ELEM. C:ONPOSITE JOI NT
MARGINS a: SAFETY ANAL.YSIS
CONTRa.. LINKAGE COMPOSITE BEAM
QEOMETRY PROCESSOR ANAYLSIS
Figure 1. Phase IV CASA System Architecture
.
2-8
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
executive module provides the user with interactive control and interfaces to
the three primary modules: the analysis module, the documentation/tutorial
module, and the database/external interface module. The executive software
transforms CASA into a modern stress information system that will allow
future expansion to be done in a timely and cost effective manner. New
application programs and functions can be plugged into the system and use the
existing software in many of their options.
2.4.2.3 CASA Programs Description
) CV004P(A) - Structural Design Manual Lug and Pin Analysis

)
This program performs a stress analysis for a lug or lug and bolt/pin
combination according to the procedures and methodology presented in
section 6 of this manual.
CV005P - Load Case Selection for Diagonal Tension Analysis
This utility program is used to copy selected load cases from an
Airframe Options Loads Tape to a temporary file. The file will be used
as the NASTRAN input loads for a diagonal tension analysis.
CV006P - Data Preparation for Diagonal Tension Analysis
This program prepares an input dataset for CASA program CV008P (Diagonal
Tension). It prepares the geometriC data, material properties, and the
loads from a NASTRAN Airframe Options Tape for input into the Diagonal
Tension program.
CV007P - Data Preparation with Diagonal Tension Analysis
'This program prepares an input dataset for CASA program CV008P (Diagonal
Tension). It prepares the geometric data, material properties, and the
loads from a NASTRAN Airframe Options Tape and performs a diagonal
tension analysis of the structure.
CV008P - Diagonal Tension
This program uses the methods outlined in NACA TN2661 to analyze a flat
or curved panel that has developed incomplete diagonal tension. The
program is set up to analyze a multi-bay structure with single or
multiple loading conditions. It does not require NASTRAN generated
loads.
CV009P - Load Case Selection for Axial and Shear Element Summaries
This program is used to create a critical loads dataset from an Airframe
Options Tape. These loads are used by programs CVOllP and CV013P (Axial
and Shear Elements Summary) to calculate margins of safety for the
structure.
2-9
STR,UCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
CVOIOP - Axial Elements Tension and Compression Allowables
This program produces the axial element allowable loads for tension,
compression, crippling. compressive yield, and interrivet buckling for
airframe structures. It processes the axial element IDs, geometry, and
material allowables for use by program CVOIIP (Axial Elements Al10wables
and Margins of Safety).
CVOIIP - Axial Elements Allowables and Margins of Safety Summary
This program produces an axial elements' margins of safety summary for
airframe structures. It processes the axial element allowables from
program CVOI0P and combines them with the NASTRAN loads from program
CV009P to produce the margins of safety.
CV012P - Standard, Lightened Hole, and Beaded Shear Web Allowables
This program produces the shear element allowable loads for airframe
structure. It processes the shear element IDs, geometry, and material
allowables for use by program CV013P (Shear Elements Allowables and
Margins of Safety).
CV013P - Shear Elements Allowables and Margins of Safety Summary
This program produces a shear elements
l
margins of safety summary for
airframe structures. It processes the shear element allowables from
program CV012P and combines them with the NASTRAN loads from program
CV009P to produce the margins of safety.
CV014P - Control Linkage Geometry Processor
This program is used as a geometry processor to analyze the kinematics
of a control linkage. It produces the necessary NASTRAN bulk data to
represent the movement of the control linkage. The linkages are modeled
as cranks, idlers, slides, actuators, rods, jackshafts, and mixers by
using modeling operators.
CV015P - Control Linkage Geometry - NASTRAN Loads - Airframe Options
This program is used as a geometry processor to analyze the kinematics
of a control linkage. It produces the necessary NASTRAN bulk data to
represent the movement of the control linkage. The linkage ;s modeled
as cranks, idlers, slides, actuators, rods, jackshafts. and mixers by
using modeling operators. In addition, it calculates the internal loads
and reactions in the control system due to specified input loading
conditions using COSMIC/NASTRAN as a solver.
CV017P - 3-D Fastener Pattern loads
. 2-10
This program calculates the three dimensional loads on a fastener
pattern using rigid body mechanics. It allows weighing of the fastener
)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
areas in proportion to the stiffness that the individual fastener and
its backup structure provides in a given direction.
CVOIBP - Section Properties and Unsymmetrical Bending Analysis
This program calculates the section properties, unsymmetrical bending
stresses, element loads, and shear flows for a single or multiple cell
torque box. It is applicable to standard stiffener/skin and sandwich
constructions.
CV019P{A} - Load Case Selection for Unsymmetrical Bending and Diagonal
Tension Analysis
This program ;s used to copy selected load cases from a Shears and
Moments History Tape to a TSO dataset. This dataset contains t   ~
, NASTRAN loads which will be used by program CV019(B) to prepare a load
input dataset for the program CV019P(C) (Unsymmetr;c Bending Analysis).
CV019P(B) - Data Preparation for Unsymmetrical Bending Analysis
This program prepares an input dataset for program CV019P(C)
(Unsymmetrical Bending Analysis) using input dataset produced by program
CV019P(A) and the geometry data of the structure.
CV019P(C) - Section Properties and Unsymmetrical Bending Analysis
This program calculates the section properties, unsymmetrical bending
stresses, element loads, and shear flows for a single or multiple cell
torque box. It is applicable to standard stiffener/skin and sandwich
constructions. It should be used when a NASTRAN model is available for
the structure and when a diagonal tension analysis follows the
unsymmetrical bending analysis. This program requires a different input
dataset from program CV018P and produces different output.
CV019P{D) - Oat a Preparation for Diagonal Tension Analysis
This program produces an input dataset for program CV019P(E) (Diagonal
Tension Analysis). It combines the geometry inputs with the loads
output from program CV019P(C) to produce the desired input dataset.
CV019P(E) - Diagonal Tension Analysis
This program uses the methods outlined in NACA TN2661 to analyze a flat
or curved panel that has developed incomplete diagonal tension. The
program ;s set up to analyze a multi-bay structure with single or
multiple loading conditions. It accounts for the increase or decrease
in the web buckling allowable due to the compression or tension stresses
in the web.
2-11
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
CV020P - Step Column Buckling for Control Tubes
This program calculates the critical buckling loads for a stepped and
pinned end control tube or column. The program includes empirical
factors to adjust the analysis for control tubes. These factors can be
omitted for columns that are not control tubes. The program only checks
for buckling and not for local instability. It uses the Tangent Modulus
Theory and allows the user to define his own materials.
CV023P - Section Analysis
This program can be used to perform a section analysis on cross section
made from metallic and certain composite materials. It calculates the
section properties, the resultant loads on the section, the resu1ting
stresses/strains of general polygonal sections. It is based on beam
theory as opposed to plate theory.
CS024P - Bolted Joint Stress Analysis
)
This program computes stress distributions on a lamina or laminate basis
for unloaded or loaded (bolt bearing) holes in isotropic or ansitrop;c
materials and predicts failure based on lamina properties and user
selected failure criterion. The program should be used for preliminary
design only. The margins of safety it calculates are approximate
because of the many assumptions made. ~
CS025P - Composite Beam Analysis
This program computes section properties and stresses for a beam of
composite materials with irregular cross-sections using a finite element
method. Section properties include cross-sectional area, centroids,
moments of inertia, location of the shear center, shear coefficients,
torsional constants, and warping constant. The stresses include the
normal stress due to axial force and bending moments and shear stress
due to transverse shear forces and twisting m o m   n t ~
2.4.3 The CPS2TSO System
Most programs, developed at Bell or acquired from outside sources, are not
normally installed into CASA directly. After being checked out and approved
for use, they are normally included in the CPS2TSO system. The CPS2TSO
system does not have all the features of CASA. Each CPS2TSO program has
documentation, but does not produce the results on the final report form. A
CPS2TSO program will be transformed to CASA when it is fully checked for its
reliability and accuracy. The programs currently contained in the CPS2TSO
system are described in the following:
CPSOIP (old program AIRFACTORS) - Airload Distribution on the Fuselage
2-12
The external loadings needed for the structural analysis of airframe
structure include the distributed loads representing the air load
)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
pressure distribution. These airload distributions for various
maneuvers are normally developed form wind tunnel data. The C-81
program determines the contributing inertia force of each mass/weight
item of the helicopter and the applied airloads necessary to balance a
given maneuver. These airloads are applied at the C-81 model reference
point. Program SD5001, or similar programs, calculates a unit airload
distribution for a unit force and/or movement at a reference point. .
Then CPSOIP ;s used to determine the scale factors to apply the unit
load datasets produced by programs like S05001, to produce loads that
are equivalent to the applied airloads from C ~ 8 1  
CPS02P (old program DL3301) - Crack Growth Program
This program analytically calculates the crack growth rates and crack
sizes for flat plates and cylinders under axial loading.
CPS03P (old program NFSN05) - Inertia Scale Factors For Point Loads
This program calculates an inertia scale factor for each of the six
degrees of freedom for each airframe loading condition. In addition,
the forces and moments about the helicopter center of gravity are
computed. These scale factors and the appropriate inertia forces are
combined on a NASTRAN load card.
CPS04P (old program SCAV17) - Composite Laminate Analysis
This program performs a linear point stress analysis for a composite
laminate. It predicts the initial and progressive failures using one of
the selected failure theories. Applied loads include ;nplane forces and
moments, transverse shear, and thermal effects. A library for commonly
used materials has been built into the program in addition to an option
that allows the user to input materials. The output contains laminate
and ply-by-ply strains and stresses, and margins of safety. It can also
produce NASTRAN composite plate data cards, failure envelope plots, and
carpet plots for laminate properties.
CPS05P (old program SFCR02) - Section Properties and Unsymmetrical Bending
Analysis
This program determines the section properties, unsymmetrical bending
stresses, element loads and shear flows for a single cell torque box.
It accounts for sandwich materials, monocoque construction, local
stiffening of element. and allows for a safety factor to be used in
determining the loads.
CPS07P (old program SD5001) - Representation of Forward and Aft Pressure
Distributions by Panel Point Loads
Once the airload distribution acting on a helicopter has been
determined, the task of representing this distribution by means of
concentrated loads at selected panel points remains. This program
2-13
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
distributes the airloads to the panel points for various loading
conditions at a reference point, which ;s usually the center of gravity
location.
CPS08P (old program 5E5002/5E1713) - Engine Loads Program
This program calculates the forces and moments at the engine center of
gravity due to flight maneuvers and gyroscopic coupling of the rotating
components. It uses the engine mass properties and aircraft
accelerations to calculate the engine loads. The program can be used
for single or twin engine aircraft.
CPSIOP (old program SLHW02) - Dynamic Landing Gear Analysis
This program develops the loads in a crosstube landing gear for vertical
and inclined plane landings. 80th conventional crosstube attachments
and the three point attachment with stops are allowed. The user has the
option to have the program develop the load deflection curve or input it
himself. The rotor lift, gross weight, and e.G. may be varied to
analyze more than one landing load case at a time. After the loads are
developed, a stress analysis i.s given that can be used to help size the
crosstube.
CPSllP (old program PB280l) - Plastic Bending Analysis
This program develops the load deflection characteristics and the
internal plastic bending stresses of a cantilevered or a symmetrically
loaded simply supported beam with a tubular cross section. Arbitrary
end loading is allowed with either large deflection or small deflection
theory.
CP512P (old program SP5009) - Pylon Loads Computer Programs
This program calculates the forces on a conventional transmission pylon
system. The forces and moments about the lift links are calculated,
these moments are used to determine which
t
if any, pylon mounts are
bottomed. Based on the stop geometry, the loads on the mounts are
calculated. The program can be executed in a mode that accounts for the
deflections of the pylon system in calculating the moments about the
lift link; or the moments can be calculated assuming the deflections are
negligible. -
CPSI3P (old program ST4101) - Tension Beam Analysis (for Blade Fatigue
Specimens and Masts)
2-14
This program serves as an aid in statically determining an initial set
of loads for a blade fatigue specimen. For a given axial load the tip
moment and shear are determined so that the bending moment distribution
in the specimen approximates a flight loads moment distribution as
closely as a least squares curve fit will permit.
)
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STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
CPS14P (old program TW3301) - Torsional Analysis of Flexures with Rectangular
& I Sections
This program performs an analysis for flexures having rectangular or I
cross sections that vary arbitrarily with spanwise distance. The
stiffening effects due to centrifugal force, elongation of the outer
fibers, and warping restraint due to end fixity are considered and the
maximum shear stress at each section is calculated.
CPS15P (old program NLAMOl) - Simultaneous Linear Equations (High Accuracy
Solution)
This program solves a set of simultaneous linear equations using IMSL
routine LEQT2F, which ;s the linear equation solution ful1-storage-mode-
high accuracy solution routine. The program solves the equations to the
desired accuracy and informs the user of the accuracy achieved.
CPS16P (old program LD2112) - One Dimensional Joint Analysis
This program calculates the distribution of an axial load thru a one
dimensional fastener pattern. It is applicable to a mechanical joint
composed of two similar or dissimilar elastic materials.
CPS17P (old program SRANOl) - Frame Energy Solution
This program calculates the internal shears and moments in a frame or
bulkhead when a set of balanced shear flows and/or concentrated loads
are applied. The solution ;s based upon the assumption that the elastic
energy causing deformation of the frame produces consistent deformation
at any paint.
CPS18P (old program OB1) - Composite Tube Analysis
This program performs an analysis for composite or metal tubes and
columns. It calculates the ultimate buckling loads and the natural
frequencies for the tube or column assuming pin ends. It allows each
segment of the tube to have its own material properties and for this
reason
t
it is preferred for composites. It does not check for local
failures
t
this should be done independently.
CPS19P (old program SDAN08) - Design Loads (with a Panel Point Weight
Distribution)
This program combines a set of external loads and balancing load factors
with the panel point unit shears and moments to produce airframe design
loads.
CPS23P (old program SESE01) - NASTRAN Model Description Report Generator
This program selects and sorts structural member data from a NASTRAN
Bulk Data D e c ~   The selected structure is associated with its defining
2-15
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
grids
t
section properties, and material data. A complete definition of
this data is produced on a report format. The structural members may be
selected by the following means:
Members totally in a region defined by a rectangular parallelpiped
Members which are completely defines by an input grid list
Members whose element IDs are contained in a list
CPS24P (Old program SP2803) - Pylon Support Loads (A Laminate Analysis)
This program calculates the loads ;n the pylon supports and the
resulting applied airframe loads. The rotor loads and airframe
accelerations are used to determine the axial bi-pod loads, the loads
applied the airframe attachments, the mount, and the stop.
CPS25P (old program SESB13) - Shear and Moments Envelope Program
This program plots shear and moment envelopes using specified cases
selected from a SESN09 Shears and Moments History Tape. The enve10pe is
a plot of the maximum and minimum values at each station location. This
program is similar to program SESB13 but it allows two additional
features; a plot heading and a figure deSignation for the plot.
CPS26P - Composite Laminate Buckling Delamination Analysis
This program is designed to assess the capability of a laminate to
resist near surface delamination growth. The delamination is assumed to
exist in a laminate. The strain energy release rate and related
buckling and threshold strains are then calculated and plotted against
the delamination sizes so that a more delamination resistant laminate
can be designed.
CPS27P - The Crippling Strength of Compression Members
This program determines the crippling strength of a compression member
with a simple or complex cross section based on a set of empirical
design curves. The user may select from a number of different design
curves obtained from Bell Design Manuals and U.S. Government Reports.
In addition, the program can develop crippling design curves from the
users own experimental data.
CPS28P - Determination of Aircraft Tiedown Loads
2-16
This program is developed to analyze a tiedown configuration and to
determine the load distribution in the tiedown cables. The significant
features of the analytical model include using a rigid body fuselage
with a flexible tailboom and landing gear s t r u   t u r e s ~ and using one-
directional load carrying springs for cables. This methodology is
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
generalized to be applicable for structures of any configuration
possessing these characteristics.
2.4.4 Other Programs
Individual Programs not appropriate or unable to be incorporated in the above
systems will be included in this category. Possible examples are those
programs of other disciplines or programs without source code and those that
are unable to be transformed to a form compatible with any of the ASAM
systems. This part of ASAM ;s currently under development.
2.5 Miscellaneous Programs
Other miscellaneous programs used by structure engineers are described in the
following:
2.5.1 Load Programs Unrelated to Finite Element Analysis
SOAN02 - Unit Panel Point Shears and Moments (RPT 2 9 9 - 0 9 9 ~ 2 5 2  
This program uses panel pOint weight distribution from computer program
SDCSOI to create unit shear and moment data.
SDAN39 - Shear and Moment Plotting Program (RPT 299-099-252)
This program plots the panel point shear and moment data created by
SDAN08.
SDCSOl - Panel Point Unit Weight Distribution (RPT 299-099-252)
Unit panel paint weight distributions are created using 50CS01. The
program inputs a weights tape and outputs weight distributions to be
used as input to SDAN02.
2.5.2 Dynamic Structures AnalYSis
caCR02 - Rotor Blade Section Mass and Stiffness Properties (RPT 299-099-749)
Airfoil coordinates are extracted from tape storage and used in
calculating mass and stiffness properties for various rotor blade cross
sections.
CSCR02 - Stress Maps for Rotor Blade Cross Sections (RPT 299-099-749)
Bending plus axial stresses are plotted for steady and oscillatory loads
along the outer surface of rotor blade cross sections using airfoil
coordinates from a tape.
2-17
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
2.5.3 Fatigue Evaluation
FFAM06 - Flight Test Data Generator
This program converts measured flight loads in scalor units from a Xerox
530 GOC tape into engineering units. This data can be saved on a file
tape for use with other programs. Output includes span plots, load vs.
airspeed plots, and tab listings of mean and oscillatory loads depending
on the program option chosen.
FFSTOI - Loads-Airspeed Comparison Plot Program
This program allows "Loads vs. Airspeed" plots from different flights,
or different to be plotted together for comparison. Loads are
taken from FECSOl or FECS09 file tapes.
FECR22 - Flight Data Organization Program
This program produces a listing of sorted loads for a given Item Code,
using FEeS01 file tape as input. The user can request_o?cillatory loads
and/or maximum and minimum peak loads. Each gross weight and C.G. ;s
sorted separately and the condition number and altitude "Line" is
with each column.
DLCR04 - Fatigue Life Calculation
This program reads loads from FEeSOl file tape, computes a stress set,
and determines the fatigue life of a component. ,Histogram plots. with
various selection options which apply to plots only, can also be
generated from this program. Part II of the program is used to create;
update. delete and list frequency of occurrence spectra used for
calculation of the fatigue lire.
DLCR2l - Cycle Counted Fatigue Life Calculati6n
This program calculates the fatigue life of a component by considering
the damage caused by each rotor revolution. This;s used with loads
from FFCR03 file tape. This program may also be used as a cycle count
program, producing a cycle count listing and override cards for program
OLCR04.
DACR62 - Harmonic Fatigue Damage
, ,2-18
The purpose of this program is to obtain a summation of damage caused by
various harmonics (up to 9/Rev) within a rotor cycle for a g-;ven record.
The program reads a time history tape digitized continuously at high
rate.
)
"  
)
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STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
DLCSIO - Span Plot-Regression
This program reads FEeSO! file tape and creates span plots for main
rotor and tail rotor blades. A curvilinear regression up to a fourth
order is performed after interrogating the data. Output includes plots
and punched cards for loads at a given span station.
FLASH - Fatigue Life Analysis System for Helicopter
This is a computer software system that was developed to speed up
fatigue life evaluation for helicopter certification. The system uses
the computer to manipulate the data and perform analysis in the fatigue
life evaluation process which consists of measuring the fatigue loads in
flight. comparing these loads to fatigue test data, and then making
computations of the expected fatigue life.
2-19

)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
SECTION 3
GENERAL
3.0 GENERAL
This section, for the most part, deals with sections. Properties of various types
of sections are shown. In addition, conversion factors, graphical integration,
Rockwell hardness, strain gages, etc., are described.
3.1 PROPERTIES OF AREAS
In structural analysis, certain properties of areas are needed, such as location of
the centroid; first moment of the area and the second moment or moment of inertia
of the area with respect to an axis either perpendicular to the area or lying in
the plane of the area and the product of inertia of the area with respect to a set
of perpendicular axes lying in the area. These properties are defined in this sec-
tion.
3.1.1 Areas and Centroids
The area of a generalized shape, as shown in Figure 3.1, is the sum of all of the
incremental areas, dA.
A
x
~                                                         ~ x
A'
1
FIGURE 3.1 GENERALIZED AREA
The centroid of an area is that point in the plane of the area about any axis
3.1
through which the moment of the area is zero; it coincides with the center of gravity
of a body with the same shape having an infinitely thin homogeneous thickness. Equa-
tion 3.2 and 3.3 define the centroids of an area:
3-1
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
x =
Y =
fxdA
A
fYdA
A
=
2:
D
YiAj
1=1
~  
i\i
i=l
3.1.2 Moments of Inertia
Revision C
3.2
3.3
The moment of inertia is the second moment of area. The moment of inertia of an
element of area such as dA in Figure 3.1 with respect to a given axis is defined as
the product of the area and the square of the distance from the axis to the element.
It is shown mathematically as:
3.4
The sum of the moments of inertia of all the elements in a generalized area is de-
fined as the moment of inertia of the area, that is,
3.5
3.6
The subscripts x and y indicate the axis about which the moment of inertia is taken.
The moment of inertia of any area about any axis is equal to the moment of inertia
of the area about an axis through the centroid of the area and parallel to the given
axis plus the product of the area and the square of the distance between the two
parallel axes; that is
3-2
_2
1y = 10 + (x) A
3.7
3.8
_I


)
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STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
These equations can accomplish transformation of moment of inertia of plane areas
only between parallel axes and one of the two parallel axes must pass through the
centroid as shown in Figure 3.2.
x
,
8
x
y
X
 
FIGURE 3.2 PARALLEL AXIS TRANSFORMATION
The term 10 in equations 3.7 and 3.8 is the moment of inertia of the area about its
own centroidal axis. Figure 3.4 shows an example of a typical moment of inertia
calculation by the tabular method.
3.1.3 Polar Moment of Inertia
The polar moment of inertia is the moment of inertia of an area about an axis perpen-
dicular to the plane of the area. The elementary area, dA, in Figure 3.3 lying in
the plane xy has
y
..t
-
X
ET
r Y
/  
X
Z
FIGURE 3.3 POLAR MOMENT OF INERTIA
3-3
(..)
IAY/ A = .0833/.1204 = .6919 in.
y
I
+:-
.0007/.1204 = .00.58 in. y'

      =.0631 + .0036 .. ('6919)2
,....
.1204

= .0091 in.4
H
tl:!, ..
G)
(,0058)2
c
.0072 + .0022 - .1204
"'\ '
.
.
= .0094 in.
4
i=
w

Xy-I,AXY+I.loxy-XYI,A= .0007 + 0 - (.0058)( .. 6919)(.1204)
3

en
= .0002 in.4
.75
t1j
......

an 2{3 = - 2 I
xv
/"< J 1C -Iy- ) ::. - 2 ( .0002) / G. 0091-.0094) ;:ID
tot
::
1.3333 xl
=
I:!j
n
0
.....

I
Y
c:

3:
t=.040
::a
0 X
:.:.

z
r-
8
y2
Ay2. X2 AX2
0 ELE A Y AY
lox
X AX
lOY
AXY
CJ


H'
en Z 1 .028 .92 .846 .0258 .0237 -.35 .1225 -.0098 .0034 .0011 -.0090
I:%j
2 .036 .45 .203 .0162 .0073 .0024 -.02 .0004 -.0007 .0000 -.0003
-
Ci)
8
3 .028 .92 .846 .0258 .0237 .366 .1340 .0102 .0038 .0011 .0094
H
;:.
4 .0284 .545 .297 .0155 .0084 .0012 .036 .0013 .0010 .0000 .0006 Z
n

31: t""
n
:.:.
c:

Z
8
c:
H
0
Z
::a:-
r-
.1204 .0833 .0631 .0007 .0072 .0022
e)
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STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Ix = fy
2
dA, (Equation 3.5)
Iy = fx
2
dA, (Equation 3.6)
The moment of inertia about the z axis is
but
2
r
2 2
x + y
then
3.9
3.10
3.11
The polar moment of inertia of an area is therefore equal to the sum of the moment
of inertia of the area about two mutually perpendicular axes. Thus
I
z
IX + Iy = Ip 3.12
3.1.4 Product of Inertia
The elementary area, dA, in Figure 3.1 is located at a distance x from the y axis
and y from the x axis. The product of the area multiplied by the coordinate dis-
tances is then, xydA and is called the product of inertia. This term is a mathe-
matical property that is dependent upon the area itself and its loc'ation relative
to two mutually perpendicular axes. The value of the product of inertia for the
entire area is
3.13
The subscripts of I serve to define the pair of axes of reference. Unlike the mo-
ments of inertia, products of inertia involve the first powers of the coordinate
distance and such products may be positive, negative or zero. An example is shoWn
in Figure 3.4.
Products of inertia can be transferred between axes. Thus the product of inertia
of an area about any pair of mutually perpendicular axes is equal to the sum of the
products of inertia of that area about a parallel mutually perpendicular pair
through the centroid plus the product of the distances between the axis times the
area as shown in Figure 3.5.
3-5
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Ixy
3.14
y
x X
y )
~                                   L         X
FIGURE 3.5 PRODUCT OF INERTIA
3.1.5 Moments of Inertia About Inclined Axes
Unsymmetrical sections are quite common and it is often necessary to find the mo-
ments of inertia about an inclined axis. The general procedure is to first find
the moment of inertia about some set of rectangular axes through the centroid and
transfer to a second set of axes also through the centroid making an angle 9 with ~
the first set of axes using the following relationships and Figure 3.6. ~
3.15
3.16
Iuv = 1/2(I
x
-I
y
) sin29 + Ixy cos29 3.17
)
,.
~ ~                   T         ~         X
FIGURE 3.6 MOMENTS OF INERTIA ABOUT INCLINED AXES
3-6
)
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STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
The angle e is posi.tive when produced by a counterclockwise motion from the original
axes.
3.1.6 Principal Axes
It is often necessary to determine the maximum and minimum values of moments of
inertia. These occur about an axis passing through the centroid of the section.
The axes are called the principal axes   orientation is such that the moment
of inertia is either greater than or less than for any other axis passing through
the centroid.
The principal axes location makes an angle with the original axes of
tan29 = 2Ixy
Iy.I
x
3.18
There are two values of 29 differing by 180°, having the same tangent. Then there
are two values of differing by 90°. About one axis at the angle Q from the
original x axis, the value of the moment of inertia will be maximum and about the
other axis, inclined at 90
0
to the first, the value of the moment of inertia will
be minimum.
Substitution of the values of Q into equations 3.15 and 3.16 produces the principal
moments of inertia.
3.19
3.20
The sum of the principal moments of inertia, like the sum of any two moments of in-
ertia about mutually perpendicular axes, is the polar moment of inertia.
It should be noted that the product of inertia. of an area about a pair of axes which
are principal axes of inertia is zero. The product of inertia about a pair of axes,
one of which is an axis of summetry, is also equal to zero. Thus the axes of
metry are principal axes of inertia.
3.1.7 Radius of Gyration
The radius of gyration of an area with respect to a given inertia axis may be de-
fined as a distance to the point where the area would be concentrated in order to
produce the same amount of inertia. Thus
P =JI/A 3.21
3-7
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
The subscript for I determines the inertia axis for the respective radius of gyra-
tion.
3.2 MOHR·S CIRCLE FOR MOMENTS OF INERTIA
The equations for the moments and products of inertia about inclined axes may be
found using a semigraphic solution which aids in visualizing the relationship be-
tween the moments of inertia about various axes. The method is called Mohr's cir-
cle. Using Figure 3.7, the following procedure describes Mohr's circle for inertia.
( 1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
3-8
Ix
Iu; Iv ---____ .....-----'9"1-? cos2 f3
f I -I
I xy= .J:L:Y sin2J3
2
o
U Ix
..... -------I
u
FIGURE 3.7 MOHR'S CIRCLE FOR MOMENTS OF INERTIA
Calculate Ix, Iy and Ixy for the section. The x and y axes can be at any
orientation but it should be located so that Ix is greater than Iy.
Draw a set of rectangular axes. Label the horizontal axis Ix and the verti-
cal axis Ixy. This is shown in Figure 3.7.
Moments of inertia (second moments of areas) are always positive, but products
of inertia can be positive or negative. Positive moments of inertia are
plotted to the right of the origin. Positive products of inertia (Ixy)   ~ e
plotted above the Ix axis and negative values below.
Layoff the distance OA
I
along the Ix axis equal to Ix and A'A parallel to
the Ixy axis equal to Ixy. Label the point (Ix, Ixy) as point A.
In a similar manner locate point B by making OBI equal to Iy and B'B equal
to -I
xy
, the value of Ixy with the algebraic sign reversed.
')
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
(6) Draw the line AB intersecting the Ix axis at C and draw a circle of diameter
AB. This circle is Mohr's circle for moments of inertia and each point on
the circle represents Iu and Iuv for any orientation of the u and v axes.
The abscissa represents Iu and the ordinate Iuv.
The following relationships can be developed using Figure 3.7.
Maximum moment of inertia:
Iup = 1/2 (Ix+Iy) + J1Xy2 + 1/4 (Ix-1y)2
Minimum moment of inertia:
These are the moments of inertia about the principal axes.
The angle of the principal axis with respect to the reference axis is
tan2j3
2Ixy
Ix-Iy
3.22
3.23
3.24
The sign of P is taken as positive for counterclockwise movement from the reference
x axis (Ix in Figure 3.7).
The moment and product of inertia (Iu, IV, Iuv) may be determined at any angle 29
from the principal axes. In the cross section the angle is 9 while in Mohrts cir-
cle it is plotted as 29. From Figure 3.7 the values can be derived to be
Iv = Ix sin
2
9 + Iy cog
2
9 + Ixy sin29
Iuv = Ixy cos29 + (Ix;Iy ) sin29
3.3 MASS MOMENTS OF INERTIA
3.25
3.26
3.27 .
The inertia resistance to     acceleration is that property of a body which
is known as mass moment of inertia. If a body of mass m is allowed to
rotate 'about an axis at an angular acceleration a, an element of this mass dm, will
have a component of acceleration tangent to the circular path of ra, with the
3-9
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
tangential force on the element being radm. Since the distance to the element is
r, the resulting moment of the force equals r
2
adm. Integrating the elements of the
body gives
This expression is known as the mass moment of inertia of the body, where a is
dropped because it is constant for a given rigid body. )
If the body is of constant mass density, the differential, dm, may be replaced with
pdV, since dm = pdV, and the following expression results
3.29
The units of mass moment of inertia are commonly expressed as lb-ft-sec
2
or slug-ft
2

3.4 SECTION PROPERTIES OF SHAPES
Tables 3.1 through 3.5 show section properties of various sections. Table 3.6 pre-  
sents the properties of standard tubings.  
)
3-10-
)

)
RECTANGLE
r-X' I X
r. ---i-- i
L ~
k     b ~
RECTANGLE
RECTANGLE
A = bd
i =. b/2
12 -:.t
Y
=
Revision B'
bd
2
-6-
Y d/2
P, - J
= 0.2887 b
db!
It_I = F
bd
3
1
2
-
2
= 12'
I = bd
3
3-3 3
II-I _ d b 2
X -a-
A = bd
Y = bd
~ b
2
t d
2
., , b
3
d
3
L;_t 6 (h 2+ d 2)
1
1
_
1
_ b
2
d
2
Y -6v'b
2
td
2
P. = bd
1-' ,J S (b 2... d 2 )
A = bd
_ bSIN8 + d COS8
Y =
2
'2-2
:.
O.2887d
P3"3
:
O.5773d
I ::: bd (b
2
SIN 2 8 +d
2
COS! 8)
'-1 12
!.t.:L = bd ( b 2 SIN 2 8 + d 2 COS
2
g )
j 6 (b SIN 8 + d case)
p _ Ib
2
SIN! 8 + d
2
cos
2
8
1-' - v- 12 .
TABLE 3.1 PROPERTIES OF COMMON SECTIONS
3-11
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
HOLLOW RECTANGLE
3
y
t 2
~ 3 3 bd - ac
12 ( bd - ac)
P. = 11_2 .... -_2 __
2-2 V(i)d - oc )
SQUARE
A = d
2
Y = O.5d
Y:s = I. 414d
_ d4
1
2
_
2
- T
d
4
1
3
-
3
= T2 = II_I
1,-, _   ~
j -S
".-t = O.2887d
TABLE 3.1 (CONT·D) PROPERTIES OF COMMON SECTIONS
3-12
HOLLOW SQUARE
A = d
2
- c
2
X = Y = O.5d
d
4
- c
4
1._. = 1
3
-
3
z: 12
4d
4
- 3d
2
c
2
- c·
12"2= 1 .. -.. = 12
p._
1
= '3-3 =0.289 .j'd
2
.. C 2
P =p = (1..:,.1 __ .:;.... __
2-2 .-4 Vd
Z
_ c
2
  STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
TRAPEZOID
(0 + b) d
'A= ---
2
x= + [C _
d(b+2o)
V= 3(o+b}
d
3
( b
2
+ 4 a b + a 2)
I =
, .. I 36 (a + b)
I = d
5
(b + 30)
2-2 12
p ... Sra+b) ./2 (b
2
+ 4 ab + 0
2
)
d -v'=: (0 +:b )
OBLIQUE TRIANGLE
-1
1
,,1 bd
Z
Y ="12
I .... , = bd
2
V. 24
)
P. . .= .236 d
I = bd
5
. Pz .. i .408 d
2-2 12
a .707d
1'.."3 b: p'_=:..236 ./ b
2
+ e
2
_ be
I = bd (b
2
+ e
2
- be )
4 ... 4 36
TABLE 3.1 (CONTtD) PROPERTIES OF COMMON SEtTIONS
3-13
If
STRUC,JURAL DESIGN MANUAL
OBTUSE TRI.ANGLE

CJRCLE
-I
A=M
2
-_ d
y.-
3
y=
b +2c
3
a = bd
b+c
bd!
I._f 36
bd!
I2 .. 12
S

I-a 4 .
h:
bd
2
Y
12
It:.L =
bd
2
)',
24
.236d
' .... 4. 236 b
Z
+ c
2
+ be
'6 .. 408 b
l
+c
2
+:3 be
I =  
••• 36
I :J!.L(b
l
+3bc+3c
Z
'
8-6 12
.". 2 • 2
A = 40 = .. 78540 ::. 3.14ISR,
----DaR
y-x---
2
.. 4 4
.. i :4
D
=.049090 =.7854R
I2_i 14.: 17' R4
1,_.:: Ia-3=.098'80".O.7854RS
y X
P =p ::. JL
I .. , s..a 4
TABLE 3.1 (CONT'D) PROPERTIES OF COMMON SECTIONS
3-14
)
)
.'
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
SEMI- CtRClE
3r- 0
4
QUARTER CIRCLE
2
CIRCULAR SECTOR
a IN RADIANS
A = R2 = 1.5708 R2
'1'= Mi = 0 4244R
31T •
Y=R
1 :: R4 [:!L - ..§..] :: 0.1 097 R4
'''', 8 971'
I 1:.3927 R" P. .:: .2643 R
2 .. 2 1-
4
1 = . 3927 R Ii.. 2= • 50 R
4-4 2-
I = 1.9637 R4 1.a ... : 1.118 R
a"3 01
A:: .7854 Ri
Y=j =.4244 R
I 1:.0549 R4 = 1 .
1 .. 1, a .. J
I I: 1 :: .1964 R"
2-2 4-4
A :: R2 (I
y: [R a ]
,Y: R SINa
I ... ,': O.25R
4
( a -SINa COSo)
I : O.25R
4
(a -SIN a COSo) + R
4
" "s I N
2
a
2
I =O.25R
4
(tJ _ 16 SIN a + q )
3-3 941
I ... lo.25R
4
(a + SINa COSo)
p.>.=O.50R.JI- SINo oCOSG
"- =.J I
a
-
2
Z .. 2 Ria
p. = 0 50R.) I + .. SINaCOSa _  
. 5 .. S . ,a 9412
'.>.= O.50RJ 1+ SING oCOSa
TABLE 3.1 (CONT'D) PROPERTIES OF COMMON SECTIONS
3-15
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
CIRCULAR SEGMENT
2
a IN RADIANS
CIRC,ULAR COMPLEMENT
-t
A : O. 50 R 2 (2 a - SIN 2 a)
- _ 4 R SIN
3
a
x - 3(2a - SIN 2a)
y: RSIN a 3
1 = o. 25 A R
2
[I - ( S IN a COS a )]
I·. 3 a-51 N a COS Q
1
2
_
2
= I._t O.50R
4
(2a - SIN 2-a)(SIN
2
a)
, '. 6
I :025AR2[1+2SINaCOSa ]_4RSINQ
3-' . a - SINa COSa 9A
I   2 SINJaCOSa ]
4-4 . a - 5 IN a COS a
3
1_ 2 5 IN a CO S a
3 ( a - S N a C OS a )
-JIIIIIIIIII"!'..-----
. 21
3
_
3
R 2 ( 2 CI - SIN a )
A = O.2146R
2
X = Y = 0.22 34R
P.= 0.3159 R
11_.= 1
2
-
2
= 0.007545 R4
Is_,= 0.01198 R 4
1 .. _.= O.003J06R
4
1
5
_ 5= 1
6
-
6
= 0.0182 R4
'1_'= '2-2 : 0.187 R
, 5 ... ; "-6.= 0 .• 292 R
TABLE 3.1 (CONTtD) PROPERTIES OF COMMON SECTIONS
3-16
)
)
.)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision E
OBLIQUE FILLET
:5
A
=
(TANS - 8 ) R 2
Y
::
[1-
SINt9 TA
N
8] R
3(TAN8-8)
i
= [TAN 8-
SINt9 TAN
2
a ] R
3(TAN8 -8)
~ i  
p = [SEC8 -
SINt9TAN29 J R
3(TAN8-8)
.. [SIN
4
8 TAN8 + SINe cose (If 2 SIN
2
8 )- 8 _ S I N
4
STAN
2
8 ] R4
II .. 1- 3' 4 9 (TAN S -8 >.
... [TA N B( TAN 28 + SIN
2
S )_ 38- SIN 8 CoS8t3 - 2 SIN
2
8) _SlN
4
STAN
4
8 ] R4
12- 2 - 6" 12 9(TAN9-8l
J :: [ SIN '59 _ 8 - SIN 8 CO 5 9 ] R"
I-I 6 COSS 4
I :: [SEC! 8-COS
s
S _ S+SINS COSS _ SIN
2
STAN'*8 JR
4
4-4 651 N 8 4 9(TAN9-8)
HOLLOW CIRCLE
..
A:: 3.1416 (R2- r
2
)'
'i:: y = R
4 ..
I, .. , = 1.-.= 0.7854 (R - r )
• 4 2 2 4
1
2
-
2
= 1
3
-
3
:: O. 7854 (5 R - 4 R r - r" )
2 2 1/2
P."I = P4-4 = o. 5 (R t r )
15R
2
t r2
P2-2 = Pa-s =v
d
2
1 1
(R
4- r4)
...!.:! = 4 -4 = ___ 7_8_5_4 ____ _
Y x R
TABLE 3.1 (CONTtn) PROPERTIES OF COMMON SECTIONS
3-17
~
~ \ -   \   1
, , ~ , , ~ STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision A
ECCENTRIC HOLLOW CIRCLE
2
HOLLOW SEMI- CIRCLE
2
3
t
A : ". (R
2
- r 2 )
= e r2
y R2 - r2
I
J
_I = . .78 54 ( R4 - r 4 )-
4 4
12 .2: . 7 e 5 4 (R - r )
A =
x =
1. 5 708 (R 2_ r 2 )
R
r2
y = 0.4244 (Rt R+r)
I ::;
I-I
0.3927 (R4_ r
4
) -1.5708(R
2
_r2)y
I = 0.3927 (R4- r
4
)
2 ... 2 .
la-a: 0 .. 3927(R
4
- r
4
)
22' 2
1.-
4
= o. 3927 (R - r: ) ( 5 R +
TABLE 3.1 (CONT'D) PROPERTIES OF COMMON SECTIONS
3-18
'...,.... ""
",'I" '.,
/ :
! ~ I , • \ '\
j I ' \ \
"   i t ~ I I
" ,'

Related Interests

Bell
\ ~ , \ , ...... " .... , .
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
. """ ':..l.-" ."*
Revision A
HOLLOW CIRCULAR SECTOR
4 :5
)
TABLE J. I (CONT'O) PROPERTIES OF COMMON SECTIONS
3-19
STRUCTURAL D'ESIGN MANUAL
PARABOLA
5
2 •
r----I--------LL
----1 .....
2
- i -I, Y
HALF PARABOLA
~ i b- ,
y
'COMPLEMENT OF HALF
PARABOLA
, ~
A = 4/3 ab
X = b
Y = 0.40£1
I, ,= 0',09143 a: b
II = O.2667ob
Is :: 0, 3048 a b
1""4 = . 5 7 14 a! b
P, _I = . 2 619 a
'z.2= .4472b
1
5
-
5
= 1.6 ab
3
'.-4 ::.65460
PO-5 = 1.095 b
A = 2/3 ab
y = 0.400
x = O.375b
1 •. = 0.C4571 a' b
12 :: 0.039580 b
S
I, = 0.15238 aSb
I.. = O. 1333 D b 3
l
a
-
5
=,.28570
3
b
Pa... =. 2619 0
P2 .. i = .2437b
A' = 1/3 ab
y = 0.700
x = O.75b
I. = 0.01762 o:S b
I2 = 0.0125 ob!
P
= .22990
....
' ....... = .4472b
P
a
-
e
= .65460
TABLE 3.1 (CONT'D) PROPERTIES OF COMMON SECTIONS
3-20
  ~ ~
, t
"I
)

)

STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
PARABOLIC FI LLET IN
RIGHT ANGLE
1
t
'1
- - - - ~ '  
....--- t
ELLIPSE
3
2
4
HALF ELLIPSE
2
a
'1
'
I
T
V
.!...L
r-
b
2
x-1
a :: 0.3536 t
b .: 0.7071 t
A :: O.1667t
l
i = V : O. SOOt
I. :: II:: O.05238t
4
A = 3.1416 a b
P,-.
...
b/2
-
i
:: Q
P
I
-! ::
I. U8b
Y
- b
-
Pz-2
:: 0/2
:: O.7854ab
l
I,
'4-4
= 1.1180
12 ': O. 78540
3
b
I a
I :: 5/4 ". ab = 3.927 ab
a-I
I = 5/4 ... b'a =
4-4
3.927a
l
b
A = t. 5708b
X = b
Y
:: 0.42440
I.
::O.I098a'b
12
= O.3927ob'
la
= O.3927o
'
b
TABLE 3.1 (CONT'D) PROPERTIES OF COMMON SECTIONS
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
QUARTER ELLIPSE
              J i ~
21 ..
ELLIPTIC COMPLEMENT
I
A = 0.7854ob
y = 0.4244 a
i = 0.4244 b
It = 0.05488 a! b
5
I •. :: 0.05488 a b
J! = O. 1963 0
3
b
a
14 = O. 1963 a b
A = 0.2146 ab
- y = 0.7766 a
i = 0.7766 b
II :: 0.00754 0' b
3
12 = 0.00754 ab
TABLE 3.1 (CONT'D) PROPERTIES OF COMMON SECTIONS
3-22

)
)
)
""8! STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
HOLLOW ELLIPSE
.. 3
2
..
3
A
=
3.1416 (ob - cd)
i
=
a
y
=
b
1._.=
0.7854 (0 b' - cd')
1
2
-
2
= 0.7854 (0 b! - cd
l
)+3.14IS (ob-cd)b
2
1,_,= O.7854(Olb - cad )
! I I
I._
4
= 0.7854(0 b- c d 1+ 1r (0 b - cd)a
HOLLOW SEMI- ELLIPSE
..
I
NOTE: - ABOVE PROCEDURES IMPLY A NON - UNIFORM WALL THICKNESS
TABLE 3.1 (CONT'D) PROPERTIES OF COMMON SECTIONS
3-23
~ 8 STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
DOUBLE WEDGE SECTION.
81- CONVEX SECTION
ct
A : -2-
_ t
Y =--r
ct
3
3
1._.= 48 = .0208 c t
I
- t
2
2
~   t - ~ 4 : .0416 ct
2
A : 3" ct
t
V =-
.. 2
1._.= m ct
3
=.038tct
S
11-1
-:
y
Sct
l
. 2
105 : .0761 ct
VALUES OF A 'AND'I. ARE BASED ON BI-PARABOLIC SECTION.
ERROR IS NEGLIGIBLE WHEN tIc < 0.10 •
TABLE 3.1 (CONT'D) PROPERTIES OF COMMON SECTIONS
3-24
,)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
ANGLE
CHANNEL
T SECTION
y

  i-, X
1 X
• ,t
',. ,-IdJ-
Z SECTION
A = t( b + e)
t( 2a + h) + a
2
t(b + 2e) + e
-
-
x =
2(a + h)
- 3 -3
t(h - y) + by
I
x 3
- 3 _3
t(b - x) + hx
I =
y
I - + abeh_t_
xy - - 4(b + e}
A = 2htl + at
- h
2
t + .St
2
a
y = 1
2htl + at
3
Y =
2(b + e)
- a(i -
t)3
- e(i -
t)3
I = 2t
1
h
3
+ at
3
_ (h
2
t
1
+ .St
2
a)2
If x 3 2htl + at
hb
3
_
I =
Y 12
A ::::: ae + bd
3
ea
2 2
::::: h _ + 2ee )
dh + 2ee
- 3 3 3
I = a(h - i) - 2e(b - i) + dx
x 3
ea
3
+ bd
3
Iy = 12
A = ted + 2a)
y =
2b - t
2
I x = 2 [ bd
3
- a ( d - 2 t) 3 ]
Iy = [deb + a)3 - 2a
3
e - 68b
2
c]
2 ' 2
I
. I cos oJ. - I sin CIt.
= x y
x, cos 2cL
tanZDC. = (dt - t
2
)(b
2
- bt)
Ix - Iy
TABLE 3.1 (CONT'D) PROPERTIES OF COMMON SECTIONS
2
3-25
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
PARALLELOGRAM
REGULAR HEXAGON
REGULAR OCTAGON
NOSE RIB
x = chord line.
I
Based on parabolic
segment.
A = bh
- a + b - h
x =
2
Y =-
2
I
bh
3
I
bh(a
2
+ b
2
)
=- =
x 12
Y
12
bh
3
bh 2
I
= -3-
I = -(2a +
x. y. 6
A = .866h
Z
x = b/2 = a y = h/2
I = I = .0601h
4
x y
2b
2
+ 3ab)
I = .2766h
4
I = .3969h
4
XI_ Y'
4
I = .1203h
P
A = 2.8286r
2
x = y = r
I = I = .6381 r
4
x Y
4
I . = I = 3.4667 r
x. YI.
I = 1.2763 r
4
p
A = 2/3a(b + c)
x = .6a y = .375(b - c)
I = a(b + c)(19b
2
+ 26b + 19c
2
)
x 480 c
I = .1333(ab + ac)(b
2
- be + c
2
)
Xt
I = .0418 a
3
(b + c)
y
I . = .2857 a
4
(b + c)2 I = I + I
y ~ P x Y
TABLE 3.1 (CONTID) - PROPERTIES OF COMMON SECTIONS
3-26
-----
-
e
  ~   I )
,.. -'
)
STRUC1·URAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision A
~ - - - . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  
CENTROID
~ - ---
t r Area y t r Area y
)
TABLE 3.2 - AREA, CENTROID & MOMENT OF INERTIA OF 90° BENDS
3-27
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
y
x
I
x
B
M
,
!
I
·1
y
A B
9/16 1/4
5/8 1/4
11/16 1/4
3/4
7/
8
1 5/16
1 1/8 5/16
1 3/8 5/16
1 1/2
1 1/0 3/8
2 1/2
·t
TABLE 3.3 - PROPERTIES OF ANGLES
3-28
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL

,----E
L
,
)
TABLE 3.3 (CONT'n) - PROPERTIES OF ANGLES
3-29
3-30
A
1/2

,/8
11/i6
'/4
13/16
7/8
1
1 1/8
1 1/"+
, -
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
y
I X
. ,
T R AREA
.020 i2 019
2 .02J_
.0}2 2 .0.10
.025 2 .026
.032 J 32 .O}3
.040 1 .041
.O}2 :5
.01 o l,j .• 040

1 .,
2
.0 2
,
2
.01 0 1 (I . .0<1

'2
.032 ) }2

LJ 0 .0'

·
1 5.'32 .0 0

.006
2 1. 32
0 1'8 .01 1 '
1 5/32 .0
) ,
· 4
2   &
• 0 r2 7,'32 .10
1 .ll'l
• .. 0
l@

· ,1 .5, 32

.t>4
'at>

.072 7, ,}2 .113
.081 1 .12'
.040 1 .O-n
.t'l'U 22

},16 .110
L012 M2 cl..ll
.081 1 .145
.1121
.040 1
.0'''11 ")
.103
.Q5.1t .n
.012 if32 ..lli
.081 1 4 .166
Jm.
9, 12 .1Bl
.102 11 2 .20
.040 1

.O"U .5. 12 .tt
- ,--
A
1
y
.. ..
M Ix..x
Pxx
.13Q
.-000';
.1')9
.141 .0006 .158
14 .0007
·ill
.1 '2 .0008
.1 )9 .0011 .171
.1 t5 .0013 .17t
.115 .0015 .191
.1 1 .0018 .19'
.1 18 .0022 .19'
.1 1 .0020 .211
.1
.20) .0029 .210
.20, .0026 .'23E
.212 .00'1 .23i
.21tl .OO}9 .23t
.221 .0041 .23'
.2}3
.228 .. .257


.'21t2 • o
.21l8 • 16 .222
. .250
.242 .0051 .218
.249 .000, .277
.O!,-r .0070 .274
• 26J. .oo8lI .273
270 .0091 .270
271, .0077 ,"51U
.200 .009b .317
.200
.0116
.0128 .313
.300 .0141 .312
.'07
.0134 .310
.,05 .01Q9 .356
.0136 .351
.016Q .356
.}2'3 .0185 S}5
.,>1 .0221
·'55
.}} .0226 .}51
.'Ill • 0241 .,49
.33- .OUlt • !tOO
,31 .391
- -_. ------.. -... ,
A T
.064 ), 16 .1.5.0 .3<:0 .U23l ,
1 1/4 .0..]2 7/32 .161 .356
.061 1 4 .186 .3f2
2 .206 .31 .0,1 .,
.102 11 2 .0341 1
.040 1 'I -:lOb .31 .020 1
.Q21 Wj 2 .134 .3' .0251 •
3 16 .166 .3 1 .0:51 • 32
1 3/8 .Q72 7, 2 .185 .O}49 .4'5
1r4 .206 .'91 .Q'_6I
.Q91 9_ 2 .22 . ,..2 • ()II.2tJ ..!,l
.102 11 2 .250 .1 0
.0";1 5 2 111
2 16 .16 .11, .01&11 •
1 1/2 .0 21 32 .20 • If] .u • '1
.on 1 '" . 2} ..Q • 7"
.OS1 9, 32 .25_2 ,"-p
.102 11 32 .280 1" .6
.0 1 5, 32 .150 ,4'5..Q .:)19
.00,li}, 16 .198 ., • ).1J
1 5/8 .0 2 7')2 .221 .1 18 .05l'b
.011 1 'Il .248
1 9 '}2 .275 1 '-!!E1 • 1-->
.102 J.J. . 1,,68. 07Qo .' Ll
& 1 ·3/32 .112 .1a67 a' 9
..l.16 .214 .1t7' .0666 .
.0 '32 .239 IQ< .Q'I39 I)
1 3/'" .Oi 1 1" .261 .1Kl .000J ," ).
.()i 1 9.',2 .2<17 .41 .0911.'
.102 11 '}2 .341 .1008.' I
.Q'U ") ', . HI' . "Q .080Q .1
3 (16 .24 .0QQ8 :, 57
.072 1 ', .27"'\ .' I' .1114 .1
2 ...Q6l..l 4 307 .' ItS .ill1 .t 36 .
.0Ql9'-..2.""2 .''

Related Interests

' .nB2 .t3'!l
,102 III [12.-..J82. . I .1'7 .1 in
TABLE 3.3 (CONT'D) - PROPERTIES OF ANGLES
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
.)
y
---L----x
...------1-- A
y
-- - - , -, - .
A B T R
AREA!
M
Ixx Iyy
P
XX
P
yy
5/8
1/1!
.032 3/32 .031 .QB- .0002 .0016
.226
.040 1/8 .057 .080 .0002 .0016 .073 .?18
3/
4 1/1+
.032 3/32 .03'5
f---!--9.9
02

.072 .267
.040 liB .042 . Orr .OP02 0028 071
1/4
)/12
039 062 0002 oo-n 070
1/8
.040 1/8 .047 .060 .0002 .001.1.2 .069 .299,
3/8
.032 3/32   .105 .0006 .0051 .115 .330
.040 1/8 .057 .111 .0007 .00)9 .113 ·323
1/4
.032 3/32 .043 .058_ .0002 .0052 .068 .3
J
n
.040 1/8 .0)2 .063 .0002 .0059 .067 .330
1
.040 1/8 .062 .103 .0003 .0082 .112 .385
3/8
.051
5. 32 .076 .110 .0096 .110 .356
.064 3/16 .092 .litf .0011 .0110 .10n .346
1/4
.0}2
5/32 .047 .054 .0002 .0071 .066 .386
1 1/8
.0hO 1/8 .057 .022 .0002 .0001 .066 .377
.040 1/8
·Q77
.141 .00H3 .0140 .1,)4 .427
1/2
.051 5/32 .095 .1hB .0022 .0167 .1'52 .419.
.06)+
3/16 .116

-.0026 .019h .150 .hl0
1 1/4 3/8
.040
liB .072 .092 .0008 • .108 .447
_ .051 5/32 .089 .09d .0010 .0170 .106 4'38
.064
3/19 . lOti .1.99_ .0012 .012.0 .104 .42]
.040 1/8 .077 .087 .0009 .olB2 .106 .hS'7
1 3/8 3/8
.0'51 '5/32 .095 .093 .0010 .0217 .104 .1nB
5/16 .116 .100 .0012 .02')2 .102
)
Jl5.1 ')/"32 114 .002'5 ,0339 .l46 '>4h
11/2 1/2 140 13" 002Q ,0')99 14'}
.072 7 '32 .1')4 .141 .00)2 .0427 14"3 .,)27

.0'51 ')
32 .122.- .lH3 .0026 .04q6 .142 62')
13/4 1/2
"3 16 .1'56 .12'5 0031 .0')89 141 IL615
072 7 "52 172 0031 IhO .607
.
.01)1 5/32 .1'53 . .00r)1 .c8J..6 .183 .731 .
2 5/8 .064 3/16 .ltJ8 .1,)4 .0061 .Q978 .181 .721
.081 .230 : .16,) .0013· .1147 .179 .706
.064 3/16 .236 ) . . 0111 .1946, .217 .
2'1/2
3/4
.072 7 )2 .262 I 178 0122 2128 216 GOl
.091 9 ')2 • .. 322 ! .190 .0147 .2rj21 .211+

.064 ')
16 .268 : .1'57 .0117 209 1 069
,
3/
4 OQl Q 1')2
17? III '--6 b..onh ?()(-) .1 nuu
.102 11/32 .404 I .180 .0168 .4279 .20h 1.030
, TABLE 3.4 - PROPERTIES OF CHANNELS
\
3-3t
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
DIAMETER (IN.) AREA MOMENT OF CIRCUMFERENCE RADIUS OF
r<'RACTION DECIMAL (SQ. INCHES) INERTIA (1) (INCHES) GYRATION (p)
3/16 .1875 .02761 6.066 x 10-; .5891 .0469
13/64 .2031 .03241
8.358 x 10- .... .6381 .0508
7/32 .2188 .03758 .0001125 .6872 .0547
15/64 .2344 .04314 .0001481 .7363 .0586
1/4 .2500 .04909 .0001918 .7854 .0625
9/32 .2813 .06213 .0003072 .8836 .0703
5/16 .3125 .07670 .0004682 .9818 .0781
11/32 .3438 .09281 .0006854 1.0799 .0860
3/8 .3750 .1105 .0009710 1.1781 .0938
13/32 .4063 .1296 .001337 1.2763 .1016
7/16 .4375 .1503 .001798 1.3744 .1094
15/32 .4688 .1726 .002370 1.4726 .1172
1/2 .5000 .1964 .003068 1.5708 .1250
17/32 .5313 .2217 .003910 1.6690 .1328
9/16 .5625 .2485 .004914 1.7671 .1406
19/32 .5938 .2769 .006101 1.8653 .1485
5/8 .6250 .. 3068 .007490 1.9635 .1563
21/32 .6563 .3382 .009104 2.0617 .1641
11/16 .6875 .3712 .01097 2.1598 .1719
23/32 .7188 .4057 .01310 2.2580 .1797
3/4 .7500 .4418 .01553 2.3562 .1875
25/32 .7813 .4794 .01829 2.4544 .1953
13/16 .8125 .5185 .02139 2.5525 .2031
27/32 .8438 .5591 .02488 2.6507 .2110
7/8 .8750 .6013 .02878 2 .. 7489 .2188
29/32 .9063 .6450 .03311 2.8471 .2246
15/16 .9375 .6903 .03792 2.9452 .2344
31/32 .9688 .7371 .04323 3.0434 .2422
1 1.0000 .7854 .04908 3.1416 .2500
1 1/16 1.0625 .8866 .06256 3.3380 .. 2656
1 1/8 1.1250 .9940 .07863 3.5343 .2813
1 3/16 1.1875 1.1075 .. 09761 3.7307 .2969
1 1/4 1.2500 1.2272 .1198 3.9270 .3125
)
1 5/16 1.3125 1.3530 .1457 4.1234 .3281
1 3/8 1.3750 1.4849 .1755 4.3197 .3438
1 7/16 1.4375 1.6230 .2096 4.5161 .3594
1 1/2 1.5000 1.7671 .2485 4.7124 .. 3750
1 9/16 1.5625 1 .. 9175 .2926 4.9088 .3906
1 5/8 1.6250 2.0739 .3423 5.1051 .4063
1 11/16 1.6875 2.2365 .3980 5.3015 .4219
1 3/4 1.7500 2.4053 .4603 5.4978 .4375
1 3/16 1.8125 2.5802 .5298 5.6942 .4531
1 7/8 1.8750 2.7612 .6067 5.8905 .4688
1 15/16 1.9375   ~ 9 4 8 3 .6917 6.0869 .4844
2 2.0000 3.1416 .7854 6.2832 .5000
TABLE 3.5 - PROPERTIES OF CIRCLES
3-32
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
DIAMETER (IN.) AREA MOMENT OF CIRCUMFERENCE RADIUS OF
FRACTION DECIMAL INERTIA (I) (INCHES) GYRATION (p)
2 1/16 2.0625 3.3410 .8883 6.4796 .5156
2 1/8 2.1250 3.5466 1.0009 6.6759 .5313
2 3/16 2.1875 3.7583 1.1240 6.8723 .5469
)
2 1/4 2.2500 3.9761 1.2580 7.0686 .5625
2 5/16 '2.3125 4.2000 1.4038 7.2650 .5781
2 3/8 2.3750 4.4301 1.5618 7.4613 .5938
2 7/16 2.4375 4.6664 1.7328 7.6577 .6094
2 1/2 2.5000 4.9087 1.9175 7.8540 .6250
2 9/16 2.5625 5.1572 2.1165 8.0504 .6406
2 5/8 2.6250 5.4119 2.3307 8.2467 .6563
2 11/16 2.6875 5.6727 2.5607 8.4431 .6719
2 3/4 2.7500 5.9396 2.8074 8.6394 .6850
2 13/16 2.8125 6.2126 3.0714 8.8358 .7031
2 7/8 2.8750 6.4918 3.3537 9.0321 .7188
2 15/16 2.9375 6.7771 3.6549 9.2285 .7344
3 3.0000 7.0686 3.9761 9.4248 .7500
3 1/16 3.0625 7.3662 4.3179 9.6212 .7656
3 1/8 3.1250 7.6699 4.6813 9.8175 .7813
3 3/16 3.1875 7.9798 5.0673 10.0139 .7969
3 1/4 3.2500 8.2958 5.4765 10.2102 .8125
3 5/16 3.3125 8.6179 5.9101 10.4066 .82B1
3 3/8 3.3750 8.9462 6.3689 10.6029 .B438
3 7/16 3.4375 9.2806 6.8540 10.7993 .8594
3 1/2 3.5000 9.6211 7.3662 10.9956 .8750
3 9/16 3.5625 9.9678 7.9066 11.1920 .8906
3 5/8 3.6250 10.3.21 8.4765 11.3883 .9063
3 11/16 3.6875 10.680 9.0764 11.5847 .9219
3 3/4 3.7500 11.045 9.7072 11.7810 .9375
3 13/16 3.8125 11.416 10.371 11.9774 .9531
)
3 7/8 3.8750 11.793 11.067 12.1737 .9688
3 15/16 3.9375 12.177 11.799 12.3701 .9844
4 4.0000 12.566 12.556 12.5664 1.0000
4 l/B 4.1250 13.364 14.214 12.9591 1.0313
4 1/4 4.2500 14.186 16.025 13.3518 1.0625
4 3/8 4.3750 15.033 17.992 13.7445 1.0938
4 1/2 4.5000 15.904 20.128 14.1372 1.1250
4 5/8 4.6250 16.800 22.550 14.5299 1.1563
4 3/4 4.7500 17.721 25.124 14.9226 1.1875
4 7/8 4 .. 8750 18.666 27.738 15.3153 1.2188
5 5.0000 19.635 30.675 15.7080 1.2500
5 1/8 5.1250 20.629 33.852 16.1006 1.2813
5 1/4 5.2500 21.648 37.321 16.4933 1.3125
5 3/8 5.3750 22.691 40.980 16.8860 1.3438
5 1/2 5.5000 23.758 44.915 17.2787 1.3750
- -
TABLE 3.5 (CONT'D) - PROPERTIES OF CIRCLES
3-33
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
\'ltlt
Wall
A ..... I I
P
IUl. I) ...... 4.1lllu

11IL·1.... Nu.
.\n'a .I I
P
,1 I', Il,,,·t thtl '
1 .. -1..... .. !\, ..
Hi
.018 11 .096S
.0).41 .3880
.m, 20 .1199· .• 0178 .O}16
' .02 .. 0 .0427 .3808
.I., .('22 24 .OU4 .0C004 .0004 .0190
  22 .Ol<fO .00005
.(XX)S
.OjS 20 .0108 .(lOCOS
11 .11J44
' .0277 .0491 .)778
16 .1161 .0)0' .0542 .)7:S)
.OS} 1-1 .2117 .ont ,0660 .)696
I'
.on 24 .0UlI .0001 .0008 .0809
, I
.OIH 22 .OI9S .(0)1 .0009 .0791
.on 20 • 02}6 .0001 .0011 .0170 13 .m .. .0411 .07)1

.0111 11 .J075 .. Olot .OUI .04)12
20 .11)6 .0147 .039S '
.049 18 .18"9
,one .Oj14
.Oll
2"
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.01:1 n .0250 .00ll .0016 .1010
.O.U 20 .0002 .0019 .0988
)
.OS8 17 .1171 .OlU1 .0619
.(6) J6 .1420, .0426 .06S1 •• 11)6
.mn 14 .)041
.(t)4
.ll .l4t7 .OS7S .(1)2::' .4097
.llO 11 .42t() .0688 .UOI .4018
J
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.11
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20 .Ol7"
.iX)()5 .0029 .1208
.().f9 lit .O)()2 .0:(16 .0036 .1165
lH
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.O}S 20 .141l . .03]1 .0481 .4739
.04'1 Iii .20·1t .0419 .06H .4ti91
11 .2400 .07S6

,.
.011
2'-
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.028 21 .O}60 .0007 .OO:H
.0 20 .Q.JH· .<XXl9 .0041 .lcHti
18 .OS98 .0011 .00.s2 .1}84
)6 .2675 .Oo3S .4611
.08J 14 .1)69 .0706 .1027
.(})j II
.}82J .1145 .... 13H
.110 lJ .1711 .0?40 .1)67
H
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.028 22. .Octl S .001l .0048 .1672
.O}S 20 .OSH .(XH4 .0056 .1649
18 .0(,94 .0016 .0072 .1604
.05tl 17 .0020 .()()OO .1516
IH
.t1lfi 21 ,119S .0468
.O)'
20 .l61l
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17 .2627 .06U4 .O<)J.!  
.OO) 16 .UlS6 .1005 .JoiN
.o.n H .169S
... 0911 .u·u .5019
')
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ri.
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.021:1 22 .0·170 ,COl? .0060 .1892
.O)S 20 .O;tIO : .• 0020 .(l)71 .J869
IS .0790 .0026 ron .1824
.0Stl 17 .0919 .(0)0. .0107 .1796
6/
,fa .022 24 .0019 .000l .11))
.120 11 : .1248 .1664 .1ta98
.02S n ,0521 .002) .0074 .211)

.028 II .11OS : .04-18 .osn . .$647
,on 10 .174g .osn .06IU .)621
.049 HI .2426 .07S+ '.0918
20 .0649 .OOlS .0090 .2090
.049 Ui .0887 .OO}7 .0118 .2044
.0)8
11 .10)) .rot! .01)4  
17 .0878 .100l !U44
.06S 16 .}1ti6 . .0'170 .1194 .)S10
.OS} 14 .4021 .1198 ,1.74
.005
l} .1}4J .16S0; ,J410
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J
*}f. .022 14 .0460 .OOlS .0(7)
.l}S"
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.OlS 2.0 .0717 .OO}8 .0111 .2110
.049 Ul .098} .0050 .2264
.058 17 .1147 .0051 .0J66
JU-
.O}1 20 .18d6 .0694


.049 18 .16lg .0948, ,108 .6017
.058 17
.}OH} .1I0S .U6}
16 .)· ... 1 : .ISH .1 }99 .W62
.mu 14 .4)47 ,1514 .1 J)O
.09S 11 .-i'i19 .5j61
.120 11
.6'''S
.2051 .2}U .5779
't·
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.028 22 .OOlS .lX)41 .0109 .1155
.• GlS· 10 .0786 . .m}} . .2531
.Q.l9 )8 .1019 .rX167 .0179 .2 .. 84
.0)8
11 .1261 .0076 .020}
.06j 16 .1199 .OOtil .0111 .2431

.'
.782,) J .21)66
1..1'
t
z"
.ou :t4 .0S90 .OOS4 .0123 .)017
lU 20 ,2u13 .0914 ,MOO
,0·19 18 .2Mll .1112 .llSO .6451:1
.05t! 17 .Btl .J 6·117
.aos 16 .lW6
;
. i   .1617 . .640-4
.Oli) lot .ib7l
.)gW .2(X1S .0).4)
.()IJl l)
:
2110', .22S£· .6\l12
.120 Jl .6616 .2nO .6110


.8H7 .1141 .6101
.028 22 .0145 .0067 .01S3 .2'1)6
.0)\ 2.0 .()!)24 .0082. .oun .2972
.1212 .0249 .292S
.05Ji 17 .J-1!s9 .ons .02li6 .2896
16 .J6,)4 .OI}7 .Oll) ,2M7)
.OHi H .2065 .0164 .o}n .21H4
1 .OlA 22 .0101 .0102 .)4)8
.0)') 20 .H>61 .012,. .OHS .HH
.o.1'J Iii .146. .01M .0)12 .67
1 .on 10 .2161 .104\ .104} .6949
iii .14:)0 .14)0 .6:xxJ
.0\/\ 17 .1670 .1610 .6t1M
.0')1(
n .)716 .0191 .Ol1i2 .n}?
16 .t9tJlJ .0110 .CJ.;2U .HI4
.on}
14 .2W! .on} .0WCi

n .27C11 .02. ISO .)117 ,0(;) J6 .}1)51 .1811
-
TABLE 3.6 - PROPERTIES OF ROUND TUBING
3-34.
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Wan
w.u
ArCfl r Z
,
G.D. ned. n.ae
IIICU. No.
'''hI&
I I
P
n.D.
1).0.:1. (1110
lucbet l",boM Nv.
2 .08) 14 .4999 .1]0() .2300 .6184
.• 00S 1) .S68S .614-4
.120 11 .701ll .31 .... .llO .6660

"t
.9050 .3813 .l87l

.065
]6 .7014 1.0)49 .S914 1.2147
.CtB 14 .8910 1.)012 .74n 1.2OBS

l} 1.0102 1.47)9 .8-122 1.204)
.no 11 1.2742 1.8220 1.0411 1.1958
.n6

J.6414 2.2900 t.})}7 J.13)5
.1BB fI, J.9512 2.68-18 I.S)42 J.17l0
)
.049 J8 ,)196 .1711 .1622 .7Yi2
.0$8 17 .3766 .2011 .lJ9S .7lll
.06S 16 .4207 .2214 .1]0) :1281
.OS} U S)2S .2780 .2616 .7226
.091 Jl .60:'9 .3128 .2941
.110 11 .75S9 .1812 .l588 .7102
.1S' .9664 .4711 .44li .698)
.219 lit 2.2550 }.04H) 1.7118 1.1bl1
.2}O


).)901 1.9372 J.1524
I
.t3U .065 ]6 1.27n .6814 1.)Oll
'\ .083 14 .9562 1.6080 .8S76 1.2968

.095
l} 1.0908 1.8228 .9722 1.2927
,)20 11 1.168$ 2.1565 1.20)5· 1.2841
, .156
'li
) .7641 2.aSH 1.2718
.G49 18 .1388 .7784
.OSS 17 .3994 .2101 .2114 .77Sl
.ass 16 .4462 .2169 .7129
.188
'fa
2.0985- 1.78Q.f 1.2613
.219
J:
2.4268 ).7971 2.0251 1.2509 ,)I
.250 Y4
2.1469 4.2307 2.2.564 1.2406
.08) 14 .5650 .3312 .29)) .7667
.00S J3 .6412 .3741 .lJ2S .7627
.. .065 16 . SO)) 1.5557 .7179 1.3914
.no H • 8030 .4S68 .4060' .n't] .08} 14 1.0214 1.9597 .97tyJ l.J8)2
.1S6
1.0278 .566}·
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"',
1.2149 .6S14 .5790 .7321 .)20 11 J.4627 2.7552 1.3776 I.J714

"
ni
1.8B67 }.4903 1.7452 1 . .1601
.0019 18 .1S!U .242} ..2040 .8225 ,
.018 17 .4222 .1.BlS .2387 .8195
:06S 16 .47l7 .1149 .1652 .8111
.OS} Ii .5976 .1910 .))09 .8109
.laa
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2.0451 1.3·195
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.2SO 2.94 5.2002 2.6OOl 1.3268
.313
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3.6202 6.1915 3.0988 I.30B4
110
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.(80) .4429 .17lO .0068
.no 11 .8501 .5419 .4'.)6} .7984
.lS6
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1.0891 .67)} .5672 .7664
4U
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.run 14 1.0866 2.3593 1.1103 1.47)6
.188 H.
1.1885 .776-1 .65)8 .7761 .095 Jl 1.2400 2..6715 1.16Ul 1.4694
.no 11 1.5570 1.3224 1.5635 1.4608
:.tH 18 .3771 .283-4 .2.267
.OSS 17 .4450 .11l9 .26S) .86}6
.06i 16 , .. 972 .3688 .2950 .8611
• 08) 14 .6}Ol . .4608 .1686 .8550
.091 1l .7178 .niJa .4U8 .8510
.156
2.0095 ".2158 1.9319 VI 484
.188 ,:. 2.3930 4.9473 2.3281 1.'1378
.219 Ht
2.770) S.6H2 2.6561 1.4274
.250
M
),1416 6.lOn 2.9683 1.4170
.)l} 3.8656 7.5387 3.5476 1.)965
• 120 11
.. 8972 .6l69 . .ms .842-.5
.1}6
'li
.7915 .6348
.188

1.1621 ,916S .7l}2 .8102
4U .065 16 .90')6 2.2271 .9898 1.5682
.OOJ 14 1.1517 2.8098 1.2"&8 1.5619
.095 II
1.}147 3.1001 1.4179 l.SYJ8
2"
.049 18 .-Uss .l791 .9SSl
.018 17 ... 90S .·H-iS .nn .9S20
.065 16 .548} .-1944 .1S96 .9496
.120 11 1.6512 3.9627 1.7612 1.'H91
.IS6

2·U21 5.03Y1 2.231:10
.188
2.S40} . 5.9166 2.6296 1.5261
.219 Jh 2.9-121 6./)Hj ).OOlB 1.5156
.08) 11 .6189 .4501 .9-I1't
,09' II :7914 .6991 .5084 .9391
.110 11 .9915 .8590 .6247 .9}OS
.15,6   1.27]2
1.07'" .78U .9Hi7
• 188 K. l.m ..
.90S9 .9084
.
)
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.llS

4.8597 10.4217 1·6)19 1.4644
.. "
.06S 16 2.62H 1.1054 1.6566
.003 14 J.2169 3.3143 1.}95S 1.6S03
S .049 18 .4946 .3297 1.OOS .09')
II
1.)!.!t)J . 3.76-15 L'}B'}l ] .6462
.OSS 11 .S}61 .SOO2 1.0404 ,120 11 1.7455 4.6dO} 1.9707 J .il}'])
.06S 16 .64)7 .4305 1.0379 .)56
'll
2.25)0' . 5.9550 2.507,1 1.()2'j!
.Oft} 14 .7606 . 8097 .5398 L01l7 .IM
H •
2.6S7S 2949'1 1.6145
.091
l} .8670 .9156 .6104 1.02.76 .219
)'
3.11l9 8.0107 3.3n9 1.60)9
.120 11 J.08S1 l.ll76 .7St7 1.0191
.1S6 1.39>9
J."Ul
1.0069
,ISS n. 1.64504 1.0969 .9966
.110 Jlll
1.911) 1.BS95 1.2)!jJ .9864
l.S]4l 89738 3.77I'io1 1.5934
.3D ;11 4.156$ 1O.77M .... :BN 1.57;8
.11i
a·-
5.H42 12.<1224 .5.2)05 1.S525
"II
S
.OR) 14 ) .2821 }.87SB 1.5S03 1.7187
lU .049 )8 .4928 .631) I.nll)
J7 .SSI6 .7410 ... 560 i.U8l
.O'-JS l} 1.4619 4.4012 L76!7 1.714<>
.120 H l.KW7 5.4798 2.1919 1.7H9
.06S )6 .6504 .3UI •. 126) .f 56
'J:J
I.. lin 691'10} 1.7n ..
.OS} 14 .B2SB 1.0)60 .6}) 1 1.U()')
n 1.1721 .1211 •. 1160
.120 n 1.1800 1.4411 1.1m ..
.188
,;.
2.834A 8.21')2 3.1871 J.7028
.219
2'
9,40H9 }.7b)6 ill

h
3.7106 4.2203 ).61:511
.IS6
'S,
1.Sl1t6 l.il216 1.llaO .)1]
"
II .. 4.6019 12.6'1 S·071H 1.6610
.Ititj
".
1.&040 2.1228 1. }(6) 1.0IS",S .11)
:l'
III
14.66'17 ,5.H6.5':1 1.6-106
.119
f;
,n 2.0811 2.40.)1 1.4tiOl
TABLE 3.6 (CONT'D) - PROPERTIES OF ROUND TUBING
3-35
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
.3.5 BEND RADII
The m i n i m ~ m bend radii for sheet materials are given in Tables 3.7 and 3.8. Table
3.7 shows the minimum radii obtainable by cold forming the sheet while Table 3.8
gives the minimum radii by hot forming the sheet. Figure 3.8 shows the minimum
flange width. Shorter flanges may be obtained by trimming after forming, but this
is expensive and shall not be specified unless additional tooling and processing
costs can be justified.
~                                                                     ~
w=2R+t
--- -'
FIGURE 3.8- STANDARD DESIGN BEND RADII
3.6 HARDNESS CONVERSIONS
Table 3.9 presents the conversions for hardness numbers to ultimate tensile strength.
In this table the ultimate strength values are in the range 50 to 304 ksi. The cor-
responding hardness number is given for each of three hardness machines; Vickers,
Brinell and three scales of the Rockwell machine •
.3. 7 GRAPHICAL INTEGRATION BY SCOMEAN-O METHOD
It is often necessary to integrate curves of unusual or irregular shapes. There is
a convenient method of integrating even the most complex shapes. It is called
graphical integration and is attributed to Scomeano.
For the purposes of this discussion, assume the curve tq be integrated has the form
of y=f(x). The curve could be composed of several different shapes; such as,
fl(x), for-x=O to nl; f
2
(x), for x=nl to n2; f.3(x) , for x=n2 to n3, and so forth.
Figure 3.9 shows a typical problem for which graphical integration will be used.
Since the integral of the curve y=f(x) is, equal to the area under the curve, the
maximum ordinate of the first integral of f{x) will be the area under the y=f(x)
curve. It is necessary to chose a scale for the ordinate of the integral curve so
that the maximum value of the ordinate will lie in the working area of the graph.
The area under the y=f(x) curve is estimated. In the example in Figure 3.9, the
area can eaSily be calculated since the f(x) curves are straight lines. It is 134
and the scale for the first integral is chosen to give easily read divisions and
to show the maximum value within the limits of the paper.
3-36
)
  .
I,. BELL
\fUJ HEUCOPTER COMPANY
DESIGN STANDARD
In
Z
o
>
NOTES:
®
STANDARD DESIGN BEND RADII
BEND RADIUS
____ ...,......1
L THICKNESS
MINIMUM FLANGE WIDTH
R (FROM BEND RADII CHART)
W (MINIMUM FLANGE WIDTH) = 2R + T
&
&
£
&.
4.
SHORTER FLANGES BE OBTAINED BY
TRIMMING AFTER FORMING, BUT THIS
OPERATION IS EXPENSIVE AND SHALL NOT
BE SPECIFIED UNLESS ADDITIONAL TOOLING
AND PROCESSING "COSTS CAN BE JUSTIFIED.
BEND RADII LISTED ARE FOR ANGLES BETWEEN
1
0
AND 110
0
INCLUSIVE. RADII FOR LARGER
ANGLES MUST WITH PRODUCTION ENG.
PER MIL-T-9046
THE SUNDARD BEND RADII TOLERANCE IS ± .02.
BELL DESIGN STANDARD
CODE I DENT NO. 97499
TITLE
BEND RADII-STANDARD
DESIGN
 
Drawinq Nu mber
)
I",. BELL
'iIJJ HELICOPTER COMPANY
DESIGN STANDARD
.
STANDARD DESIGN BEND RADII
MATERIAL CONDITION
MATERIAL THICKNESS
fOR.."1ED AT ROOM T::MP
.012 .016 .020 .025 .032 .040 .050 .063 .0711.080 .090 .100 .l2S .160 .190 .250
l2024-0 .03 ,.03 1.06 .. 06 .00 .Ofj .ulj .12 _J.O I • .1.0 .18 .2.) • .l') • .Jl  
.:if)
A
12024 ... T( } 06 06 .06 .09 .12 .16 .l8 .25 31 .31 .37 .31 • SO .is ..

l
5052-0 .03 .03 .03 .03 .06 .06 .06 .06 .09 .09 -'59 .l2 .16 .lS ;.25

)i

.03 .03 .06 .06 .06 .09 .09 .12 .16 .16 .18 .25 .25 .31 .38 • .56
5OS2-H34'* .02 ! .. .03 .03 .0..3 .06 .06 .oel .09_ .. Oil .12
t
16061 .. 0 .0-.3 03 03 .03 06 06 06 06 .09 -,,09 09 .12 .16 .L8 38
N
) 06 06 .06 .09 .12 16 .18 25 31 31 31 37 50 .75 •. 88

7075-0 .06 .06 .06 .06 .00 .09 .. 09 .12 .16 .16 .. 18 .25 .31 • .,37 .50 .62
707S-T( 1 .09 .09 .09 .12 .16 .25 .25 .31 .37 • .,37 .50 .50 .75
,,87- [..00 " LSO-
. "'-.-
.. Jr'- .25
I
t'

.09 :
.'pg"
,
.37 t .50 .75
.. .,
M -
-_ ... -
.-
A
I I
G .... R2q
-.-
- .• 18
.18
-.25
-.
.31 .50 .50 .62 .7S ;87 1..00 ;"50 1..75
. ,
r
I r-' .- - - . --
. ..
- _.
--- - -. -
300 SERIES AI.'lL .03 .03 .03 .03 .06 .. 06 .06 .09 .09 .09 .12 .12
5 lis HARD
03 03 -,,06 --,,06 06 09 .09 12 16 16 19 ... 25
T 300 SERIES \.:i HARD --,,06 .06 .. 06 .09 .Og .12 .16 .25 1.25 .38 .38 .. 50
E SER-IES 3/4 HARD .09 .09 .09 .12 .16 .19 .22 .25 .2S .31 .38 .47 .50 .. 50 .75 L.OO
f300 SERIES HARD .. 09 .09 .12 .16 .19 .22 .22 .25 .28 • ..Jl .38 .50 .50 .7S ll.:OO-
"l30 At.'IL & I.OW
.06 .06 .06 .09 .09 .12 .16 .16 .19 .22 .25 .28 .34
.ARBON Sn.
4130 NORM it 8630
.06 .09 .09 .12 .12 .16 .19 .21 .. 25 .31 .3l • .,31 .38 .50 .62

--
.
T lTY!! I COMP A
I
024 032 .. 040 064 080 .100 .126 .17i .200 .225 .250 .312
T TYPE I COMP B .030 .. 040 .OSC .062 .080 .100 .125 .157 .213 .. 240 .270 .300 • .,375
A
N TYPE I.. caMP C .024 .(i32 .040 .050 .0,64 .080 .100 .126 .177 .. 200 .225 .250 .312
t
U TYPE II J:OHP A
048 .064 .080 .lOO .118 .160 .200 .252 .319 .360 .450 • .562
ItA
l'YPE ..lII. COMP C 054 .072 .090 .112 .1"4 .180 225 ,.283 355 .400 .450 • SOO .625

'.
1& mE III t OOMP D .054 072 .090 .112 .144 .180 .225 .283 .355 .400 .450 .500 .625
l'
!., *FOa NON-8mUCTtJRAL USE ONLY
.....
-
it

TITANIUM COMMON
I
CONDITION DESIGNATION

TYPE I, COMP A COMMERCIALLY

TYPE I, COMP B PURE

TYPE I, COMP C
TYPE 11,- COMP A Ti-5Al-2.5Sn
"
TYPE III, COMP C Ti .. 6Al-4V
til
TYPE COMP D Ti-6A!-4V ELI
>
0
.:
Q.
Q.
<C
!-- '"-
'"
Z
0
-
'"
-
®
SHEET 1 REVISED.
>
....,

BELL DESIGN STANDARD CODe IDENT 1'40.97499
.. , . -AT'!I:'"
TITLE
Ora winq Number
',;' /" J"t'7t'(" /1 ;:. i£- 'lo
'.

};:..c:-." to
BEND RADII-STANDARD
160-001
DESIGN

SHEET 2 '
2
711"'Z'1Io!!'S77 AEV-'!6'l<
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
AND CONDITION MATERIAL THICKNESS
fOR...-£D AT ROOM TEMP
.012 .016 .020 .025 .032 .OLiO .050

.090 .100 .L15 .160
2024-0 .03 .03
.06$ti
.Ob .09 .09 .T6 .18 .25 .25 .31
A 2024-T{ ) .06 .06 .06 .12 .16 .18 • 2S, .. , .31 .37 .31 .50 .75
l
.OJ .03 .03 .06 .06 .06 .06 .09 .09 .09 .12 .16 .18
U
50S2-H34 .OJ .03 .06 6

.09 .12 .16 .16 .18 .25 .25 .31
M  
.0£_

.03 .06 .06 .09 .09 .. 09 .12
,
16061-0 .03 L .. 03 .03 06 06 09 09 .09 .12 .16 .18
N
6061-T( ) .06 .06 .09 1.12 ! .16 18 .25 31 .31 .37 _.37 50 .75
H 7075-0 .06 .06 • .06 1.06 1.09 .09 .12 .16 .16 .18 .25 .3t_
7075-TC 1 .09- .09 .09 .12 .16 .25 .25 .31 .37 .37 .50 .50 .75 .87
I
1.
09
:09 '
.J!; .37 .. 56 .15 .75
l!\Z318-0
.09 .18 .25 .2.5
Nt
A
G IAz3i.8-R24
'. i-8-- .-18
• 18 .25 .31 .. 50 .50
.6.1 .
.75 ,:81 LOa ;.. 50 L 7S
1
..
300 SERIES ANL .03
' .03 .03 .03 06 ,06 .06 .09 .09 .09 .12 .12
S HARD .03 .03 .06 .06 6 09 09 1.12 - 1.16 .16 19 25
T 300 SERIES ':i HARD .06 .06 .06 .09 16 .25' .25 .38 .3s-T • so
e 300 SER-IES3Zq HARD .09 .09 .09 .12 22 .25 .28 .:31 .38 .47 .50

f j60 SERIES HARD .09 .09 .12 .16 .. 19 . 22 .25 .28 .31 .38 .47 1 .50 .50
4130 A.'lL & LOW
.06 .. 06 .06 .09 .12 .16 .. 16 .19 .22 .25 .28
CARBON STL
.
4130 NORM & 8630
.06 .09 .09 .12 .l2 .16 .22 .25 .31 .:31
.31
!NORM
T ITYPE I. COMP A .02E., .032 .040 .050 .064 .. 080 .100 .126 .177 .200 .225 .250 .312
T TYPE I. COMP B .030 .0LtO .050 .. 062 .080 .100 _1-25 .157 .213 .2LiO
".270
.300 .375
A
N mE It COl-1P C .024 .032 .040 .050 .064 .080 .100 .126 .177 .200 .225 .250 .312
f
TYPE II. W A .048 .064 .OBO .100 .128 .160 .200 .252 .319 .360

Nt.
TYPE III COHP C .. 05Lt .072 090 .112 .144 .tBO .225 .283 .355 .400 .450 .625
rrYPE III, COMP 0 .054 072 .090 .112 .144 .180 .225 .283 .JSS .. 4QO .450 .500 .625
TITANIUM COMMON
CONDITION DESIGNATION
TYPE I, COMP A COMMERCIALLY
TYPE I, COMP B PURE
TYPE I, COMP C
TYPE II, COMP A Ti-5Al-2.5Sn
TYPE III, COMP C Ti-6Al-4v
TYPE III, COMP D ELI
Note: 1 .. Bend radii listed are for angles between 1
0
and 110
0
inclusive. Radii
for larger angles must be coordinated with production engineering.
2. The standard bend radii tolerance is + 0.015.
3. Reference Bell Design Standard '160 - '002.
TABLE 3.7 STANDARD DESIGN BEND RADII (COLD FORMING)
3-31
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
AND MATERIAL THiCKNESS
.012 .016 .020 .025 .032 .040 .050 .063 .071 .080 .090 .lOO .125 .160
A
L
U
'i' 7075-T( )@ 3000F
.06 .06 .06 .06 .09 .. 12 .16 .19 .25 .31 .38 .41 • SO .69
N

/'

M
A
.. O @ 350
Q
F .06 .06 .06 .06 .06 .09 .09 .t6 .16 .18 .25 .25 25
G
  @ 350°F 'r .06 .09 .09 .09 .16 .18 .25 .31 .27 I .. 50 .50 .50 .. 62
riTE I. COM]? A
.018 .02L, .0.3C .-037 .048 .080 .100 .126 .142 .160 .180 .200 .250
@ qOO· -600° F
I
TYPE r. COMP B
.024 .,030 .037 .Oil8 .080 .142 .160 .180 .100 .126 .200! .2SC
T 400:1 - 600· F
I
T
TYPE I. COHP C
.018 1.024 .030 .031 .OLl8 .080 .100 .l26 .142 .160! .180
A
.200 .250
N
@ LlOO° -600° F
t
TYPE II. U COMP A
.036 .048 .060 .075 .096 .120 .LSO .189 .248 .. 280 .315 .350 .437
M S 400
0
-600" F ..
ITYll e I r I caMP C
@ ./.too ...... &00" F
.024 .032 .040 .050 .064 .080 .100 .126 .142 .160 .lS0 .200 .250
[rYPE III. COHP 0
.024 .032 .040 .050 .160 .. 2.50
9 'tOO
O
_600
0
'F
.061.1 .080 .100 .126 .142 .180 .200
TITANIUM COMMON
CONDITION DESIGNATION
TYPE 1, COMP A
COMMERCIALLY
TYPE 1, COMP B PURE
TYPE 1, COMP C
TYPE II. COMP A Ti-: SAl .. 2. 5Sn
TYPE III. COMP C Ti-6Al-4V
TYPE 1119 COMP D Ti-6Al-4V ELI
...
Note: 1. Bend radii listed are for angles between 1
0
and 110
0
inclusive. Radii
for larger angles must be coordinated with Production Engineering.
2. The standard bend radii tolerance is + 0.015.
3. Reference Bell Design Standard 160 - 002.
TABLE 3.8 - STANDARD DESIGN BEND RADII (HOT F0RMING)
3-38
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
,I t ' • :I
Tensile Vickers- Brinell Rockwell
strength Firth 3000 kg
Diamond 10mm Btl A Scale B Scale C Scale
Ball
60 kg 100 kg 150 kg
ksi
Hardness Hardness 120 deg 1/16 in. 120 deg
Number Number Diamond Dia Stl Diamond.
Cone Ball Cone
50 104 92
--
58
--
i
52 108 96
--
61
--
54 112 100
--
64
--
56 116 104
--
66
--
.
.
58 120 108
--
68
--
60 125 113
--
70
--
62 129 117
--
72
--
64 135 122
--
74
--
"
66 139 127
--
76
--
68 143 131
--
77.5
--
)
70 149 136
--
79 --
!
72 153 140
80.5
 
--
--
74
157 145
.-
82
,
--
"
--
"  
76
162 150
--
sa
--
78
167 154 Sf
84.5
--
80
171 158 52
85.5
--
.
82
177 162 53
87
--
TABLE 3.9 - HARDNESS CONVERSION TABLE
3-39
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
 
Tensile Vickers- BrineU' Rockwell
Strength Firth 3000 kg
Diamond 10mm Stl A Scale B Scale C Scale
Ball
60 kg 100 kg 150 kg
ks!
Hardness Hardness 120 deg 1/16 in. 120 deg
Number Number Diamond Dia Stl Diamond
Cone Ball Cone
--- .
,.
83 179
165 53.5
87.5
--
85 186
171 54
89
--
87 189
174 55
90
--
89 196
180 56
91
--
91 203 186 ,56.5 92.5
--
93 207 190 57 93.5 --
95 211 193 57 94
--
97 215 197 57.5 95
--
99 219 201 57.5 95.5 --
102 227 210 59 97
--
104 235 220 60 98 19
107 240 225 60.5 99 20
" )
110 245 230 61 99.5 21
112 250 235 61.5 100 22
115 255 241 62 101 23
118 261 247 62.5 101. 5 24
120 267 253 63 102 25
"
TABLE 3.9 (CONT'D) - HARDNESS CONVERSION TABLE
3-40
"8 STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Tensile Vickers- Brinell Rockwell
Strength Firth
3000 kg,
Diamond 10mm Stl A Scale B Scale C Scale
Ball
60 kg 100 kg 150 kg
kai
Hardness Hardness 120 deg 1/16 in. 120 deg
Number Number Diamond Dia Btl Diamond:
Cone Ball Cone
123 274 259 63.5 103 26
126 281 265 64 --
27
129 288 272 64.5 --
28
132 296 279 65
--
29
136 304 286 65.5
--
30
139 312 294 66 --
31
142 321 301 66.5
--
32
147 330 309 67
--
33
150 339 318 67.5
--
" 34
155 348 327 68
--
35
160 357 337 68.5
--
36
)
165 367 347 69
--
37
170 376 357 69.5
--
38
176 386 367 70
--
39
-
181 396 377 70.5
--
40
188 406 387 71
--
41
194 417 398 71.5
--
42
TABLE 3.9 (CONT'n) - HARDNESS CONVERSION TABLE
3-41
Tensile
Strength
ksi
201
208
215
221
231
237
246
256
264
273
283
294
~ O  
3-42
r
I I
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
!
Vickers- Brinell' Rockwell
Firth 3000 kg
Diamond 10mrn st1 A Scale B Scale C Scale
Ball
60 kg 100 kg 150 kg
Hardness Hardness 120 deg 1/16 in. 120 deg.
Number Number Diamond Dia Stl Diamond
Cone Ball Cone
428 408 72
--
43
440 419 72.5
--
44
452 430 73
--
)45
465 442 73.5
--
46
479 453 74 --
47
493 464 75
--
48
508 476 75.5
--
49
523 488 76
--
50
539 500 76.5
--
51
556 512 77
--
52
573 524 77.5
--
53
..
592 536 78
--
54
611 548 78.5
--
55
--
TABLE 3.9 (CONTln) - HARDNESS CONVERSION TABLE
)
e
l
)
e)
)
---
e)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
1400

1300
1200
1100
1000
900
800 160 16 -'-, __ ' __l
I - i
1
700 140 14 ""i - -;
L
-.-
.
.,
i , ,
t
i
I!
  I
;--t -
600 120 12
' I
: It,

..
t
500 100 10
_ ..


. i ,
I ' )
.-
i
:
400 80 8

.- - ,
_ ..

300 60 6
...
r
200 40 4
100 20 2
0 0 0
0 2 4
CW) C")

0
0
0
1"'"1
1"'"1
1""1

><
><
><
><
..... '
"t:S


1-1
'J00-4




n 'FIGURE
II

tI.()
200
".
t
,
.. '
I
,- !
,
-. 1-1
i
-I.! ' " , "
6
8 10 12 14 16 18 20
LENGTH
3.9 - GRAPHICAL INTEGRATION
3-43
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
The next step is to locate a "pole.
u
This is accomplished by dividing any ordinate
of the first integral curve by the corresponding ordinate of the y=f(x) curve. For
the case in Figure 3.9, select the first integral ordinate of 120. The correspond-
ing y=f(x) ordinate is 12. The pole distance from the origin is then 120/12=10.
Now it is necessary to determine from which side the integration is to be made. It
is customary to integrate from the left but integration from either side is possible.
If from the left, draw a vertical line at x=lO from the origin. If from the right,
draw a vertical line at x=IO to the left of the maximum x value of the y=f(x) curve.
In the example the integration is from the left and the pole is located at x=10 from
the origin. .)
The next step is to determine the incremental x, (Ax), to be. used. In the example,
y=f(x) is a straight line throughout, is arbitrarily selected. The smaller
theAx, the smoother the integral curve. can be changed as the integration pro-
gresses if more accuracy is needed.
The first step in the integration is to lay from the origin. Locate the
median point on the y=f(x) within this increment. For a straight line, this
will be the midpoint but if the y=f(x) is a curve within   then the median
must be estimated,. This is done by assuming a loea tiona Draw a horizontal line
through the point. Check the areas above the horizontal line and below the hori-
zontal bounded by y=f(x) within the Ax increment. When these two areas are equal,
the median is the point where the horizontal line crosses the y=f(x) curve.
Project the horizontal line to the vertical pole.
section and the origin of the y=f(x) curve. Mark
the x=l vertical line. Layout another increment
between x=l and x=2. Locate the median as before
the vertical pole. Determine the slope from this
fer this slope to the point previously located at
from x=l to x=2.
Draw a line between this inter-
a point where this line crosses
of Ax. This time it will extend
and project a horizontal line to
intersection to the origin. Trans-.
x=l. Draw a line with this slope
Continue the above procedure until the limit of the y=f(x) curve has been reached.
The curve formed by the many slopes of the projected lines is the integral curve of
y=f(x). The same procedure can be used to get the second integral by integrating
the ff(x)dx curve.
A baseline for 0 and 9 must be located so that the true deflections and rotations
can be determined. The 6 baseline connects two points of known deflection. In the
example in Figure 3.9, the ends of the beam have zero deflection
t
so the 6 baseline
is located by connecting the two end points of the 6 curve with a straight line.
To locate the baseline for 9, take the ordinate value of the 0 curve at x=L and
divide this value by L. In Figure 3.9, let. 6 =1329 and L =20, then Q
b
1329/20
= 66.45. Draw a horizontal line at 9=66.45. This is the Q baseline. ase
The deflection and rotation at any point on the beam is the vertical distance from
the respective curve to the baseline •
. 3-44
/)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
3.8 CONVERSION FACTORS
Table 3.10 shows conversion factors for most technical units. Equations for con-
verting from one unit of temperature to the other are shown below:

R=l.8 C+49l .. 69
°R=oF+459.69
°K=5/9(oR-491 .. 69)+273.16
°K=5 /9,( °F_ 32 )+2 73.16
°K=oC+273.16
°C=5/9(oR-49l.69)
°C=5/9(oF-32)
°C=oK-273.16
 
F=1.8 C+32
°F=oR-459.69
3.9 THE INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM OF UNITS (SI)
3.30
3.31
3.32
3.33
3.34
3.35
3.36
3.31
3.38
3.39
3.40
3.41
The purpose of this section is to acquaint the engineer with the inevitable, the
Metric System. The International System of Units, or Systeme Internationale (S1),
is sometimes referred to, in less precise terms, as the Meter-Kilogram-Second-Ampere
(MKSA) system. The SI should be considered as the definitive metric system, since
it is much broader in scope and purpose than any previous system.
3 .. 9.1 Basic SI Units
The following are the basic units for the SI:
meter, m
kilogram, kg
second, s
ampere, A
degree Kelvin, oK
candela, cd
In addition, the amount of a substance is treated as a basic quantity" The basic
unit is the mole, symbol: mol. The mole (mol), a unit of quantity in chemistry,
is defined as the amount of a substance in grams (gram mole, gram molecular weight;
pound mole, pound molecular weight) which corresponds to the sum of the atomic
weights of all the atoms constituting the molecule.
3.9.2 Symbols and Notation
When using the 51, the following rules apply:
3-45
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
TO CONVERT
acres
acres
atmospheres
atmospheres
atmospheres
Btu
Btu
Btu
centimeters
centimeters
centimeters
centimeter-grams
centimeter-grams
cen time ter- grams
centimeters/sec
centimeters/sec
centimeters/sec
centimeters/sec
centimeters/sec
centimeters/sec
centimeters/sec/sec
centimeters/sec/sec
centimeters/sec/sec
centimeters/sec/sec
coulombs
cQu1ombs/sq/in
cubic centimeters
cubic centimeters
cubic feet
cubic feet
cubic feet
cubic inches
cubic inches
cubic inches
cubic meters
cubic meters
cubic meters
cubic meters
cubic meters
degrees (angle)
degrees/sec
drams (u.s., fluid or
apoth. )
drams
drams
drams
3-46
INTO
sq. feet
sq. meters
kgs/sq. em
pounds/sq. in.
newton/sq. meter
foot-1bs
joules
ki1owatt-hrs
feet
inches
meters
em-dynes
meter-kgs
pound-feet
feet/min
feet/sec
kilometers/hr
knots
meters/min
mi1es/hr
feet/sec/sec
kms/hr/sec
meters/sec/sec
miles/hr/sec
faradays
coulombs/sq. meter
ell. inches
liters
ell. meters
gallons (U.S. liq.)
liters
ell. meters
liters
quarts (U.S. liq.)
ell. feet
cu. inches
cu. yards
gallons (U.S. 1iq.)
liters
radians
revolutions/min
cubic em.
grams
grains
ounces
TABLE 3.10 - CONVERSION FACTORS
MULTIPLY BY
43,560.0
4,047.0
1.0333
14.70
1.013 x 10
5
778.3
1,054.8
2.928 x 10-
4
3.281 x 10-
2
0.3937
0.01
980.7
10-5
7.233 x 10-
5
1.1969
0.03281
0.036
0.1943
0.6
0.02237
0.03281
0.036
0.01
0.02237
1.036 x 10-
5
1.,550.
0.06102
0.001
0.02832
7.48052
28.32
 
0.01639
0.01732
35.31
61,023.0
1.308
264.2
1,000.0
0.01745
0.1667
3.6967
1.7718
27.3437
0.0625
)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
TO CONVERT
feet
feet of water
feet of water
feet of water
feet of water
feet of water
feet/min
feet/min
feet/min
feet/sec
feet/sec
feet/sec
feet/sec
foot-pounds
foot-pounds
foot-pounds
foot-pounds
foot-pounds
foot-pounds
foot-pounds
foot-pounds/min
foot-pounds/sec
foot-pounds/sec
foot-pounds/sec
gallons
gallons
gallons
gallons
gallons (liq. Br. Imp.)
gallons (U.S.)
gallons of water
gallons/min
gallons/rnin
grains (troy)
grains (troy)
grams
grams
grams
grams
grams
grams
grams/cu. em.
grams/cu. em.
grams/liter
grams/liter
grams/liter
grams/sq. em.
INTO
meters
atmospheres
in. of mercury
kgs/ sq/r:n.e ter-
pounds/sq. ft
pounds/sq. in.
ems/sec
kms/hr
miles/hr
ems/sec
kms/hr
knots
mi1es/hr
Btu
gram-calories
joules
kg-calories
kg-meters
ki1owatt-hrs
newton-meters
horsepower
Btu/hr
horsepower
kilowatts
cu. ems.
cu. feet
cu. inches
liters
gallons (U.S. liq.)
gallons (Imp.)
pounds of water
cu. ft/sec
liters/sec
grains (avdp)
grams
dynes
grains
joules/meter (newtons)
ounces (avdp)
ounces (troy)
poundals
pounds/cu. ft.
pounds/cu. in.
grains/gal
pounds/l,OOO gal
pounds/cu. ft.
pounds/sq. ft.
TABLE 3.10 (CONT-D) - CONVERSION FACTORS
MULTIPLY BY
0.3048
0.02950
0.8826
304.8
62.43
0.4335
0.5080
0.01829
0.01136
30.48
1. 9 7 ~
0.5921
0.6818
1.286 x 10-3
0.3238
1.356
3.24 x 10-
4
0.1383
3.766 x 10-7
1.356
3.030 x 10-5
4.6263
1.818 x 10-3
1.356 x 10-3
3,785.0
0.1337
231.0
3.785
1.20095
0.83267
8.3453
2.228 x 10-
3
0.06308
1.0
0.06480
980.7
15.43
9.807 x 10-
3
0.03527
0.03215
0.07093
62.43
0.03613
58.417
8.345
0.062427
2.0481
3-47
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
r           ~                                                                                                                                                 ~
TO CONVERT
horsepower
horsepower
horsepower
horsepower (550 ft Ib/sec)
horsepower
horsepower
horsepower-hrs
horsepower-hrs
inches
inches of mercury
inches of mercury
inches of mercury
inches of mercury
inches of mercury
inches of water (at 4°C)
inches of water (at 4°C)
inch-pounds
joules
joules/em
joules/em
kilograms
kilograms
kilograms/cu. meter
kilograms/meter
ki lograms/ sq •. ' cm •.
kilograms/sq. em.
kilogram-calories
kilogram-calories
kilogram-calories
kilogram meters
kilometers
kilometers
ki1ometers/hr
kilometers/hr
ki1ometers/hr
kilometers/hr
kilometers/hr
kilowatts
kilowatts
kilowatts
kilowatt-hrs
kip
kips/sq. in.
knots
knots
knots
INTO
Btu/min
foot-1bs/min
foot-1bs/sec
horsepower(metrie) (542.5
kilowatts
watts
Btu
foot-1bs
eentime·ters
atmospheres
feet of water
kgs/sq. meter
pounds/sq. ft.
pounds/sq.. in.
inches of mercury
pounds/sq. ft.
newton-meters
kg-meters
poundals
pounds
poundals
pounds
pounds/cu. ft.
pounds/ft.
atmospheres
pounds/sq. in.
Btu
foot ... pounds
kg-meters
foot-pounds
feet
miles
ems/sec
feet/min
feet/sec
knots
meters/min
BtO/min
foot-lbs/sec
horsepower
Btu
MULTIPLY BY
42 .. 44
33,000.
550.0
ft 1b/sec) 1.014
0.7457
745.7
2,547.
1.98 x 10
4
2.540
0.03342
1.133
345.3
70.73
0.4912
0.07355
5.204
0.11298
O. 1020
723.3
22.48
70.93
2.205
0.06243
0.6720
0.9678
14.22
3.968
3,088.
426.9
7.233
3,281.
0.6214
27.78
54.68
0.9113
0.5396
16.67
56.92
737.6
1.341
-
)
)
knots
knots
kilonewton
megapascals
ki1ometers/hr
nautical mi1es/hr
statute mi1es/hr
feet/sec
meters/sec
3,413.
4.4482
6.8948
1.8532
1.0
1.151
1.689
0.5148
1-                                       ~                                                                                                                     ~
TABLE 3.10 (CONT'D) - CONVERSION FACTORS
3-48
~
~ u
....... 1C1iOfIt"'f ...

TO CONVERT
liters
liters
liters
liters
Megapasca1
Megapascal
)
meters
meters
meters/min
meters/min
meters/min
meters/min
meters/sec
meters/sec
meters/sec
meters/sec
meter-kilograms
miles (naut. )
miles (naut. )

miles (naut. )
miles ( statute)
miles ( statute)
miles ( statute)
miles/hr
miles/hr
mi1es/hr
millimeters
mils
Newton
Newton
Newton-meter
Newton/sq. rmn
)
ounces·
ounces
ounces
poundals
poundals
pounds
pounds
pounds
pounds
pounds
pounds
pounds
  ~
pounds of water
pounds of water
pound-feet
pound-feet
pounds/cu. ft.
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Cll. em.
Cll. feet
cu. inches
INTO
quarts (U.S. liq.)
pounds/sq. in.
newton/sq .. rmn
feet
inches
cms/sec
feet/sec
knots
mi1es/hr
feet/min
.kilometers/hr
miles/hr
miles/min
pound-feet
feet
kilometers
miles (statute)
feet
kilometers
mi 1 es (nau t .. )
feet/sec
knots
meters/sec
inches
inches
pounds
Dynes
inch-pound
Megapascal
grains
grams
ounces (troy)
grams
pounds
grams
kilograms
newtons
ounces
ounces (troy)
poundals
pounds (troy)
cu. feet
gallons
em-grams
meter-kgs
kgs/cu. meter
TABLE 3.l0·(CONT
t
D) - CONVERSION FACTORS
MULTIPLY BY
1,000.0
0.03531
61.02
1.057
145.039
1.0
3.281
39.37
1.667
0.05468
0.03238
0.03728
196.8
3.6
2.237
0 .. 03728
7.233
6,080.27
1.853
1.1516
5,280.
1.609
0.8684
1.467
0.8684
0.4470
0.03937
0.001
0.22481
1 x 10
5
8.8507
1.0
437.5
28.3495
0.9115
14.10
0.03108
453.5924
0.4536
4.4482
16.0
14.5833
32.17
1.21528
0.01602
0.1198
13,825.
0.1383
16.02
3-49
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
-
TO CONVERT INTO MULTIPLY BY
pounds/cu.   n ~ kgs/cu. meter 2.768 x 10
4
pounds/ft kgs/meter 1.488
pounds/in. gms/cm
178.6
pounds/sq. in. atmospheres
0.06804
pounds/sq. in. feet of water
2.307
pounds/sq. in. inches of mercury 2.036
pounds/sq. in. kgs/sq. meter
703.1
pounds/sq. in. megapascals 6.8948 x 10-3
)
quadrants (angle) degrees
90.0
quadrants (angle) radians
1.571
radians degrees
57.30
radians quadrants
0.6366
radians/sec. revolutions/min
9.549
radians/sec. revolutions/sec
0.1592
revolutions radians
6.283
revolutions/min degrees/sec 6.0
revolutions/min radians/sec
0.1047
slug kilogram 14.5939
slug pounds 32.17
square centimeters sq. inches 0.1550
square feet sq. meters 0.09290
.-
square inches sq. ems. 6.452
square kilometers sq. miles
0.3861
square meters sq. feet
10.76
square millimeters sq. inches
1.550 x 10-
3
temperature (OC) +
273 absolute temperature
(oC)
1.0
(oC)
- 0
temperature
+
17.78 temperature ( F) 1.8
temperature
(OF)
+
460 absolute temperature
(OF)
1.0
temperature (OF)
-
32 temperature (OC)
5/9
tons (long) kilograms 1,016.
tons (long) pounds 2,240.
tons (long) tons (short) 1.120
tons (metric) kilograms 1,000.
tons (metric) pounds 2,205.
')
tons ( short) pounds 2,000.
/
tons ( short) pounds (troy) 2,430.56
watts Btu/hI' 3.4192
TABLE 3.10 (CONT'D) - CONVERSION FACTORS
3-50
)
  DESIGN MANUAL
(1) Symbols for units of physical quantities shall be printed in Roman upright
type.
(2) Symbols for units shall not contain a period and shall remain singular; e.g.,
7em, not 7ems.
(3) Symbols for units shall be printed in lower case Roman upright type. How-
ever, the symbol for a unit derived from a proper name shall start with a
capital Roman letter; e.g.: m (meter); A (ampere); Wb (weber); Hz (hertz).
(4) The following prefixes shall be used to indicate decimal fractions or multi-
ples of a unit.
Prefix Equiv. Symbol
deci
(10-
1
)
d
centi
(10-
2
)
c
milli
(10-
3
) m
micro
(10-
6
)
Jl
nano
(10-
9
) n
picD
(10-
12
)
p
femto
(10-
15
) f
atto
(10-
18
)
a
deka (10
1
) da
hecto (10
2
) h
kilo (10
3
) k
mega (10
6
) M
giga (10
9
) G
tera (10
12
) T
(5) The use of double prefixes shall be avoided when single prefixes are avail-
able.
(6) When a prefix symbol is placed before a unit symbol, the combination shall
be considered as a new symbol. A prefix shall never be used before
a unit
2
symbol which is 2quared, thus cm is never written, nor is it written
O.Ol(m ) but as (O.Olm) •
(7) The following are SI units for various commonly used factors.
3-51
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
acceleration
area
density
energy
energy/area time
force
length
mass
power
pressure
speed
time
viscosity
volume
SI Unit
meter/second squared
square meter
kilogram/ell meter
joule
watt/sq meter
newton
meter
kilogram
watt
newton/sq meter
meter/second
second (mean solar)
newton second/sq meter
cu meter
Symbol
m/s2
2
m
kg/m
3
J   N ~ M
W/m2
N= kgrnls
2
m
kg
W==J/s
N/m
2
m/s
s
2
Ns/m
3
m
Table 3.10 shows the alphabetical listing of conversions from the English system to
SI.
3.10 WEIGHTS
3.11 SHEAR CENTERS
The shear center is defined as the point on the cross-section of a beam through
which the transverse load on the beam must pass in order that no rotation of the
beam will occur. A pure twist with no moment produces no deflection at the shear
center, only rotation.
In the case of a beam of variable cross-section, the shear center may be determined
for each section, but these points will not connect to form a straight axis. For
instance, a cantilever beam of non-uniformly varying cross-section may have a load
so placed on the end that the end section will not rotate, but all other sections
of the beam may rotate. The axis formed by connecting all of the shear centers is
called the axis of rotation or the elastic axis.
For any doubly symmetrical section or a section with point symmetry, as a zee, the
shear center is at the center of gravity.
3-52
)
)
STRUCTURAL O'ESIGN MANUAL
For any singly symmetrical section, the shear center is somewhere on the of

For any section made up of two intersecting plates, for example an angle or a tee,
the shear center is at the point of intersection of the plates.
3.ll.1 Shear Centers of Open Sections
The coordinates of the shear center position for the general case of an open section
,are defined by equation 3.42 and 3.43 as shown in Figure 3.10.
y
t
.1
,)
 
FIGURE 3.10 SHEAR CENTER OF OPEN SECTIONS
L L
1 3.42
fly 1 Ws ytds - Ixy I Ws xtdsJ
Xo
IX1y-( Ixy) 2
0 0
L L
1
[- Ix 1 Ws xtds + Ixy j Ws ytds J
v =
Ix1y- (Ixy) 2
.0
o 0
s
Ws 1 rds;
o
The double area swept by the radius vector when the distance along
the midline increases from s=O to s. Ws is taken as positive when
,the area is swept in a counter-clockwise direction.
Coordinates of the shear center with respect to the axis through
the section centroid.
3-53
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
IX' Iytl
xy
; Inertias of the section.
L; The limit of s or the developed length of the cross section.
r; Radius vector measured from the section centroid to median line
of the cross section.
s; Circumferential distance measured along the median line of the
section.
t; Thickness.
If x and yare the principal axes of the section, Ixy=O and equations 3.42 and 1.41
become:
L
xo=l / Ix 1 Wsytds 3.44
Yo=-l/Iy r wsxtds 3.45
c;)
Examples of the previous procedure are shown in Figures 3.11 and 3.12. Table 3.11
and Figures 3.13 through 3.17 give shear center locations for some common sections.
3-54
)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
3.11.1.1 Example of Shear Center Location for Hat Section
2.0
a...---- 1.169 ---..... ----.. o.625Yl
t I
t
I
0.1875
-0.6
till HAT SECTION
(c) PLOT OF • a w.
s
. 0.4 Q=f:B __ ...:.Ir=.2'-.........  
r- I I' iii
-0.1
-0.2
f w.lds· :
I I
: I
• I

I
t
I
I
(b 1 OOUBLE sw£p r AREAS
(en PLOT OF Iw.d
. 2
A = 0.1835 In ..
4
Ix = 0.0345 In.
4
I = 0.0894 In.
y
-
y = 0.447 ill.
t
2
3
4
5
FIGURE 3.11 - EXAMPLE OF SHEAR CENTER LOCATION
Double Swept w
Area
8
0 0
-0.212 -0.212
-0.523
-0.7·10
+0.279 -0.461
+0.234 -0.227
..
FOR HAT SECTION
The section has one axis of symmetry and consequently the shear center will be'on
this axis. The plot in (c) above shows the variation of Ws and x along the devel-
oped length of the hat section. Due to symmetry only one half of the cross sec-
tion is considered. The result will be mUltiplied by two. The expression wsx is
shown in (d) and area under this curve is Then
L .
Y
I = -f wsxtds == 2(O.698){.040) == 0.0558
o y
o
.0558/.0894 .624
3-55
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
. Example of Shear Center Location for Open Shell
I
I.e.

te)
SECTION PROPER11U DEAR CUITER
..
:t

,
(I)
A .. CT)t nili'll)
An
'It Ar Allry"
II
",sA
(3,_(t)
(l).(4) '.}a(S)
• •
Qi)C5){'l)
1 U U 281 122 .Sf;
1 t4
.,
9. 122
26'

S .1 t lSI 48
".&1
2 .'1$1 +1.5 ...130
I)
O· II I 0
I'"
0
.LST +41' -1.1I -114
I) 0'
.,
0
,.
0
+1.8'
.17. -$..5  

S S
,
.1 II .8
2''-50 .... 5-1 -5.5 -1410
,
.. .. 0 0 ... 0 0
If.c.o ltO.O$ -7.» -2S50 -2.5 -800
a 12
,..
0 0 1M 0 0
3&.80 1116.85 -10.33 -M30 .1.5 d95
Z .... to -IO •. U -n1{) .... lI .teU
I 12 6.5 .. 10.33 124 «II 1910 T88
1: 12 -1H80 -801
FIGURE 3.12 - SHEAR CENTER LOCATION FOR UNSYMMETRICAL OPEN SKIN-STIFFENED SHELL
In this example, the method is applied to an unsymmetrical open section composed of
stiffeners. The dimensions of the cross-section are indicated in (a) above. The
numerals within the squares indicate the cross-sectional areas of the stiffeners.
The skin has been assumed to be ineffective in bending for the subject problem.
The sketch in (b) above shows the double areas swept by a radius vector as it moves
counter-clockwise from element to element.
Due to the introduction of the $tiffener areas, Equations 3.44 and 3.45 have to be
modified. For this case, tds is replaced by A, the stiffener area.
n
y
x =
124
66
12
10.33
5.5
I 606 - 12(5.5)2 = 243
Y
I 1960 - 12(10.33)2 = 680
x


)

)

STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revis:lon B
TABLE 3.11 - LOCATION OF SHEAR CENTER
FORM OF SECTION
1. Triangle
2. Sector of thin
circular tube
3. Semicircular area
Ii}
4.
6. I Section
1
7. Tee Section
-It t-t21
-. I I
hi.. -L
Th2
LOCATION OF SHEAR CENTER, Q, FOR SECTIONS
HAVING ONE AXIS OF SYMMETRY
e = 0.47 a
for narrow triangle 12°) approx.
e =
e =
( 7r -0) 2! 0 r (7r J
Sin Cos
<_8_ 3 + 4JL)R
1511' 1 +jL
Q is to right of centroid
II = moment of inertia of leg 1 about Yl (central axis)
12 = moment of inertia of leg 2 about Y2 (central axis)
-- I Leg 1 = tl hi Leg 2 = t2h2
e l)
Y . 1 II + 12 (for ex use Xl and X
2
central axes)
If tl & t2 are   =0 (practically) and Q is at 0
H where H = product of inertia of the half
e = xy section (above x) wi th respect
I
x to axes X and Y; and I = moment
x
of inertia of Whole section with
respect to axis x.
If t r t
1
, e
12
e = b(I + I ) where
1 2
II and 1
2
, respectively, denote moments of
inertia about X-axis of flange 1 and flange 2
For a T - beam of ordinary proportions,
Q may be assumed to be at 0
3-57
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
TABLE 3.11 (CONT'D) - LOCATION OF SHEAR CENTER
8. I with unequal legs
-tblte'" b +1...1..
r[-.t
h t W

t - ----=:.
-- - t
.,.
9. Right angle
with lips.
n 45°
j.e --gOO
10. Sector of arc
e = 3 [b
2
- b
1
2
j
(w/t}h + 6(h + hI)
  (3b - 2b
l
)
e -
- J2 r 2b
3
- (b - h
l
)3J
e =
2 -
- Sin g Cos Q
when Q = (semicircle)
4R
e =-

.,I,,'Y. _   . ~
.L-l - -'. _\ _\,
, , ~ .. STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL

"1
(.)1-'= .
)
N
-:
FIGURE 3.13 - SHEAR CENTER OF A LIPPED CHANNEL SECTION
3-59
W
I
'" o
1-1
C)
c::

t'!1
. 5
I-'
.,. U
ffilHm1 .1 .,
CI'l '
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