Memo To:
Copies To:
Subject:
Enclosure:
Bel e If c te'f l:,i
. , .
.
Mr. L. Hochreiter
8 March 19.77.'
81 :JSD: .'
Messrs. W. Byrd, T. Eidson, G. Grimes,
L. Lortz, O .. K. }'1ccaskill" W. Thatcher
Holes 
Allowal:le Diameter
Table I
,
various maintenance manuals do have a consistent
for al16wqbll; hq.le 55 zes for the four tailboom to fuselage
attachment holes .. ":Also, the manner in which these allowables are
is not qonsistent.
For .. field the Airframe Structures Group rec
._Dm.mends the maximum allo\iable hole size be set at .. 015 above the
blue" prin't minimum hole for these attachment holes. It
is suggested that these allowable sizes be pres2nted in
,.tciilboom' s,ection of the ,various maintenancemanuals and hole allow
ables for both the tailboom ana. fus.elage be addressed in' this
"
..
The Airframe Structures Group also that bushing of,'
holes by liaterial Review.Board <1IRB) disposition be limited to holes
t.rt'at: exceed one hc:!lf (bl)' the .difference between. the maximum hole
allowed fbI:' wear 'and the maximum blue print hole diameter.
''', ' .
Tabl.e I the maximum hole diameters for field
.f.\a.ir.tenance ai{d J.iRB o.ction.
.. the aliowable wear limits from Table I to
the Sroup and request that they revise the
maintenance manua"ls accordingly.
,'
o. Baker
. Group Engineer
Airframe structures
,I'

TABLE I
______ r ___ __ H_O_L_E_S __  __ __ __ __
Maximum Maximum I ..
Model .'
205
206
206L
212
Drawing No.
( Re f )
205030713
2'05031801
206031003
206031004
206033::003
206033004
212030156
212030128
urr & Lwr
(4 lIole,s)
Upr & Lwr
(4 Holes)
Upr L.H.
Upr R.H.
D/P I
Hole Size
.501/.506
.376/.381
.376/.378
.376/.378
Allowable Allowab1e
Hole Size Hole Size 
.(l"!eld Maintenance) (MRS "
, . 'i
516 . :"
3 91 3 8 6... "'!:
. ' ''''':1,):,'
.391 .384 ,,'
.391
.578
.5).6
.384
.573
.511
.31 .386
7 50/ 7 5 6 7 6 5 7 6' 0
,Lwr L. Ii. & R. H.
.563/ .568
.501/ ... 506
214 21403024B
214030314
214030315
AII1G I 20903011::
Upr L.H.
Upr R.B.
Lwr L. It. & R. H
.625/.6jl .640 .635
.640 .635
.5:01/.506 .516 \ .511
Upr " Lwr
(4'Holes)

Alt1J I U p,; L. n & R. H.
Lwr Tit H, & R. H.
.625/.631
.563/.568
.640
.578
.635
.573
209031113
2'0 9  0 J 1  n 7 G
209 .. 031000
________ r ___________ _______________ __
AllIS 209033002
209033114
209033810
209033811
upr & Lwr
(4 Holes)
506 .516
.511
,
209031227 Upr L.H. & R.B. .640
.635,
.573
209032000 Lwr L H & R.B. .5'53/.568 .578
(. " \ ___ __ ____ ..... ___ ..
.  t
\.
0
I
{
Memo To:
Copies To:
Subject:
lNTEROFFJCE MEMO
Production Airframe Stress
9 March 1978
8l:GRA: jo705
Messrs. o. Baker, P. Bauer, L. Lortz,
o. K. McCaskill, J. McGuigan,
n.. Pos te: r, r:. Sc r.oq Q!1, H..
MINIMUM Thickness of Aluminum Airframe Parts
The purpose of this memo is to establish the procedure to use
when specifying thicknesses and conducting analyses on Aluminum
Airframe parts. Airframe Design prefers that we sepcify the
MINIHUH thickness required for structural consideration. There
fore, the procedure to use for analysis of all Aluminum Airframe
parts with the exception of basic extrusion (shapes), drawn
tubing, and sheet stock, shall be the same as defined for chern
milled Aluminum parts in BHT IOH dated 3 February
1978 and repeated below. Analyses of basic extrusion (shapes),
drawn tubing and sheet stock should be conducted using NOMINAL
dimensions ..
Calculate the required thickness for consideration
based on standard analysis procedures. Specify the MINIHU!t1
thickness to be the required thickness minus the tolerance shown
bela,'; :
Thickness Range Tolerance
.012 to .036 .002
.037 to .045 .003
.046 to .096 .004
.097 to .140 .005
.141 to .172 .008
.173 to .203 .010.
.204 to .249 .011
.250 to .320 .011
Note: If it is possible to hold htcr tolerances
than shown above, use NOMINAL thickness in
the analysis.
The above table is based on the standard tolerances specified
for 36 to 48 inch wide aluminum sheet stock shown in ANSI H35.2 
1975. It is standard practice to use nominal sheet stock thick
nesses for analyses with the above tolerances. Therefore, the
same tolerance is acceptable for analysis of other aluminum parts.
Page Ttvo
.l'\.s an example t
9 March 1978
81:GRA:jo70S
If you calculate treqd = .035 in., you should specify
tmin = .035  .002 = .033 in. The tmax will be based
on Design and Manufacturing considerations. The final
analysis will be based on tmin + tolerance from the
table. For our example, the analysis would be
based on tmin + ttol = .033 + .OOL= .035 in.
It is in our best interest to try to influence Design and Manu
facturing to maintain as tight a tolerance as possible in order
to minimize weight.
G. R. A Jr.
Group F.nqinccr
Production Airframe Stress
TO:
C:JPIES 70:
Bell Helicopter i i :):1 i it. J : I
INTEROFFICE MEMO
19 June 1985
81 : .:'1EG : q 1 v 21 5
T. Attridge, C. Baskin, R. Battles, J. Braswell,
M. Ernest, W. Koch, L. Lortz, M. Lufkin, R. Murray.
P. Patel, G. Perry, J. Reynolds, E. Schellhase,
W. Sundland, K. Tessnow, R. Wardlaw
R .. ';lsmi l1er, R. Barrett, F. House, A. Fountain,
L. Lynch, E. Rose1e"r, O. Sims, H. Thomas
Diagram for Metallurgical :est Locations on Forging/
Cas tin 9 0 r a vii n 9 s
immediately, all new forging and designated casting drawing3
shall include a diagram which defines locations for metallurgical tests.
for grain flow, tensile bars, and microstructure Evaluations,
a sap p 1 i cab 1 e , 5 h a 11 be s hOltm i n th e d i a gram .
r all forgings, a ll?rototype Forging Test Diagram
il
shall be required.
7his diagram will be similar to the xray diagram required for most
castings. 1\'/0 or :nree reduced size vielt/s of the ;::a(t ''''; 11 be reQuired
:0 grain flow, bar, and microstructure test locations.
','/hich make a critical or primary part shall have
=n ":<_?AY lHin CONTROL TEST DIAGRAW'. Since these castings
require an xray diagram, tensile bar and test
c,)n be snovm on the viettls of the dia"9ram.
one tQl Group will coordinate with Stress, Desi;n Group,
snd Laboratory to determine and designate the
!o be tested. The Metals Grou8 test
on a check print for the Design Group to incorporate on the
drawing prior to submitting to the Check GrouD.
information on the engineering drawing will eliminate oroblems
encoun[ered over the past years.
o Metallurgical test locations designated with design and
stress input will insure that critical or highly stressed
areas are adequately evaluated. This v1i1l eliminate requesting
additional tests after reviewing forging or
foundry control casting reports.
...
o
o
10 ,June 1985
3 1 : 21EG : Cj 1  21 S
?age 2
Test locatiol1s on cra'./ina \.Ji 11 ::ssure :i1at
ella 1 ua ted t:le same .. :nen ;Jroduced by ':';:0 v::!ldors ::r '.'ihen
vendors are changed.
for destructive by vendors can be compared and
cantroiled at time or Charges. (:7etalL1rgiC31 f:\/a1uations
vary considerably from vendor to vendor aeoending on the number
of tests they perform. When the same tests are soecified for
each vendor, direct comparison of costs can be
The requirements for the forging and casting teSt diagram .. ii11 be
incorporated into the DRM at next revision.
Director
Vehicle Design
.1. t. llreene
Group Enqineer
j1etal
, .. ;;.J.
,
/ t
Memo to:
Copies to:
Subject:
. BELL HELIC8PTER COMPANY
InterOffice Heme
Airframe Desi&n Gr.up
5 December 1974
81:LL: 5w3013
Messrs. R. Alsmiller. Baker, D. Braswell, B. DeLorme,
T. Eidson, E. Fischer, D. Higby, L. Hochreiter.
R. Lynn, O. McCaskill. J. McGuigan. D. Poster
NUTPLATE POLICY IN AIRFRAME DESIGN
It has recently been established that the airframe drawings have an
inconsistency in types of nutplates/hole sizes in both basic structure
and removable panels. This memo is written to clarify the groups
position pertaining to structural applications and standardization of nut
plates. For all future designs the following parameters will be used for
hole sizes and nutplate selection except where structural requirements
dictate a closer tolerance hole to guarantee of the airframe
design. The use of reduced spacing nutplates and regular fixed nutplates
will be used only with the approval of airframe supervision.
For 3/16 inch threaded fasteners using nutplates:
a. In the base structure (frame caps, doublers, etc.), use a .193/.198
diameter hole and a floating type nutplate. Do not attach nutplates
to materials less than .032 thickness for structural application.
b. In the removable pariel/door/structure, .203/.208 diameter hole.
A larger hole might be authorized if stress levels permit.
For 1/4 inch threaded fasteners using nutplates:
a. In the base structure, use a .256/.262 diameter hole and a floating,
type nutplate. Do not attach nutplates to materials less than .040
inch thickness for structural applications.
. h. In the removable panel/door/structure, usa a .264/.270 diameter hole.
A larger hole eight be authorized if stress levels permit.
For 5/16 threaded fasteners using nutplates:
a. In the base structure, usc a .316/.322 diameter hole and a floating
type nutplatc. Do not attach nutplates to materials less than .050
inch thickness for structural applications.
h. In the removable panel/door/structure, use a .327/.333 diameter hole.
.. A'larger hole might be authorized if stress levels permit.
Page 2
For 3/8 inch threaded fasteners using nutplates:
S December 1974
81:LL:swJ013
a. In the base structure. use a .378/.384 diameter hole and a floating
type nutplate. Do not attach nutplates to materials less than .050
inch thickness for structural applications.
b. In the removable panel/door/structure, use a .391/397 diameter hole.
A larger hole might be authorized if stress levels permit.
.

Memo To: .
Copies To:
Subject:
Bell
DIVISIOn 01 It:.tlrotl Inc
INTEROFFICE MEMO
3,.February 1978
Bl:GRA:jo693
Production Airframe Stress Group
Messrs. o. Baker, P. Bauer, L. Lortz,
O. K. McCaskill, J. McGuigan, D. Poster,
E. Scroggs,.R. Scoma
Minimum Thickness on Chern r4illed Aluminum
Sheet or Wrought Alloys
Due to the increased use of chern milling for weight and cost
reduction, it is necessary to clarify the Structures Group
position on the chern milled thickness to use in analyses and
reports. The following procedure should be used when specifying
thicknesses and conducting analyses on sheet or wrought alumi
num alloys.
Calculate the required thickness for structural consideration
based on standard analysis procedures. Specify the minimum
. thickness to be the thickness minus the tolerance shown
below:
Thickness
Ransre Tolerance
.012 to .036 .002
.037 to .045 .003
.046 to .09'6 .004
.097 to .140 .005
.141 to .172 .008
.173 to .203 .010
.204 to .249 .011
.250 to .320 .013
Note: If it is possible to hold tight.er tolerances
than shown above, it is permissible to use
nominal thickness.
The above table is based on the standard tolerances specified
for 36 to 48 inch wide aluminum sheet stock shown in ANSl H35.'2
1975. It is standard practice to use nominal sheet stock thick
nesses for analyses with the above tolerances. Therefore, the
same tolerance is acceptable for analysis of chern milled aluminum
parts.
I
Page Two
3 February 1978
Bl:GRA:jo693
As an example,

If you treqd = .035 in., you should specify
tmin = .035  .002 = .0)3 in. The tmax will be based
on Design and Manufacturing considerations. The final
analysis will be based on trnin + tolerance from the
above table. For our example, the analysis would be
based on tmin + ttol = .033 +" .002 = .035 in.
It is in our best interest to try to influence Design and Manu
facturing to maintain as tight a tolerance as possible in order
to minimize weight.
G. R. Alsmiller,
Group Engineer
Production Airframe Stress
\
Jell II , , ;.
1 Oth 1988
MEMO TO: ALL STRUCTURES AND DESIGN (INCLUDING LIAISON) PERSONNEL,
G.M. GRITZKA, R. FEWS
FROM: A. WATERHOUSE
SUBJECT: USE OF 7075173 FOR PRIMARY AND CRITICAL PARTS
A copy of the attached memo must be inserted in the rel evant pl ace(s)
of all copies of Structures and Design manuals, i.e. the Airframe Design
Manual, Rotor Systems Design Manual, Landing Gear Design Manual t
Structural DeSign Manual, Fatigue Design Handbook, Rotor Stress Group
Manual, and any other des; gn or anal ysi s gui del ines used.

A. Waterhouse
Chief of Structures
Attachment: rOM F. Wagner to Vehicle Design Managers, "ShotPeening
Requirements for Primary and Critical Parts made from
7075T73
11
, 27 April 1984.
AW/dd/19/031
e,
S '
I
\,
..
Memo to:
Copies to:
Subj ect:
Bel.' Helicopter' j j:; itt.] :t
OMIIOI'IOf f.,ron Inc,
INTEROFFICE MEMO
April 27,.1984
Messrs. B. Alapic, o. Baker, W. Cresap, R. Duppstadt,
s. E. Roseler
Messrs. C. Davis, M. Glass, R. Lynn, G. Rodriguez,
S. Viswanathan
ShotPeening Requirements for Primary and Critical Parts
made from 707ST73
The following normal design procedure is to be implemented on all future designed
707ST73 parts as a result of a recently completed fatigue committee study:
All primary and critical parts made from 707SI73 will require
BPS 4409 shotpeening.
Since this is a structural shotpeening as compared to Mil Spec peening, those
parts which require fatigue testing will be tested in the peened condition. Field
repairs of damage will only be authorized in locations on the subject parts which
would not require a peening of the repaired area.
You are requested to inform your designers and insert a copy of this memo into the
DeSign Manual of each appropriate Design Group.
Director
Vehicle Design
..
, .... ,
, .II 'OATt __ 
r""'c:. ____ .......... _
ftfro;'tT _____ _
.t:VIS(O ____ 
IotOO[L
1
THItEl\DJ::n CONNECTIONS
The {ollo\,.'ing rules are sta.ted the case of threaded
betv.rcen 1'\\'0 tubes subjected to axial tensile {orcc. P. For bQltand
nut asscn1blics, the same rul:s apply, by substituting Di = O.
InvestiGate follovling stresses:
(1) Tensile stress in outer tube at root section of thread
ft
p
.'
(2) Ten.sile stress ,in outer tube at relic! groove
(3) Tensile stress in inner tube at root scctiO:1 of thread
." .
..
, .
e
R(VaStO ______ __ _ 10400tl.
,
"
,'"<:
....
/
' \;
TIIREJ\DED CONNECTIONS Conttd
"
(4) 'rensilc stress in inner tube at relief groove
(5)
:
..
Shear stres s ac ros s threads. along 2. cylindrical surface having
a diameter c,:,.ual to the lninixnum pitch' diameter
.
F" LJf\H_OJ\DED '. TOOfH HEiGriT
. . 'TOADED TOOTH HEIGHT
...
. ,I
Unloaded Tooth Height = ma.jor diamete: of tt:be'min'.!.s
ma)drnum minor dia.metc r of outer tube. (  :'
Loa.ded Tooth H clGM ; heiGht mim:..s!j 6
1
'. 0
.
. .
(6) Bearing stress on the surface of contact n.:1d outer
threads.
,
p
where:
L lcnC!h ,of cn:;."q;cmcnt
diarnctcro! inner tt.:oc
IJ. () = e 1.1 5 lie inc,. c :l. c i n G i mel c r o! 0 ul e r t l\ be
'.'
..,
"
. '
... DATE: _____  ___ _
_________ _
RErORT ______________ __
RCVlStD ________ _
MOOfL, ____________ __
.. "' .. _.;.._ .
i
....
TflREi\DED CONNECTIONS Contto.
..
(7) 11:oop compressi.on in inner tube
..
The corresponding elastic decreas'c in ,dia,meter or inner tube is
(8)
&...
'.
.
: .
....
',r
Hoop tension str'ess in outer tube
'.
'.
... :
nle corresponding clastic increase in diar:::'leter of outer !u:,c i5
. .
6 ==2L D cj
. . 0
o EN .
...
.
.
"
:
..
_______ _ "(.PO .. T _______ _
".:vu rn _______ _
T11READED
.
;
. I
,
..
.
. . .
..
. ..
t
__________ ........ _____________ ....,> I
. ! j
.
J
. .
J HI PIT C 11 D I A .+.......;........,..l.o."""""
..
.. p"
",
", . 
:
a:. Truncatio!l of c ::te rna!' th re2.G. root
p =. Pitch
c=
... : 0  ...... n \...,.. .. , ..  v ... r ....... d. &. \ c"::'1 .... ,. ..... ::
.. J.4_rC.I ... _ ...... __ }" ..... _:1 m::. ... 1. ..... l..I.m .n2.Jo .... c.;.n pl",C.l ... _ ... 
, . .
.. d:: of ?:1:1 .cc?th of ..
e = DO'..l:ilc of ;;: ? .. 1 thrc:? .. c.
.. . :: A d. enG u..rn 0 { x t :: :1.:l.1 t h rca d
(D n  a) =' i !1 i m nl :n j 0 r d i a c t r 0 f in:t c r tu be'
(On  b) = 1 .. l":11:10r ci;ln1..:::tcr OL outer
(D n  c) = : .. Ii n i: n \! i t c h d i:1. nl etc r
(I;:> n  d) }. i rn"'! 1'\1 pit c 11 c1 i :t i 71 etc r
(Dn  c) = )!iuir:H.!rn root 01 on int"'4cr Lttbc
J{ fl = )d.l:\' i In'J :"n d .. tc r or th read on ontc r
.,
I
I
f
r
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4
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037031
I
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.050000 .03969
to
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'
.05670
.076923
06107
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086')57 .06903
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08821
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1{fA
\;dI H EUCOPTER COMPANY
DESIGN STANDARD
 ." ............ al ...... ..,. ..... .,.tftf ".u .........
STANDARD DESIGN BEND RADII&
AN 0 CONDITION __ r'r_"'_"'_""_I
FOR.'O AT ROOM T.MP .012 .. 016 .. 020 .025 .032\.. .. .063}.071 .. 080 .090 .100 .. 125 .160 .190\250
202 .... 0 .03.03 .06 .06 .0& 1.':9 .09 :;'1:"%"" .1b .LO .US .25 .25 .Jl .Ja I ....
.06 06 06 .09 .12 !.l6 .18 .25 .. 31 .31 .37 .37 .SO .:"S .90 .2S
l 50S !O ;:____ . 03 06 I 06 .06 .. 06 .09 .09 Jig .12 .16 .. 25 ..J8
u50sr.:Hj4.1 ,,03 03 .06 .06 .06 +.09 .09 .12 .16 .L6 .18 .25 .25 .31 .38 ..56
M 50S .02 .03 ... OJ"I :0:" ,06 09 .09 .09 .l2
I 606 ____ ...... i.06 06 .06 09 09 09 12 ,16 18
N'606:'T( l .06.06 ..... 06 ,09 _ .. _12 I 16 ,18 lS 31 31 .l7 .l7 SO.l .75 rt.2S
.l!707so .06 .06 .06 .06 .06 1.09 09 .12 .. 16 .16 _18 .25 .. 31 .37_ ...
707iT{ I .09 .09 .09 .l2 .16 .25 .25 .31 .Ji .37 .50 .50 ,75 .87 ,SO
.  .09 .I:pi! .1C!;1I :25_ :25 :31 .37 I50 !.1S r ::
G AZ3 . llH.24.1  .. .18 .25 .31 .. SO .50 .. 62 . 15 r .81 \1.00 r
SO
1..15 l r .
1..09 .09 .09 .12 J!.2
I
,
.1.2 1.16 16 19 1.5 I !
25 .:5 38 .38 .50
1
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I 75 ' ;:)9_
.25 .. ..l8 .. 3_1 .38 .';' r.!o '_ 0
.1S r
.12 .16 .16 .19 .22 .25 .25 1.34 1_:'0
.06 .09 .09 .L6 .19 .22 .25 .31 .. 31 .ll .. l8
.50 1 ... .:2
l Ttl'!!!"" J: con A ... 1)2" I.Ol2 .u
Lu
) 050 L ... .080 .100 .126 .1771.2ool.22SI.250l.J12
It COMP B .030 .0"0 .0511 .062 .080 .lOO .157 .21l .2'0 .270 .JOO .. l7S
N I. CDHE' C .02tc .e32 .. 0l.4(] .osa .06':' .080 .100 .. 126 .. 177 .200 .225 .250 .3t2
rrYPJ: I!, CO?!E'_;.:..A __ . 3:.,:l:.,::9;.::.' _;1 __ !
TY"?!: II! costa 0721 090 112 .lu!i .180 11.S 1.253 LJ5S .LaOO .. tcsol.soo .6251
.:::1&mE: II!. COMP 0 .t1.2 .l!.l4 .1801..225 1.2831.355 .5001.6l5
... *FOR NONSnucnJRA.t. USE ONLY
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TITANIUM
CONDITION
TYPE I, COMP A
TYPE I, COMP B
TYPE I, COMP C
TYPE II, COMP
TI'PE II!, COMP
TYPE Illy COMP
SHEET 1 REVISED.
COMMON
DESIGNATION
COMMERCIALLY
PURE
A TiSA1 2. SSn
C Ti .. 6Al4V
D Ti6Al4V ELI
BELL DESIGN STANDARD
BEND RADIISTANDARD
DESIGN
COOE 'DENT .1'40. 91""
Drawinq Number.
160 001
SHEET 2 OF 2
.'
Bell Helicopter' i j:, i.t;:)
STRUCTURAL INFORMATION MEMO NO TBD
July 26th, 1993
MEMO TO:
COPIES TO:
SUBJECT:
BHTI/BHTC AIRFRAME STRUCTURES GROUPS
G.R. ALSMtLLER, K.M. STEVENSON
MINIMUM THICKNESS FOR STRUCTURAL STATIC
ANAL VSIS OF AIRFRAME pARTS.
The purpose of this memo is to establish the policy with respect to the thickness
to be used in structural static analysis and reports.
Analyses of all airframe forgings, castings, machinings and chernmill parts
shall be conducted using minimum drawing thicknesses. Analyses of stock
material (such as extrusion. drawn tubing, sheet. plate, bar, etc) should be
conducted using nominal thicknesses.
Airframe Structures
BHTI
GUkd
Technology
BHTC
t:
!
'e
\
e
m, )''f/

61,1l.
standard tolerances/sheet and plate
TABLE 7.7 Thickness TolerancesID
",UOYS 20.... 2036, 2124, 2219. 300", SQ.S2. S083,
5086, .51 SA. 5252, 525", $4S6. .5652. 606'. 7075. 7G79, 717.. ....ND
BRAZING SHEET NOS. 11. 12. 21. 22. 21. AND 24..
NOTE: AlSO APPLICABLE TO THE ALLOYS USTED WHEN SUPPLIED AS ALct.AO.
SPECIFIED WIDTHi ...
0_
O"er : Ow.r Ov.r : O_r Over . Ow
Sprc.FIED Up ,
.s.c 60 66 i 72 i
78 84
i
90
THICKNESS
thru
thru thru thru thru
I
i
thru thrv thN
In.
18
60 66
:
72 78
!
U 90 96
TOURANCIin, p'us ..... nUn
,001
I
j :
......
.0015
! .  i
.00.4 : .004 j
J
.... I
.005 .005
I
.006
. .006
.007 .009
1
.00S .005
!
.006 : .Q06 Jla1 .011
I .006 .006 .006 .001
I .007
.008 .012
.00 .006 .006 .006 .007 J .007 .012 .012
.0035 .00.4 .006 .006 .006 .007 : .007 .012 .012
.00,( .004 .005 .007 .007 .007 .008 I .008 .016 : .018
.00"'5 ; .0045 : .OOS .007 .001 .007 .008
I .008 .016 : .018
I
0.1260. t 40
.00.45 ! .0045 I .OOS I .005 iJm .010 .012 .013 j.Ol ... .016 i .018
0.141.0.112 .006 I .006 .008
! .008
i .012 .OU .015 .016 .011 j .019
0.1730.203 .007 ! .007 i .010 ' .010 I .011 .ou .016 .017 ; .017 .017 ; .022
: .009
j .011
! .Q1B
1.02",
0.20"0.249 .il09 I .Otl
i .013
.016 .018 .018 .018
0:2500.320 .013 ! .013 i .013 j .013 .OT5 .018 .020 .020 ! .020 .020 ! .025
1.020
i
0.3210."38 .019 .019 .019 i .019 .020 .023 .0'23 : .Q2.5 .025 I .026
0.4390.625 .025 .025 .025 i .025
1.025 i
.025 .025 .030 I .030 .030
I .035
0.626.0.875 .030 ; .030
1
0030 . .030
1.
030 .030 .0lO .OJ7
t .037 .031
0.8161.125 .035 .035 .035 i .035 I .OU .035 .035 .0.45 i .045
.0",5 ! .055
1.1261.375 .0.40 .0.40 .040' I .0.40 t .0.40 .0.(0
I
.040 .051 1052 .052 : .065
1.376.1.625 .0'5 .0.(5
I
.Od .045 .0.(5 .045 .060 i .060 .060 .075 i .0.(5
1.6261.875 .052 .052
1.
052 .052 .052 .057 .052 .070 i .070 .070 .08a
1.876'2.250
.060.
1
.060 .060 .060 .060 .060 .060 .080
i .OBO
.080 .100
2.251.2.750 .07S .075
I .075
.075 .075 .075 .07S .100 . 100 100 .125
2.751 l.ooo .090 .090
I .090
.090 .090 .090 .090 .120 ; .120
! .120 .150
3.00\4.000 .110 .110
I
.110 .110
1 .110
I
.110 .no .1.40
i .140
.UQ .160
".0015.000 .125 .IlS .125 .t25
I .125
.125 .125 .150 .ISO .150 .. 160
S.OOIiI.OOO .135 ! .135 .135 .1l.5 .135 .IlS .135 .160 ! .160 .160 1.170
TABLE 7.9 Width Tolerances SHEARED FLAT SHEET AND PLATE
SPEC1flED WIDtHid.
SPECIFIED
Up ,hru Ow ... 6 Ow., 24 0'11." &0
tHICKNESS
in.
,
thnI 24 thru 60 ,h,u 96
TCLERANClt.;;ea.
0.0060.124
='h6 =lz
o. I 250.249
=.J2 =lh
. 99
+o/t, +Ma
TABLE 7.10 Length Tolerances SHU.IEO FU.T SHEET AND PUTE
SPECtflEO UNGtHin.
SPECIFIED
Up thru O"er 3Q 0"., 6Q ay., 120 OVM 240 0.,., 360
THICKNlSS
30 tlu" 60 th,u 120 thn. HO thr" 360 tl"" 480
h"
TOLERANCES:1) i ...
Q.0060. t 2'
:: Yi, =%2
=*6
0.1250.24.9
='!Z
0.2!i00.499
+*.
+*6
For all numbertd footnotes, see 120
O".r O"er
96 112
i
thru thrv
132
I
1"
I
I
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.016
.016
.020
1 .020
I .020
I .Q23 ..
! .026
! .028
I
I
i .030
1.
035
.. 033
! .038
: .035
j .0.43
I .054
! .055 ! .065
: .065 ; .075
: .075 .oU
I
.088
: .100
: .12.5
I .150
i .:60
I
0".., 96
thru 132
0 ... 1' 80
th,,, 600
=%2
=Yte
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I
156
I 1""
1 thnt thru
I
156
I
168
I
. ..
..
I
I
i
I
I
1.042' : .053
j : .057
; .067
I .059
; .071
I .070
t .088
. .o8Q
: .D98
l.O9O
1 ....
.t08
i
I
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,h,,, 720
+*
119
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0.50
3.0'+ 2.31 1.73 1.29
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{
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2.50 2.7S 1.57 1.00 0.69 0.35 0.18
2.75 2.64 1.43 O.8S 0.60 0.28
3.00 2.48 1.30 0.80 0.52 0.23
3.25 2.32 l.1Ci 0.72 0.45 0.19
3.50 2.18 1.0B 0.64 0.39
3.75 2.06 1.OC 0.57 0.34
4.00 1.95 0.92 0.52 0.30
If
,
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0'" RbjP Pllllt's
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S/b= 0.20
0.10 0.15 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50
J
a./b==O. 2. 5 O.CO C.CO 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.50 0.00 C.OO 0.00 0.01 0.01 G.Ol 0.01
0.75 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01
1.00 0.00 0.0.2 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.01
1.25 0.00 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02
?
1.50 0.00 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02
1.75 0.00 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 C.03 0.03
2.00 0.04 0.04 0.03 Q.03 0.03 0.03 0.03
2..25 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.03
2.50 0.0.5 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.04 C.04
2.75 0.06 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.04
3.00 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.05 0.05
3.25 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.05 0.05
3.50 O.OB 0.06 a.ot: 0.00
3.75 0.08 0.07 0.06 O.C6
4.00 o.os G.07 0.07 0.06
r b Ie.
'1lI
f
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P(s/b ::: 0.1
: ), J )/e:: D.

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0.05 0.10 0.13
D.
0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50
',,: 0.25
******************
6.09 4.61 3.45 2.'58
0.50 4.94 3.8; 2.5'3 1.84 1.34
0.15 S.OO 3.57 2.71 1.75 1 23 0.<;0
1.00 6.31 3. i., 2.74 2.04 1.30 0.90
1.25 5.61 3.27 2 1 g 1.01 C.6E 0.47
1.50 5.02 2.14 1.32 1.32 0.8:1 0.52 0.35
(
1.75 't.46 2.36 1.10 0.64 0.40 0.26
2.00 4.00 2.05 1.32 0.94 0.52 0.30
2.25 3.60 1.81 1.15 0.81 0.42 0.,23
l
2.50 3.27 1.62 1.01 0.69 0.35
I
2.75 2.99 1.47 0 .. 90 0.60 0.29
3.00 2.14 1.33 0.81 0.52 0.24
3.25 2.53 1 .. 21 0.73 0.46
i ''3.50
2.35 1.10 0.65 0.40
3.75 2.20 1.01 0.59 0.35
I
4.00 2.01 0.93
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0.05 C.IO 0.15 0.20 0.50
1:
0..
0.30 0.40
;==0 .. 25 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01
0.50 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01
0 .. 75 0.00 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02
1.00 0.03 0.03 0.C3 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.02
1.25 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03
1.50 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0 .. 03
1.75 0.06 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04
2.00 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05
2.25 0.08 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.05 C.05
2.50 0.08 0.07 0 .. 07 0.06 0.06
2.75 0.09 0.08 0.07 0.07 0.07
3.00 0.10 0.09 0.08 0.08 0.07
3.25 0.11 0.09 0.09 0.08
3.50 0.12 0.10
o CS
O.OS
e
3.75 0.13 0.11 0.10 0.10
4.00 0.14+ 0.11 0.11
.j.
Sib :. 0.05
&.: 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50
0 .. 25 12 .. 61 7.78 5.17
0.50 12.68 8.00 5 .. 45 4.10 2.64
0.15 10.07 5.54 3.72 2.76 1.77
8.03 4.20 2.79 2..06 1.31
1.25 6.60 3.36 2.21 1.6.2 1.00
1.50 5.57 2.80 1.33 1.32 0.80 ,
1.75 4.80 2.39 1.53 1.10 0.64
:(
2.00 4.21 2.08 1.33
0': 9j
0.53
I
2.25 3.13 1.83 1.11 0.80 0.43
2.50 3.37 1.62 1.03 0.70 0.34
2.75 3.08 1.45 0.91 0.61
3.00 2.82 1.33 0.81 0.54
3.25

............
3.50
3.75
4.00
S/b= 0.05
O.IG 0.15 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50
,
"
%.:. 0.2. 5
0.00 0.01 O.Cl 0.01 0.01
0.50 0.03 0.03 0.:)3 0.02 0.02
0.75 C.04 C .. 04 0.04 0.04
1.00 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.05 0.05
1.25 D.OB 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.06
1.50 0.10 c.oa 0.08 0.07 0.07
1.75 0.11 0.10 0.09 0.09 0.08
2.00 0.13 0.11 0.10 0.10 0.09
2.25 0.15 0.12. 0.12 0.11 0.11
2.50 0.16 0.14 0.13 0.12 0.12
2.75 0.18 0.15 0.14 0.14
3.00 0.20 0.16 0.15 0.15
3.25
3.50
3.75
4.00
..
G. J..()..e':)tr 1/ E lelNlt",t", .. y Th<!'oYy of e { .. st:<. Plo.:tu"
PrtSr,
Revision F
"# l11S
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
VOLUME I
RESTRICTED DISCLOSURE NOnCE
THE DRAWINGS. SPECIFICATIONS, DESCRIPTIONS. AND OTHER
TECHNICAL DATA ATTACHED HERETO ARE PROPRIETARY AND
CONfiDENTIAL TO BEll HELICOPTER TEXTRON INC. AND
TRADE SECRETS FOR PURPOSES OF THE TRADE SECRET AND FREEDOM
OF INFORMATION ACTS. NO DISCLOSURE TO OTHERS, EITHER IN THE
UNITED STATES OR ABROAD, OR REPRODUCTION OF ANY PART OF
THE INFORMATION SUPPLIED IS TO BE MADE, AND NO MANUFACTURE.
SALE. OR USE OF ANY INVENTION OR DISCOVERY DISCLOSED HfREIN
SHALL 8E MADE. EXCEPT BY WRITTEN AUTHORIZATION OF SELL
HELICOPTER TEXTRON 'NC. THIS NOTiCE Will NOT OPERA TE TO
NULLIFY OR LIMIT RIGHTS GRANTED 8Y CONTRACT. THE DATA
SUBJECT TO THIS RESTRICTION IS CONTAINED IN All SHEETS AND IS
DISCLOSED TO PERSONNEL OF 8ElL HELICOPTER TEXTRON INC. FOR
THE PURPOSES(S) OF INTERNAL USE AND DISTRIBUTION ONLY.
Bell Helicopter' i i:j i .t ] : I
Memo To:
Subject:
Bell Helicopter iii:; i it
DlIiIslOO 01 Inc.
INTEROFFICE MEMO
27 October 1977
S1:GLJ:jo666
Holders of Structural Design Manual
Revision A
Changes to the Structural Design Manual made by Revision A are
listed below. Please remove superseded pages and add revised
pages and new pages to your copy_
Revised pages: 21, 25, 26, 318, 319, 327, 357, 413,
417, 61, 62, 644, 652, 658, 663 thru 667, 680, 681,
682, 750, 811, 99, 924, 104, 1020, 1022 thru 1026,
1037, 1039 thru 1042, 1044 thru 1047, 1049, 1050, 1052,
1057, 1058, 1071, 1073, 119, 1110, 1111, 1173, 1174,
1293, 1294, 135, 137, 1357, 1410.
New pages: 1020a, 1020b, 136a.
G. L .. Jor
Airframe Stress
Approved:
Bell Helicopter' itt i tI.]: I
DIIIISIon of Texlron Inc
MEMO
.
12 May 1978
8l:GLJ:jo726
Memo To: Holders of Structural Design Manual
Subject: Revision B
Changes to the Structural Design Manual made by Revision Bare
listed below. Please remove superseded pages and add revised
pages and new pages to ,your copy. Insert this memo preceding the
Table of Contents in Volume I.
Volume I revised pages: Title Page, v, vi, V111, 22, 34, 311,
357, 379, 416, 422, 423, 434, 446, 611, 615, 618, 624,
632 thru 636, 638, 641, 661, 662, 664 thru 667, 680,
682, 687, 688, 85, 918, 919, 934, 938.
Volume I new pages: 665a, 665b, 667a, 667b, 689 thru 694.
Volume II revised pages: Title Page, v, vi, viii, 107, 1022,
1058, 1070, 1071, 1075, 1174, 128.
Approved:
o::L'
M. J. CGiligan; . /
Chief of Structures Technology
G. an
Experimental Airframe Stress
"
I
Memo To:
Subject:
lleU :tcr ij:);.j
()IIISlon ollelrronll'lC,
INTEROFFICE MEMO
9 October 1979
Sl: ELB: jo908
Holders of Structural Design Manual
Revision C
Please ihsert the following revised pages in your copy of the
Structural Design Manual and insert this memo preceding the
Table of Contents in Volume I as a summary of the changes of
, Revision C .
I
\,'
;";,",,
.... :;i:.:_
. Additional corrections and suggested inclusions may be sub
mitted to the undersigned for incorporation in the next revi
sion.
Volume I changes:
Revised Title Page, vi, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 32,
364, 424, 52, 67, 68', 654, 74, 85, 86,
926, 958
Added Pages 693, 694, 695/696
Changed Page number 693, 694 to 697, 698
Volume II changes: '
Revised Title Page, vi, 1015, 1118, 1125, 1130, 1131,
'13"':23, 1347
E. L. Brach
Experimental Airframe Stress
APPROVED: .
. ,
. , . .:..
Bell Helicopter i i i hI.]: I
A 01 Ie." nn
INTEROFFICE MEMO
j.
2 September 1983
8l:DL:wc1475
MEMO TO: Holders of Structural Design Manual
SUBJECT: REVISION D
Please insert the following pages in your copy of the
Structural Design Manual and insert this memo preceding
the Table of Contents in Volume I as a summary of the
changes of Revision D.
Volume I changes:
Revised Title Page, iii, 21, 24 thru 212.
Added Pages:
213, 214, 215.
Volume II changes:
Revised Title Page, page iii.
Approved:
Manager of Structural Analysis
D. Lindsay
Airframe Structures
Bell Helicopter' i : i hI.': I j,
INTEROFFICE MEMO
17 April 1985
81:DL:db1475
MEMO TO: Holders of Structural Design Manual
SUBJECT: REVISION E
Please insert the following pages in your copy of the Structural
Design Manual apd insert this memo preceding the Table of Con
tents in Volume I as a summary of the changes of Revision E.
Volume I changes:
Revised Title Page, 317, 411, 424, 518, 613, 639, 652,
656, "659, 664, 673, 682, 668, 669, 719, 727, 731,
83, 815, 952, 9113.
Volume II changes:
Revised Title Page, 1019, 1021, 1024, 1026, 1028, 1031,
1035, 1039, 1040, 1041, 1045, 1047, 1070," 1071, 1182,
11101, 11112, 11113, 1220, 12.21.
D. L1ndsay (
Airframe Structures
Approved:
Materials
(
MEMO TO:
SUBJECT:
Bell Helicopter' i :t:, i It.]: I
INTEROFFICE MEMO
Holders of Structural Design Manual
REVISION F
81:JCS:jw2110
22 October 1987
Please insert the following pages in your copy of the Structural
Design Manual and insert this memo preceding the Table of Con
tents in Volume I as a summary of the changes of Revision F.
Volume I changes:
Title Page, Table of Contents, Section 1, Section 2, 354, 377
to 383, 49, 411, 66, 658, 79, 711, 771.
Volume II changes:
Title Page, Table of Contents, 1026, 1041, 1047, 1128, 137.
J. . S
Structural Methods
Approved:
D. R. Lindsay
Group Engineer, Structural Methods
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
TABLE OF CONTENTS
VOLUME I
REFERENCES
[NTRODUCTION
SECTION 1  PROCEDURES
1.1
1.2
1.2.1
1.2.2
1.2.3
1.2.4
1.3
1 .. 4
1.4.1
1.4.2
1.4.3
1.5
1.5.1
1.5.2
1.5.3
General
Design Coverage
Critical Parts
Flight Safety Parts
Check List for Drawing Review
,Envelope, Source and SpeCification Control
Drawings
Stress Analysis
Structures Report
Introductory Data
Body of the Report
General Information
Structural Information Memos
Purpose
Preparation
Published SIMs
SECTION 2  COMPUTER PROGRAMS
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.3.1
2.3.2
2.4
2 .. 4.1
2.4.2
2.4.2 .. 1
2.4.2 .. 2
2.4.2 .. 3
2.4.3
2.4.4
2.5
2.5 .. 1
2.5.2
2.5.3
General
Computer Facilities
Finite Element and Supplementary Programs
Finite Element Programs
Finite Element Preprocessors and Postprocessors
Approved Structural Analysis Methodology (ASAM)
The LODAM System
The CASA System
CASA System Features
CASA System Architecture
CASA Programs Description
The CPS2TSO System
Other Programs
Miscellaneous Programs
Load Programs Unrelated to Finite Element Analysis
DynamiC Structures Analysis
Fatigue Evaluation
SECTION 3  GENERAL
3.1
3.1.1
Properties of Areas
Areas Centroids
Revision F
xiii
xv
11
11
11
12
12
1 5
16
18
18
19
110
111
111
111
111
2 1
21
21
21
22
25
25
25
26
27
29
212
216
217
217
217
217
31
31
i ; ;
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUA.L
TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)
SECTION 3  GENERAL (Continued)
3. 1.2
3.1.3
3.1.4
3.1 .. 5
3. 1.6
3. 1.7
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3 .. 7
3.8
3.9
3.9.1
3.9.2
3.10
3.11
3.11.1
3.11.2
3.12
3. 12. 1
3.12.2
3.12.3
3.12.4
3.12.5
3.12.6
3.13
3 .. 13.1
3.13.2
3.13.3
3.13.4
3.14
Moments of Inertia
Polar Moment of Inertia
Product of Inertia
Moments of Inertia About Inclined Axes
Principal Axes
Radius of Gyration
Mohr's Circle for Moments of Inertia
Mass Moments of Inertia
Section Properties of Shapes
Bend Radi i
Hardness Conversions
Graphical Integration by Scomeano Method
Conversion Factors
The International System of Units
Basic SI Units
Symbols and Notation
Weights
Shear Centers
Shear Centers of Open Sections
Shear Center of Closed Cells
Strain Gages
The Wire Strain Gage
The Foil Strain Gage
The Weldable Strain Gage
The Strain Gage Rosette
Strain Gage Temperature Compensation
Stress Determination from Strain Measurements
Acoustics and Vibrations
Uniform Beams
Rectangular Plates
Columns
Stress and Strain in Vibrating Plates
Bell Process Standards
SECTION 4  INTERACTION
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.4.1
4.4.2
4.5
4.S.1
iv
Material Failures
Theories of Failures
Determination of Principal Stresses
Interaction of Stresses
Procedure for M.S .. For Two Loads Acting
Procedure for M.S. for Three loads Acting
Compact Structures
Biaxial Stress Interaction Relationships
32
33
35
36
37
37
38
39
310
336
336
336
345
345
345
345
352
352
353
368
370
3 70
371
371
372
373
373
376
379
381
381
384
385
41
42
43
45
411
411
412
412
)
)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)
SECTION 4  INTERACTION (Continued)
4.5.1.1
4.5.1.2
4.5.1.3
4.5.2
4.5.3
4.5.4
4.5.5
4.5.6
Max Shear Stress Theory Interaction Equations
Octahedral Stress Theory Interaction Equations
M.S. Determination
Uniaxial Stress InteractiOn Relationships
Thick Walled Tubular Structures
Unstiffened Panels
Unstiffened Cylindrical Shells
Stiffened Structures
SECTION 5  MATERIALS
5.1
5.1.1
5.1.2
5 .. 1.3
5.2
5.2.1
5.2.2
5.2.3
5.3
5.3.1
5.3.2
5.3.3
5.3.4
5.3.5
5.4
5.4.1
5.4.2
5.4.3
5.5
5.6
5.7
5 .. 7.1
5.7.2
Genera 1
Material Properties
Selection of Design Allowables
Structural Design Criteria
Material Forms
Extruded, Rolled and Drawn Forms
Forged Forms
Cast Forms
Aluminum A 11 oys
Basic Aluminum Temper Designations
Aluminum Alloy Processing
Fracture Toughness of Aluminum Alloys
Resistance to StressCorrosion of Aluminum Alloys
Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Alloys
Steel Alloys
Basic Heat Treatments of Steel
Fracture Toughness of Steel Alloys
Mechanical Properties of Steel Alloys
Magnesium Alloys
Titanium Alloys
StressStrain Curves
Typical StressStrain Diagram
RambergOsgood Method of StressStrain Diagrams
SECTION 6  FASTENERS AND JOINTS
6.1
6.2
6.2.1
6.2.2
6.2.2.1
6.2.2.2
6.2.2.3
General
Mechanical Fasteners
Joint Geometry
Mechanical Fastener Allowables
Protruding Head Solid Rivets
Flush Head Solid Rivets
Solid Rivets in Tension
Revision F
413
413
417
419
419
419
420
420
51
51
51
53
53
53
55
56
58
58
59
513
513
519
521
522
523
524
524
528
529
529
531
61
61
62
63
63
63
66
v
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/. i / i , '\
.' .. ' \ \"\
"
... ,"'''''.,. ..
DESlG:N MANUAL
I I
:""<.. J
Rev i s i on 
TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)
SECTION 6  FASTENERS AND JOINTS (Continued)
6.2.2.4
6.2.2 .. 5
6.2.2.6
6.2.2.7
6.2.2.8
6.3
6.3.1
6.3.2
6 .. 3.3
6.3.4
6.3.5
6.4
6.4.1
6.4.1.1
6.4.1.2
6.4.1.3
6 .. 4.1.4
6.4.1.5 _
6.4.2
6.4.2.1
6.4.2.2
6.4.3
6.4.3.1
6.4.3.2
6.4.4
6.4.4.1
6.4.4.3
6.4.4.4
6 .. 4.4.5
6.4.4.6
6.4.4.7
6.4.5
6.4.6
6.4.7
6.4.8
6.4.9
6.4.10
6 .. 5
Threaded Fasteners
Blind Rivets
Swaged Collar Fasteners
Lodcbo 1 ts
Torque Values for Threaded Fasteners
Metallurgical Joints
Fusion Welding  Arc and Gas
Flash and Pressure Welding
Spot and Seam Welding
Effect of Spot Welds on Parent Metal
Welding of Castings
Mechanical Joints
Joint Load Analysis
OneDimensional Compatibility
Constant Bay Properties  Rigid Sheets
Constant Bay Properties  Rigid Attachments
The Influence of Slop
TwoDimensional Compatibility
Joint Load Distribution  Semi Graphical Method
Fastener Pattern Center of Resistance
Load Determination
Attachment Flexibility
Method I  Generalized Test Data
Method II  Bearing Criteria
Lug Design
Nomenclature
Analysis of Lugs with Axial Loads
Analysis of Lugs with Transverse Loads
Analysis of Lugs with Oblique Loads
Analysis of Pins
Lugs with Eccentrically Located Hole
Lubrication Holes in Lugs
Stresses Due to Press Fit Bushings
Stresses Due to Clamping of Lugs
Single Shear Lug Analysis
Socket Analysis
Tension Fittings
Tension Clips
Cables and Pulleys
SECTION 7  PLATES AND MEMBRANES
7 " 1
7.2
vi
Introduction to Plates
Nomenclature for of Plates
66
610
610
611
611
615
615
615
615
615
618
619
619
619
641
642
642
648
650
650
651
652
652
654
655
656
657
658
660
660
671
671
674
679
679
682
687
693
696
71
71
)
)
)
7 .. 3
7.3.1
7.3.2
7.3.3
7.4
7.4.1
7.4.2
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7 .. 8 .. 1
7.8.2
7.9
7.10
7.11
7.12
7.13
7.14
7 .. 15
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8 .. 6
9.1
9.2
9.2.1
9.2.2
9 .. 2.3
9.3
9.3.1
9.3 .. 2
9.3.3
9.3 .. 4
9.3.5
9.3.6
9 .. 3.7
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)
SECTION 7  PLATES AND MEMBRANES (Continued)
Axial Compression of Flat Plates
Buckling of Unstiffened Flat Plates ;n Axial Compression
Buckling of Stiffened Flat Plates 'in Axial Compression
(rippling Failure of Flat Stiffened Plates in Compression
Bending of Flat Plates
Unstiffened Flat Plates, InPlane Bending
Unstiffened Flat Plates, Transverse Bending
Shear Buckling of Flat Plates
Axial Compression of Curved Plates
Shear Loading of Curved Plates
Plates Under Combined Loadings
Flat Plates Under Combined Loadings
Curved Plates Under Combined Loadings
Triangular Flat Plates
Buckling of Oblique Plates
Introduction to Membranes
Nomenclature for Membranes
Circular Membranes
Long Rectangular Membranes
Short Rectangular Membranes
SECTION 8  TORSION
Torsion of Solid Sections
Torsion of ThinWalled Closed Sections
Torsion of ThinWalled Open Sections
Multicell Closed Beams in Torsion
Plastic Torsion
Allowable Stresses
SECTION 9  BENDING
General
Simple Beams
Shear, Moment and Deflection
Stress Analysis of Symmetrical Sections
Stress Analysis of Unsymmetrical Sections
Strain Energy Methods
Castiglianols Theorem
Structural Deformation Using Strain Energy
Deflection by the Dummy Load Method
Analysis of Redundant Structures
Analysis of Redundant BuiltUp Sheet Metal Structures
Analysis of Structures with Elastic Supports
Analysjs of Structures with Free Motion
72
73
715
727
734
734
737
750
750
758
758
758
758
770
770
774
774
774
776
779
81
82
88
811
814
815
91
91
91
923
924
925
925
925
927
936
940
946
946
vii
~ . ~ . .. 
S,TRUCTURAL DESIGN MANU,AL
TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)
SECTION 9  BENDING (Continued)
9.4
9.5
9.5.1
9 .. 5.2
9 .. 6
9.6 .. 1
9.6.2
9.6.3
9.6 .. 4
9.6.5
9.6.6
9.7
9.8
9.9
viii
Continuous Beams by ThreeMoment Equation
Lateral Buckling of Beams
lateral Buckling of Deep Rectangular Beams
lateral Buckling of Deep I Beams
Plastic Analysis of Beams
Bending About a ~ Axis of Symmetry
Bending in a Plane of Symmetry
Complex Bending
Evaluation of Intercept Stress, fo
Plastic Bending Modulus, Fb
Application of Plastic Bending
Curved Beam Correction Factors for Use in Straight Beam
Formula
BoltSpacer Combinations Subjected to Bending
Standard Bending Shapes
949
951
952
954
958
958
9105
9105
9107
9113
9113
9116
9118
9118
)
')
)
T .. ,
(',;,1' \ \\
STRucrURAl DESIGN MANUAL
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I I
SECTION 10  BUCKLING
10.1 Shear Resistant Beams
10.1.1 Introduction
10.1.2 Unstiffened Shear Resistant Beams
10.1.3 Stiffened Shear Resistant Beams
10.2 Shear Web Reinforcement for Round Holes
10.2.L Doubler Reinforcement
10.2.2 45 Flange Reinforcement
10.3 Shear Beams with Beads
10.4 Shear Buckling
10.5 Incomplete Diagonal Tension
10.5.1 Effective Area of Uprights
10.5.2 Moment of Inertia of Uprights
10.5.3 Effective Column Length
10.5.4 Discussion of the End Panel of a Beam
10.5.5 Analysis of a Flat Tension Field Beam with
Uprights
10.5.6 Analysis of a Flat Tension Field Beam with
Uprights
10.5.7 Analysis of a Flat Tension Field Beam with
Uprights and Access Holes
Single
Double
5i ng1 e"
10.5.8 Analysis of a Tension Field Beam with Curved Panels
10.6 InterRivet Buckling
10.7 Compressive Crippling
10.8 Effective Skin Width
10.9 Joggled Angles
SECTION 11  COLUMNS AND BEAM COLUMNS
11. 1
11.1.1
11.1.2
11.1.3
11.1.4
11.2
11.2.1
11.2.2
11.2.3
11.2.4
11.2.5
11.3
11.3.1
11.3.1.1
Simple Columns
Long Elastic Columns
Short Columns
Columns with Varying Cross Section
Column Data for Both Long and Short Columns
Beam Columns
Beam Columns with Axial Compression Loads
Beam Columns with Axial Tension Loads
MultiSpan Columns and Beam Columns
Control Rod Design
Beam Columns by the ThreeMoment Procedure
Torsional Instability of Columns
Centrally Loaded Columns
Two Axes of Symmetry
Revision F
101
101
101
105
1013
1013
1017
1017
1020
1020
1021
1021
1022
1022
1022
1037
1042
1049
1060
1069
1073
1075
111
113
113
1118
1133
1172
1172
1179
1179
11100
11100
11101
11101
11101
ix
TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)
SECTION 11  COLUMNS AND BEAM COLUMNS (Continued)
11.3.1.2
11.3.1.3
11.3.2
General Cross Section
Cross Sections with One Axis of Symmetry
Eccentrically Loaded Columns
SECTION 12  FRAMES AND RINGS
12.1
12.2
12.2.1
12.2.2
12.2.3
12.3
12.4
12.4.1
12.4.2
12.4.3
12.4.4
General
Analysis of Frames by Moment Distribution
Sign Convent ion .
Moment Distribution Procedure
Sample Problem
Formulas for Simple Frames
Analysis of Rings
Analysis of Rigid Rings with InPlane Loading
Analysis of Rigid Rings with OutofPlane Loading
Analysis of Frame Reinforced Cylindrical Shells
Frame Analysis by the Dummy Load Method
SECTION 13  SANDWICH ANALYSIS
13.1
13.1.1
13.1.2
13.1.3
13.2
13.2.1
13 .. 2.1.1
13.2.1.2
13.2.2
13.2.3
13 .. 2.4
13.2.5
13.2.6
13.2.7
13.2.8
13.2.9
13.3
13.3.1
13.3.2
13.3.3
Materials
Facing Materials
Core Materials
Adhesives
Methods of Analysis
Wrinkling of Facings Under Edgewise Load
Continuous Core
Honeycomb Core
Dimpling of Facings Under Edgewise Load
Flat Rectangular Panels with Edgewise Compression
Flat Rectangular Panels Under Edgewise Shear
Flat Panels Under Uniformly Distributed Normal Load
Sandwich Cylinders Under Torsion
Sandwich Cylinders Under Axial Compression
Cylinders Under Uniform External Pressure
Beams
Attachment Details
Edge Design
Doublers and Inserts
Attachment Fittings
SECTION 14  SPRINGS
14.1 Abbreviations and Symbols
x
11102
11102
11109
)
121
121
121
12"2
125
127
1222
1222
1253
1253
1291

131
133
134
137
1315
1316
1317
1317
1317
1321
1343
)
1348
1362
1365
1377
1380
13101
13101
13103
1 103
141
)
.. ' 7 r ~
; 'I . '. '\
..' \ \ \
" .Bell
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
\' . \ , ...... .....
, . '. ':1 ."
TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)
SECTION 14  SPRINGS (Continued)
14.2
14.2.1
14.2.2
14.2.3
14.2.4
14.2.5
14.2.6
14.2.7
14.2 .. 8
14 .. 2.9
14.2 .. 10
14.3
14.3.1
14.3.2
14 .. 3 .. 3
14.3.4
14.4
14.4.1
14.4.2
14 .. 4.3
14.4 .. 4
14.4 .. 5
14.4 .. 6
14.5
14.5 .. 1
14.6
14.7
14.7.1
14.7.2
14.7.3
14 .. 7 .. 4
14.8
14.8 .. 1
14.8.2
14.8.3
14.8.4
14.8.5
14.8.6
Compression Springs
Design Formulas
Buckling
Helix Direction
Natural Frequency, Vibration and Surge
Impact
Spring Nests
Spring Index (Old)
Stress Correction Factors for Curvature
Keystone Effect
Design Guidelines for Compression Springs
Extension springs
Design Formulas
End Design
Initial Tension (Preload)
Design Guidelines for Extension Springs
Torsion Springs
Design Formulas
End Design
Change in Diameter and Length
Helix of Torsion Springs
Torsional Moment Estimation
Design Guidelines for Torsion Springs
Coned Disc (Belleville) Springs
Design Formulas
Flat Springs
Material Properties
Fatigue Strength
Other Materials
Elevated Temperature Operation
Exact Fatigue Calculation
Spring Manufacture
Stress Relieving
Cold Set to Solid
Gri nd i ng
Shot Peening
Protective Coatings
Hydrogen Embrittlement
SECTION 15 THERMAL STRESS ANALYSIS
15 .. 1
15.1.1
15.2
Strength of Materials Solution
General Stresses and Strains
Uniform Heating
Revision F
142
144
144
147
147
148
148
148
148
149
149
1410
1410
1410
1412
1413
1415
1415
1415
1417
1418
1418
1418
1420
1420
1422
1422
1422
1426
1426
1427
1428
1428
1430
1430
1430
1431
1431
151
152
153
xi
ST.RUCT.URAlDESIGN MANUAL
TABLE OF CONTENTS (Concluded)
SECTION 15  THERMAL STRESS ANALYSIS (Continued)
15.2.1
15.2.2
15 .. 2.3
15.2.4
15.2.5
15.2.6
15.3
15.3.1
15 .. 3.2
15.4
15.4.1
15.4.2
15.5
15.6
15.6.1
15.6.2
15.6.3
15.7
15.7.1
15.7.2
15.8
xii
Bar Restrained Against Lengthwise Expansion
Restrained Bar with a Cap at One End
Partial Restraint
Two Bars at Different Temperatures
Three Bars at Different Temperatures
General Equations for Bars at Different Temperatures
NonUniform Temperatures
Uniform Thickness
Varying Thickness
Linear Temperature Variations
Restrained Rectangular Beam. Uniform Face Temperatures
PinEnded Beams
Combined Mechanical and Thermal Stresses
Flat Plates
Plate of General Shape
Square Plates
Flat Plates with Uniform Heating
Temperature Effects on Joints
Preload Effects Due to Temperature
Thermally Induced Loads in Material
Thermal Buckling
153
153
154
154
155
155
155
156
15 6
156
157
157
158
158
159
159
159
1"512
1512
1513
1515
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STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
REFERENCES
1. MILHDBK5, Metallic Materials and Elements for Aerospace Vehicle
Struetures, Department of Defense, 1974.
2. Stress Analysis Manual, Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory,
Wrightpatterson Air Force Base, 1969.
3. Astronautic Structures Manual, Structures and Propulsion Labora
tory, Marshall Space Flight Center, 1975.
4. Griffel, W., Handbook of Formulas for Stress and Strain, Frederick
Ungar Publishing Company, 1966.
5. Roark, R. J., Formulas for Stress and Strain, McGrawHill Book
Company, 1965.
6. Baker, E': H., Capelli, A. P., Kovalevsky, L., Rish, F. L., and
Verette, R. M., Shell Analysis Manual, North American Aviation,
Inc., SID66398, 1966.
7. Reissner, E., On the Theory of Thin Elastic Shells, H. Reissner
Anniversary Volume, 1949.
8. Clarke, R. A., On the Theory of Thin" Elastic Toroidal Shells,
Journal of Mathematics and Physics, Volume 29, 1950.
9. Ramberg, W. and Osgood, W., Description of StressStrain Curves
by Three Parameters, NACA TN 902, 1943.
10. Switzky, H., Forray, M., and Newman, M., ThermoStructural Analy
sis Manual, Technical Report Number WADDTR605l7, 1962.
11. Gerard, G. and Becker, H., Handbook of Structural Stability,
Part I  Buckling of Flat Plates, NACA TN 3781, 1957.
12. Becker, H., Handbook of Structural Stability, Part II  Buckling
of Composite Elements, NACA TN 3782, 1957.
13. MILSTD29A, Drawing Reiuirements for Mechanical Springs, U. s.
Govt. printing Office, 962.
14. MILHDBK23, Structural Sandwich Composites, Department of De
fense, 1968.
15. Peery, D. J., Aircraft Structures, McGrawHill Book Company, 1950.
16. Bruhn, E. F., Analysis and Design of Flight Vehicle Structures,
TriState Offset Company, 1965.
xiii
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
REFERENCES (Continued)
17. Niles, A. S. and Newell, J. S., Airplane Structures, John Wiley
and Sons, 1943.
18. Sechler, E. E. and Dunn, L. G. , Airplane Structural Analysis and
Design, John Wiley and Sons, 1942.
xiv
eli
)
INTRODUCTION
The purpose of the Bell Helicopter Structural Design Manual is to provide a source
of structural analysis methods, material data, procedures and policies applicable
to structural design. The data contained herein are largely condensations of n ~
formation obtained from the Federal Government, universities, textbooks, techni
cal publications and Bell reports and memoranda. As much as possible the sources
are noted and shown in a list of references at the beginning of the manual.
This manual is intended to provide the structural designer with necessary design
information in the form of equations, curves, tables and stepbystep procedures.
Derivations are purposely omitted to make the manual easier to use. Corrments
and suggestions regarding this manual are encouraged. They should be directed
to the Chief of Structural Technology, Bell Helicopter Textron.
)
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STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
SECTION 1
PROCEDURES
1.1 General
The Structures Technology Section of Engineering has the primary responsi
bilityof insuring structural integrity of all Bell Helicopter products at
minimum weight and cost. To this end, the.following procedures are outlined.
) 1.2 Design Coverage
)
The Structures Engineer must follow a design from its inception. His re
quirements and suggestions must be submitted to the Design Engineer as the
design progresses. The Structures Engineer must frequently review the work
of the designer and if possible be ready to sign the drawing when it is com
p 1 ete. I n most cases, no changes shou 1 d have to be made to a draw; ng ,after
it has been submitted to the Structures Group for signature.
Structures Engineers are ,responsible for obtaining concurrence, and signa
tures where required, of Materials Technology and Fatigue Groups.
Components should be substantiated by using established and recognized stress
analysis methods or by comparison to existing test data. If, for specific
problems design support test data are needed, Structures Engineers should
initiate test requests.
1.2.1 Critical Parts
All parts of the helicopter structure which are subjected to significant os
cillatory loads, or which are of prime importance to safety of flight, will
come under the heading of critical parts and will be treated as follows:
 All critical parts will be evaluated for static design loading, fatigue,
fretting. corrosion, residual stress corrosion, corrosion
fatigue and other environmental
 Analysis should include primary and secondary modes of failures as well
as the effects of bearing friction or stiffness under load. 'All such
analysis should be kept in a drawing check notebook.
 any significant design changes, alternate parts or materials will be
reviewed with special care. The requirement for reQualification tests
will be a Joint decision of the Structures Group Engineer and Project
Engineer (and D.E.R. where applicable).
In all tests conducted, the objectives of the test will be stated prior
to the test. where possible, the method of interpretation of test
results will be defined prior to the test. Test results that are
unexpected or unexplained will be pursued to a solution.
11
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
 Flight and laboratory test requests should be accompanied by a brief
writeup of expected results where possihle and Lab and Flight Test
personnel will be requested to alert affected groups of any unexpected
results.
 All Structures personnel will work with the Fatigue Group, Materials
Technology Group, Laboratory personnel and the appropriate design group
in the design of new parts to reduce stress concentrations and stress
corrosion susceptibility and to improve fretting characteristics.
 In all new designs, maximum use will be made of service experience from
similar parts of structural. configurations used on previous models.
1.2.2 Flight Safety Parts
A flight safety part ;s defined as any part, assemblj or installation whose
failure, malfunction or absence could cause loss or seiious damage to the
aircraft and/or serious injury or death to the occupants or group support
personnel.
A part is considered a FSP if item 1.2.2.1 is affirmative and anyone of item
1.2.2.2 is affirmative.
1.2.2.1 Primary failure or malfunction affects the safe operation of the
aircraft.
1.2.2.2
a. The part has a predicted or demonstrated finite life.
b. A 10% reduction in laboratory working strength would result in an
unlimited life becoming a finite life.
c. Loss of function could occur due to improper assembly oroperation.
d. Fabrication of the part involves a manufacturing process which, if
improperly performed, has high probability of changing material
properties significantly impacting life.
Flight Safety Parts are further governed by BHTI Requirements Specification
299947478. Each FSP must show at least one critical characteristic.
1.2.3 Check List for Drawing Review
The following check list ;s a guide for drawing review:
General Considerations
Are critical net sections okay?
 Take into reductions for stretched formed parts.
12
)
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STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
Be aware of clampup stresses and associated stress corrosion problems.
 Account for all local discontinuities and centroid shifts.
Consider all secondary effects such as tension field loads.
Avoid abrupt changes in area.
Use no onerivet shear clips.
Check for column stability on all compression members.
Stress relieve and heat treat after welding.
 Specify machine finishes.
Design for thermal stresses and strains.
Reduce allowables for temperature.,
Check for no yield at limit load as well as no failure at ultimate since
some materials have low yield/ultimate relationship.
For material allowables. use "A" values with all statically determinate
structures. Use "B" values with redundant structures and structures
designed for crash conditions, if specifically approved by the procuring
agency.
Investigate stiffness requirements.
Check strain compatibility of joined structures.
 Check structural deflection.
 When necessary to use dissimilar metals, design for their use,
especially in joints.
Design for wear, abrasion and fretting.
 Design for corrosion and stress corrosion due to residual stresses.
 Account for friction.
Check for surface treatments such as paint, chrome, hard anodizing,
cadmium, etc.
Proof load parts per specification requirements (such as hoists, control
systems, hydraulics, etc.).
 Make the structure as light as possible.
13
) ,; ! "\
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STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
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Revision F
 Verify that all processes necessary to the strength of the structure are
properly called out.
Fasteners
Verify that bolt grip lengths are adequate to prevent threads in
bearing ..
Avoid using rivets in primary tension applications.
Make joint critical in sheet bearing rather than of fasteners.
Specify torque requirements on all bolts. Do not use bolts less than
! inch diameter in load carrying capacity without specific approval of
Structures Group Engineer.
 Avoid using blind fasteners in engine inlets or by the tail rotor side
of a fin.
00 not use nutplates with reduced rivet spacing.
Avoid using rivets less than 1/8, inch in diameter in structural
applications.
 Avoid mixing bolts and rivets in shear jOints.
Avoid using tension and shear fasteners as load sharing attachments in
joint design.
Examine hole tolerances and fits.
 Avoid using screws in primary tension applications with repeated loads.
 NAS quality bolts shall be installed in the movable portion of all
control system joints.
 Commercial applications require dual locking devices on threaded
fasteners or analysis to show fail safe with one fastener missing.
Composite Structures
 Verify the use of appropriate adhesive and supporting .BPS.
 Complete and check the destructive test diagram for sandwich con
struction.
 Assure that appropriate extensions or cutoffs are included for
destructive test of laminates.
Verify that the structure carries the appropriate classification.
14
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STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
Identify critical areas on the destructive test diagram.
 that processes called out will produce the desired structure.
 Verify that the part or assembly carries the appropriate classification.
See the DRM, Section 2H13 for definitions.
Castings
Verify that the casting carries the appropriate classification.
 Review for approval of weld repair and the associated reduction in
strength. (Reference SIM No.9)
 Verify that xray standards are appropriate for the casting classi
fication.
Identify critical areas on the xray diagram.
1.2.4 Envelope, Source Control, Specification Control Drawings
All Structures personnel who have occasion to sign Envelope, Source Control,
or Specification Control Drawings shall, as a minimum, establish that the
drawing adequately defines the following:
 Configuration
 Mounting and mating dimensions
 Dimensional limitations (interferences)
 Performance (loads, environment, life, etc.)
 Weight limitations
 Reliability requirements
Interchangeability requirements
 Test requirements
 Verification requirements (analysis or test)
 Material limitations (example, no castings allowed, etc.)
 Casting classification if allowed (also casting factor)
 Primary Part designation
 Reference to applicable specification.
1 5
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Revision
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Also, if special inspections and tests such as xrays and static tests are
required, the Project Engineer should be alerted so that plans can be made to
procure parts for the required tests.
"Approved Sources of Supplyll or IISuggested Sources of Supply" shall be
approved by Structures only if the proposed vendor item meets all structural
requirements. This may mean vendors must submit stress analyses of their
design or test data as a part of their proposal.
On all Primary Parts or other items with significant structural requirements,
the Structures Engineer shall retain a copy of the approved design, vendor
stress analysis and test data and file this information in the proper drawing
check notebook.
1.3 Stress Analysis
A stress analysis of each component of the helicopter structure ;s required.
The analysis should be in the following format:
 at x 11 paper (BHTI stress pad)
 Analyst1s name (no initials) and date at the top of each page
 Part number of the part being analyzed at the top right hand corner of
each page
 Number all pages (1 of 10, etc.).
Each analysis must contain the following information:
 Sketch of ' the part being analyzed. Should be to scale but must contain
enough dimensions to derive loads or calculate critical sections.
 Free body diagram. Must contain all loads for a particular
Must be in static equilibrium in all views.
 All the loads cases necessary to determine the critical cases for the
part. Various sections of the part may be designed by different loads
conditions. Be careful to identify loads as limit or ultimate.
 Material of which the part ;s made.
 Material allowable stresses and source. The source must be approved by
the procuring agency.
 Step by step procedure for the stress analysis of all failure modes. If
equations being used are not widely recognizable standard stress
equations (i.e., PlAt Me/I, Vqjlt, etc.) the source of the equation must
be stated ..
16
)
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STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
 Margin of safety calculation.
Any information which was used in the design of the part must be
included.
 Specify applicable factors (casting, fitting, etc.).
 Assumptions that you made in order to "idealize" a structure, unless
they would be clearly understood by another person.
Calculations that are superseded by a redesign must be clearly marked
"void
ll
or lIobsolete
U
and referenced to the new calculations.
The stress notes must be kept up to date by the Structures Engineer until the
time the engineering drawing is approved by the Structures Group. At this
time the stress notes are filed in a master file from which they will not be
removed. This file is maintained in each project area by the Lead Structures
Eng i neer.
Drawing Tolerances for Section Properties and Stress Analysis
For analyses of basic extrusion (shapes), drawn tubing and sheet stock,
nominal dimensions will be used. Nominal dimensions are defined as those
from which tolerance is added or subtracted. If a dimension is given as
an upper and lower limit, the nominal dimension is the mean value.
For aluminum airframe parts other than those specified above where it is
desirable to specify a minmax thickness, the following procedure will be
used:
 Calculate lne required thickness for structural consideration based on
standard analysis methods. Specify the minimum thickness to be the
required thickness minus the tolerance shown below:
Thickness Range Tolerance Examl2le
.012
.037
046
.097
.141
.173
.204
.. 250
to .036 .002 If t (required) .120
to .003 Specify: t (min) = .120.005
to .096 .004 = .115 in .
to .. 14iJ .005 t (max) may be .125, .130,
to .172 .008 depending on the material
to . 20" .010 thickness tolerance
t(! .011
to .320 .013
NOTE: If it ;s possible to hold tighter tolerances
than shown above, use nominal thickness in the
analysis. The Structures Engineer should seek
the closest tolerance possible commensurate with
cost considerations in order to minimize weight.
132 .
17
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STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
1.4 Structures Report
The following informatipn is submitted as a format for structures reports.
It ;s necessarily a general outline but should be adhered to in order to
produce a document that has clearly defined subject matter, is accurate in
technical aspects and is clearly readable as well as reproducible.
1.4.1 Introductory Data
Preceding the technical content or body of the report is:
a. Title Page  Must contain all authors, group and project approval, OER
approval if commercial, contract number if military and revision status.
b. Revision Status Listing (for a multivolume report)
c. Revision Summary Page
d. Proprietary Rights Notice
e. A page of individual author signatures (when too numerous for the Title
Page)
f. Table of Contents  must contain all the major section headings and
basic divisions within each section. Each topic will have the approp
riate page number. If the report is multivolume, each volume will
contain a full Table of Contents for all volumes.
g. References  (See General Information)
h. list of Figures (not included in reports having less than 200 pages)
i. List of Tables (not included in reports having less than 200 pages)
j. Definitions and Symbols
k. ThreeView Drawing (basic design criteria, loads and fuselage reports)
1. Basic Lines Data (loads report and airframe analysis)
m. Sign Convention
n. Table of Minimum Margins of Safety" On a part with multiple margins,
both high and low, no margin greater than .25 will be Minimum
margins of safety include only the minimums on each part analyzed and
generally speaking, margins greater than 1.0 are not shown. Discretion
must be used and margins greater than 1.0 may be shown on critical parts
or system such as controls if all margins are greater than 1.0.
18
)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
o. Introduction  The report introduction should always refer to the Basic
Design Criteria Report as a source of helicopter data, horsepower, C.G.
vs G. load conditions, load factors, etc.
1.4.2 Body of the Report
The body of the report ;s the structural analysis and should be broken down
into major c'omponents, parts or system and conform to the outl ine as shown in
the Table of Contents. Pages will be numbered sequentially within major
sections; i.e., 1.001 , 2.001 .. , etc. Page numbers for all pages
preceding the body of the report shall be small Roman numerals, as i, iv,
xii ..
Stress analysis of components, details or systems:
d. Should be written on Bell stress pad ( originals should always be used
in a report and copies filed in drawing checks or elsewhere).
b. A discussion should precede the analysis of each major component, part
or system. This should include a description of the system or
structures being analyzed, a reference to the loading conditions or
design criteria, a summary of the methods of analysis used, the assump
tions made and should often include statements regarding parts that are
not analyzed as "being not critical.
11
load configurations or conditions
not analyzed should also be noted as "not critical."
c. Page headings will include nomenclature and part number.
d. A sketch and/or geometry of the part or component being analyzed with
the critical loan condition and load direction shown. Reactions shall
be shown lne part or component will be statically balanced. When
the axis shown should conform to the helicopter sign con
vention in the preface of the report, location of the part should be
identified in d positive manner such as W.l.ls, B.l.ts or STA's and when
not clear IIUp!!, II fwd II , etc. should be noted. Should the analysis to
follow include several details, sections, or panels, etc., these should
be lettered for identification.
e. Identification of material(s) and properties. Note the allowable
stresses and/or loads and a leference to the source by page number or
show the computed all ...... able.
f. Special accounting for stress concentrations, cast materials,
fatigue considerations, etc. should be identified together with their
source. These factors will appear not in loads but in margin of safety
calculations. .
g. The analysis is generally written for ultimate loads unless it ;s
necessary to show compliance with limit load or fatigue criteria.
19
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
h. A margin of safety or fatigue life calculation concludes the analysis.
The correct should be shown. If a part is loaded in tension and
bending. stress ratios for tension and bending modulus should be
calculated ang a margin of safety based on the sum of the stress ratios
shown. Show margin calculation at the extreme right hand side of
the page. "
i. When the analysis is extensive and it is deemed advisable to summarize
results in a table, shown the tabulated results with reference to pages
from which the results were obtained.
This table of IISummary of Results" should precede the analysis. " The entire
picture is, therefore, shown in the the "Geometry and Loads
ll
,
and the "Summary of Results"".
1.4.3 General Information
a. Since our reports are reproduced, write with a soft lead for maximum
reproducibility.
b. Extensive usage of flag notes and footnotes is not advised.
c. Adequately reference what you put down; i.e., do not assume the reader
knows where this information came from. Many of our readers are in
foreign countries. When making the reference, give page number as well
as the title. "
d. Use of the Tenses  Computations appearing in the report should be
referred to in the present tense. The past tense is used when referring
to work not appearing in the but which was done as a
prerequisite to data in the report. Do not slip into the present
imperative or past or future tenses. Use the third perso"n throughout.
e. Be neat; do not overcrowd the page.
f. Avoid the usage of 11 x 17 pages, if practical. Proper planning will
minimize this ..
g. A "List of References
u
, nproprietary Rights Notice", a IIRevision
li
page
and a "Distribution List
ll
will be in a1' volumes.
h. Coordinate with the project office and/or contractual data to determine
who is on the distribution list.
i. References should list Bell reports first, generally beginning with the
nBasic Design Criteria", other reports, textbooks such as npeery",
"Bruhn
u
, IlTimoshenko"" etc., MILHBDKs, NACA Technical notes and vendor
data, i.e., honeycomb data, bearing catalogs, etc., in the order shown.
j. Discussions, references, general data, table of contents, etc., on all
reports shall be typed.
110
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STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
1.5 Structural Information Memos
1.5.1 Purpose
Structural Information Memos (SIM) are distributed by the Director of
Structures Technology to make new and unique structural design information
available to members of the Structures groups and appropriate design groups.
1.5.2 Preparation
Each new SIM submitted for approval shall include a cover memo addressed to
the Director of Structures Technology, giving a brief synopsis of the
Material. The memo shall be signed by the originator and approved by the SIM
coordinator. The originator of each SIM shall be responsible for
establishing the credibility and accuracy of his information and for
preparing the SIM for distribution. Each SIM shall "stand on its own" and be
thoroughly checked and referenced. Format of the material is left to the
discretion of the originator.
1.5.3 Published SIM's
Previously published SIM's are included in the following pages. The
signatures have been removed, but the originals of the SIM's are available
from structures technology.
111
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
STRUCTURES INFORMATION MEMO NO.1
SUBJECT: PROCEgURE FOR STRUCTURES INFORMATION MEMO (SIM)
REFERENCES: (a) As required
(b) As required
ENCLOSURES: (a) SIM Index
(b) SIM Distribution
June 15, 1972
This memo is written to establish a procedure for making new and unique
structural design information available to members of the Structures groups
and appropriate design groups. Much useful information is either generated
or collected by members of the Structures groups during the norma1
performance of their duties. This information ;s usually available to a
limited number of persons and ;s often filed away and forgotten. In order to
prevent valuable information from becoming useless and forgotten, the
Structures Information Memo ;s hereby established as the vehicle for
conveying this information.
The Methods and Materials Structures Group Engineer will be the coordinator
for all SIM's and will assist in determining what information is valuable
enough to publish. He will retain all will assign SIM index
number, and update the index and distribution list as required.
Each SIM shall include a cover memo, addressed to the Chief of Structural
Design, giving a brief synopsis of the material. The memo shall be signed by
the originator and approved by the SIM coordinator. The originator of each
SIM shall be responsible for establishing the credibility and accuracy of his
information and for preparing the SIM for distribution. Each SIM shall
"stand on its ownl! and be thoroughly checked and referenced. Format of the
material is left to the discretion of the originator, however, it should be
remembered that all SIMas will be considered for incorporation in a
Structures Manual to be issued at a later date. Similar significant
structural information originating in any design group will be welcomed and
handled in the same manner. Any additions or deletions to the distribution
list should be directed to the SIM coordinator.
112
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)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
STRUCTURES INFORMATION MEMO NO.2
August 27, 1973
SUBJECT: REPORT FORMAT FOR STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
The following information is submitted in an effort to clarify questions
regarding the above subject by persons involving in writing stress Analysis
reports. It is necessarily a general outline but should be adhered to in.
order to produce a document that has clearly defined subject matter, is
accurate in technical aspects and is clearly readable as well as
reproducible. This is our product.
1.
2.
Preceding the technical content or body of the report is:
a. Title Page
b. Proprietary Rights Notice
c. Revi s ion Status L; sti ng (when a report has mu 1 t ipl e va lumes)
d. A ~ v s o n page .(blank in a new report except for report number and
volume number in place of page number)
e. A page of individual author signatures (when too numerous to be listed
on the Title Page).
f. Table of Contents (the first numbered page)
g. References (see General Information)
h. List of Figures (not included in reports having less than 200 pages)
i. List of Tab 1 e s (II II II II " II \I II II)
j. Definitions and Symbols
k. ThreeView Drawing (basic design criteria, loads and fuselage reports)
1. Basic Lines Data (loads report and airframe analysis)
m. Sign Convention
n. Table of Minimum Margins of Safety
On a part with multiple margins, both high and low, no margin greater
than .25 will be shown. Minimum margins of safety include only the
minimums on each part analyzed and generally speaking, margins greater
than 1.0 are not shown. Discretion must be used and margins greater
than 1.0 may be shown on critical parts .or system such as controls if
a 11 marg; ns are greater than 1.0.
o. I nt roduct i on
The report introduction should always refer to the Basic Design Criteria
Report as a source of helicopter data, horsepower, C.G. vs G. Wt. load
conditions, load factors. etc.
Body of the report:
The body of the report ;s the structural analysis and should be broken
down into major components, parts or systems and conform to the outline
as shown in the Table of Contents. Pages will be numbered sequentially
within major sections; i.e., 1.001 ... , 2.001 .. , etc. Page numbers
113
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....... 01"" ..
, ). /
".' / :f .
Revision F
STRUCTURAL .D.ESIG" MANUA_L
for all pages preceding the body of the report shall be small roman
numerals, as i, iv, xii ..
3. Stress analysis of components, details or systems:
a. Should be written on Bell stress pad (see example on page 112;
originals should always be used in a report and copies filed in drawing
checks or elsewhere).
b. A discussion should precede the analysis of each major component, part
or system. This should include a description of the system or structure
being analyzed, a refetence to loading conditions or design
criteria. a summary of the methods of analysis used, the assumptions
made and should often include statements regarding parts that are not
analyzed as "being not Load configurations or conditions
analyzed should also be noted as "not critical". .
c. Page headings will include nomenclature and part number. (See example
on page 116).
d. A sketch and/or geometry of the part or component being analyzed with
the critical load condition and load direction shown. Reactions shall
be shown and the part or component will be statically balariced. When
possible the axis shown should conform the helicopter sign convention
in the preface of the location of the part should be identified
in a positive manner such as W.L.'s, B.l.IS or STA's and when not clear
"UpU, ufwd
u
, etc. should be noted. Should the analysis to follow
include several details, sections, or etc., these should be
lettered for identification. '
e. Identification of material(s) and properties. Note the allowable
stresses and/or loads and a reference to the source by page number or
show the computed allowable.
f. Special factors accounting for stress concentrations, cast materials,
fatigue considerations
9
etc. should be identified together with their
source. These factors will appear not in loads but in margin of safety
calculations.
g. The analysis is generally written for ultimate loads unless it is
necessary to show compliance with limit load or fatigue criteria.
h. A margin of safety or fatigue life calculation concludes the analysiS.
Show the margin calculation at the extreme right hand side of the page.
No negative margins of safety may be shown; however, zero margins are
acceptable.
i. When the analysis is extensive and it is deemed advisable to summarize
results in a table, show the tabulated results with reference to pages
from which the results were obtained. This table of IISummary of
Resultsil should precede the analysis. The entire picture is therefore
.
114
)
srRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
shown in the IIDiscussion
lt
, the "Geometry and Loads
ll
, and the "Summary of
Results
lt
4. General Information
a. Since our reports are reproduced, write with a soft lead, such as "F"
grade for maximum reproducibility.
b. Extensive usage of flag notes and footnotes is not advised.
) c. Adequately reference what you put down; i.e., donlt assume the reader
knows where this information came from. Many of our readers are in
foreign countries.
d. Be neat. dont' overcrowd the page.
e. Avoid the usage of 11 x 17 pages, if practical. Proper planning will
minimize this.
f. For multivolume reports, a complete table of contents will be shown for
all volumes in Volume I.
g. A table of contents for that volume will be shown in volumes other than
Volume I.
h. A "List of References
t
ll
"Proprietary Rights Notice't" a "Revision
u
page
and a UDistribution Listll will be in all volumes.
i. Coordinate with the project office and/or contractual data to determine
who is on t ~ e distribution list.
j. References should list Bell reports first, generally beginning with the
"Basic Design Criteria,U other reports, textbooks such as IIPeery,1J
"Bruhn," uTimoshenko," etc., MILHOBK's, NACA Technical notes and vendor
data ~ e Hexcel data, bearing catalogs, etc. in the order shown. Note:
~ Structures manuals from other companies are not legitimate references.
i. Oiscussions, references, general data, table of contents, etc. on all
reports shall be typed.
1 15
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Your Marne Here
MODEL PAGE ___ _
Leave Blank on Com.
ey ____________________
.ell Helicopter' i =t:t i .t., : I
CM EC KE 0 _______ 1
RPT
116
I
Add dwg. number part being
analyzed in this box.
TITLE HERE
Leave space for
revision letter later
PART, NOMENCLATURE HERE
I
State loads. detan and location or reference Sect. A., Pg. ___
where this is shown. See 13.
Compute the actual ultimate stress level. gene1al1y from limit loadS,
referencing a report or page number for the loads.
[t may be necessary to compute section loads on the section being
analyzed or to determine and show a static balance prior to computation of
the stress level.
Compute an allowable or state a reference for the allowables being used.
State limit loads and yield a110wables when these are used to prove structure
is nonyielding at limit load.
State the margin of safety.
This is the pyrpose and conclusion of the analysis. Be sure to include
fitting factors, casting factors in the M.S. and so state
9
i.e. t lIusing l.15
fitting factor
u
State which formula is used such as.
M.S .. =
1
1 =
(R
t
+ R.) (Factor)
+.xx
L
Conftne the analysiS within these limits and thereby preserve the
neatness of the report
Vl,e Of disclosure of aata 01'1 this polqe 1\ to the reUrlctlon on tl'le ,We Olloqe.
Cl
)
.7
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
STRUCTURES INFORMATION MEMO NO.3
August 28, 1973
SUBJECT: LOAD SHEETS FOR STATIC TEST OF CASTINGS
This memo is written to standardize the data furnished on the load Sheets
prepared for the Mechanical laboratory and .used by them in the static tests
of castings.
The following as a minimum. should be included on all Load
Sheets.
1. Title, part no., and name, thus:
CASTING LOAD SHEET
Part No. 204XXXXXXX, Bellcrank, Cyclic Control
2. Indicate loads as 1l1imit" or Uultimate
ll
Ultimate preferred.
3. Draw sketches of part showing the external load application, direction
and magnitude, and the reactions (usually designed by t
, and ). Sufficient views shall be used to completely define
the critical loading condition. Each view shall show the reactions
necessary to place the part, with its applied external load(s), in a
state of static equilibrium. The loads and reactions shall be the same
as those used in the structural analysis to insure that the part will be
tested in the same manner as it was analyzed. Where moment vectors (
) are used a note shall be included to indicate whether the right or
left hand rule is applicable.
4. When available the report number from which loads and reactions were
obtained shall be referenced. thus:
Ref. Report 205XXXXXX
5. A note shall give a brief description of the loading condition! thus:
Loading condition: 8G Forward Crash
6. A note shall indicate the casting factor, thus:
Loads inc1ude a 1.33 casting factor
Where the casting factor is unity, so indicate, thus:
Casting factor of 1.00 is applicable
117
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
7. Any other special information necessary to assure that the casting will
be tested as It was analyzed.
8. All Load Sheets shall be prepared on stress pad paper.
An example Load h ~ e t is attached. Note that the rule for the moment vectors
was omitted.
118
\
\
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
BY 1 ,lIeIIcopteriitii,t.J:1 MOOEL ____ PAGE __ _
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119
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
STRUCTURES INFORMATION MEMO NO.4
27 February 1974
SUBJECT: BOLTS IN MOVEABLE CONTROL SYSTEM JOINTS
In order to avoid the possibility of installing an understrength bolt and to
provide increase resistance to repeated loads. the following policy shall be
implemented on the Model 409, Model D 3 6 ~ Model 301; the production series of
the Model 214 and Model 206L; and all future designs.
 NAS quality bolts shall be installed in the movable portion of all
control system joints.
120
)
)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
STRUCTURES INFORMATION MEMO NO.5
12 March 1974
SUBJECT: JUMP TAKEOFF LOADS
it has come to my attention that we are not addressing the rotor
tilt for the jump takeoff conditions in a consistent manner. In order to
provide a uniform approach, the following procedure shall be followed:
 Assume the helicopter has landed on a slope of specified magnitude ;n
any direction (normally 6) and executes a vertical takeoff at maximum load
factor for this condition. The rotor tilt will be that which is necessary
to execute this maneuver.
121
STRUC.TU.RAL DESIGN MANUAL
STRUCTURES INFORMATION MEMO NO.6
2 August 1974
SUBJECT: DETERMINATION OF FAILURE MODES
ENCLOSURE: Suggested Form for Recording Failure Modes
Beginning with the Model 222, and effective for all future design activity,
the Airframe and Dynamic Structures Groups will establish and maintain a
notebook which shows the first and second predicted failure modes for all
structural elements. The maintenance of these notebooks will be the
responsibility of the lead structures engineer for each project.
The determination of these failure modes will consider static and dynamic
loads along with other contributing factors, such as temperature, corrosion,
and fabrication effects. The primary control will be maintained at the
subassembly level (i.e., engine mount, bulkhead, main beam, etc.). Primary
and secondary failure modes for static and fatigue loading will be determined
for each subassembly. For those elements which are subjected to static or
fatigue testing, the results of those tests will be entered in the notebook.
In addition, any service problems encountered in the production cycle of the
element will be entered. A suggested form for these records is enclosed.
To aid the designer in his determination of these failure modes, the
structural design groups will supply the deSigner with the critical loads for
the structural element under consideration. These will be supplied in the
form of a sketch or free body of the element with the applied loads and
reactions. These loads will be updated as the mathematical model is refined
during the design process.
The establishment and maintenance of these records can mean much in
establishing the rationale for a particular design, tracking its performance
and guiding similar designs in the future. Your cooperation in implementing
the procedure is essential to its success.
122
)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
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123
STRU,CTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
STRUCTURES INFORMATION MEMO NO.7
8 August 1974
SUBJECT: STRUCTURES APPROVAL OF ENVELOPE, SOURCE CONTROL, AND SPECIFICATION
CONTROL DRAWINGS
It has recently come to my attention that some of the subject type drawings
do not always contain adequate information to allow us to properly validate
the item to the government or the FAA. For example, castings may be
purchased from a Source Control Drawing without proper inspection or test
requirements being fully met within the company_ The Source Control Drawing
may make no reference to xray requirements, static test requirements or any
other special inspections required on castings.
Therefore, all Structural Design personnel who have occasion to sign
Envelope, Source Control, or Specification Control Drawings shall, as a
minimum, establish that the drawing adequately defines the following:
o Configuration
o Mounting and mating dimensions
o Dimensional limitations (interferences)
o Performance (loads, environment, life, etc.)
o Weight limitations
o Reliability requirements
o Interchangeability requirements
o Test requirements
o Verification requirements (analysis or test)
o Material limitations (example, no castings allowed, etc.)
o Casting classification if allowed (also casting factor)
o Primary Part designation
o Reference to applicable specification
Also, if special inspections and tests such as xrays and static tests are
required, Project should be alerted so that plans can be made to procure
parts for the required tests.
UApproved Sources of Supply" or "Suggested Sources of Supplyll shall not be
approved by Structures until we are completely satisfied that the proposed
vendor item does meet all structural requirements. This may mean vendors
must submit stress analyses of their deSign or test data as a part of their
proposal.
On all Primary Parts or other items with significant structural requirements,
the Structures Engineer shall retain a copy of the approved design, vendor
stress analysis and test data and file this information in the proper Drawing
Check Notebook.
,)
)
Revision F
It is hoped that other design groups will use this or some other check list
for processing these type drawings.
125
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
STRUCTURES INFORMATION MEMO NO.8
26 February 1975
SUBJECT: EDGE DlSTANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR NAS 1738 AND HAS 1739 BLIND RIVET
INSTALLATION
As stated in MILHDBK5B, paragraph 8.1.4, Blind Fasteners, liThe strength
values were established from test data and are applicable to joints having
values of elD equal to or greater than 2.0. Where ejD values less than 2.0
are used, tests to SUbstantiate yield and ultimate strengths must be made.
1I
On page 111 of MILHOBK5B, e is defined as the distance from a hole
centerline to the edge of the sheet and 0 is the hole diameter.
The ultimate and yield strength values for NAS 1738 locked spindle blind
rivets are based on a hole diameter of 0.144 for a 1/8 rivet, 0.177 for a
5/32 rivet, and 0.2055 for a 3/16 rivet, reference MILHDBK5B, Table
8.1.4.1.2{d). The shank diameter for the HAS 1738 and HAS 1739 rivets are
0.140 for a 1/8 rivet, 0.173 for a 5/32 rivet, and 0.201 for a 3/16 rivet.
Loft and sometimes Engineering Design will dimension edge distances and parts
for the NAS 1738 blind rivet based on two times the 5/32 value (.31) rather
than two times the 0.177 MILHDBK58 value (.36), for example. This practice
results in a rivet edge distance of less than 2.0; therefore, the MI HOBKS8
strength values in Table 8.1.4.1.2(1) for HAS 1738B rivets are not
applicable.
In conclusion, to ensure the correct edge distance is used when planned
patterns of NAS 1738 and HAS 1739 rivets are installed, Structures Group
recommends that the correct edge distance dimension be specified on the face
of the drawing for rivet patterns rather than using the drawing note that
states rivet elO is equal to two times the rivet shank diameter. Also,
special attention must be given to skin overlaps, and bulkhead and stiffener
flange dimensioning. The edge distance for the countersunk NAS 1739 rivet of
2.5 times the rivet shank diameter is valid because MILHDBK58 "values for
the HAS 1739 rivet are based on two times the hole diameter. The table below
summarizes the recommended minimum nominal edge distance values for NAS 1738
and HAS 1739 blind spindle locked rivets.
126
Rivet
. Size
1/8
5/32
3/16
EDGE DISTANCE
NAS 1738 NAS 1739
.29
.36
.41
.32
.39
.. 47
)
SUBJECT:
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
STRUCTURES INFORMATION MEMO NO.9
4 May 1976
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES REDUCTION FACTORS FOR CASTINGS WITH
FOUNDRY WELD REPAIR
REFERENCES: a) BHC Report 599233909, liThe Effect of Weld Repair on the
Static and Fatigue Strengths of Various Cast Alloys"
b) BPS FW 4470  In Process Welding of Castings
c) ASM Technical Report W 66.3, IIStatic and Fatigue
Properties of Repair Welded Aluminum and Magnesium Premium
Quality Castings"
Future casting drawings should have a note that permits the in process
welding of castings per BPS 4470. To allow for this weld repair, parts
should be analyzed using the following reductions in allowables.
Reduction Factors for Foundry Weld Repair
Material
Ultimate Yield
Elongation
Endurance
Tensile Tens i le Limit
356T6 10% 5% 0 10%
A356T6 10% 13% 0 10%
AZ91T6 25% 22% 50% 10%
ZE41T5 10% 0 50% 10%
174 PH 0 2% 30% 10%
In those circumstances where the part cannot be sized to allow for weld
repair throughout the part, a weld map should be provided on the drawing to
indicate those areas which may receive weld repair.
If the entire part is so critical that no weld repair can be permitted and
the part cannot be redesigned, the drawing and all analysis should be clearly
marked "No Weld Repair Allowed". All 201 Aluminum Alloy castings shall be
marked IINo Weld Repair Allowed
ll
127
STRUCTURAL DESIGN. MANUAL
STRUCTURES INfORMATION MEMO NO. 10
9 March 1978
SUBJECT: DESIGN CRITERIA FOR DOORS AND HATCHES
Unless otherwise specified in a Detail Specification or Structural Design
Criteria Report, the Structural Design Criteria presented herein should be
used on new designs for the following:
1. Access doors
2. Hinged or sliding canopies
3. Sliding doors
4. Passenger doors
5. Crew doors
6. Cargo compartment doors
7. Emergency doors
8. Escape hatches
All loads associated with the use and operation of doors and hatches
terminated in the latches and hinges and their attachment to the airframe.
The sources of these loads are:
1. Open canopy during approach or taxi operation
2. Gusts
3. Outward push from personnel
4. Air loads
5. Rough handling
1. Open canopy during approach or tax; operation
If a sliding or hinged canopy is used, it should be designed to withstand an
air load from tax; operations of up to 60 kt.
2. Gusts
All doors that are subject to damage by ground gusts and wind loads from
other helicopters being run up or taxied nearby or flown close overhead,
should be provided with a means to absorb the energy resulting from a 40 kt
ground gust occurring during opening or closing. Doors and access doors or
panels that have a positive holdopen feature should be capable of
withstanding gust loads to 65 kt when the door or panel is in the open
position and unattended.
3. Outward push from personnel
Due to possible inadvertent loading by personnel, passenger doors should be
capable of withstanding an outward load of 200 lb. without opening. Also,
128
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
doors between occupied compartments shall be capable of withstanding a load
of 200 lb. in either direction without opening. These loads are assumed to
be applied upon a 10 sq. in. area at any point on the surface of the door.
Yielding and excessive deflections are permitted but the door 'must not open.
4. Air loads
The air loads on doors and hatches for helicopters probably are minimal when
compared to the many personneloriented loads. The air loads, however,
should be investigated, including the application of the appropriate gust
criteria. All doors should be capable of withstanding air loads up to VD in
the closed position. All sliding cargo and passenger doors should be capable
of withstanding air loads up to 120 knots in the full open position and up to
80 knots in any partially open position.
5. Rough handling
All doors and hatches that are likely to recelve rough handling during their
lifetime should be capable of withstanding loads they are expected to receive
in operation. Passenger and crew doors should withstand a 150 pound load
applied downward at the most critical location without permanent deformation.
All other doors that are unlikely to be stepped on or used as a handhold or
which are marked with a IINO STEP" or liND HANDHOLD
II
decal should withstand a
50 pound load parallel to the hinge pin axes and a 50 pound load
perpendicular to the surface without permanent deformation.
129
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
STRUCTURES INFORMATION MEMO NO. 11
16 January 1980
SUBJECT: EMERGENCY FLOAT KIT LOADS
In addition to the existing design conditions, emergency float kit loads must
be developed for the following conditions:
1. Floats in the water at 0.8 bag buoyancy and combined with salt water
drag for 20 knots forward speed. These loads will be treated as limit
loads. These loads will be applied at angles corresponding to the
righting moments, but not to exceed 20.
2. For skid mounted floats;
130
a) A computer drop will be done in a tail down attitude for limit sink
speed. Skids will be checked for a positive M.S. at yield.
b) Crosstubes will not yield with the helicopter in the water, floats
inflated and no rotor lift.
)
)
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STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
STRUCTURES INFORMATION MEMO NO. 12
7 August 1981
. SUBJECT: 7050T73 RIVETS IN LIEU OF 2024T31 (ICE BOX) RIVETS
7050T73 rivets will be utilized in lieu of 2024T31 "00
11
(ice bOX) rivets as
of 20 July 1981. The 7050 rivets can be stored at room temperature, thereby
eliminating numerous problems that exist with the 2024 rivets.
The following policy will be implemented.
1. Manufacturing will utilize the 7050T73 rivets to supersede the MS
2024600 and MS 204700D rivets (Reference, the SUPER SESSION LIST, BHT
Standard 170001, Revision "G
II
), effective the target date of 20 July
1981.
2. The 100
0
flush and protruding head 7050 aluminum alloy rivets are
delineated in BHT Standards 110174 and 110175. respectively.
3. All new drawings initiated after this date will callout the 7050 rivets
for 3/16 and 1/4 inch diameters. Approval for other diameters MUST be
obtained from applicable Structures and DeSign Group Engineers prior to
utilization.
4. The 7050 rivets "will not" be utilized to replace IIADI! rivets (generally
used in 5/32 inch diameters and smaller) at this time (not cost
effective).
5. The driven shear strengths for both the 7050 and 2024 rivets are
established for an Fsu = 41 ksi. Until MILHDBK5 allowables are
available, 2024T31 MILHDBK5 data in the 3/16 and 1/4 inch diameters,
for both protruding and 100
0
flush heads, are acceptable for 7050T73
installations and should be so identified for report referencing. It;s
antiCipated that 7050T73 MILHDBK5 allowables will be available during
the 19811982 time frame.
131
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
STRUCTURES INFORMATION MEMO NO. 13
31 August 1981
SUBJECT: FITTING FACTORS, THEIR DEFINITION AND APPLICABILITY
Reference: FAR 29.623, 29.619
A fitting factor is a 1.15 load f c t o r ~ applied to limit loads, and is in
addition to the 1.50 factor of safety. It accounts for uncertanties such as
deterioration in service manufacturing process variables and unaccountability
in the inspection processes.
For design considerations, a fitting shall be defined as part(s) used in a
primary structural load path whose principal function is to provide a load
path through the joint of one member to another. The connecting means is
generally a single fastener.
A fitting factor is applicable to the fitting, the fastener bearing on the
joined members, as well as the attachments joining the fitting(s) to the
structure. It is particularly considered when failure of such fitting should
not allow load redistribution in a manner that would provide continued safe
flight and that load redistribution cannot be verified by analysis or test.
Obviously then, a fitting factor is applied to nonredundant connecting
members in primary load path applications the failure of which may affect
safety of the aircraft and its occupants. It is applied until the load is
distributed into the surrounding backup structure to which the fitting ;s
attached.
A fitting factor is not applicable to:
a) Crash load factors that are the only design condition and/or crash load
factors that exceed limit load factors x 1.5 x 1.15.
b) A continuous riveted joint(s) ;n basic structure when section properties
remain consistent throughout the joint and the joint consists of
approved practices and methods such as splices of main beam caps 
riveted door post caps to bulkheads, riveted skin splice doublers,
continuous riveted skins to longerons, continuous riveted structure such
as bulkheads to beams or intercostals, or frames, etc.
c) An integral fitting beyond the point where section properties become
typica1 of the part. Example, integrally fabricated lug on a forging,
or machining.
d) Welded joints.
132
)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
e) To a member when a larger load factor is used such as a larger special
bearing factor, a 1.25 casting factor, a 1.33 fatigue factor, a 1.33
retention factor of seats and safety belts.
f) Systems or structure when they are verified by limit or ultimate load
tests. The fixed control system is an example of this exception.
g) Bonded inserts and/or fittings in sandwich panels.
h) A fitting in redundant connecting members.
133
STRUCTURAL :DESIGN'MANUAL
STRUCTURES INFORMATION MEMO NO. 14
25 January 1982
SUBJECT: STRUCTURAL APPROVAL POLICY
Reference: Structures Information Memo No.7  "Structures Approval of
Envelope. Source Control and Specification Control Drawings"
Structures Group approval of any drawing is defined as structural approval of
all parts called out on that drawing regardless of whether or not they are
Bell designed parts.
It is therefore the responsibility of the Structures Engineer who signs a
drawing to satisfy himself that all components of that drawing, including
vendor part numbers, standard parts and speCification controlled items, meet
Bellis structural requirements for that particular installation. For
components that are defined by Bell Procurement Specification, Specification
Control Drawing or Source Control Drawing, the guidelines of SIM No.7, as
amplified here, are to be followed. The Structures Engineer must be assured
that the controlling Bell speCification or drawing contains adequate
requirements for vendor stress analysis and/or structural test proposal and
results report to assure that strength requirements are met. Provision
should be made for FAA conformity and for Bell witness of testing, if
required.
In the case of a product defined entirely by vendor1s drawings and procured
by their part number, the Structures Engineer must notify the Project
Engineer in writing of the extent of structural sUbstantiation by analysis or
testing required from the vendor. Provision should be made for FAA
conformity and for Bell witness of testing, if required. It must be made
clear that drawing approval ;s contingent upon successful completion of
analysis or testing and submittal of these data for structures approval. If
Bell testing is indicated, EWAs and schedules must be written to establish
these tests.
134
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~ . . . STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
STRUCTURES INFORMATION MEMO NO. 15
(This memo is not published)
)
135
SUBJECT:
Reference:
STR.UCTURAL .DESIGN MANUAL
STRUCTURES INFORMATION MEMO NO. 16
22 February 1983
PROPERTIES FOR CRES 174 PH CASTINGS
(a) MILHDBK5
t
51st Meeting Agenda, Item 7921, "Design
Allowables (Derived Properties) for 174PH (HIOOO)
Castings
t
" April 1981, Pg. 2166 Attached
MILHOBK5 does not currently contain shear and bearing properties for 174PH
castings. Properties to be used for analysis of 174PH castings shall be as
shown in Table I. This table includes properties for the two recommended
and most often used tensile strength ranges at BHTI. Properties for 174PH
castings in the tensile range of 150170 KSI per Reference (a) have been
derived for and approved by the MllHDBK5 committee. These properties are
scheduled for inclusion in MIlHDBK5, Revision D.
The properties in Table I were established or derived as follows:
(1) Tensile Ultimate  Minimum tensile strengths and tensile strength ranges
are those most commonly used at SHTI.
(2) Tensile Yield  Tensile yield strengths were established by comparing
yield to ultimate ratios obtained from a large quantity of tensile test
results. Test data from separately cast test bars and bars cut from
castings were evaluated. These data came primarily from lot
certifications submitted to BHTI by casting suppliers. Tensile yield
strengths shall be 20 KSI lower than the ultimate tensile for tensile
strengths equal to or less than 155 KSI minimum and 25 KSI for tensile
strengths greater than 155 KSI minimum.
(3) Tensile Range of 155175 KSI  Properties for compressive yield, shear
and bearing for the tensile range of 155175 KSI in Table I were derived
by direct ratio of Reference (a) properties with ultimate tensile
strengths as reference.
(4) Tensile Range of 170200 KSI  Properties for compressive yield, shear
and bearing for the tensile range of 170200 KSI in Table I were derived
by direct ratio of the 155175 KSI tensile range properties, as shown in
Table I, plus a conservative 5% reduction with ultimate tensile strength
as reference.
Properties for tensile ranges not shown in Table I shall be derived in
accordance with Items (2) and (4) except properties for the tensile range of
150170 KSI shall be as identified in the attached Table 2.6.9.0(j) of MIL
HOBK50. Properties shown in Table I and the procedures herein shall also be
applicable to 155PH castings.
136
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~ ' C . : ~ STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
Applicable casting factors or minimum margins of safety shall be maintained
per appropriate Design Criteria. Note the design approach to minimize or
eliminate static test of castings due to cost and schedule impacts.
TABLE I
*PROPERTIES FOR CRES 174PH CASTINGS
Tensile Range
155  175 KSI
Ftu  155
Fty  135
Fcy  136
Fsu  101
Fbru(1.5)  262
Fbru(2.0)  340
Fbry(1.5}  195
Fbry(2.0)  229
e 8%
Tensile Range
170  200 KSI
Ftu
Fty
Fey
Fsu
Fbru (1.5)
Fbru(2.0)
Fbry(1.5)
Fbry(2.0)
e
 170
 145
 141
 105
 272
 354
 203
 239
6%
*Some property values may be higher than those
previously derived and shown in MILHDBKSC for
wrought products.
137
tf!f0
..
.
/r +\:
.4 t  . \
STRUCTU.RAL DESIGN MANUA.L
Revision F
t June 1983 MIL .. HDBK5D
TABLE 2.6.9.0U}. Design and Physical Properties of 114PH Stainless Steel Casting
Specification II" It; <II .. " " " ....... AMS 5355 AMS 5398
Form ............. , ....... Investment casting Sand casling
Condition ................ H900 H9.25 Hlooo H 1100 H925
Thickness. in ............... ..
. .. . .. . .. . .
Basis .....................
Sa Sa Sa Sa Sa
Mechanical properties:
FIIJ . ksi .. " ................... " ...... 180 180 150 130 180
F", ksi .......... " ................... 160 ISO 130 120 150
F(\. ksi .. .. .. . .. . .. " '" .... " ........ ..
... 132 . .. . ..
Fsu. ksi .. " ....... 1\ ..... if. .,. " ...
..
. .. 98 .. . . ..
F
bru
b ksi:
(ej D= 1.5) ............ .. . . .. 254 .. . . ..
(e/ D=2.0) ............
..
. .. 329 . .. . ..
Fh,p bleSt:
(e/D=l.S) ............. . .. .. . 189 .. . . ..
(e/ D=2.0) ............. ..
. .. 222' .. . . ..
e, percent .............. "' ........ " .. 6 6 8 8 6
RAt percent ......... " ........... 15 IS 20 15 12
E. 10
3
ksi ... "" ...... t .. ., .... ., 28.5
Ec.
10) ksi .. ................... ., .. 30.0
G, 10) ksi ............... 12.7
}J ... ;II .......... " ... II .. & ., ......... 0.27
p
hysical properties:
w.lbiin.
J
................ ., ., .. ;II III 0.282 (H900)
C. K, and a ........ See Figure 2.6.9.0
'For cast bars. of test specimens machined from caslings shall be as agreed upon by and suppllef
DIkanng values are "dry pm" values per Scclion 1.4.7.1
(1) This Table is sCheaule for publication in the futu.re MIlHDBK5,
Revision 0 ..
138
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STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
STRUCTURES INFORMATION MEMO NO. 17
24 January 1984
SUBJECT: LATERAL LOAD CRITERIA FOR COLLECTIVE CONTROL
To preclude inadvertent damage from handling. the following additional
criteria will be met on all future collective control systems:
170 pound limit load applied separately
in a horizontal plane inboard or
outboard at the center of the collective
handgrip.
1 39
2.1 GENERAL
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
SECTION 2
COMPUTER PROGRAMS
Revision F
This section presents the computer aided analyses available to the structure
engineers at Bell Helicopter. It provides a brief description of the
computer program systems and associated computer programs. More detailed
information can be obtained from relevant documentation available in the
\ Structural Methods Group.
)
2.2 Computer Facilities
The major computer facilities used by structure engineers are the IBM main
frame computing system, which utilizes an IBM 3081 and an IBM 3090 computers,
and the TSO (Time Sharing Option) operating system. TSO video terminals.
supporting text and graphics, are located in all engineering departments.
CADAM scopes, the special purpose graphics terminals, are also available for
access to the Computer Aided Design package CADAM.
Depending on the setup of the computer programs, a computer job can be tun in
an interactive mode or a batch mode. The resulting printout and plotting
wil', by default, be sent to the computing center for process, but can also
be routed to one of the local printers if preferred. Permanent datasets are
stored and managed by the PANVALET data base management system. Magnetic
tapes can be used to store large or inactive data, or for exchange of infor
mation with outside sources (approval required).
A number of VAX super minicomputers and IBM PC's are available for
engineering use. They are usually installed for the purpose of running
certain special purpose programs.
2.3 Finite Element and Supplementary Programs
The finite element method has become one of the most important techniques for
determining structural loads and performing stress analysis for sophisticated
aircraft structures. The two major and very timeconsuming steps in the
finite element analYSis are the model generation and output interpretation.
Many finite element preprocessors and postprocessors have been developed for
these purposes. The preprocessors are used for automatic finite element mesh
generation. The postprocessors are used for checking and plotting the model,
as well as sorting, plotting, and processing the results for a variety of
purposes. This section will introduce the finite element programs and their
preprocessors and postprocessors available at Bell.
2.3.1 Finite Element Programs
NASTRAN  General Purpose Finite Element Analysis
I
21
d/jt\1
.STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
",*LH!oP"I!.R
 ; /
NASTRAN was originally developed by NASA. many enhanced
versions of NASTRAN have been developed thereafter. Bell has two
versions: MSC/NASTRAN and COSMIC/NASTRAN.
The MSC/NASTRAN is developed and maintained by MacNealSchwendler
Corporation (MSC). It is a largescale general purpose digital computer
program which solves a wide variety of engineering problems, including
static and dynamic structural analyses, acoustics, etc., by the finite
element method. MSC/NASTRAN has made many additions and changes to the
original NASTRAN; such as additional elements, composite laminate
analysis, improved dynamic analysis methods, etc.
The COSMIC/NASTRAN ;s the NASTRAN version currently maintained by the
COSMIC. It is more like the original NASTRAN and does not have many
features of MSC/NASTRAN.
ANSYS  Engineering Analysis System
The ANSYS software is developed and maintained by Swanson Analysis
Systems, Inc. It is a largescale general purpose finite element
program . Analysis capabilities include static and dynamic; elastic,
plastic, creep and swelling; buckli"ng; small and large def1ections; and
other engineering analyses.
SECR02  Static Finite Element Program (RPT 599272001)
This program utilizes the stiffness approach to perform a static finite
element analysis of a structure. Contained in the program ;s a fracture
mechanics element that calculates the stress intensity factor of a
crack.
2.3.2 Finite'Element Preprocessors and Postorocessors
PAT RAN  Finite Element Preprocessor and Postprocessor
22
The PATRAN software is developed and maintained by POA Engineering.
PATRAN has extensive geometric modeling and graphic capabilities. Its
capabilities are numerous but include the finite element preprocessing
and postprocessing; such as creating a finite element model and
presenting the output graphically. PATRAN consists of many processing
modules; including Conceptual Solid Modeling
t
Advanced Geometry
Modeling, Finite Element Modeling, Linear Statics and Dynamics Analysis,
Composite Materials Design and Analysis, Results Evaluation, XV
Plotting, Engineering Animation, etc. PATRAN itself does not contain a
finite element solver. PATRAN data have to be translated to and from
finite element programs (including NASTRAN and ANSYS) through interface
programs ..
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
ANASYS Preprocessor (PREP7) and Postprocessor
The ANSYS program has a preprocessor (PREP7) and a postprocessor of its
own. The preprocessor contains mesh generation capability and geometric
plotting. The postprocessor routines will plot distorted geometries,
stress contours, safety factor contours, temperature contours, mode
shapes, time history graphs, and stressstrain curves. The
postprocessor also has the routines for algebraic modification,
differentiation, integration of calculated results, and other functions.
) CADAM  Computer Aided Design Package
)
The CADAM software is primarily a computer aided design tool. However,
its CADAM/FEM module is capable of creating and editing a 3D finite
element model. CADAM and NASTRAN data can be translated through the
interface programs. The most important advantage of this approach is
that the finite element model of a structure can be created directly
from design drawings so that accurate modeling and time savings can be
obtained.
GIGN01 (old program NASPLOT)  NASTRAN Model Plotter
This program is a NASTRAN postprocessor and will process NASTRAN data
deck directly. It can plot the finite l ~ n t model grid points and
element numbers for a specified subsections and arbitrary views. The
program must be executed on a graphics terminal.
SECR64  Model Generation and AnalysiS of Cutouts in Composite Materials
(RPT 599162919)
This program generates a NASTRAN finite element model of a rectangular
orthotropic plate containing popular cutout shapes in.order to calculate
the strains and margins of safety for each lamina.
SECR64  Model Generator for Rectangular Plates with Circular Patches
(RPT 599162922)
This program generates a NASTRAN finite element model of a flat
composite rectangular panel containing a circular hole with a flat
circular composite patch.
SESN04  Finite Element Model Data Generator for Shells
(RPT 599162912)
This program generates a NASTRAN finite element model for any shell type
structure which can be mathematically defined.
SESN05  Finite Element Model Data Generator for Rectangular Plates, Solids,
and Laminated Plates (RPT 599162913)
23
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
This program generates a NASTRAN finite element model for a rectangular
plate, doubler stack, or a laminated plate.
SESN06  Finite Element Data Generator for PinLoaded lugs
(RPT 599162917)
This program generates a NASTRAN finite element model for pinloaded
lug. The hole in the lug can be either concentric or eccentric. The
lug can be modeled with a bushing and a pin.
SE1703  Finite Element Data Generator for Truss Tailboom
This program generates d NASTRAN finite element model of a truss
tailboom. Arbitrary station input and number of longerons are allowed.
SDSSOl  Unit Inertia Forces and Weight Generator (RPT 299099252)
This program uses a WAVES weights file and a NASTRAN grid deck to obtain
an inertia representation of the helicopter. The option is given to
have either weights or equivalent unit inertia forces.
SiSS12  NASTRAN Critical Loading Selector (RPT 299099252)
This program is used with SESBIO and compares the forces and stresses
calculated during the execution of SESBIO. It selects the critical load
and loading condition for each member in the finite element model. The '
critical loads selected are printed in report format and saved ontape.
SESN09  Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams Generated from NASTRAN Force Input
(RPT 299099252)
This program uses the inertia loads and corresponding applied loads for
a NASTRAN airframe finite element model to create the shear forces and
bending moment diagram associated with _each given design load condition
and gross weight configuration. The program generates the diagram as
Calcomp plots and tabular tables.
SESN13  Element Grouping Program
This program groups the NASTRAN output for a particular area of the
structure regardless of the element numbering sequence. It;s
particularly useful for bulkheads, skins, stringers, tailboom, etc.
SESSOl  Automatic NASTRAN Element Sizing
24
This program will generate a NASTRAN model with more representative
element size early in a project design phase; A NASTRAN model with unit
element areas is run against a set of design conditions. Selected
elements are sized for these internal loads. New NASTRAN property cards
are punched for rod, bar and shear panel elements.
)
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STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
SESBIO  Basic NASTRAN Airframe Output Option {RPT 299099252}
This program transforms NASTRAN output into a form more suitable for
structural analysis. Shear flows, end loads and moments are generated.
2.4 Approved Structural Analysis Methodology (ASAM)
The computer programs approved for structural analysis at Bell are collected
in the ASAM (Approved Structural Analysis Methodology) system. The
documentation for the system overview and individual programs are on file in
the Structural . Methods Group. These documents are also on line of the
computer and can be obtained by request thru a self instructive procedure on
a TSO terminal.
The ASAM software currently contains three computer systems; which are lOOAM,
CASA, and CPS2TSO in addition to separate individual programs categorized
under the title IIProgram
u
The ASAM system is not static; it is constantly
being revised and expanded. The user should consult the active system for
the latest system capabilities.
ASAM ;s a TSO based system. The user can access the system by logging onto
TSO and entering the command IIASAM"; this will bring the primary analysis
menu to the screen. ASAM is a menu directed system, i.e. by selecting a menu
option the system will display successive menus, for option selection, until
the desired program or function is reached.
It ;s suggested that before using the system the user accesses ASAM to
request for the documentations for system overview and to get familiar with
its menus and structure. In addition, he should request the .documentation
for the program of his interest prior to attempting the analysis. The
documentation of the program includes an explanation of the
theory/methodology, technical references, and major analytical equations
used, if practical. It also contains user instructions for proper execution
of the program, along with example problems with their associated input and
output data. The ASAM documentation can be referenced in the Bell IS official
reports to meet government agency's or customer's requirements.
) 2.4.1 The lOOAM System
The lODAM is a system for structural loads development. This system is
currently under development and will be available for use at a future date.
2.4.2 The CASA System
The CASA (Computer Aided Stress Analysis) system contains a group of matured
analysis programs. It provides the structures engineer with a consolidated
stress information system. The primary goal of CASA is to increase the
efficiency of engineers by reducing the manhours required to perform
structural analysis and to produce reports. The description of the system
and its features. as given next, are general in nature.
25
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
2.4.2.1 CASA System Features. The Primary CASA system features are as
follows:
1. A computer stored stress information system accessed through TSO
The CASA System collects the stress disCipline into a computer stored
stress information system. It uses computing facilities to provide the
computations, the utility linkages, and the high speeds required to
process the information efficiently. It eliminates time consuming data
manipulations which were previously done by hand. It accomplishes these
tasks within the CASA System itself and also allows access to external
programs and systems such as NASTRAN, and CADAM.
2. Automated Modular Stress Analysis Programs
The CAS A application are a collection of automated stress
analysis programs with the following features:
 They are structured to be used by both entry level and experienced
stress analysts.
 They all are interfaced bY.the user through interactive menus and
prompting on TSO terminals.
 The inputs to the programs require the minimum amount of manual
calculations.
 The programs create an input dataset when they are run. This dataset
can be edited and used to run the program without the user having to
answer each prompt on an individual basis.
 The programs provide the user with options as to the format of the
output data. He may choose either temporary output format or the
report format (Form 8441).
 The output from .the calculations performed by the programs are
presented on standard formats that are concise and easily understood.
 All application programs provide the user with an automated .system for
the permanent saving of input datasets on the CASA system database.
 The flexibility and applicability of the programs are maintained by
speCifying general solutions of basic theory such as tension,
compression, and shear. When combined with appropriate utilities and
interface, the analysis of airframe fuselage sections, tailbooms,
bulkheads, and mechanical systems can be attained.
3. CASA has self contained tutorial and documentation functions.
26
The CAS A system provides an up to date tutorial and set of documentation
for each application program. The tutorial function presents the user
)
4.
5.
6 ..
7.
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
with an introduction, a set of program capabilities and limitations, and
a detailed step by step set of user instructions on how to execute the
program. The documentation function provides the user with a printed
copy of the methodology/description of each option and includes the
necessary graphics.
Report ready formatted output.
Where possible, the CAS A programs perform analysis to the compilation of
margin of safety summaries on an output report format. This format is
the standard stress pad format (including heading, border, proprietary
note, etc.). Where graphics are required space is left on the pages.
This report ready format (8.5 inches by 11.0 inches with holes punched)
is ready for immediate cataloging and inclusion into stress reports.
Each application program presents its output in a standardized, concise,
and readable form.
Secured and protected data and programs.
The CASA system provides the user with an automated system to
permanently identify and save all input datasets that have been used to
produce final report analysis. Once an analysis is designated as a
final report analysis the security function automatically labels it with
all the information required to save it on a permanent database. This
dataset can be recalled and used to rerun the analysis in the future to
obtain the same results. The CASA programs in all revisions are also
saved. In addition, all current programs are protected from
unauthorized changes to the source code. The final report datasets that
are saved on the database are protected from any alteration to their
contents. The database automatically names its datasets to prevent
duplication or overwriting.
Uses structural design manual methods.
The application programs utilize BHT approved methodologies and/or
structural deSign manual (SDM) methods. SDM variable identification ;s
maintained, where for ease of reference and identification.
Produces reports and documentation suitable for submittal to regulating
and procuring agencies.
The documentation and analysis produced by the CASA system for both
reports and methodology has been formatted and produced in a manner so
that it is suitable for submittal to the FAA and Military authorities.
The methodology for all CASA programs can be found in BHT Report No.
299099252, Volume IV.
2.4.2.2 CASA System Architecture. The CASA System architecture (see Figure
1) gives the CASA user an overview of the capabilities of the present (Phase
IV) and future systems. Each item on the figure can be associated with
software that is used by the CASA System in performing its functions. The
27
STRUCTURAL DESIGN, MANUAL
COMPUTER AIDED S TRESS ANAL YSIS
CASA EXECUTIVE
MODULE
I I
)
DATABASE/
ANALYSIS
DOCUMENTATION/
EXT . INTERFACES
MODULE
TUTORIAL
MODULE MODULE
ARCHIVAL
I EXlERNAL
I
INTERACTIVE CONTROL
I
USER I ANALVSIS I ~
~ T A 1 N1ERF AlIS PR(M>llNG I TSO MENUS T U T ~ I A L OUTPUT TATICH
I I
I
I I
NILSC NAS'TRAN APPlICATION PROGRAMS
TEJ4'OftAA\' 1
I
F'lNAL
ANALYSIS REPCRTS
MSC
INTERNAL INTERFACES
r:::t3M
NASl'RN>I
I I I
CADAH
M5IC:
t5tt
ANALYSES MENUS ANALYSES
DATABASE
esrros
tCAD
SON ANAl... YSES TUTORIAl. CONTROL. L INtCAGE
LUG ~ PIN ANAlYSIS DOCUMENTATIDN NASTRAN LOADS
e
LOAD CASE SELECTION LOADS TAPE COPYI
SPECS NlN4
FOR DIAS. TEN. SAVE UTILITY
DATA PREPARATIct4 THREE OIMENSIONAl
I:AM C61 FOR DIAG. T04. fASTENER LOADS
DATA PREPARATION UNSYMETRICAl aEND
[)A.TASETS
...
DIAG_TEN. ANAL EXTERNAL DAHSET
WAVES
DIAB. TEN. USIfi"G UNSVMETRICAL BEND
EXTERNAL DATASET t DUG TEN
LOAD SELECTION FeR STEP COLUMN 8UCK
AXIAL L StAR ELEH FOR CONTROL TUBES
)
.. FUT1..AE r:::.APMILITY
AX1AL ELEM. TEN. L REPORT OF OATA&ASE
c:otP. ALLOWAISLES OATASETS
AXlAL lEM. DATABASE STORAGE
MARQINS Cf!' SAFETY FOR INPUT OATASETS
SlAR ELEM. (WEB) SECTION ANAL.YSIS
AlL.OWABLES PROGRAM
StEAR ELEM. C:ONPOSITE JOI NT
MARGINS a: SAFETY ANAL.YSIS
CONTRa.. LINKAGE COMPOSITE BEAM
QEOMETRY PROCESSOR ANAYLSIS
Figure 1. Phase IV CASA System Architecture
.
28
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
executive module provides the user with interactive control and interfaces to
the three primary modules: the analysis module, the documentation/tutorial
module, and the database/external interface module. The executive software
transforms CASA into a modern stress information system that will allow
future expansion to be done in a timely and cost effective manner. New
application programs and functions can be plugged into the system and use the
existing software in many of their options.
2.4.2.3 CASA Programs Description
) CV004P(A)  Structural Design Manual Lug and Pin Analysis
)
This program performs a stress analysis for a lug or lug and bolt/pin
combination according to the procedures and methodology presented in
section 6 of this manual.
CV005P  Load Case Selection for Diagonal Tension Analysis
This utility program is used to copy selected load cases from an
Airframe Options Loads Tape to a temporary file. The file will be used
as the NASTRAN input loads for a diagonal tension analysis.
CV006P  Data Preparation for Diagonal Tension Analysis
This program prepares an input dataset for CASA program CV008P (Diagonal
Tension). It prepares the geometriC data, material properties, and the
loads from a NASTRAN Airframe Options Tape for input into the Diagonal
Tension program.
CV007P  Data Preparation with Diagonal Tension Analysis
'This program prepares an input dataset for CASA program CV008P (Diagonal
Tension). It prepares the geometric data, material properties, and the
loads from a NASTRAN Airframe Options Tape and performs a diagonal
tension analysis of the structure.
CV008P  Diagonal Tension
This program uses the methods outlined in NACA TN2661 to analyze a flat
or curved panel that has developed incomplete diagonal tension. The
program is set up to analyze a multibay structure with single or
multiple loading conditions. It does not require NASTRAN generated
loads.
CV009P  Load Case Selection for Axial and Shear Element Summaries
This program is used to create a critical loads dataset from an Airframe
Options Tape. These loads are used by programs CVOllP and CV013P (Axial
and Shear Elements Summary) to calculate margins of safety for the
structure.
29
STR,UCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
CVOIOP  Axial Elements Tension and Compression Allowables
This program produces the axial element allowable loads for tension,
compression, crippling. compressive yield, and interrivet buckling for
airframe structures. It processes the axial element IDs, geometry, and
material allowables for use by program CVOIIP (Axial Elements Al10wables
and Margins of Safety).
CVOIIP  Axial Elements Allowables and Margins of Safety Summary
This program produces an axial elements' margins of safety summary for
airframe structures. It processes the axial element allowables from
program CVOI0P and combines them with the NASTRAN loads from program
CV009P to produce the margins of safety.
CV012P  Standard, Lightened Hole, and Beaded Shear Web Allowables
This program produces the shear element allowable loads for airframe
structure. It processes the shear element IDs, geometry, and material
allowables for use by program CV013P (Shear Elements Allowables and
Margins of Safety).
CV013P  Shear Elements Allowables and Margins of Safety Summary
This program produces a shear elements
l
margins of safety summary for
airframe structures. It processes the shear element allowables from
program CV012P and combines them with the NASTRAN loads from program
CV009P to produce the margins of safety.
CV014P  Control Linkage Geometry Processor
This program is used as a geometry processor to analyze the kinematics
of a control linkage. It produces the necessary NASTRAN bulk data to
represent the movement of the control linkage. The linkages are modeled
as cranks, idlers, slides, actuators, rods, jackshafts, and mixers by
using modeling operators.
CV015P  Control Linkage Geometry  NASTRAN Loads  Airframe Options
This program is used as a geometry processor to analyze the kinematics
of a control linkage. It produces the necessary NASTRAN bulk data to
represent the movement of the control linkage. The linkage ;s modeled
as cranks, idlers, slides, actuators, rods, jackshafts. and mixers by
using modeling operators. In addition, it calculates the internal loads
and reactions in the control system due to specified input loading
conditions using COSMIC/NASTRAN as a solver.
CV017P  3D Fastener Pattern loads
. 210
This program calculates the three dimensional loads on a fastener
pattern using rigid body mechanics. It allows weighing of the fastener
)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
areas in proportion to the stiffness that the individual fastener and
its backup structure provides in a given direction.
CVOIBP  Section Properties and Unsymmetrical Bending Analysis
This program calculates the section properties, unsymmetrical bending
stresses, element loads, and shear flows for a single or multiple cell
torque box. It is applicable to standard stiffener/skin and sandwich
constructions.
CV019P{A}  Load Case Selection for Unsymmetrical Bending and Diagonal
Tension Analysis
This program ;s used to copy selected load cases from a Shears and
Moments History Tape to a TSO dataset. This dataset contains t ~
, NASTRAN loads which will be used by program CV019(B) to prepare a load
input dataset for the program CV019P(C) (Unsymmetr;c Bending Analysis).
CV019P(B)  Data Preparation for Unsymmetrical Bending Analysis
This program prepares an input dataset for program CV019P(C)
(Unsymmetrical Bending Analysis) using input dataset produced by program
CV019P(A) and the geometry data of the structure.
CV019P(C)  Section Properties and Unsymmetrical Bending Analysis
This program calculates the section properties, unsymmetrical bending
stresses, element loads, and shear flows for a single or multiple cell
torque box. It is applicable to standard stiffener/skin and sandwich
constructions. It should be used when a NASTRAN model is available for
the structure and when a diagonal tension analysis follows the
unsymmetrical bending analysis. This program requires a different input
dataset from program CV018P and produces different output.
CV019P{D)  Oat a Preparation for Diagonal Tension Analysis
This program produces an input dataset for program CV019P(E) (Diagonal
Tension Analysis). It combines the geometry inputs with the loads
output from program CV019P(C) to produce the desired input dataset.
CV019P(E)  Diagonal Tension Analysis
This program uses the methods outlined in NACA TN2661 to analyze a flat
or curved panel that has developed incomplete diagonal tension. The
program ;s set up to analyze a multibay structure with single or
multiple loading conditions. It accounts for the increase or decrease
in the web buckling allowable due to the compression or tension stresses
in the web.
211
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
CV020P  Step Column Buckling for Control Tubes
This program calculates the critical buckling loads for a stepped and
pinned end control tube or column. The program includes empirical
factors to adjust the analysis for control tubes. These factors can be
omitted for columns that are not control tubes. The program only checks
for buckling and not for local instability. It uses the Tangent Modulus
Theory and allows the user to define his own materials.
CV023P  Section Analysis
This program can be used to perform a section analysis on cross section
made from metallic and certain composite materials. It calculates the
section properties, the resultant loads on the section, the resu1ting
stresses/strains of general polygonal sections. It is based on beam
theory as opposed to plate theory.
CS024P  Bolted Joint Stress Analysis
)
This program computes stress distributions on a lamina or laminate basis
for unloaded or loaded (bolt bearing) holes in isotropic or ansitrop;c
materials and predicts failure based on lamina properties and user
selected failure criterion. The program should be used for preliminary
design only. The margins of safety it calculates are approximate
because of the many assumptions made. ~
CS025P  Composite Beam Analysis
This program computes section properties and stresses for a beam of
composite materials with irregular crosssections using a finite element
method. Section properties include crosssectional area, centroids,
moments of inertia, location of the shear center, shear coefficients,
torsional constants, and warping constant. The stresses include the
normal stress due to axial force and bending moments and shear stress
due to transverse shear forces and twisting m o m n t ~
2.4.3 The CPS2TSO System
Most programs, developed at Bell or acquired from outside sources, are not
normally installed into CASA directly. After being checked out and approved
for use, they are normally included in the CPS2TSO system. The CPS2TSO
system does not have all the features of CASA. Each CPS2TSO program has
documentation, but does not produce the results on the final report form. A
CPS2TSO program will be transformed to CASA when it is fully checked for its
reliability and accuracy. The programs currently contained in the CPS2TSO
system are described in the following:
CPSOIP (old program AIRFACTORS)  Airload Distribution on the Fuselage
212
The external loadings needed for the structural analysis of airframe
structure include the distributed loads representing the air load
)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
pressure distribution. These airload distributions for various
maneuvers are normally developed form wind tunnel data. The C81
program determines the contributing inertia force of each mass/weight
item of the helicopter and the applied airloads necessary to balance a
given maneuver. These airloads are applied at the C81 model reference
point. Program SD5001, or similar programs, calculates a unit airload
distribution for a unit force and/or movement at a reference point. .
Then CPSOIP ;s used to determine the scale factors to apply the unit
load datasets produced by programs like S05001, to produce loads that
are equivalent to the applied airloads from C ~ 8 1
CPS02P (old program DL3301)  Crack Growth Program
This program analytically calculates the crack growth rates and crack
sizes for flat plates and cylinders under axial loading.
CPS03P (old program NFSN05)  Inertia Scale Factors For Point Loads
This program calculates an inertia scale factor for each of the six
degrees of freedom for each airframe loading condition. In addition,
the forces and moments about the helicopter center of gravity are
computed. These scale factors and the appropriate inertia forces are
combined on a NASTRAN load card.
CPS04P (old program SCAV17)  Composite Laminate Analysis
This program performs a linear point stress analysis for a composite
laminate. It predicts the initial and progressive failures using one of
the selected failure theories. Applied loads include ;nplane forces and
moments, transverse shear, and thermal effects. A library for commonly
used materials has been built into the program in addition to an option
that allows the user to input materials. The output contains laminate
and plybyply strains and stresses, and margins of safety. It can also
produce NASTRAN composite plate data cards, failure envelope plots, and
carpet plots for laminate properties.
CPS05P (old program SFCR02)  Section Properties and Unsymmetrical Bending
Analysis
This program determines the section properties, unsymmetrical bending
stresses, element loads and shear flows for a single cell torque box.
It accounts for sandwich materials, monocoque construction, local
stiffening of element. and allows for a safety factor to be used in
determining the loads.
CPS07P (old program SD5001)  Representation of Forward and Aft Pressure
Distributions by Panel Point Loads
Once the airload distribution acting on a helicopter has been
determined, the task of representing this distribution by means of
concentrated loads at selected panel points remains. This program
213
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
distributes the airloads to the panel points for various loading
conditions at a reference point, which ;s usually the center of gravity
location.
CPS08P (old program 5E5002/5E1713)  Engine Loads Program
This program calculates the forces and moments at the engine center of
gravity due to flight maneuvers and gyroscopic coupling of the rotating
components. It uses the engine mass properties and aircraft
accelerations to calculate the engine loads. The program can be used
for single or twin engine aircraft.
CPSIOP (old program SLHW02)  Dynamic Landing Gear Analysis
This program develops the loads in a crosstube landing gear for vertical
and inclined plane landings. 80th conventional crosstube attachments
and the three point attachment with stops are allowed. The user has the
option to have the program develop the load deflection curve or input it
himself. The rotor lift, gross weight, and e.G. may be varied to
analyze more than one landing load case at a time. After the loads are
developed, a stress analysis i.s given that can be used to help size the
crosstube.
CPSllP (old program PB280l)  Plastic Bending Analysis
This program develops the load deflection characteristics and the
internal plastic bending stresses of a cantilevered or a symmetrically
loaded simply supported beam with a tubular cross section. Arbitrary
end loading is allowed with either large deflection or small deflection
theory.
CP512P (old program SP5009)  Pylon Loads Computer Programs
This program calculates the forces on a conventional transmission pylon
system. The forces and moments about the lift links are calculated,
these moments are used to determine which
t
if any, pylon mounts are
bottomed. Based on the stop geometry, the loads on the mounts are
calculated. The program can be executed in a mode that accounts for the
deflections of the pylon system in calculating the moments about the
lift link; or the moments can be calculated assuming the deflections are
negligible. 
CPSI3P (old program ST4101)  Tension Beam Analysis (for Blade Fatigue
Specimens and Masts)
214
This program serves as an aid in statically determining an initial set
of loads for a blade fatigue specimen. For a given axial load the tip
moment and shear are determined so that the bending moment distribution
in the specimen approximates a flight loads moment distribution as
closely as a least squares curve fit will permit.
)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
CPS14P (old program TW3301)  Torsional Analysis of Flexures with Rectangular
& I Sections
This program performs an analysis for flexures having rectangular or I
cross sections that vary arbitrarily with spanwise distance. The
stiffening effects due to centrifugal force, elongation of the outer
fibers, and warping restraint due to end fixity are considered and the
maximum shear stress at each section is calculated.
CPS15P (old program NLAMOl)  Simultaneous Linear Equations (High Accuracy
Solution)
This program solves a set of simultaneous linear equations using IMSL
routine LEQT2F, which ;s the linear equation solution ful1storagemode
high accuracy solution routine. The program solves the equations to the
desired accuracy and informs the user of the accuracy achieved.
CPS16P (old program LD2112)  One Dimensional Joint Analysis
This program calculates the distribution of an axial load thru a one
dimensional fastener pattern. It is applicable to a mechanical joint
composed of two similar or dissimilar elastic materials.
CPS17P (old program SRANOl)  Frame Energy Solution
This program calculates the internal shears and moments in a frame or
bulkhead when a set of balanced shear flows and/or concentrated loads
are applied. The solution ;s based upon the assumption that the elastic
energy causing deformation of the frame produces consistent deformation
at any paint.
CPS18P (old program OB1)  Composite Tube Analysis
This program performs an analysis for composite or metal tubes and
columns. It calculates the ultimate buckling loads and the natural
frequencies for the tube or column assuming pin ends. It allows each
segment of the tube to have its own material properties and for this
reason
t
it is preferred for composites. It does not check for local
failures
t
this should be done independently.
CPS19P (old program SDAN08)  Design Loads (with a Panel Point Weight
Distribution)
This program combines a set of external loads and balancing load factors
with the panel point unit shears and moments to produce airframe design
loads.
CPS23P (old program SESE01)  NASTRAN Model Description Report Generator
This program selects and sorts structural member data from a NASTRAN
Bulk Data D e c ~ The selected structure is associated with its defining
215
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
grids
t
section properties, and material data. A complete definition of
this data is produced on a report format. The structural members may be
selected by the following means:
Members totally in a region defined by a rectangular parallelpiped
Members which are completely defines by an input grid list
Members whose element IDs are contained in a list
CPS24P (Old program SP2803)  Pylon Support Loads (A Laminate Analysis)
This program calculates the loads ;n the pylon supports and the
resulting applied airframe loads. The rotor loads and airframe
accelerations are used to determine the axial bipod loads, the loads
applied the airframe attachments, the mount, and the stop.
CPS25P (old program SESB13)  Shear and Moments Envelope Program
This program plots shear and moment envelopes using specified cases
selected from a SESN09 Shears and Moments History Tape. The enve10pe is
a plot of the maximum and minimum values at each station location. This
program is similar to program SESB13 but it allows two additional
features; a plot heading and a figure deSignation for the plot.
CPS26P  Composite Laminate Buckling Delamination Analysis
This program is designed to assess the capability of a laminate to
resist near surface delamination growth. The delamination is assumed to
exist in a laminate. The strain energy release rate and related
buckling and threshold strains are then calculated and plotted against
the delamination sizes so that a more delamination resistant laminate
can be designed.
CPS27P  The Crippling Strength of Compression Members
This program determines the crippling strength of a compression member
with a simple or complex cross section based on a set of empirical
design curves. The user may select from a number of different design
curves obtained from Bell Design Manuals and U.S. Government Reports.
In addition, the program can develop crippling design curves from the
users own experimental data.
CPS28P  Determination of Aircraft Tiedown Loads
216
This program is developed to analyze a tiedown configuration and to
determine the load distribution in the tiedown cables. The significant
features of the analytical model include using a rigid body fuselage
with a flexible tailboom and landing gear s t r u t u r e s ~ and using one
directional load carrying springs for cables. This methodology is
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
generalized to be applicable for structures of any configuration
possessing these characteristics.
2.4.4 Other Programs
Individual Programs not appropriate or unable to be incorporated in the above
systems will be included in this category. Possible examples are those
programs of other disciplines or programs without source code and those that
are unable to be transformed to a form compatible with any of the ASAM
systems. This part of ASAM ;s currently under development.
2.5 Miscellaneous Programs
Other miscellaneous programs used by structure engineers are described in the
following:
2.5.1 Load Programs Unrelated to Finite Element Analysis
SOAN02  Unit Panel Point Shears and Moments (RPT 2 9 9  0 9 9 ~ 2 5 2
This program uses panel pOint weight distribution from computer program
SDCSOI to create unit shear and moment data.
SDAN39  Shear and Moment Plotting Program (RPT 299099252)
This program plots the panel point shear and moment data created by
SDAN08.
SDCSOl  Panel Point Unit Weight Distribution (RPT 299099252)
Unit panel paint weight distributions are created using 50CS01. The
program inputs a weights tape and outputs weight distributions to be
used as input to SDAN02.
2.5.2 Dynamic Structures AnalYSis
caCR02  Rotor Blade Section Mass and Stiffness Properties (RPT 299099749)
Airfoil coordinates are extracted from tape storage and used in
calculating mass and stiffness properties for various rotor blade cross
sections.
CSCR02  Stress Maps for Rotor Blade Cross Sections (RPT 299099749)
Bending plus axial stresses are plotted for steady and oscillatory loads
along the outer surface of rotor blade cross sections using airfoil
coordinates from a tape.
217
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
2.5.3 Fatigue Evaluation
FFAM06  Flight Test Data Generator
This program converts measured flight loads in scalor units from a Xerox
530 GOC tape into engineering units. This data can be saved on a file
tape for use with other programs. Output includes span plots, load vs.
airspeed plots, and tab listings of mean and oscillatory loads depending
on the program option chosen.
FFSTOI  LoadsAirspeed Comparison Plot Program
This program allows "Loads vs. Airspeed" plots from different flights,
or different to be plotted together for comparison. Loads are
taken from FECSOl or FECS09 file tapes.
FECR22  Flight Data Organization Program
This program produces a listing of sorted loads for a given Item Code,
using FEeS01 file tape as input. The user can request_o?cillatory loads
and/or maximum and minimum peak loads. Each gross weight and C.G. ;s
sorted separately and the condition number and altitude "Line" is
with each column.
DLCR04  Fatigue Life Calculation
This program reads loads from FEeSOl file tape, computes a stress set,
and determines the fatigue life of a component. ,Histogram plots. with
various selection options which apply to plots only, can also be
generated from this program. Part II of the program is used to create;
update. delete and list frequency of occurrence spectra used for
calculation of the fatigue lire.
DLCR2l  Cycle Counted Fatigue Life Calculati6n
This program calculates the fatigue life of a component by considering
the damage caused by each rotor revolution. This;s used with loads
from FFCR03 file tape. This program may also be used as a cycle count
program, producing a cycle count listing and override cards for program
OLCR04.
DACR62  Harmonic Fatigue Damage
, ,218
The purpose of this program is to obtain a summation of damage caused by
various harmonics (up to 9/Rev) within a rotor cycle for a g;ven record.
The program reads a time history tape digitized continuously at high
rate.
)
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)
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STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
DLCSIO  Span PlotRegression
This program reads FEeSO! file tape and creates span plots for main
rotor and tail rotor blades. A curvilinear regression up to a fourth
order is performed after interrogating the data. Output includes plots
and punched cards for loads at a given span station.
FLASH  Fatigue Life Analysis System for Helicopter
This is a computer software system that was developed to speed up
fatigue life evaluation for helicopter certification. The system uses
the computer to manipulate the data and perform analysis in the fatigue
life evaluation process which consists of measuring the fatigue loads in
flight. comparing these loads to fatigue test data, and then making
computations of the expected fatigue life.
219
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
SECTION 3
GENERAL
3.0 GENERAL
This section, for the most part, deals with sections. Properties of various types
of sections are shown. In addition, conversion factors, graphical integration,
Rockwell hardness, strain gages, etc., are described.
3.1 PROPERTIES OF AREAS
In structural analysis, certain properties of areas are needed, such as location of
the centroid; first moment of the area and the second moment or moment of inertia
of the area with respect to an axis either perpendicular to the area or lying in
the plane of the area and the product of inertia of the area with respect to a set
of perpendicular axes lying in the area. These properties are defined in this sec
tion.
3.1.1 Areas and Centroids
The area of a generalized shape, as shown in Figure 3.1, is the sum of all of the
incremental areas, dA.
A
x
~ ~ x
A'
1
FIGURE 3.1 GENERALIZED AREA
The centroid of an area is that point in the plane of the area about any axis
3.1
through which the moment of the area is zero; it coincides with the center of gravity
of a body with the same shape having an infinitely thin homogeneous thickness. Equa
tion 3.2 and 3.3 define the centroids of an area:
31
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
x =
Y =
fxdA
A
fYdA
A
=
2:
D
YiAj
1=1
~
i\i
i=l
3.1.2 Moments of Inertia
Revision C
3.2
3.3
The moment of inertia is the second moment of area. The moment of inertia of an
element of area such as dA in Figure 3.1 with respect to a given axis is defined as
the product of the area and the square of the distance from the axis to the element.
It is shown mathematically as:
3.4
The sum of the moments of inertia of all the elements in a generalized area is de
fined as the moment of inertia of the area, that is,
3.5
3.6
The subscripts x and y indicate the axis about which the moment of inertia is taken.
The moment of inertia of any area about any axis is equal to the moment of inertia
of the area about an axis through the centroid of the area and parallel to the given
axis plus the product of the area and the square of the distance between the two
parallel axes; that is
32
_2
1y = 10 + (x) A
3.7
3.8
_I
)
,)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
These equations can accomplish transformation of moment of inertia of plane areas
only between parallel axes and one of the two parallel axes must pass through the
centroid as shown in Figure 3.2.
x
,
8
x
y
X
FIGURE 3.2 PARALLEL AXIS TRANSFORMATION
The term 10 in equations 3.7 and 3.8 is the moment of inertia of the area about its
own centroidal axis. Figure 3.4 shows an example of a typical moment of inertia
calculation by the tabular method.
3.1.3 Polar Moment of Inertia
The polar moment of inertia is the moment of inertia of an area about an axis perpen
dicular to the plane of the area. The elementary area, dA, in Figure 3.3 lying in
the plane xy has
y
..t

X
ET
r Y
/
X
Z
FIGURE 3.3 POLAR MOMENT OF INERTIA
33
(..)
IAY/ A = .0833/.1204 = .6919 in.
y
I
+:
.0007/.1204 = .00.58 in. y'
=.0631 + .0036 .. ('6919)2
,....
.1204
= .0091 in.4
H
tl:!, ..
G)
(,0058)2
c
.0072 + .0022  .1204
"'\ '
.
.
= .0094 in.
4
i=
w
XyI,AXY+I.loxyXYI,A= .0007 + 0  (.0058)( .. 6919)(.1204)
3
en
= .0002 in.4
.75
t1j
......
an 2{3 =  2 I
xv
/"< J 1C Iy ) ::.  2 ( .0002) / G. 0091.0094) ;:ID
tot
::
1.3333 xl
=
I:!j
n
0
.....
I
Y
c:
3:
t=.040
::a
0 X
:.:.
z
r
8
y2
Ay2. X2 AX2
0 ELE A Y AY
lox
X AX
lOY
AXY
CJ
H'
en Z 1 .028 .92 .846 .0258 .0237 .35 .1225 .0098 .0034 .0011 .0090
I:%j
2 .036 .45 .203 .0162 .0073 .0024 .02 .0004 .0007 .0000 .0003

Ci)
8
3 .028 .92 .846 .0258 .0237 .366 .1340 .0102 .0038 .0011 .0094
H
;:.
4 .0284 .545 .297 .0155 .0084 .0012 .036 .0013 .0010 .0000 .0006 Z
n
31: t""
n
:.:.
c:
Z
8
c:
H
0
Z
::a:
r
.1204 .0833 .0631 .0007 .0072 .0022
e)
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STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Ix = fy
2
dA, (Equation 3.5)
Iy = fx
2
dA, (Equation 3.6)
The moment of inertia about the z axis is
but
2
r
2 2
x + y
then
3.9
3.10
3.11
The polar moment of inertia of an area is therefore equal to the sum of the moment
of inertia of the area about two mutually perpendicular axes. Thus
I
z
IX + Iy = Ip 3.12
3.1.4 Product of Inertia
The elementary area, dA, in Figure 3.1 is located at a distance x from the y axis
and y from the x axis. The product of the area multiplied by the coordinate dis
tances is then, xydA and is called the product of inertia. This term is a mathe
matical property that is dependent upon the area itself and its loc'ation relative
to two mutually perpendicular axes. The value of the product of inertia for the
entire area is
3.13
The subscripts of I serve to define the pair of axes of reference. Unlike the mo
ments of inertia, products of inertia involve the first powers of the coordinate
distance and such products may be positive, negative or zero. An example is shoWn
in Figure 3.4.
Products of inertia can be transferred between axes. Thus the product of inertia
of an area about any pair of mutually perpendicular axes is equal to the sum of the
products of inertia of that area about a parallel mutually perpendicular pair
through the centroid plus the product of the distances between the axis times the
area as shown in Figure 3.5.
35
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Ixy
3.14
y
x X
y )
~ L X
FIGURE 3.5 PRODUCT OF INERTIA
3.1.5 Moments of Inertia About Inclined Axes
Unsymmetrical sections are quite common and it is often necessary to find the mo
ments of inertia about an inclined axis. The general procedure is to first find
the moment of inertia about some set of rectangular axes through the centroid and
transfer to a second set of axes also through the centroid making an angle 9 with ~
the first set of axes using the following relationships and Figure 3.6. ~
3.15
3.16
Iuv = 1/2(I
x
I
y
) sin29 + Ixy cos29 3.17
)
,.
~ ~ T ~ X
FIGURE 3.6 MOMENTS OF INERTIA ABOUT INCLINED AXES
36
)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
The angle e is posi.tive when produced by a counterclockwise motion from the original
axes.
3.1.6 Principal Axes
It is often necessary to determine the maximum and minimum values of moments of
inertia. These occur about an axis passing through the centroid of the section.
The axes are called the principal axes orientation is such that the moment
of inertia is either greater than or less than for any other axis passing through
the centroid.
The principal axes location makes an angle with the original axes of
tan29 = 2Ixy
Iy.I
x
3.18
There are two values of 29 differing by 180, having the same tangent. Then there
are two values of differing by 90. About one axis at the angle Q from the
original x axis, the value of the moment of inertia will be maximum and about the
other axis, inclined at 90
0
to the first, the value of the moment of inertia will
be minimum.
Substitution of the values of Q into equations 3.15 and 3.16 produces the principal
moments of inertia.
3.19
3.20
The sum of the principal moments of inertia, like the sum of any two moments of in
ertia about mutually perpendicular axes, is the polar moment of inertia.
It should be noted that the product of inertia. of an area about a pair of axes which
are principal axes of inertia is zero. The product of inertia about a pair of axes,
one of which is an axis of summetry, is also equal to zero. Thus the axes of
metry are principal axes of inertia.
3.1.7 Radius of Gyration
The radius of gyration of an area with respect to a given inertia axis may be de
fined as a distance to the point where the area would be concentrated in order to
produce the same amount of inertia. Thus
P =JI/A 3.21
37
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
The subscript for I determines the inertia axis for the respective radius of gyra
tion.
3.2 MOHRS CIRCLE FOR MOMENTS OF INERTIA
The equations for the moments and products of inertia about inclined axes may be
found using a semigraphic solution which aids in visualizing the relationship be
tween the moments of inertia about various axes. The method is called Mohr's cir
cle. Using Figure 3.7, the following procedure describes Mohr's circle for inertia.
( 1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
38
Ix
Iu; Iv ____ .....'9"1? cos2 f3
f I I
I xy= .J:L:Y sin2J3
2
o
U Ix
..... I
u
FIGURE 3.7 MOHR'S CIRCLE FOR MOMENTS OF INERTIA
Calculate Ix, Iy and Ixy for the section. The x and y axes can be at any
orientation but it should be located so that Ix is greater than Iy.
Draw a set of rectangular axes. Label the horizontal axis Ix and the verti
cal axis Ixy. This is shown in Figure 3.7.
Moments of inertia (second moments of areas) are always positive, but products
of inertia can be positive or negative. Positive moments of inertia are
plotted to the right of the origin. Positive products of inertia (Ixy) ~ e
plotted above the Ix axis and negative values below.
Layoff the distance OA
I
along the Ix axis equal to Ix and A'A parallel to
the Ixy axis equal to Ixy. Label the point (Ix, Ixy) as point A.
In a similar manner locate point B by making OBI equal to Iy and B'B equal
to I
xy
, the value of Ixy with the algebraic sign reversed.
')
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
(6) Draw the line AB intersecting the Ix axis at C and draw a circle of diameter
AB. This circle is Mohr's circle for moments of inertia and each point on
the circle represents Iu and Iuv for any orientation of the u and v axes.
The abscissa represents Iu and the ordinate Iuv.
The following relationships can be developed using Figure 3.7.
Maximum moment of inertia:
Iup = 1/2 (Ix+Iy) + J1Xy2 + 1/4 (Ix1y)2
Minimum moment of inertia:
These are the moments of inertia about the principal axes.
The angle of the principal axis with respect to the reference axis is
tan2j3
2Ixy
IxIy
3.22
3.23
3.24
The sign of P is taken as positive for counterclockwise movement from the reference
x axis (Ix in Figure 3.7).
The moment and product of inertia (Iu, IV, Iuv) may be determined at any angle 29
from the principal axes. In the cross section the angle is 9 while in Mohrts cir
cle it is plotted as 29. From Figure 3.7 the values can be derived to be
Iv = Ix sin
2
9 + Iy cog
2
9 + Ixy sin29
Iuv = Ixy cos29 + (Ix;Iy ) sin29
3.3 MASS MOMENTS OF INERTIA
3.25
3.26
3.27 .
The inertia resistance to acceleration is that property of a body which
is known as mass moment of inertia. If a body of mass m is allowed to
rotate 'about an axis at an angular acceleration a, an element of this mass dm, will
have a component of acceleration tangent to the circular path of ra, with the
39
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
tangential force on the element being radm. Since the distance to the element is
r, the resulting moment of the force equals r
2
adm. Integrating the elements of the
body gives
This expression is known as the mass moment of inertia of the body, where a is
dropped because it is constant for a given rigid body. )
If the body is of constant mass density, the differential, dm, may be replaced with
pdV, since dm = pdV, and the following expression results
3.29
The units of mass moment of inertia are commonly expressed as lbftsec
2
or slugft
2
3.4 SECTION PROPERTIES OF SHAPES
Tables 3.1 through 3.5 show section properties of various sections. Table 3.6 pre
sents the properties of standard tubings.
)
310
)
)
RECTANGLE
rX' I X
r. i i
L ~
k b ~
RECTANGLE
RECTANGLE
A = bd
i =. b/2
12 :.t
Y
=
Revision B'
bd
2
6
Y d/2
P,  J
= 0.2887 b
db!
It_I = F
bd
3
1
2

2
= 12'
I = bd
3
33 3
III _ d b 2
X a
A = bd
Y = bd
~ b
2
t d
2
., , b
3
d
3
L;_t 6 (h 2+ d 2)
1
1
_
1
_ b
2
d
2
Y 6v'b
2
td
2
P. = bd
1' ,J S (b 2... d 2 )
A = bd
_ bSIN8 + d COS8
Y =
2
'22
:.
O.2887d
P3"3
:
O.5773d
I ::: bd (b
2
SIN 2 8 +d
2
COS! 8)
'1 12
!.t.:L = bd ( b 2 SIN 2 8 + d 2 COS
2
g )
j 6 (b SIN 8 + d case)
p _ Ib
2
SIN! 8 + d
2
cos
2
8
1'  v 12 .
TABLE 3.1 PROPERTIES OF COMMON SECTIONS
311
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
HOLLOW RECTANGLE
3
y
t 2
~ 3 3 bd  ac
12 ( bd  ac)
P. = 11_2 .... _2 __
22 V(i)d  oc )
SQUARE
A = d
2
Y = O.5d
Y:s = I. 414d
_ d4
1
2
_
2
 T
d
4
1
3

3
= T2 = II_I
1,, _ ~
j S
".t = O.2887d
TABLE 3.1 (CONTD) PROPERTIES OF COMMON SECTIONS
312
HOLLOW SQUARE
A = d
2
 c
2
X = Y = O.5d
d
4
 c
4
1._. = 1
3

3
z: 12
4d
4
 3d
2
c
2
 c
12"2= 1 .. .. = 12
p._
1
= '33 =0.289 .j'd
2
.. C 2
P =p = (1..:,.1 __ .:;.... __
22 .4 Vd
Z
_ c
2
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
TRAPEZOID
(0 + b) d
'A= 
2
x= + [C _
d(b+2o)
V= 3(o+b}
d
3
( b
2
+ 4 a b + a 2)
I =
, .. I 36 (a + b)
I = d
5
(b + 30)
22 12
p ... Sra+b) ./2 (b
2
+ 4 ab + 0
2
)
d v'=: (0 +:b )
OBLIQUE TRIANGLE
1
1
,,1 bd
Z
Y ="12
I .... , = bd
2
V. 24
)
P. . .= .236 d
I = bd
5
. Pz .. i .408 d
22 12
a .707d
1'.."3 b: p'_=:..236 ./ b
2
+ e
2
_ be
I = bd (b
2
+ e
2
 be )
4 ... 4 36
TABLE 3.1 (CONTtD) PROPERTIES OF COMMON SEtTIONS
313
If
STRUC,JURAL DESIGN MANUAL
OBTUSE TRI.ANGLE
CJRCLE
I
A=M
2
_ d
y.
3
y=
b +2c
3
a = bd
b+c
bd!
I._f 36
bd!
I2 .. 12
S
Ia 4 .
h:
bd
2
Y
12
It:.L =
bd
2
)',
24
.236d
' .... 4. 236 b
Z
+ c
2
+ be
'6 .. 408 b
l
+c
2
+:3 be
I =
36
I :J!.L(b
l
+3bc+3c
Z
'
86 12
.". 2 2
A = 40 = .. 78540 ::. 3.14ISR,
DaR
yx
2
.. 4 4
.. i :4
D
=.049090 =.7854R
I2_i 14.: 17' R4
1,_.:: Ia3=.098'80".O.7854RS
y X
P =p ::. JL
I .. , s..a 4
TABLE 3.1 (CONT'D) PROPERTIES OF COMMON SECTIONS
314
)
)
.'
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
SEMI CtRClE
3r 0
4
QUARTER CIRCLE
2
CIRCULAR SECTOR
a IN RADIANS
A = R2 = 1.5708 R2
'1'= Mi = 0 4244R
31T
Y=R
1 :: R4 [:!L  ....] :: 0.1 097 R4
'''', 8 971'
I 1:.3927 R" P. .:: .2643 R
2 .. 2 1
4
1 = . 3927 R Ii.. 2= 50 R
44 2
I = 1.9637 R4 1.a ... : 1.118 R
a"3 01
A:: .7854 Ri
Y=j =.4244 R
I 1:.0549 R4 = 1 .
1 .. 1, a .. J
I I: 1 :: .1964 R"
22 44
A :: R2 (I
y: [R a ]
,Y: R SINa
I ... ,': O.25R
4
( a SINa COSo)
I : O.25R
4
(a SIN a COSo) + R
4
" "s I N
2
a
2
I =O.25R
4
(tJ _ 16 SIN a + q )
33 941
I ... lo.25R
4
(a + SINa COSo)
p.>.=O.50R.JI SINo oCOSG
" =.J I
a

2
Z .. 2 Ria
p. = 0 50R.) I + .. SINaCOSa _
. 5 .. S . ,a 9412
'.>.= O.50RJ 1+ SING oCOSa
TABLE 3.1 (CONT'D) PROPERTIES OF COMMON SECTIONS
315
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
CIRCULAR SEGMENT
2
a IN RADIANS
CIRC,ULAR COMPLEMENT
t
A : O. 50 R 2 (2 a  SIN 2 a)
 _ 4 R SIN
3
a
x  3(2a  SIN 2a)
y: RSIN a 3
1 = o. 25 A R
2
[I  ( S IN a COS a )]
I. 3 a51 N a COS Q
1
2
_
2
= I._t O.50R
4
(2a  SIN 2a)(SIN
2
a)
, '. 6
I :025AR2[1+2SINaCOSa ]_4RSINQ
3' . a  SINa COSa 9A
I 2 SINJaCOSa ]
44 . a  5 IN a COS a
3
1_ 2 5 IN a CO S a
3 ( a  S N a C OS a )
JIIIIIIIIII"!'..
. 21
3
_
3
R 2 ( 2 CI  SIN a )
A = O.2146R
2
X = Y = 0.22 34R
P.= 0.3159 R
11_.= 1
2

2
= 0.007545 R4
Is_,= 0.01198 R 4
1 .. _.= O.003J06R
4
1
5
_ 5= 1
6

6
= 0.0182 R4
'1_'= '22 : 0.187 R
, 5 ... ; "6.= 0 . 292 R
TABLE 3.1 (CONTtD) PROPERTIES OF COMMON SECTIONS
316
)
)
.)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision E
OBLIQUE FILLET
:5
A
=
(TANS  8 ) R 2
Y
::
[1
SINt9 TA
N
8] R
3(TAN88)
i
= [TAN 8
SINt9 TAN
2
a ] R
3(TAN8 8)
~ i
p = [SEC8 
SINt9TAN29 J R
3(TAN88)
.. [SIN
4
8 TAN8 + SINe cose (If 2 SIN
2
8 ) 8 _ S I N
4
STAN
2
8 ] R4
II .. 1 3' 4 9 (TAN S 8 >.
... [TA N B( TAN 28 + SIN
2
S )_ 38 SIN 8 CoS8t3  2 SIN
2
8) _SlN
4
STAN
4
8 ] R4
12 2  6" 12 9(TAN98l
J :: [ SIN '59 _ 8  SIN 8 CO 5 9 ] R"
II 6 COSS 4
I :: [SEC! 8COS
s
S _ S+SINS COSS _ SIN
2
STAN'*8 JR
4
44 651 N 8 4 9(TAN98)
HOLLOW CIRCLE
..
A:: 3.1416 (R2 r
2
)'
'i:: y = R
4 ..
I, .. , = 1..= 0.7854 (R  r )
4 2 2 4
1
2

2
= 1
3

3
:: O. 7854 (5 R  4 R r  r" )
2 2 1/2
P."I = P44 = o. 5 (R t r )
15R
2
t r2
P22 = Pas =v
d
2
1 1
(R
4 r4)
...!.:! = 4 4 = ___ 7_8_5_4 ____ _
Y x R
TABLE 3.1 (CONTtn) PROPERTIES OF COMMON SECTIONS
317
~
~ \  \ 1
, , ~ , , ~ STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision A
ECCENTRIC HOLLOW CIRCLE
2
HOLLOW SEMI CIRCLE
2
3
t
A : ". (R
2
 r 2 )
= e r2
y R2  r2
I
J
_I = . .78 54 ( R4  r 4 )
4 4
12 .2: . 7 e 5 4 (R  r )
A =
x =
1. 5 708 (R 2_ r 2 )
R
r2
y = 0.4244 (Rt R+r)
I ::;
II
0.3927 (R4_ r
4
) 1.5708(R
2
_r2)y
I = 0.3927 (R4 r
4
)
2 ... 2 .
laa: 0 .. 3927(R
4
 r
4
)
22' 2
1.
4
= o. 3927 (R  r: ) ( 5 R +
TABLE 3.1 (CONT'D) PROPERTIES OF COMMON SECTIONS
318
'...,.... ""
",'I" '.,
/ :
! ~ I , \ '\
j I ' \ \
" i t ~ I I
" ,'\' Bell
\ ~ , \ , ...... " .... , .
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
. """ ':..l." ."*
Revision A
HOLLOW CIRCULAR SECTOR
4 :5
)
TABLE J. I (CONT'O) PROPERTIES OF COMMON SECTIONS
319
STRUCTURAL D'ESIGN MANUAL
PARABOLA
5
2
rILL
1 .....
2
 i I, Y
HALF PARABOLA
~ i b ,
y
'COMPLEMENT OF HALF
PARABOLA
, ~
A = 4/3 ab
X = b
Y = 0.401
I, ,= 0',09143 a: b
II = O.2667ob
Is :: 0, 3048 a b
1""4 = . 5 7 14 a! b
P, _I = . 2 619 a
'z.2= .4472b
1
5

5
= 1.6 ab
3
'.4 ::.65460
PO5 = 1.095 b
A = 2/3 ab
y = 0.400
x = O.375b
1 . = 0.C4571 a' b
12 :: 0.039580 b
S
I, = 0.15238 aSb
I.. = O. 1333 D b 3
l
a

5
=,.28570
3
b
Pa... =. 2619 0
P2 .. i = .2437b
A' = 1/3 ab
y = 0.700
x = O.75b
I. = 0.01762 o:S b
I2 = 0.0125 ob!
P
= .22990
....
' ....... = .4472b
P
a

e
= .65460
TABLE 3.1 (CONT'D) PROPERTIES OF COMMON SECTIONS
320
~ ~
, t
"I
)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
PARABOLIC FI LLET IN
RIGHT ANGLE
1
t
'1
    ~ '
.... t
ELLIPSE
3
2
4
HALF ELLIPSE
2
a
'1
'
I
T
V
.!...L
r
b
2
x1
a :: 0.3536 t
b .: 0.7071 t
A :: O.1667t
l
i = V : O. SOOt
I. :: II:: O.05238t
4
A = 3.1416 a b
P,.
...
b/2

i
:: Q
P
I
! ::
I. U8b
Y
 b

Pz2
:: 0/2
:: O.7854ab
l
I,
'44
= 1.1180
12 ': O. 78540
3
b
I a
I :: 5/4 ". ab = 3.927 ab
aI
I = 5/4 ... b'a =
44
3.927a
l
b
A = t. 5708b
X = b
Y
:: 0.42440
I.
::O.I098a'b
12
= O.3927ob'
la
= O.3927o
'
b
TABLE 3.1 (CONT'D) PROPERTIES OF COMMON SECTIONS
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
QUARTER ELLIPSE
J i ~
21 ..
ELLIPTIC COMPLEMENT
I
A = 0.7854ob
y = 0.4244 a
i = 0.4244 b
It = 0.05488 a! b
5
I . :: 0.05488 a b
J! = O. 1963 0
3
b
a
14 = O. 1963 a b
A = 0.2146 ab
 y = 0.7766 a
i = 0.7766 b
II :: 0.00754 0' b
3
12 = 0.00754 ab
TABLE 3.1 (CONT'D) PROPERTIES OF COMMON SECTIONS
322
)
)
)
""8! STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
HOLLOW ELLIPSE
.. 3
2
..
3
A
=
3.1416 (ob  cd)
i
=
a
y
=
b
1._.=
0.7854 (0 b'  cd')
1
2

2
= 0.7854 (0 b!  cd
l
)+3.14IS (obcd)b
2
1,_,= O.7854(Olb  cad )
! I I
I._
4
= 0.7854(0 b c d 1+ 1r (0 b  cd)a
HOLLOW SEMI ELLIPSE
..
I
NOTE:  ABOVE PROCEDURES IMPLY A NON  UNIFORM WALL THICKNESS
TABLE 3.1 (CONT'D) PROPERTIES OF COMMON SECTIONS
323
~ 8 STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
DOUBLE WEDGE SECTION.
81 CONVEX SECTION
ct
A : 2
_ t
Y =r
ct
3
3
1._.= 48 = .0208 c t
I
 t
2
2
~ t  ~ 4 : .0416 ct
2
A : 3" ct
t
V =
.. 2
1._.= m ct
3
=.038tct
S
111
:
y
Sct
l
. 2
105 : .0761 ct
VALUES OF A 'AND'I. ARE BASED ON BIPARABOLIC SECTION.
ERROR IS NEGLIGIBLE WHEN tIc < 0.10
TABLE 3.1 (CONT'D) PROPERTIES OF COMMON SECTIONS
324
,)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
ANGLE
CHANNEL
T SECTION
y
i, X
1 X
,t
',. ,IdJ
Z SECTION
A = t( b + e)
t( 2a + h) + a
2
t(b + 2e) + e


x =
2(a + h)
 3 3
t(h  y) + by
I
x 3
 3 _3
t(b  x) + hx
I =
y
I  + abeh_t_
xy   4(b + e}
A = 2htl + at
 h
2
t + .St
2
a
y = 1
2htl + at
3
Y =
2(b + e)
 a(i 
t)3
 e(i 
t)3
I = 2t
1
h
3
+ at
3
_ (h
2
t
1
+ .St
2
a)2
If x 3 2htl + at
hb
3
_
I =
Y 12
A ::::: ae + bd
3
ea
2 2
::::: h _ + 2ee )
dh + 2ee
 3 3 3
I = a(h  i)  2e(b  i) + dx
x 3
ea
3
+ bd
3
Iy = 12
A = ted + 2a)
y =
2b  t
2
I x = 2 [ bd
3
 a ( d  2 t) 3 ]
Iy = [deb + a)3  2a
3
e  68b
2
c]
2 ' 2
I
. I cos oJ.  I sin CIt.
= x y
x, cos 2cL
tanZDC. = (dt  t
2
)(b
2
 bt)
Ix  Iy
TABLE 3.1 (CONT'D) PROPERTIES OF COMMON SECTIONS
2
325
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
PARALLELOGRAM
REGULAR HEXAGON
REGULAR OCTAGON
NOSE RIB
x = chord line.
I
Based on parabolic
segment.
A = bh
 a + b  h
x =
2
Y =
2
I
bh
3
I
bh(a
2
+ b
2
)
= =
x 12
Y
12
bh
3
bh 2
I
= 3
I = (2a +
x. y. 6
A = .866h
Z
x = b/2 = a y = h/2
I = I = .0601h
4
x y
2b
2
+ 3ab)
I = .2766h
4
I = .3969h
4
XI_ Y'
4
I = .1203h
P
A = 2.8286r
2
x = y = r
I = I = .6381 r
4
x Y
4
I . = I = 3.4667 r
x. YI.
I = 1.2763 r
4
p
A = 2/3a(b + c)
x = .6a y = .375(b  c)
I = a(b + c)(19b
2
+ 26b + 19c
2
)
x 480 c
I = .1333(ab + ac)(b
2
 be + c
2
)
Xt
I = .0418 a
3
(b + c)
y
I . = .2857 a
4
(b + c)2 I = I + I
y ~ P x Y
TABLE 3.1 (CONTID)  PROPERTIES OF COMMON SECTIONS
326


e
~ I )
,.. '
)
STRUC1URAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision A
~    .                                    
CENTROID
~  
t r Area y t r Area y
)
TABLE 3.2  AREA, CENTROID & MOMENT OF INERTIA OF 90 BENDS
327
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
y
x
I
x
B
M
,
!
I
1
y
A B
9/16 1/4
5/8 1/4
11/16 1/4
3/4
7/
8
1 5/16
1 1/8 5/16
1 3/8 5/16
1 1/2
1 1/0 3/8
2 1/2
t
TABLE 3.3  PROPERTIES OF ANGLES
328
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
r
,E
L
,
)
TABLE 3.3 (CONT'n)  PROPERTIES OF ANGLES
329
330
A
1/2
,/8
11/i6
'/4
13/16
7/8
1
1 1/8
1 1/"+
, 
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
y
I X
. ,
T R AREA
.020 i2 019
2 .02J_
.0}2 2 .0.10
.025 2 .026
.032 J 32 .O}3
.040 1 .041
.O}2 :5
.01 o l,j . 040
1 .,
2
.0 2
,
2
.01 0 1 (I . .0<1
'2
.032 ) }2
LJ 0 .0'
1 5.'32 .0 0
.006
2 1. 32
0 1'8 .01 1 '
1 5/32 .0
) ,
4
2 &
0 r2 7,'32 .10
1 .ll'l
.. 0
l@
,1 .5, 32
.t>4
'at>
.072 7, ,}2 .113
.081 1 .12'
.040 1 .On
.t'l'U 22
},16 .110
L012 M2 cl..ll
.081 1 .145
.1121
.040 1
.0'''11 ")
.103
.Q5.1t .n
.012 if32 ..lli
.081 1 4 .166
Jm.
9, 12 .1Bl
.102 11 2 .20
.040 1
.O"U .5. 12 .tt
 ,
A
1
y
.. ..
M Ix..x
Pxx
.13Q
.000';
.1')9
.141 .0006 .158
14 .0007
ill
.1 '2 .0008
.1 )9 .0011 .171
.1 t5 .0013 .17t
.115 .0015 .191
.1 1 .0018 .19'
.1 18 .0022 .19'
.1 1 .0020 .211
.1
.20) .0029 .210
.20, .0026 .'23E
.212 .00'1 .23i
.21tl .OO}9 .23t
.221 .0041 .23'
.2}3
.228 .. .257
.'21t2 o
.21l8 16 .222
. .250
.242 .0051 .218
.249 .000, .277
.O!,r .0070 .274
26J. .oo8lI .273
270 .0091 .270
271, .0077 ,"51U
.200 .009b .317
.200
.0116
.0128 .313
.300 .0141 .312
.'07
.0134 .310
.,05 .01Q9 .356
.0136 .351
.016Q .356
.}2'3 .0185 S}5
.,>1 .0221
'55
.}} .0226 .}51
.'Ill 0241 .,49
.33 .OUlt !tOO
,31 .391
 _. .. ... ,
A T
.064 ), 16 .1.5.0 .3<:0 .U23l ,
1 1/4 .0..]2 7/32 .161 .356
.061 1 4 .186 .3f2
2 .206 .31 .0,1 .,
.102 11 2 .0341 1
.040 1 'I :lOb .31 .020 1
.Q21 Wj 2 .134 .3' .0251
3 16 .166 .3 1 .0:51 32
1 3/8 .Q72 7, 2 .185 .O}49 .4'5
1r4 .206 .'91 .Q'_6I
.Q91 9_ 2 .22 . ,..2 ()II.2tJ ..!,l
.102 11 2 .250 .1 0
.0";1 5 2 111
2 16 .16 .11, .01&11
1 1/2 .0 21 32 .20 If] .u '1
.on 1 '" . 2} ..Q 7"
.OS1 9, 32 .25_2 ,"p
.102 11 32 .280 1" .\66
.0 1 5, 32 .150 ,4'5..Q .:)19
.00,li}, 16 .198 ., ).1J
1 5/8 .0 2 7')2 .221 .1 18 .05l'b
.011 1 'Il .248
1 9 '}2 .275 1 '!!E1 1>
.102 J.J. . 1,,68. 07Qo .' Ll
& 1 3/32 .112 .1a67 a' 9
..l.16 .214 .1t7' .0666 .
.0 '32 .239 IQ< .Q'I39 I)
1 3/'" .Oi 1 1" .261 .1Kl .000J ," ).
.()i 1 9.',2 .2<17 .41 .0911.'
.102 11 '}2 .341 .1008.' I
.Q'U ") ',\2 . HI' . "\2Q .080Q .1
3 (16 .24 .0QQ8 :, 57
.072 1 ',\2 .27"'\ .' I' .1114 .1
2 ...Q6l..l 4 307 .' ItS .ill1 .t 36 .
.0Ql9'..2.""2 .''\'' .nB2 .t3'!l
,102 III [12...J82. . I .1'\27 .1 in
TABLE 3.3 (CONT'D)  PROPERTIES OF ANGLES
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
.)
y
Lx
...1 A
y
   , ,  .
A B T R
AREA!
M
Ixx Iyy
P
XX
P
yy
5/8
1/1!
.032 3/32 .031 .QB .0002 .0016
.226
.040 1/8 .057 .080 .0002 .0016 .073 .?18
3/
4 1/1+
.032 3/32 .03'5
f!9.9
02
.072 .267
.040 liB .042 . Orr .OP02 0028 071
1/4
)/12
039 062 0002 oon 070
1/8
.040 1/8 .047 .060 .0002 .001.1.2 .069 .299,
3/8
.032 3/32 .105 .0006 .0051 .115 .330
.040 1/8 .057 .111 .0007 .00)9 .113 323
1/4
.032 3/32 .043 .058_ .0002 .0052 .068 .3
J
n
.040 1/8 .0)2 .063 .0002 .0059 .067 .330
1
.040 1/8 .062 .103 .0003 .0082 .112 .385
3/8
.051
5. 32 .076 .110 .0096 .110 .356
.064 3/16 .092 .litf .0011 .0110 .10n .346
1/4
.0}2
5/32 .047 .054 .0002 .0071 .066 .386
1 1/8
.0hO 1/8 .057 .022 .0002 .0001 .066 .377
.040 1/8
Q77
.141 .00H3 .0140 .1,)4 .427
1/2
.051 5/32 .095 .1hB .0022 .0167 .1'52 .419.
.06)+
3/16 .116
.0026 .019h .150 .hl0
1 1/4 3/8
.040
liB .072 .092 .0008 .108 .447
_ .051 5/32 .089 .09d .0010 .0170 .106 4'38
.064
3/19 . lOti .1.99_ .0012 .012.0 .104 .42]
.040 1/8 .077 .087 .0009 .olB2 .106 .hS'7
1 3/8 3/8
.0'51 '5/32 .095 .093 .0010 .0217 .104 .1nB
5/16 .116 .100 .0012 .02')2 .102
)
Jl5.1 ')/"32 114 .002'5 ,0339 .l46 '>4h
11/2 1/2 140 13" 002Q ,0')99 14'}
.072 7 '32 .1')4 .141 .00)2 .0427 14"3 .,)27
.0'51 ')
32 .122. .lH3 .0026 .04q6 .142 62')
13/4 1/2
"3 16 .1'56 .12'5 0031 .0')89 141 IL615
072 7 "52 172 0031 IhO .607
.
.01)1 5/32 .1'53 . .00r)1 .c8J..6 .183 .731 .
2 5/8 .064 3/16 .ltJ8 .1,)4 .0061 .Q978 .181 .721
.081 .230 : .16,) .0013 .1147 .179 .706
.064 3/16 .236 ) . . 0111 .1946, .217 .
2'1/2
3/4
.072 7 )2 .262 I 178 0122 2128 216 GOl
.091 9 ')2 .. 322 ! .190 .0147 .2rj21 .211+
.064 ')
16 .268 : .1'57 .0117 209 1 069
,
3/
4 OQl Q 1')2
17? III '6 b..onh ?()() .1 nuu
.102 11/32 .404 I .180 .0168 .4279 .20h 1.030
, TABLE 3.4  PROPERTIES OF CHANNELS
\
33t
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
DIAMETER (IN.) AREA MOMENT OF CIRCUMFERENCE RADIUS OF
r<'RACTION DECIMAL (SQ. INCHES) INERTIA (1) (INCHES) GYRATION (p)
3/16 .1875 .02761 6.066 x 10; .5891 .0469
13/64 .2031 .03241
8.358 x 10 .... .6381 .0508
7/32 .2188 .03758 .0001125 .6872 .0547
15/64 .2344 .04314 .0001481 .7363 .0586
1/4 .2500 .04909 .0001918 .7854 .0625
9/32 .2813 .06213 .0003072 .8836 .0703
5/16 .3125 .07670 .0004682 .9818 .0781
11/32 .3438 .09281 .0006854 1.0799 .0860
3/8 .3750 .1105 .0009710 1.1781 .0938
13/32 .4063 .1296 .001337 1.2763 .1016
7/16 .4375 .1503 .001798 1.3744 .1094
15/32 .4688 .1726 .002370 1.4726 .1172
1/2 .5000 .1964 .003068 1.5708 .1250
17/32 .5313 .2217 .003910 1.6690 .1328
9/16 .5625 .2485 .004914 1.7671 .1406
19/32 .5938 .2769 .006101 1.8653 .1485
5/8 .6250 .. 3068 .007490 1.9635 .1563
21/32 .6563 .3382 .009104 2.0617 .1641
11/16 .6875 .3712 .01097 2.1598 .1719
23/32 .7188 .4057 .01310 2.2580 .1797
3/4 .7500 .4418 .01553 2.3562 .1875
25/32 .7813 .4794 .01829 2.4544 .1953
13/16 .8125 .5185 .02139 2.5525 .2031
27/32 .8438 .5591 .02488 2.6507 .2110
7/8 .8750 .6013 .02878 2 .. 7489 .2188
29/32 .9063 .6450 .03311 2.8471 .2246
15/16 .9375 .6903 .03792 2.9452 .2344
31/32 .9688 .7371 .04323 3.0434 .2422
1 1.0000 .7854 .04908 3.1416 .2500
1 1/16 1.0625 .8866 .06256 3.3380 .. 2656
1 1/8 1.1250 .9940 .07863 3.5343 .2813
1 3/16 1.1875 1.1075 .. 09761 3.7307 .2969
1 1/4 1.2500 1.2272 .1198 3.9270 .3125
)
1 5/16 1.3125 1.3530 .1457 4.1234 .3281
1 3/8 1.3750 1.4849 .1755 4.3197 .3438
1 7/16 1.4375 1.6230 .2096 4.5161 .3594
1 1/2 1.5000 1.7671 .2485 4.7124 .. 3750
1 9/16 1.5625 1 .. 9175 .2926 4.9088 .3906
1 5/8 1.6250 2.0739 .3423 5.1051 .4063
1 11/16 1.6875 2.2365 .3980 5.3015 .4219
1 3/4 1.7500 2.4053 .4603 5.4978 .4375
1 3/16 1.8125 2.5802 .5298 5.6942 .4531
1 7/8 1.8750 2.7612 .6067 5.8905 .4688
1 15/16 1.9375 ~ 9 4 8 3 .6917 6.0869 .4844
2 2.0000 3.1416 .7854 6.2832 .5000
TABLE 3.5  PROPERTIES OF CIRCLES
332
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
DIAMETER (IN.) AREA MOMENT OF CIRCUMFERENCE RADIUS OF
FRACTION DECIMAL INERTIA (I) (INCHES) GYRATION (p)
2 1/16 2.0625 3.3410 .8883 6.4796 .5156
2 1/8 2.1250 3.5466 1.0009 6.6759 .5313
2 3/16 2.1875 3.7583 1.1240 6.8723 .5469
)
2 1/4 2.2500 3.9761 1.2580 7.0686 .5625
2 5/16 '2.3125 4.2000 1.4038 7.2650 .5781
2 3/8 2.3750 4.4301 1.5618 7.4613 .5938
2 7/16 2.4375 4.6664 1.7328 7.6577 .6094
2 1/2 2.5000 4.9087 1.9175 7.8540 .6250
2 9/16 2.5625 5.1572 2.1165 8.0504 .6406
2 5/8 2.6250 5.4119 2.3307 8.2467 .6563
2 11/16 2.6875 5.6727 2.5607 8.4431 .6719
2 3/4 2.7500 5.9396 2.8074 8.6394 .6850
2 13/16 2.8125 6.2126 3.0714 8.8358 .7031
2 7/8 2.8750 6.4918 3.3537 9.0321 .7188
2 15/16 2.9375 6.7771 3.6549 9.2285 .7344
3 3.0000 7.0686 3.9761 9.4248 .7500
3 1/16 3.0625 7.3662 4.3179 9.6212 .7656
3 1/8 3.1250 7.6699 4.6813 9.8175 .7813
3 3/16 3.1875 7.9798 5.0673 10.0139 .7969
3 1/4 3.2500 8.2958 5.4765 10.2102 .8125
3 5/16 3.3125 8.6179 5.9101 10.4066 .82B1
3 3/8 3.3750 8.9462 6.3689 10.6029 .B438
3 7/16 3.4375 9.2806 6.8540 10.7993 .8594
3 1/2 3.5000 9.6211 7.3662 10.9956 .8750
3 9/16 3.5625 9.9678 7.9066 11.1920 .8906
3 5/8 3.6250 10.3.21 8.4765 11.3883 .9063
3 11/16 3.6875 10.680 9.0764 11.5847 .9219
3 3/4 3.7500 11.045 9.7072 11.7810 .9375
3 13/16 3.8125 11.416 10.371 11.9774 .9531
)
3 7/8 3.8750 11.793 11.067 12.1737 .9688
3 15/16 3.9375 12.177 11.799 12.3701 .9844
4 4.0000 12.566 12.556 12.5664 1.0000
4 l/B 4.1250 13.364 14.214 12.9591 1.0313
4 1/4 4.2500 14.186 16.025 13.3518 1.0625
4 3/8 4.3750 15.033 17.992 13.7445 1.0938
4 1/2 4.5000 15.904 20.128 14.1372 1.1250
4 5/8 4.6250 16.800 22.550 14.5299 1.1563
4 3/4 4.7500 17.721 25.124 14.9226 1.1875
4 7/8 4 .. 8750 18.666 27.738 15.3153 1.2188
5 5.0000 19.635 30.675 15.7080 1.2500
5 1/8 5.1250 20.629 33.852 16.1006 1.2813
5 1/4 5.2500 21.648 37.321 16.4933 1.3125
5 3/8 5.3750 22.691 40.980 16.8860 1.3438
5 1/2 5.5000 23.758 44.915 17.2787 1.3750
 
TABLE 3.5 (CONT'D)  PROPERTIES OF CIRCLES
333
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
\\'ltlt
Wall
A ..... I I
P
IUl. I) ...... 4.1lllu
11IL1.... Nu.
.\n'a .I I
P
,1 I', Il,,,t thtl '
1 .. 1..... .. !\, ..
Hi
.018 11 .096S
.0).41 .3880
.m, 20 .1199 . 0178 .O}16
' .02 .. 0 .0427 .3808
.I., .('22 24 .OU4 .0C004 .0004 .0190
22 .Ol<fO .00005
.(XX)S
.OjS 20 .0108 .(lOCOS
11 .11J44
' .0277 .0491 .)778
16 .1161 .0)0' .0542 .)7:S)
.OS} 11 .2117 .ont ,0660 .)696
I'
.on 24 .0UlI .0001 .0008 .0809
, I
.OIH 22 .OI9S .(0)1 .0009 .0791
.on 20 02}6 .0001 .0011 .0170 13 .m .. .0411 .07)1
.0111 11 .J075 .. Olot .OUI .04)12
20 .11)6 .0147 .039S '
.049 18 .18"9
,one .Oj14
.Oll
2"
.0201 .0002 .0(1) .10}O
.01:1 n .0250 .00ll .0016 .1010
.O.U 20 .0002 .0019 .0988
)
.OS8 17 .1171 .OlU1 .0619
.(6) J6 .1420, .0426 .06S1 11)6
.mn 14 .)041
.(\1t)4
.ll .l4t7 .OS7S .(1)2::' .4097
.llO 11 .42t() .0688 .UOI .4018
J
.022 24 .0214 .000) .0020 .1150
.11
.028 22 .OJOS .0004 .002<1
20 .Ol7"
.iX)()5 .0029 .1208
.().f9 lit .O)()2 .0:(16 .0036 .1165
lH
.028 22 .US1 : .0269 .0391 .476)
.O}S 20 .141l . .03]1 .0481 .4739
.04'1 Iii .201t .0419 .06H .4ti91
11 .2400 .07S6
,.
.011
2'
.0287 .0006 .0028 .1471 ..... ,
.028 21 .O}60 .0007 .OO:H
.0\5 20 .Q.JH .<XXl9 .0041 .lcHti
18 .OS98 .0011 .00.s2 .1}84
)6 .2675 .Oo3S .4611
.08J 14 .1)69 .0706 .1027
.(})j II
.}82J .1145 .... 13H
.110 lJ .1711 .0?40 .1)67
H
.022 14 .0))0 .0010 .0040 .1691
.028 22. .Octl S .001l .0048 .1672
.O}S 20 .OSH .(XH4 .0056 .1649
18 .0(,94 .0016 .0072 .1604
.05tl 17 .0020 .()()OO .1516
IH
.t1lfi 21 ,119S .0468
.O)'
20 .l61l
,04}2 .5)81
.049 19 .21H .0589
17 .2627 .06U4 .O<)J.!
.OO) 16 .UlS6 .1005 .JoiN
.o.n H .169S
... 0911 .uu .5019
')
,
.1O}g .B8S .4919
ri.
.022 .0174 .0014 .0050 .1911
.021:1 22 .0170 ,COl? .0060 .1892
.O)S 20 .O;tIO : . 0020 .(l)71 .J869
IS .0790 .0026 ron .1824
.0Stl 17 .0919 .(0)0. .0107 .1796
6/
,fa .022 24 .0019 .000l .11))
.120 11 : .1248 .1664 .1ta98
.02S n ,0521 .002) .0074 .211)
.028 II .11OS : .0418 .osn . .$647
,on 10 .174g .osn .06IU .)621
.049 HI .2426 .07S+ '.0918
20 .0649 .OOlS .0090 .2090
.049 Ui .0887 .OO}7 .0118 .2044
.0)8
11 .10)) .rot! .01)4
17 .0878 .100l !U44
.06S 16 .}1ti6 . .0'170 .1194 .)S10
.OS} 14 .4021 .1198 ,1.74
.005
l} .1}4J .16S0; ,J410
.120 11 .)6].1 .161i .1990 .
J
*}f. .022 14 .0460 .OOlS .0(7)
.l}S"
.028 21 .0:'80 .00)2 .2})4
.OlS 2.0 .0717 .OO}8 .0111 .2110
.049 Ul .098} .0050 .2264
.058 17 .1147 .0051 .0J66
JU
.O}1 20 .18d6 .0694
.049 18 .16lg .0948, ,108 .6017
.058 17
.}OH} .1I0S .U6}
16 .) ... 1 : .ISH .1 }99 .W62
.mu 14 .4)47 ,1514 .1 J)O
.09S 11 .i'i19 .5j61
.120 11
.6'''S
.2051 .2}U .5779
't
.022 24 .050) .00)) .lS7S
.028 22 .OOlS .lX)41 .0109 .1155
. GlS 10 .0786 . .m}} . .2531
.Q.l9 )8 .1019 .rX167 .0179 .2 .. 84
.0)8
11 .1261 .0076 .020}
.06j 16 .1199 .OOtil .0111 .2431
.'
.782,) J .21)66
1..1'
t
z"
.ou :t4 .0S90 .OOS4 .0123 .)017
lU 20 ,2u13 .0914 ,MOO
,019 18 .2Mll .1112 .llSO .6451:1
.05t! 17 .Btl .J 6117
.aos 16 .lW6
;
. i .1617 . .6404
.Oli) lot .ib7l
.)gW .2(X1S .0).4)
.()IJl l)
:
2110', .22S .6\l12
.120 Jl .6616 .2nO .6110
.8H7 .1141 .6101
.028 22 .0145 .0067 .01S3 .2'1)6
.0)\ 2.0 .()!)24 .0082. .oun .2972
.1212 .0249 .292S
.05Ji 17 .J1!s9 .ons .02li6 .2896
16 .J6,)4 .OI}7 .Oll) ,2M7)
.OHi H .2065 .0164 .o}n .21H4
1 .OlA 22 .0101 .0102 .)4)8
.0)') 20 .H>61 .012,. .OHS .HH
.o.1'J Iii .146. .01M .0)12 .\167
1 .on 10 .2161 .104\ .104} .6949
iii .14:)0 .14)0 .6:xxJ
.0\/\ 17 .1670 .1610 .6t1M
.0')1(
n .)716 .0191 .Ol1i2 .n}?
16 .t9tJlJ .0110 .CJ.;2U .HI4
.on}
14 .2W! .on} .0WCi
n .27C11 .02. ISO .)117 ,0(;) J6 .}1)51 .1811

TABLE 3.6  PROPERTIES OF ROUND TUBING
334.
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Wan
w.u
ArCfl r Z
,
G.D. ned. n.ae
IIICU. No.
'''hI&
I I
P
n.D.
1).0.:1. (11\110
lucbet l",boM Nv.
2 .08) 14 .4999 .1]0() .2300 .6184
. 00S 1) .S68S .6144
.120 11 .701ll .31 .... .llO .6660
"t
.9050 .3813 .l87l
.065
]6 .7014 1.0)49 .S914 1.2147
.CtB 14 .8910 1.)012 .74n 1.2OBS
l} 1.0102 1.47)9 .8122 1.204)
.no 11 1.2742 1.8220 1.0411 1.1958
.n6
J.6414 2.2900 t.})}7 J.13)5
.1BB fI, J.9512 2.6818 I.S)42 J.17l0
)
.049 J8 ,)196 .1711 .1622 .7Yi2
.0$8 17 .3766 .2011 .lJ9S .7lll
.06S 16 .4207 .2214 .1]0) :1281
.OS} U S)2S .2780 .2616 .7226
.091 Jl .60:'9 .3128 .2941
.110 11 .75S9 .1812 .l588 .7102
.1S' .9664 .4711 .44li .698)
.219 lit 2.2550 }.04H) 1.7118 1.1bl1
.2}O
).)901 1.9372 J.1524
I
.t3U .065 ]6 1.27n .6814 1.)Oll
'\ .083 14 .9562 1.6080 .8S76 1.2968
.095
l} 1.0908 1.8228 .9722 1.2927
,)20 11 1.168$ 2.1565 1.20)5 1.2841
, .156
'li
) .7641 2.aSH 1.2718
.G49 18 .1388 .7784
.OSS 17 .3994 .2101 .2114 .77Sl
.ass 16 .4462 .2169 .7129
.188
'fa
2.0985 1.78Q.f 1.2613
.219
J:
2.4268 ).7971 2.0251 1.2509 ,)I
.250 Y4
2.1469 4.2307 2.2.564 1.2406
.08) 14 .5650 .3312 .29)) .7667
.00S J3 .6412 .3741 .lJ2S .7627
.. .065 16 . SO)) 1.5557 .7179 1.3914
.no H 8030 .4S68 .4060' .n't] .08} 14 1.0214 1.9597 .97tyJ l.J8)2
.1S6
1.0278 .566}
.50l4 .7421 .095 1) 1.165S 2.2218 ].1114 1.}SIO
.188
"',
1.2149 .6S14 .5790 .7321 .)20 11 J.4627 2.7552 1.3776 I.J714
"
ni
1.8B67 }.4903 1.7452 1 . .1601
.0019 18 .1S!U .242} ..2040 .8225 ,
.018 17 .4222 .1.BlS .2387 .8195
:06S 16 .47l7 .1149 .1652 .8111
.OS} Ii .5976 .1910 .))09 .8109
.laa
'fa
".0902
2.0451 1.3195
.219 Jh 2.598S 4.6")98 2.3299 1.1191
.2SO 2.94\2 5.2002 2.6OOl 1.3268
.313
"1
3.6202 6.1915 3.0988 I.30B4
110
.095 II
.(80) .4429 .17lO .0068
.no 11 .8501 .5419 .4'.)6} .7984
.lS6
",
1.0891 .67)} .5672 .7664
4U
.065 16 .8546 1.8714 .8897 1.01798
.run 14 1.0866 2.3593 1.1103 1.47)6
.188 H.
1.1885 .7761 .65)8 .7761 .095 Jl 1.2400 2..6715 1.16Ul 1.4694
.no 11 1.5570 1.3224 1.5635 1.4608
:.tH 18 .3771 .2834 .2.267
.OSS 17 .4450 .11l9 .26S) .86}6
.06i 16 , .. 972 .3688 .2950 .8611
08) 14 .6}Ol . .4608 .1686 .8550
.091 1l .7178 .niJa .4U8 .8510
.156
2.0095 ".2158 1.9319 VI 484
.188 ,:. 2.3930 4.9473 2.3281 1.'1378
.219 Ht
2.770) S.6H2 2.6561 1.4274
.250
M
),1416 6.lOn 2.9683 1.4170
.)l} 3.8656 7.5387 3.5476 1.)965
120 11
.. 8972 .6l69 . .ms .842.5
.1}6
'li
.7915 .6348
.188
1.1621 ,916S .7l}2 .8102
4U .065 16 .90')6 2.2271 .9898 1.5682
.OOJ 14 1.1517 2.8098 1.2"&8 1.5619
.095 II
1.}147 3.1001 1.4179 l.SYJ8
2"
.049 18 .Uss .l791 .9SSl
.018 17 ... 90S .HiS .nn .9S20
.065 16 .548} .1944 .1S96 .9496
.120 11 1.6512 3.9627 1.7612 1.'H91
.IS6
2U21 5.03Y1 2.231:10
.188
2.S40} . 5.9166 2.6296 1.5261
.219 Jh 2.9121 6./)Hj ).OOlB 1.5156
.08) 11 .6189 .4501 .9I1't
,09' II :7914 .6991 .5084 .9391
.110 11 .9915 .8590 .6247 .9}OS
.15,6 1.27]2
1.07'" .78U .9Hi7
188 K. l.m ..
.90S9 .9084
.
)
.2SO
Y&
).}179 ' 1.5625 3.361l ).
.)1) 4.1111 9.0612 4.0272 1.4846
.llS
4.8597 10.4217 16)19 1.4644
.. "
.06S 16 2.62H 1.1054 1.6566
.003 14 J.2169 3.3143 1.}95S 1.6S03
S .049 18 .4946 .3297 1.OOS .09')
II
1.)!.!t)J . 3.7615 L'}B'}l ] .6462
.OSS 11 .S}61 .SOO2 1.0404 ,120 11 1.7455 4.6dO} 1.9707 J .il}'])
.06S 16 .64)7 .4305 1.0379 .)56
'll
2.25)0' . 5.9550 2.507,1 1.()2'j!
.Oft} 14 .7606 . 8097 .5398 L01l7 .IM
H
2.6S7S 2949'1 1.6145
.091
l} .8670 .9156 .6104 1.02.76 .219
)'
3.11l9 8.0107 3.3n9 1.60)9
.120 11 J.08S1 l.ll76 .7St7 1.0191
.1S6 1.39>9
J."Ul
1.0069
,ISS n. 1.64504 1.0969 .9966
.110 Jlll
1.911) 1.BS95 1.2)!jJ .9864
l.S]4l 89738 3.77I'io1 1.5934
.3D ;11 4.156$ 1O.77M .... :BN 1.57;8
.11i
a
5.H42 12.<1224 .5.2)05 1.S525
"II
S
.OR) 14 ) .2821 }.87SB 1.5S03 1.7187
lU .049 )8 .4928 .631) I.nll)
J7 .SSI6 .7410 ... 560 i.U8l
.O'JS l} 1.4619 4.4012 L76!7 1.714<>
.120 H l.KW7 5.4798 2.1919 1.7H9
.06S )6 .6504 .3UI . 126) .f 56
'J:J
I.. lin 691'10} 1.7n ..
.OS} 14 .B2SB 1.0)60 .6}) 1 1.U()')
n 1.1721 .1211 . 1160
.120 n 1.1800 1.4411 1.1m ..
.188
,;.
2.834A 8.21')2 3.1871 J.7028
.219
2'
9,40H9 }.7b)6 ill
h
3.7106 4.2203 ).61:511
.IS6
'S,
1.Sl1t6 l.il216 1.llaO .)1]
"
II .. 4.6019 12.6'1\3 S071H 1.6610
.Ititj
".
1.&040 2.1228 1. }(6) 1.0IS",S .11)
:l'
III
14.66'17 ,5.H6.5':1 1.6106
.119
f;
,n 2.0811 2.40.)1 1.4tiOl
TABLE 3.6 (CONT'D)  PROPERTIES OF ROUND TUBING
335
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
.3.5 BEND RADII
The m i n i m ~ m bend radii for sheet materials are given in Tables 3.7 and 3.8. Table
3.7 shows the minimum radii obtainable by cold forming the sheet while Table 3.8
gives the minimum radii by hot forming the sheet. Figure 3.8 shows the minimum
flange width. Shorter flanges may be obtained by trimming after forming, but this
is expensive and shall not be specified unless additional tooling and processing
costs can be justified.
~ ~
w=2R+t
 '
FIGURE 3.8 STANDARD DESIGN BEND RADII
3.6 HARDNESS CONVERSIONS
Table 3.9 presents the conversions for hardness numbers to ultimate tensile strength.
In this table the ultimate strength values are in the range 50 to 304 ksi. The cor
responding hardness number is given for each of three hardness machines; Vickers,
Brinell and three scales of the Rockwell machine
.3. 7 GRAPHICAL INTEGRATION BY SCOMEANO METHOD
It is often necessary to integrate curves of unusual or irregular shapes. There is
a convenient method of integrating even the most complex shapes. It is called
graphical integration and is attributed to Scomeano.
For the purposes of this discussion, assume the curve tq be integrated has the form
of y=f(x). The curve could be composed of several different shapes; such as,
fl(x), forx=O to nl; f
2
(x), for x=nl to n2; f.3(x) , for x=n2 to n3, and so forth.
Figure 3.9 shows a typical problem for which graphical integration will be used.
Since the integral of the curve y=f(x) is, equal to the area under the curve, the
maximum ordinate of the first integral of f{x) will be the area under the y=f(x)
curve. It is necessary to chose a scale for the ordinate of the integral curve so
that the maximum value of the ordinate will lie in the working area of the graph.
The area under the y=f(x) curve is estimated. In the example in Figure 3.9, the
area can eaSily be calculated since the f(x) curves are straight lines. It is 134
and the scale for the first integral is chosen to give easily read divisions and
to show the maximum value within the limits of the paper.
336
)
.
I,. BELL
\fUJ HEUCOPTER COMPANY
DESIGN STANDARD
In
Z
o
>
NOTES:
STANDARD DESIGN BEND RADII
BEND RADIUS
____ ...,......1
L THICKNESS
MINIMUM FLANGE WIDTH
R (FROM BEND RADII CHART)
W (MINIMUM FLANGE WIDTH) = 2R + T
&
&
&.
4.
SHORTER FLANGES BE OBTAINED BY
TRIMMING AFTER FORMING, BUT THIS
OPERATION IS EXPENSIVE AND SHALL NOT
BE SPECIFIED UNLESS ADDITIONAL TOOLING
AND PROCESSING "COSTS CAN BE JUSTIFIED.
BEND RADII LISTED ARE FOR ANGLES BETWEEN
1
0
AND 110
0
INCLUSIVE. RADII FOR LARGER
ANGLES MUST WITH PRODUCTION ENG.
PER MILT9046
THE SUNDARD BEND RADII TOLERANCE IS .02.
BELL DESIGN STANDARD
CODE I DENT NO. 97499
TITLE
BEND RADIISTANDARD
DESIGN
Drawinq Nu mber
)
I",. BELL
'iIJJ HELICOPTER COMPANY
DESIGN STANDARD
.
STANDARD DESIGN BEND RADII
MATERIAL CONDITION
MATERIAL THICKNESS
fOR.."1ED AT ROOM T::MP
.012 .016 .020 .025 .032 .040 .050 .063 .0711.080 .090 .100 .l2S .160 .190 .250
l20240 .03 ,.03 1.06 .. 06 .00 .Ofj .ulj .12 _J.O I .1.0 .18 .2.) .l') .Jl
.:if)
A
12024 ... T( } 06 06 .06 .09 .12 .16 .l8 .25 31 .31 .37 .31 SO .is ..
l
50520 .03 .03 .03 .03 .06 .06 .06 .06 .09 .09 '59 .l2 .16 .lS ;.25
)i
.03 .03 .06 .06 .06 .09 .09 .12 .16 .16 .18 .25 .25 .31 .38 .56
5OS2H34'* .02 ! .. .03 .03 .0..3 .06 .06 .oel .09_ .. Oil .12
t
16061 .. 0 .0.3 03 03 .03 06 06 06 06 .09 ,,09 09 .12 .16 .L8 38
N
) 06 06 .06 .09 .12 16 .18 25 31 31 31 37 50 .75 . 88
70750 .06 .06 .06 .06 .00 .09 .. 09 .12 .16 .16 .. 18 .25 .31 .,37 .50 .62
707ST( 1 .09 .09 .09 .12 .16 .25 .25 .31 .37 .,37 .50 .50 .75
,,87 [..00 " LSO
. "'.
.. Jr' .25
I
t'
.09 :
.'pg"
,
.37 t .50 .75
.. .,
M 
_ ... 
.
A
I I
G .... R2q
.
 . 18
.18
.25
.
.31 .50 .50 .62 .7S ;87 1..00 ;"50 1..75
. ,
r
I r' .   . 
. ..
 _.
  . 
300 SERIES AI.'lL .03 .03 .03 .03 .06 .. 06 .06 .09 .09 .09 .12 .12
5 lis HARD
03 03 ,,06 ,,06 06 09 .09 12 16 16 19 ... 25
T 300 SERIES \.:i HARD ,,06 .06 .. 06 .09 .Og .12 .16 .25 1.25 .38 .38 .. 50
E SERIES 3/4 HARD .09 .09 .09 .12 .16 .19 .22 .25 .2S .31 .38 .47 .50 .. 50 .75 L.OO
f300 SERIES HARD .. 09 .09 .12 .16 .19 .22 .22 .25 .28 ..Jl .38 .50 .50 .7S ll.:OO
"l30 At.'IL & I.OW
.06 .06 .06 .09 .09 .12 .16 .16 .19 .22 .25 .28 .34
.ARBON Sn.
4130 NORM it 8630
.06 .09 .09 .12 .12 .16 .19 .21 .. 25 .31 .3l .,31 .38 .50 .62

.
T lTY!! I COMP A
I
024 032 .. 040 064 080 .100 .126 .17i .200 .225 .250 .312
T TYPE I COMP B .030 .. 040 .OSC .062 .080 .100 .125 .157 .213 .. 240 .270 .300 .,375
A
N TYPE I.. caMP C .024 .(i32 .040 .050 .0,64 .080 .100 .126 .177 .. 200 .225 .250 .312
t
U TYPE II J:OHP A
048 .064 .080 .lOO .118 .160 .200 .252 .319 .360 .450 .562
ItA
l'YPE ..lII. COMP C 054 .072 .090 .112 .1"4 .180 225 ,.283 355 .400 .450 SOO .625
'.
1& mE III t OOMP D .054 072 .090 .112 .144 .180 .225 .283 .355 .400 .450 .500 .625
l'
!., *FOa NON8mUCTtJRAL USE ONLY
.....

it
TITANIUM COMMON
I
CONDITION DESIGNATION
TYPE I, COMP A COMMERCIALLY
TYPE I, COMP B PURE
TYPE I, COMP C
TYPE 11, COMP A Ti5Al2.5Sn
"
TYPE III, COMP C Ti .. 6Al4V
til
TYPE COMP D Ti6A!4V ELI
>
0
.:
Q.
Q.
<C
! '"
'"
Z
0

'"

SHEET 1 REVISED.
>
....,
BELL DESIGN STANDARD CODe IDENT 1'40.97499
.. , . AT'!I:'"
TITLE
Ora winq Number
',;' /" J"t'7t'(" /1 ;:. i 'lo
'.
};:..c:." to
BEND RADIISTANDARD
160001
DESIGN
SHEET 2 '
2
711"'Z'1Io!!'S77 AEV'!6'l<
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
AND CONDITION MATERIAL THICKNESS
fOR...D AT ROOM TEMP
.012 .016 .020 .025 .032 .OLiO .050
.090 .100 .L15 .160
20240 .03 .03
.06$ti
.Ob .09 .09 .T6 .18 .25 .25 .31
A 2024T{ ) .06 .06 .06 .12 .16 .18 2S, .. , .31 .37 .31 .50 .75
l
.OJ .03 .03 .06 .06 .06 .06 .09 .09 .09 .12 .16 .18
U
50S2H34 .OJ .03 .06 6
.09 .12 .16 .16 .18 .25 .25 .31
M
.0_
.03 .06 .06 .09 .09 .. 09 .12
,
160610 .03 L .. 03 .03 06 06 09 09 .09 .12 .16 .18
N
6061T( ) .06 .06 .09 1.12 ! .16 18 .25 31 .31 .37 _.37 50 .75
H 70750 .06 .06 .06 1.06 1.09 .09 .12 .16 .16 .18 .25 .3t_
7075TC 1 .09 .09 .09 .12 .16 .25 .25 .31 .37 .37 .50 .50 .75 .87
I
1.
09
:09 '
.J!; .37 .. 56 .15 .75
l!\Z3180
.09 .18 .25 .2.5
Nt
A
G IAz3i.8R24
'. i8 .18
18 .25 .31 .. 50 .50
.6.1 .
.75 ,:81 LOa ;.. 50 L 7S
1
..
300 SERIES ANL .03
' .03 .03 .03 06 ,06 .06 .09 .09 .09 .12 .12
S HARD .03 .03 .06 .06 6 09 09 1.12  1.16 .16 19 25
T 300 SERIES ':i HARD .06 .06 .06 .09 16 .25' .25 .38 .3sT so
e 300 SERIES3Zq HARD .09 .09 .09 .12 22 .25 .28 .:31 .38 .47 .50
f j60 SERIES HARD .09 .09 .12 .16 .. 19 . 22 .25 .28 .31 .38 .47 1 .50 .50
4130 A.'lL & LOW
.06 .. 06 .06 .09 .12 .16 .. 16 .19 .22 .25 .28
CARBON STL
.
4130 NORM & 8630
.06 .09 .09 .12 .l2 .16 .22 .25 .31 .:31
.31
!NORM
T ITYPE I. COMP A .02E., .032 .040 .050 .064 .. 080 .100 .126 .177 .200 .225 .250 .312
T TYPE I. COMP B .030 .0LtO .050 .. 062 .080 .100 _125 .157 .213 .2LiO
".270
.300 .375
A
N mE It COl1P C .024 .032 .040 .050 .064 .080 .100 .126 .177 .200 .225 .250 .312
f
TYPE II. W A .048 .064 .OBO .100 .128 .160 .200 .252 .319 .360
Nt.
TYPE III COHP C .. 05Lt .072 090 .112 .144 .tBO .225 .283 .355 .400 .450 .625
rrYPE III, COMP 0 .054 072 .090 .112 .144 .180 .225 .283 .JSS .. 4QO .450 .500 .625
TITANIUM COMMON
CONDITION DESIGNATION
TYPE I, COMP A COMMERCIALLY
TYPE I, COMP B PURE
TYPE I, COMP C
TYPE II, COMP A Ti5Al2.5Sn
TYPE III, COMP C Ti6Al4v
TYPE III, COMP D ELI
Note: 1 .. Bend radii listed are for angles between 1
0
and 110
0
inclusive. Radii
for larger angles must be coordinated with production engineering.
2. The standard bend radii tolerance is + 0.015.
3. Reference Bell Design Standard '160  '002.
TABLE 3.7 STANDARD DESIGN BEND RADII (COLD FORMING)
331
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
AND MATERIAL THiCKNESS
.012 .016 .020 .025 .032 .040 .050 .063 .071 .080 .090 .lOO .125 .160
A
L
U
'i' 7075T( )@ 3000F
.06 .06 .06 .06 .09 .. 12 .16 .19 .25 .31 .38 .41 SO .69
N
/'
M
A
.. O @ 350
Q
F .06 .06 .06 .06 .06 .09 .09 .t6 .16 .18 .25 .25 25
G
@ 350F 'r .06 .09 .09 .09 .16 .18 .25 .31 .27 I .. 50 .50 .50 .. 62
riTE I. COM]? A
.018 .02L, .0.3C .037 .048 .080 .100 .126 .142 .160 .180 .200 .250
@ qOO 600 F
I
TYPE r. COMP B
.024 .,030 .037 .Oil8 .080 .142 .160 .180 .100 .126 .200! .2SC
T 400:1  600 F
I
T
TYPE I. COHP C
.018 1.024 .030 .031 .OLl8 .080 .100 .l26 .142 .160! .180
A
.200 .250
N
@ LlOO 600 F
t
TYPE II. U COMP A
.036 .048 .060 .075 .096 .120 .LSO .189 .248 .. 280 .315 .350 .437
M S 400
0
600" F ..
ITYll e I r I caMP C
@ ./.too ...... &00" F
.024 .032 .040 .050 .064 .080 .100 .126 .142 .160 .lS0 .200 .250
[rYPE III. COHP 0
.024 .032 .040 .050 .160 .. 2.50
9 'tOO
O
_600
0
'F
.061.1 .080 .100 .126 .142 .180 .200
TITANIUM COMMON
CONDITION DESIGNATION
TYPE 1, COMP A
COMMERCIALLY
TYPE 1, COMP B PURE
TYPE 1, COMP C
TYPE II. COMP A Ti: SAl .. 2. 5Sn
TYPE III. COMP C Ti6Al4V
TYPE 1119 COMP D Ti6Al4V ELI
...
Note: 1. Bend radii listed are for angles between 1
0
and 110
0
inclusive. Radii
for larger angles must be coordinated with Production Engineering.
2. The standard bend radii tolerance is + 0.015.
3. Reference Bell Design Standard 160  002.
TABLE 3.8  STANDARD DESIGN BEND RADII (HOT F0RMING)
338
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
,I t ' :I
Tensile Vickers Brinell Rockwell
strength Firth 3000 kg
Diamond 10mm Btl A Scale B Scale C Scale
Ball
60 kg 100 kg 150 kg
ksi
Hardness Hardness 120 deg 1/16 in. 120 deg
Number Number Diamond Dia Stl Diamond.
Cone Ball Cone
50 104 92

58

i
52 108 96

61

54 112 100

64

56 116 104

66

.
.
58 120 108

68

60 125 113

70

62 129 117

72

64 135 122

74

"
66 139 127

76

68 143 131

77.5

)
70 149 136

79 
!
72 153 140
80.5


74
157 145
.
82
,

"

"
76
162 150

sa

78
167 154 Sf
84.5

80
171 158 52
85.5

.
82
177 162 53
87

TABLE 3.9  HARDNESS CONVERSION TABLE
339
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Tensile Vickers BrineU' Rockwell
Strength Firth 3000 kg
Diamond 10mm Stl A Scale B Scale C Scale
Ball
60 kg 100 kg 150 kg
ks!
Hardness Hardness 120 deg 1/16 in. 120 deg
Number Number Diamond Dia Stl Diamond
Cone Ball Cone
 .
,.
83 179
165 53.5
87.5

85 186
171 54
89

87 189
174 55
90

89 196
180 56
91

91 203 186 ,56.5 92.5

93 207 190 57 93.5 
95 211 193 57 94

97 215 197 57.5 95

99 219 201 57.5 95.5 
102 227 210 59 97

104 235 220 60 98 19
107 240 225 60.5 99 20
" )
110 245 230 61 99.5 21
112 250 235 61.5 100 22
115 255 241 62 101 23
118 261 247 62.5 101. 5 24
120 267 253 63 102 25
"
TABLE 3.9 (CONT'D)  HARDNESS CONVERSION TABLE
340
"8 STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Tensile Vickers Brinell Rockwell
Strength Firth
3000 kg,
Diamond 10mm Stl A Scale B Scale C Scale
Ball
60 kg 100 kg 150 kg
kai
Hardness Hardness 120 deg 1/16 in. 120 deg
Number Number Diamond Dia Btl Diamond:
Cone Ball Cone
123 274 259 63.5 103 26
126 281 265 64 
27
129 288 272 64.5 
28
132 296 279 65

29
136 304 286 65.5

30
139 312 294 66 
31
142 321 301 66.5

32
147 330 309 67

33
150 339 318 67.5

" 34
155 348 327 68

35
160 357 337 68.5

36
)
165 367 347 69

37
170 376 357 69.5

38
176 386 367 70

39

181 396 377 70.5

40
188 406 387 71

41
194 417 398 71.5

42
TABLE 3.9 (CONT'n)  HARDNESS CONVERSION TABLE
341
Tensile
Strength
ksi
201
208
215
221
231
237
246
256
264
273
283
294
~ O
342
r
I I
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
!
Vickers Brinell' Rockwell
Firth 3000 kg
Diamond 10mrn st1 A Scale B Scale C Scale
Ball
60 kg 100 kg 150 kg
Hardness Hardness 120 deg 1/16 in. 120 deg.
Number Number Diamond Dia Stl Diamond
Cone Ball Cone
428 408 72

43
440 419 72.5

44
452 430 73

)45
465 442 73.5

46
479 453 74 
47
493 464 75

48
508 476 75.5

49
523 488 76

50
539 500 76.5

51
556 512 77

52
573 524 77.5

53
..
592 536 78

54
611 548 78.5

55

TABLE 3.9 (CONTln)  HARDNESS CONVERSION TABLE
)
e
l
)
e)
)

e)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
1400
1300
1200
1100
1000
900
800 160 16 ', __ ' __l
I  i
1
700 140 14 ""i  ;
L
.
.
.,
i , ,
t
i
I!
I
;t 
600 120 12
' I
: It,
..
t
500 100 10
_ ..
. i ,
I ' )
.
i
:
400 80 8
.  ,
_ ..
300 60 6
...
r
200 40 4
100 20 2
0 0 0
0 2 4
CW) C")
0
0
0
1"'"1
1"'"1
1""1
><
><
><
><
..... '
"t:S
11
'J004
n 'FIGURE
II
tI.()
200
".
t
,
.. '
I
, !
,
. 11
i
I.! ' " , "
6
8 10 12 14 16 18 20
LENGTH
3.9  GRAPHICAL INTEGRATION
343
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
The next step is to locate a "pole.
u
This is accomplished by dividing any ordinate
of the first integral curve by the corresponding ordinate of the y=f(x) curve. For
the case in Figure 3.9, select the first integral ordinate of 120. The correspond
ing y=f(x) ordinate is 12. The pole distance from the origin is then 120/12=10.
Now it is necessary to determine from which side the integration is to be made. It
is customary to integrate from the left but integration from either side is possible.
If from the left, draw a vertical line at x=lO from the origin. If from the right,
draw a vertical line at x=IO to the left of the maximum x value of the y=f(x) curve.
In the example the integration is from the left and the pole is located at x=10 from
the origin. .)
The next step is to determine the incremental x, (Ax), to be. used. In the example,
y=f(x) is a straight line throughout, is arbitrarily selected. The smaller
theAx, the smoother the integral curve. can be changed as the integration pro
gresses if more accuracy is needed.
The first step in the integration is to lay from the origin. Locate the
median point on the y=f(x) within this increment. For a straight line, this
will be the midpoint but if the y=f(x) is a curve within then the median
must be estimated,. This is done by assuming a loea tiona Draw a horizontal line
through the point. Check the areas above the horizontal line and below the hori
zontal bounded by y=f(x) within the Ax increment. When these two areas are equal,
the median is the point where the horizontal line crosses the y=f(x) curve.
Project the horizontal line to the vertical pole.
section and the origin of the y=f(x) curve. Mark
the x=l vertical line. Layout another increment
between x=l and x=2. Locate the median as before
the vertical pole. Determine the slope from this
fer this slope to the point previously located at
from x=l to x=2.
Draw a line between this inter
a point where this line crosses
of Ax. This time it will extend
and project a horizontal line to
intersection to the origin. Trans.
x=l. Draw a line with this slope
Continue the above procedure until the limit of the y=f(x) curve has been reached.
The curve formed by the many slopes of the projected lines is the integral curve of
y=f(x). The same procedure can be used to get the second integral by integrating
the ff(x)dx curve.
A baseline for 0 and 9 must be located so that the true deflections and rotations
can be determined. The 6 baseline connects two points of known deflection. In the
example in Figure 3.9, the ends of the beam have zero deflection
t
so the 6 baseline
is located by connecting the two end points of the 6 curve with a straight line.
To locate the baseline for 9, take the ordinate value of the 0 curve at x=L and
divide this value by L. In Figure 3.9, let. 6 =1329 and L =20, then Q
b
1329/20
= 66.45. Draw a horizontal line at 9=66.45. This is the Q baseline. ase
The deflection and rotation at any point on the beam is the vertical distance from
the respective curve to the baseline
. 344
/)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
3.8 CONVERSION FACTORS
Table 3.10 shows conversion factors for most technical units. Equations for con
verting from one unit of temperature to the other are shown below:
R=l.8 C+49l .. 69
R=oF+459.69
K=5/9(oR491 .. 69)+273.16
K=5 /9,( F_ 32 )+2 73.16
K=oC+273.16
C=5/9(oR49l.69)
C=5/9(oF32)
C=oK273.16
F=1.8 C+32
F=oR459.69
3.9 THE INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM OF UNITS (SI)
3.30
3.31
3.32
3.33
3.34
3.35
3.36
3.31
3.38
3.39
3.40
3.41
The purpose of this section is to acquaint the engineer with the inevitable, the
Metric System. The International System of Units, or Systeme Internationale (S1),
is sometimes referred to, in less precise terms, as the MeterKilogramSecondAmpere
(MKSA) system. The SI should be considered as the definitive metric system, since
it is much broader in scope and purpose than any previous system.
3 .. 9.1 Basic SI Units
The following are the basic units for the SI:
meter, m
kilogram, kg
second, s
ampere, A
degree Kelvin, oK
candela, cd
In addition, the amount of a substance is treated as a basic quantity" The basic
unit is the mole, symbol: mol. The mole (mol), a unit of quantity in chemistry,
is defined as the amount of a substance in grams (gram mole, gram molecular weight;
pound mole, pound molecular weight) which corresponds to the sum of the atomic
weights of all the atoms constituting the molecule.
3.9.2 Symbols and Notation
When using the 51, the following rules apply:
345
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
TO CONVERT
acres
acres
atmospheres
atmospheres
atmospheres
Btu
Btu
Btu
centimeters
centimeters
centimeters
centimetergrams
centimetergrams
cen time ter grams
centimeters/sec
centimeters/sec
centimeters/sec
centimeters/sec
centimeters/sec
centimeters/sec
centimeters/sec/sec
centimeters/sec/sec
centimeters/sec/sec
centimeters/sec/sec
coulombs
cQu1ombs/sq/in
cubic centimeters
cubic centimeters
cubic feet
cubic feet
cubic feet
cubic inches
cubic inches
cubic inches
cubic meters
cubic meters
cubic meters
cubic meters
cubic meters
degrees (angle)
degrees/sec
drams (u.s., fluid or
apoth. )
drams
drams
drams
346
INTO
sq. feet
sq. meters
kgs/sq. em
pounds/sq. in.
newton/sq. meter
foot1bs
joules
ki1owatthrs
feet
inches
meters
emdynes
meterkgs
poundfeet
feet/min
feet/sec
kilometers/hr
knots
meters/min
mi1es/hr
feet/sec/sec
kms/hr/sec
meters/sec/sec
miles/hr/sec
faradays
coulombs/sq. meter
ell. inches
liters
ell. meters
gallons (U.S. liq.)
liters
ell. meters
liters
quarts (U.S. liq.)
ell. feet
cu. inches
cu. yards
gallons (U.S. 1iq.)
liters
radians
revolutions/min
cubic em.
grams
grains
ounces
TABLE 3.10  CONVERSION FACTORS
MULTIPLY BY
43,560.0
4,047.0
1.0333
14.70
1.013 x 10
5
778.3
1,054.8
2.928 x 10
4
3.281 x 10
2
0.3937
0.01
980.7
105
7.233 x 10
5
1.1969
0.03281
0.036
0.1943
0.6
0.02237
0.03281
0.036
0.01
0.02237
1.036 x 10
5
1.,550.
0.06102
0.001
0.02832
7.48052
28.32
0.01639
0.01732
35.31
61,023.0
1.308
264.2
1,000.0
0.01745
0.1667
3.6967
1.7718
27.3437
0.0625
)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
TO CONVERT
feet
feet of water
feet of water
feet of water
feet of water
feet of water
feet/min
feet/min
feet/min
feet/sec
feet/sec
feet/sec
feet/sec
footpounds
footpounds
footpounds
footpounds
footpounds
footpounds
footpounds
footpounds/min
footpounds/sec
footpounds/sec
footpounds/sec
gallons
gallons
gallons
gallons
gallons (liq. Br. Imp.)
gallons (U.S.)
gallons of water
gallons/min
gallons/rnin
grains (troy)
grains (troy)
grams
grams
grams
grams
grams
grams
grams/cu. em.
grams/cu. em.
grams/liter
grams/liter
grams/liter
grams/sq. em.
INTO
meters
atmospheres
in. of mercury
kgs/ sq/r:n.e ter
pounds/sq. ft
pounds/sq. in.
ems/sec
kms/hr
miles/hr
ems/sec
kms/hr
knots
mi1es/hr
Btu
gramcalories
joules
kgcalories
kgmeters
ki1owatthrs
newtonmeters
horsepower
Btu/hr
horsepower
kilowatts
cu. ems.
cu. feet
cu. inches
liters
gallons (U.S. liq.)
gallons (Imp.)
pounds of water
cu. ft/sec
liters/sec
grains (avdp)
grams
dynes
grains
joules/meter (newtons)
ounces (avdp)
ounces (troy)
poundals
pounds/cu. ft.
pounds/cu. in.
grains/gal
pounds/l,OOO gal
pounds/cu. ft.
pounds/sq. ft.
TABLE 3.10 (CONTD)  CONVERSION FACTORS
MULTIPLY BY
0.3048
0.02950
0.8826
304.8
62.43
0.4335
0.5080
0.01829
0.01136
30.48
1. 9 7 ~
0.5921
0.6818
1.286 x 103
0.3238
1.356
3.24 x 10
4
0.1383
3.766 x 107
1.356
3.030 x 105
4.6263
1.818 x 103
1.356 x 103
3,785.0
0.1337
231.0
3.785
1.20095
0.83267
8.3453
2.228 x 10
3
0.06308
1.0
0.06480
980.7
15.43
9.807 x 10
3
0.03527
0.03215
0.07093
62.43
0.03613
58.417
8.345
0.062427
2.0481
347
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
r ~ ~
TO CONVERT
horsepower
horsepower
horsepower
horsepower (550 ft Ib/sec)
horsepower
horsepower
horsepowerhrs
horsepowerhrs
inches
inches of mercury
inches of mercury
inches of mercury
inches of mercury
inches of mercury
inches of water (at 4C)
inches of water (at 4C)
inchpounds
joules
joules/em
joules/em
kilograms
kilograms
kilograms/cu. meter
kilograms/meter
ki lograms/ sq . ' cm .
kilograms/sq. em.
kilogramcalories
kilogramcalories
kilogramcalories
kilogram meters
kilometers
kilometers
ki1ometers/hr
kilometers/hr
ki1ometers/hr
kilometers/hr
kilometers/hr
kilowatts
kilowatts
kilowatts
kilowatthrs
kip
kips/sq. in.
knots
knots
knots
INTO
Btu/min
foot1bs/min
foot1bs/sec
horsepower(metrie) (542.5
kilowatts
watts
Btu
foot1bs
eentimeters
atmospheres
feet of water
kgs/sq. meter
pounds/sq. ft.
pounds/sq.. in.
inches of mercury
pounds/sq. ft.
newtonmeters
kgmeters
poundals
pounds
poundals
pounds
pounds/cu. ft.
pounds/ft.
atmospheres
pounds/sq. in.
Btu
foot ... pounds
kgmeters
footpounds
feet
miles
ems/sec
feet/min
feet/sec
knots
meters/min
BtO/min
footlbs/sec
horsepower
Btu
MULTIPLY BY
42 .. 44
33,000.
550.0
ft 1b/sec) 1.014
0.7457
745.7
2,547.
1.98 x 10
4
2.540
0.03342
1.133
345.3
70.73
0.4912
0.07355
5.204
0.11298
O. 1020
723.3
22.48
70.93
2.205
0.06243
0.6720
0.9678
14.22
3.968
3,088.
426.9
7.233
3,281.
0.6214
27.78
54.68
0.9113
0.5396
16.67
56.92
737.6
1.341

)
)
knots
knots
kilonewton
megapascals
ki1ometers/hr
nautical mi1es/hr
statute mi1es/hr
feet/sec
meters/sec
3,413.
4.4482
6.8948
1.8532
1.0
1.151
1.689
0.5148
1 ~ ~
TABLE 3.10 (CONT'D)  CONVERSION FACTORS
348
~
~ u
....... 1C1iOfIt"'f ...
TO CONVERT
liters
liters
liters
liters
Megapasca1
Megapascal
)
meters
meters
meters/min
meters/min
meters/min
meters/min
meters/sec
meters/sec
meters/sec
meters/sec
meterkilograms
miles (naut. )
miles (naut. )
miles (naut. )
miles ( statute)
miles ( statute)
miles ( statute)
miles/hr
miles/hr
mi1es/hr
millimeters
mils
Newton
Newton
Newtonmeter
Newton/sq. rmn
)
ounces
ounces
ounces
poundals
poundals
pounds
pounds
pounds
pounds
pounds
pounds
pounds
~
pounds of water
pounds of water
poundfeet
poundfeet
pounds/cu. ft.
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Cll. em.
Cll. feet
cu. inches
INTO
quarts (U.S. liq.)
pounds/sq. in.
newton/sq .. rmn
feet
inches
cms/sec
feet/sec
knots
mi1es/hr
feet/min
.kilometers/hr
miles/hr
miles/min
poundfeet
feet
kilometers
miles (statute)
feet
kilometers
mi 1 es (nau t .. )
feet/sec
knots
meters/sec
inches
inches
pounds
Dynes
inchpound
Megapascal
grains
grams
ounces (troy)
grams
pounds
grams
kilograms
newtons
ounces
ounces (troy)
poundals
pounds (troy)
cu. feet
gallons
emgrams
meterkgs
kgs/cu. meter
TABLE 3.l0(CONT
t
D)  CONVERSION FACTORS
MULTIPLY BY
1,000.0
0.03531
61.02
1.057
145.039
1.0
3.281
39.37
1.667
0.05468
0.03238
0.03728
196.8
3.6
2.237
0 .. 03728
7.233
6,080.27
1.853
1.1516
5,280.
1.609
0.8684
1.467
0.8684
0.4470
0.03937
0.001
0.22481
1 x 10
5
8.8507
1.0
437.5
28.3495
0.9115
14.10
0.03108
453.5924
0.4536
4.4482
16.0
14.5833
32.17
1.21528
0.01602
0.1198
13,825.
0.1383
16.02
349
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL

TO CONVERT INTO MULTIPLY BY
pounds/cu. n ~ kgs/cu. meter 2.768 x 10
4
pounds/ft kgs/meter 1.488
pounds/in. gms/cm
178.6
pounds/sq. in. atmospheres
0.06804
pounds/sq. in. feet of water
2.307
pounds/sq. in. inches of mercury 2.036
pounds/sq. in. kgs/sq. meter
703.1
pounds/sq. in. megapascals 6.8948 x 103
)
quadrants (angle) degrees
90.0
quadrants (angle) radians
1.571
radians degrees
57.30
radians quadrants
0.6366
radians/sec. revolutions/min
9.549
radians/sec. revolutions/sec
0.1592
revolutions radians
6.283
revolutions/min degrees/sec 6.0
revolutions/min radians/sec
0.1047
slug kilogram 14.5939
slug pounds 32.17
square centimeters sq. inches 0.1550
square feet sq. meters 0.09290
.
square inches sq. ems. 6.452
square kilometers sq. miles
0.3861
square meters sq. feet
10.76
square millimeters sq. inches
1.550 x 10
3
temperature (OC) +
273 absolute temperature
(oC)
1.0
(oC)
 0
temperature
+
17.78 temperature ( F) 1.8
temperature
(OF)
+
460 absolute temperature
(OF)
1.0
temperature (OF)

32 temperature (OC)
5/9
tons (long) kilograms 1,016.
tons (long) pounds 2,240.
tons (long) tons (short) 1.120
tons (metric) kilograms 1,000.
tons (metric) pounds 2,205.
')
tons ( short) pounds 2,000.
/
tons ( short) pounds (troy) 2,430.56
watts Btu/hI' 3.4192
TABLE 3.10 (CONT'D)  CONVERSION FACTORS
350
)
DESIGN MANUAL
(1) Symbols for units of physical quantities shall be printed in Roman upright
type.
(2) Symbols for units shall not contain a period and shall remain singular; e.g.,
7em, not 7ems.
(3) Symbols for units shall be printed in lower case Roman upright type. How
ever, the symbol for a unit derived from a proper name shall start with a
capital Roman letter; e.g.: m (meter); A (ampere); Wb (weber); Hz (hertz).
(4) The following prefixes shall be used to indicate decimal fractions or multi
ples of a unit.
Prefix Equiv. Symbol
deci
(10
1
)
d
centi
(10
2
)
c
milli
(10
3
) m
micro
(10
6
)
Jl
nano
(10
9
) n
picD
(10
12
)
p
femto
(10
15
) f
atto
(10
18
)
a
deka (10
1
) da
hecto (10
2
) h
kilo (10
3
) k
mega (10
6
) M
giga (10
9
) G
tera (10
12
) T
(5) The use of double prefixes shall be avoided when single prefixes are avail
able.
(6) When a prefix symbol is placed before a unit symbol, the combination shall
be considered as a new symbol. A prefix shall never be used before
a unit
2
symbol which is 2quared, thus cm is never written, nor is it written
O.Ol(m ) but as (O.Olm)
(7) The following are SI units for various commonly used factors.
351
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
acceleration
area
density
energy
energy/area time
force
length
mass
power
pressure
speed
time
viscosity
volume
SI Unit
meter/second squared
square meter
kilogram/ell meter
joule
watt/sq meter
newton
meter
kilogram
watt
newton/sq meter
meter/second
second (mean solar)
newton second/sq meter
cu meter
Symbol
m/s2
2
m
kg/m
3
J N ~ M
W/m2
N= kgrnls
2
m
kg
W==J/s
N/m
2
m/s
s
2
Ns/m
3
m
Table 3.10 shows the alphabetical listing of conversions from the English system to
SI.
3.10 WEIGHTS
3.11 SHEAR CENTERS
The shear center is defined as the point on the crosssection of a beam through
which the transverse load on the beam must pass in order that no rotation of the
beam will occur. A pure twist with no moment produces no deflection at the shear
center, only rotation.
In the case of a beam of variable crosssection, the shear center may be determined
for each section, but these points will not connect to form a straight axis. For
instance, a cantilever beam of nonuniformly varying crosssection may have a load
so placed on the end that the end section will not rotate, but all other sections
of the beam may rotate. The axis formed by connecting all of the shear centers is
called the axis of rotation or the elastic axis.
For any doubly symmetrical section or a section with point symmetry, as a zee, the
shear center is at the center of gravity.
352
)
)
STRUCTURAL O'ESIGN MANUAL
For any singly symmetrical section, the shear center is somewhere on the of
For any section made up of two intersecting plates, for example an angle or a tee,
the shear center is at the point of intersection of the plates.
3.ll.1 Shear Centers of Open Sections
The coordinates of the shear center position for the general case of an open section
,are defined by equation 3.42 and 3.43 as shown in Figure 3.10.
y
t
.1
,)
FIGURE 3.10 SHEAR CENTER OF OPEN SECTIONS
L L
1 3.42
fly 1 Ws ytds  Ixy I Ws xtdsJ
Xo
IX1y( Ixy) 2
0 0
L L
1
[ Ix 1 Ws xtds + Ixy j Ws ytds J
v =
Ix1y (Ixy) 2
.0
o 0
s
Ws 1 rds;
o
The double area swept by the radius vector when the distance along
the midline increases from s=O to s. Ws is taken as positive when
,the area is swept in a counterclockwise direction.
Coordinates of the shear center with respect to the axis through
the section centroid.
353
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
IX' Iytl
xy
; Inertias of the section.
L; The limit of s or the developed length of the cross section.
r; Radius vector measured from the section centroid to median line
of the cross section.
s; Circumferential distance measured along the median line of the
section.
t; Thickness.
If x and yare the principal axes of the section, Ixy=O and equations 3.42 and 1.41
become:
L
xo=l / Ix 1 Wsytds 3.44
Yo=l/Iy r wsxtds 3.45
c;)
Examples of the previous procedure are shown in Figures 3.11 and 3.12. Table 3.11
and Figures 3.13 through 3.17 give shear center locations for some common sections.
354
)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
3.11.1.1 Example of Shear Center Location for Hat Section
2.0
a... 1.169 ..... .. o.625Yl
t I
t
I
0.1875
0.6
till HAT SECTION
(c) PLOT OF a w.
s
. 0.4 Q=f:B __ ...:.Ir=.2'.........
r I I' iii
0.1
0.2
f w.lds :
I I
: I
I
I
t
I
I
(b 1 OOUBLE swp r AREAS
(en PLOT OF Iw.d
. 2
A = 0.1835 In ..
4
Ix = 0.0345 In.
4
I = 0.0894 In.
y

y = 0.447 ill.
t
2
3
4
5
FIGURE 3.11  EXAMPLE OF SHEAR CENTER LOCATION
Double Swept w
Area
8
0 0
0.212 0.212
0.523
0.710
+0.279 0.461
+0.234 0.227
..
FOR HAT SECTION
The section has one axis of symmetry and consequently the shear center will be'on
this axis. The plot in (c) above shows the variation of Ws and x along the devel
oped length of the hat section. Due to symmetry only one half of the cross sec
tion is considered. The result will be mUltiplied by two. The expression wsx is
shown in (d) and area under this curve is Then
L .
Y
I = f wsxtds == 2(O.698){.040) == 0.0558
o y
o
.0558/.0894 .624
355
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
. Example of Shear Center Location for Open Shell
I
I.e.
te)
SECTION PROPER11U DEAR CUITER
..
:t
,
(I)
A .. CT)t nili'll)
An
'It Ar Allry"
II
",sA
(3,_(t)
(l).(4) '.}a(S)
Qi)C5){'l)
1 U U 281 122 .Sf;
1 t4
.,
9. 122
26'
S .1 t lSI 48
".&1
2 .'1$1 +1.5 ...130
I)
O II I 0
I'"
0
.LST +41' 1.1I 114
I) 0'
.,
0
,.
0
+1.8'
.17. $..5
S S
,
.1 II .8
2''50 .... 51 5.5 1410
,
.. .. 0 0 ... 0 0
If.c.o ltO.O$ 7. 2S50 2.5 800
a 12
,..
0 0 1M 0 0
3&.80 1116.85 10.33 M30 .1.5 d95
Z .... to IO . U n1{) .... lI .teU
I 12 6.5 .. 10.33 124 II 1910 T88
1: 12 1H80 801
FIGURE 3.12  SHEAR CENTER LOCATION FOR UNSYMMETRICAL OPEN SKINSTIFFENED SHELL
In this example, the method is applied to an unsymmetrical open section composed of
stiffeners. The dimensions of the crosssection are indicated in (a) above. The
numerals within the squares indicate the crosssectional areas of the stiffeners.
The skin has been assumed to be ineffective in bending for the subject problem.
The sketch in (b) above shows the double areas swept by a radius vector as it moves
counterclockwise from element to element.
Due to the introduction of the $tiffener areas, Equations 3.44 and 3.45 have to be
modified. For this case, tds is replaced by A, the stiffener area.
n
y
x =
124
66
12
10.33
5.5
I 606  12(5.5)2 = 243
Y
I 1960  12(10.33)2 = 680
x
)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revis:lon B
TABLE 3.11  LOCATION OF SHEAR CENTER
FORM OF SECTION
1. Triangle
2. Sector of thin
circular tube
3. Semicircular area
Ii}
4.
6. I Section
1
7. Tee Section
It tt21
. I I
hi.. L
Th2
LOCATION OF SHEAR CENTER, Q, FOR SECTIONS
HAVING ONE AXIS OF SYMMETRY
e = 0.47 a
for narrow triangle 12) approx.
e =
e =
( 7r 0) 2! 0 r (7r J
Sin Cos
<_8_ 3 + 4JL)R
1511' 1 +jL
Q is to right of centroid
II = moment of inertia of leg 1 about Yl (central axis)
12 = moment of inertia of leg 2 about Y2 (central axis)
 I Leg 1 = tl hi Leg 2 = t2h2
e l)
Y . 1 II + 12 (for ex use Xl and X
2
central axes)
If tl & t2 are =0 (practically) and Q is at 0
H where H = product of inertia of the half
e = xy section (above x) wi th respect
I
x to axes X and Y; and I = moment
x
of inertia of Whole section with
respect to axis x.
If t r t
1
, e
12
e = b(I + I ) where
1 2
II and 1
2
, respectively, denote moments of
inertia about Xaxis of flange 1 and flange 2
For a T  beam of ordinary proportions,
Q may be assumed to be at 0
357
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
TABLE 3.11 (CONT'D)  LOCATION OF SHEAR CENTER
8. I with unequal legs
tblte'" b +1...1..
r[.t
h t W
t  =:.
  t
.,.
9. Right angle
with lips.
n 45
j.e gOO
10. Sector of arc
e = 3 [b
2
 b
1
2
j
(w/t}h + 6(h + hI)
(3b  2b
l
)
e 
 J2 r 2b
3
 (b  h
l
)3J
e =
2 
 Sin g Cos Q
when Q = (semicircle)
4R
e =
.,I,,'Y. _ . ~
.Ll  '. _\ _\,
, , ~ .. STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
"1
(.)1'= .
)
N
:
FIGURE 3.13  SHEAR CENTER OF A LIPPED CHANNEL SECTION
359
W
I
'" o
11
C)
c::
t'!1
. 5
I'
.,. U
ffilHm1 .1 .,
CI'l '
::I::
i:'E:1 '" 'T 'lll'li'LJ..I" I' rl It '. I'll 'I I':!'P'!f""Hflllll'II'" "H' ,HIIl'rl f'\' CI)
4 X r
d
1 : l rrw !:Ir ,In,li:' .. 'lltr
t
1 n ,lJitrut+ rH tm d .....
C'") rt:'i t"'i!iiJ j'I..;,,jLH':! "11+ H 'f.U:J' J:ti 'I rI" ,;, 'IT#' '1' , I H1'n'r 1 Viii"Il I'  jfi;r
t:T:1 TfV '!t','Hi':t. 'I  f+=l T'.... '.:  " I,I h ' :j .. ;,. h ". f E  t :, Ir ,ft' .. P' 'Ii ....
Z H ... f q.,{, i, " ri ,+. , . .....t 11 'I' i.J... I "I t ,,,,.,,,
t3 ',' .r fU' :tU:1 t+ d.,... i.' U. H Itt : R.' . : I. ::1: , ',V', I iJi 1 T:. + ITt If.f.+, .  _,:' :,' tJ1 t ,'. c::
t:T:1 li.trJ.!t' . t .IIr. I.L" ,"" .il ,t' 1 li!'f .. , ..
:::0 ftHiLt' . U , 'i/" , . . , .... ,.
o H ' J [. .. rtft t:.[ f .; 'L;' ,tt , J0 il :J: . , Ht t .. . C')
: 3 i: 1 H . AfHHikll , HtH t'n;
'
1 1 1"lfifftfi It. iR
1
,Jf' 1.0 4
., .: 1 ... ". ','   I ; t H' . :' i ! t H'! IT" !' r tl t VtJ
r; rldlliH fi ill!! ii ill lill .. ' . :!I til ii! 1 It "ll ilf.! t litH Ip I tWill ,illl i! IiliJ .9L' c:
t3 xl..c: i,l,lliHI lJ! i IllIll! I'll j1 ! : j Ii :1 11v. 1 nm \1111 I t mt i mttl!tt :a
Ii! i i mhl, : [1 I111 J.j.} itt llI!i Ihi ,rr Ii : L lWitt H. II j( I! I if it Tldi I dll,
en .. L.. ," . ,. f , t I T( '1 ! t Mlttfl' I q ;. 1 :r
;j .2,.;q 1:11 HII 1. I lid I I,ll : II I! III II II !I :.I! litt'jl !jr I IIIi!d'l II! " "jll q I I'mIII'. I li11 i'11 r
o
z " ... _ ._..... , . . . .. ,' ... ,. ...... , ... .n , ,w , , , , " ,. , , , , , , J' , , , , , , , , , . , , , , , ,_. , , , . , , , .. , , . , , ,. "

,.,
en
I IJ: II! rpl\lri 1U4
l
jp III II III! I !llH HllHii I
L j i " lJ i " L. .. ,lI .. I j ;: iLl J j" !.! I 1 I I Yo If, I... '" .,', , ..,', I" ,
z
i:
:r
.. I .2 .3 c
4
.5.6 I Z
h c:::

".
:r
r
(".)
0'<
I'
"rJ
H
c;')
c::
I;'%j
W
.
......
LI1
Cfl
:c
I;'%j
n
Z
13
t:r:I
"'.'j
0
JC 10
>
H
S;
C":l
c::
I:""
Cf)
ttl
(')
13
H
0
Z
@
'",,,I
o,er" '.If:.I'; .. "'1 "j 1 .... .. i,._ ., ,. ! I Il'ilfllITITt r:r'll I' 1 '11 I H" TIIT' .7;r:;:.!t .... :t{nn,:1 I"" , , ,I IJ11. 11 I ill L " ..  , .. ! .. ' I I I . . . I !'I tW
1
I" . I .  If' 1. .. 1 .. I'; If, If'
":I!'\'" 1111' 'T' . "J I' I. , ,I' il' . '''t I II: 1 if I 't .. if. '1: ., t 'I"" ,"
:::. <,' '",ld1f{{. Hi;:. >: ... t '+H1 .. '.1 .. ,' .,:i :.. '.' .r .. }:! . ; _ ..
, .. . I", t, j J.  . I" Ii' ,I, I ,. " .. I ..  I, I . . I , t ... .:! .. .  .... i !
,:iA
j
1.
t
i
jj
J. !fll!, ...'!'lj+ ,rH.1iH,.I:I'ldl If i'i I:I! 'I'  T' !II,t .'1::4: ,:Ut tl
,I I <' ''1'!' !h!! '; r; I I: I I j' ! H} L 4. tlllll, I .. !:;:t. 1,t::j.. rt . ..,
/', i _
I(i. !
'
"'.
:
CI)
.....
::.u
c:
c)
......
=
::.u
:a:
S
CI
rn
CI)

C)
z:
=r::
:a:
z
c:
:a:
r
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
.8
1
')
.1
o
o 40 80 160 200
a . DEGREES
FIGURE 3.16  SHEAR CENTER OF CIRCULAR ARC SECTION
362
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL

)
  ~  ~ ~ ~ ~ +  i ~ 9t
ts
0.5
~
3.0
5 6 7
FIGURE 3.17  SHEAR CENTER OF DSECTIONS
363
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
I = 788  12{5.5XIO.33) = 106
xy
Revision C
Using Equations 3.44 and 3.45 the following shear center location is determined:
1
xo = 1 I (1 )2
x y xy
[
1 1: (w yA )  I k( w xA ) I
y s n xy s n
Xo = = 9.60
1
Yo = 1 1 (1 )2
x y xY
1
... 1 l:(wxA)+I (WYA)l
x s n xy s n
Yo = [(680)(908) + (106)(6460) I = ... 0.45
3.11.1.3 Shear Center of an Open Cell Box Beam
The shear center of an open cell box beam such as the one shown in Figure 3.18 is
found by determining the internal loads
r 7.5 i
1.5 I .5
T
b a,b g'
10 I
1 . $C!g ____ L
L c . f 3.333
5 ! 4:' 5
Ix = 100 i4t4
Iy = 178.13 ",,4
EA= 4.5".'1.
FIGURE 3.18 OPEN SINGLE CELL BOX BEAM
distribution for an arbitrary applied load first vertically and then horizontally
and then equating the internal moments to the external. The shear center is the
point at which the load is placed to create zero inplane moment or zero rotation.
It is assumed that the beam is composed of axial members capable of carrying ten
sion and compression loads and thin skins capable of shear only. The beam can be
any length wi th the members changing area and thickness. Figure 3.19 shows a tYri
cal cross section with a load of 100 lbs. applied. The axial stress per inch of
span is calculated using:
3 .. 64
)
where
Vv
f = ..:.L.
I
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
v = arbitrary applied load
y = distance from centroid to axial member
I = moment of inertia resisting the bending created by V
3.46
The axial load is then obtained by multiplying equation 3.46 by the axial area.
Figure 3.19 shows the distribution of axial loads for the 100 lb. shear. The loads
are calculated as follows:
3.333 1.667 1.667 3.333
FIGURE 3.19 AXIAL LOADS DISTRIBUTION
P
a
= Ph =
=
... 100(6.667)(.25)
1.667 lb/in
Ix
100
Ph = P
g
=
100(6.667)(.5)
=
3.333 1b/in
Ix
100
Pc =
Pf =
=
100(3.333)(1.0)
= 3.333 lb/in
Ix
100
Pd = Pe =
V:tdAd
=
100(3.33)(.5)
= 1.667 1b/in
Ix 100
The shear flow distribution is determined from the axial loads by
q = t1PIL 3.47
where
= the change in axial load
L the length over which 6P occurs
365
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Beginning at point nau and summing forces to put each element in static equilibrium:
qab = PaIL = 1.667/1.0 = 1.667 1b/in.
qbc = Pb/L + qab = 3.333/1.0  1.667 = 5.0 1b/in.
3.333/1.0 5.0 = 1.667 1b/in.
qde = Pd/L + qcd = 1.667/1.0  1.667 = 0
This procedure is completed around the cell until the internal loads as shown in
Figure 3.20 are all calculated.
3.333 1.667
1.667 3.333
5.0 I
J 5.0 r
FIGURE 3.20 INTERNAL LOADS DISTRIBUTION
The sign of the shear flows is determined by their direction on the forward face of
the cup.
If q is clockwise, it is positive.
The next step is to check the internal balance by and If these sum
to zero, proceed. If they do not sum to zero, there is an error and it must be
found before proceeding.
Sum moments about any point. The lower LH corner is convenient.
366
!;M 0
c
!;M = 100e10(5)(1.667)+10(5)(1.667)+15(5)(10)
c
= 100e+750= 0
e 7.5
o
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
The horizontal location of the shear center is then 7.5 inches to the right of point
c. This is an axis of symmetry and the previous calculations could have been avoided
by recognizing the axis of symmetry. They were shown to demonstrate the method.
The vertical location of the shear center is calculated in the same manner. A hori
zontal load is applied and the shear flows are determined. Figure 3.21 shows the
shear flow distribution for the horizontally applied 100 lbs. The load must he
., .
.351 .351
.::....
J
b

Ii
a
It)
:t1
It)
...... 100
c
.2
.......:............
6.667 7.368 6.667
FIGURE 3.21 SHEAR FLOW DISTRIBUTION FOR HORIZONTAL LOAD
.... ) applied so that no rotation occurs.
= 0 = IOOe+IO(5)(.351)+lO(5)(.351)+l5(lO)(2.456)
C IOOe = 403.49
e = 4.035
The shear center is located as shown in Figure 3.22

I

b a
h
g
I
)
I
I
I
c
!!
e

I

I
I
s.c.
FIGURE 3.22 SHEAR CENTER LOCATION
367
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
3.11.2 Shear Center of Closed Cells
Figure 3.23 shows a typical closed cell. It is the same as the Fig.3.18 example
except the cell is closed. The first step is to assume that one web is cut. Web
Tb
10
t = .05 canst ..
__ __ __
FIGURE 3.23 CLOSED SINGLE CELL BOX BEAM
ah will be cut since much of the previous solution can be used. The horizontal
position of the shear center lies on the axis of symmetry. If no axis of symmetry
existed, the procedure would be the same as for the forthcoming analysis.
with web ah cut, the resisting shear flow distribution for a horizontal load is
shown in Figure 3.21. The web is then assumed to be closed and a constant shear
flow of qo is applied arbitrarily in the counter clockwise direction. The shear
flow at any point in the cell is then defined as:
q = qo + q' 3.48
qo = the balancing shear flow
q' = the shear flow with one web cut
The shear frow qo is that which will make the angle of twist, 9, equal zero. The
twist is:
9 
 L 2AtG
o
L = 1 inch and 2AG is constant for all webs and may be taken outside the
summation and then cancelled. Equation 3.49 becomes:
3.49
3.50
Substituting equation 3.48 into equation 3.50 and taking qo outside the summation
sign because it is constant for all webs, the following equation is obtained:
3.51
e)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
The numerical solution can be put into table form as shown in Table 3.12.
Web ~ s ~ s t q' ql s t 2A
(1) (2)
ab 5 100 .351 35.1 50
bc 10 200 2.456 491.2 a
cd 5 100 6.667 666.7 0
de 5 100 7.368 736.8 0
ef 5 100 6.667 666.7 0
fg 10 200 2.456 491.2 150
gh 5 100 .351 35.1 50
ha 5 100 0
0
50
Total

1000  3122.8 300
(1) Figure 3.21
(2) Figure 3.24
TABLE 3.12  NUMERICAL SOLUTION FOR SINGLE CELL
CLOSED BOX
Substituting values from Table 3.15 into equation 3.51
1000q + 3122.8 = a
o
qo = 3.123 lbs/in
The moment about any point can be obtained from the relation
T = l:2Aq
Substituting equation 3.48 into 3.52 yields
2Aql
17.55
0
0
0
0
368.4
17.55
a
403.5
3.52
3.53
where A is the area enclosed by a web and the lines joining the end points of the
web and the center of moments as shown in Figure 3.24.
369
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
c d q;""" e "liT" f
FIGURE 3.24 ENCLOSED AREA DEFINITIONS
The values from Table 3.12 can be substituted into equation 3.53 with moments
being taken about point c.
lOOe+300Qo+403.5 0
lOOe+300(3.123)+403.5 = 0
lOOe = 533.4
e  5.334
The shear center is 5.334 inches above point c on the vertical axis of symmetry.
3.12 STRAIN GAGES
A strain gage is a small device which is attached to a structure to measure the
strain. They are usually attached to test articles but in some cases they are
permanent fixtures on operational aircraft.
A strain gage measures the change in length of the structure over the length of the
gage. The gage itself changes length along with the structure and the electrical
resistivity of the gage changes. This resistance change is measured and by proper
calibration the resistance can be related to strain in the structure.
The strain gages most commonly used are (1) the wire gage, (2) the foil gage and )
(3) the weldable gage.
3.12.1 The Wire Strain Gage
The wire gage as shown in Figure 3.25 is made of a grid of very fine wires. The
wires are usually made of coppernickel alloy and bonded to a lacquered paper base
which is subjected to a slight initial tension. The paper base is bonded to the
specimen. A felt cover is placed over the grid in the longer size gages for pro
tection. The felt cover also helps to minimize temperature changes. This type
of gage is called a ItDueo" gage and is the least expensive and most convenient gage
to use.
370
.)
)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
.  ' ~
,
GRID OF VERY

(
FINE WIRE
)
ABOUT .. 001 DIA.
(
"
r
1
/
16
1
HEAVIER WIRE
to 1 ~  
FIGURE 3.25 WIRE STRAIN GAGE
Another type of wire strain gage has the wire grid molded in a thermosetting phenol
resin. It is called a "bakelite" gage and the molding process makes this type of
gage much more time consuming. Bakelite gages are useful though, when temperatures
are between 150F and 450F and when humidity presents stability problems to Duco
gages. Otherwise the Duco gage is sufficient.
3.12.2 The Foil Strain Gage
The foil strain gage is shown in Figure 3.26. It is etched from a foil sheet. The
width of the element is increased at the end of the loops to reduce the effect of
the transversely oriented parts of the conductors. The gage is mounted in a thin
cement which is applied to the specimen. Adhesives are available which permit the
use of the gage up to 700F. Gage lengths are available from 1/64 inch. These
gages are easy to mount, inexpensive and very accurate.
THIN LACQUER
r.=======::::!.J ....... f FOIL
LEAD
FIGURE 3.26 FOIL STRAIN GAGE
3.12.3 The Weldable Strain Gage
The weldable strain gage is a length of fine wire surrounded by high temperature
insulation encased in a flanged metal tube. It can be spot welded to a test speci
men in less time than any of the other gages can be installed. It can be located
371
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
on a curved surface. Very small gage lengths are available and they can be used in
static tests up to 850F and dynamic tests up to 1600
0
F.
3.12.4 The Strain Gage Rosette
When the direction of the principal strain is known, it is usually sufficient to
mount a single gage along the axis of the strain. If the direction of the principal
strain is unknown or if it is not axial, it is necessary to make several measure
ments along different axes or to use a Urosettelt consisting of three strain gages
on the same paper or bakelite backing. A 45
0
rosette is shown in Figure 3.27. In
this rosette, three gages are mounted with their axes intersecting at a common
FIGURE 3.27 45
0
STRAIN GAGE ROSETTE
centerpolnt and are 45
0
apart. Each gage is electrically insulated so that the
effect is that of three separate gages.
When the direction of the'principal stresses are known, a "Visette" which is shown
o
in Figure 3.28, is used. It consists of two gages mounted 90 apart on a single
mount.
+
FIGURE 3.28 90
0
STRAIN GAGE ROSETTE (VISETTE)
'#
372
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
When the direction of the principal strain is unknown, the delta rosette can be
used. It is shown in Table 3.13. It has the maximum possible angle between gage
axes. The angles are 0, 60 and 120 degrees.
A Tdelta rosette, shown in Table 3.13, is identical to a delta rosette except that
a fourth gage is mounted at right angles on top of the other gages. This fourth
gage is used as a check.
j 3.12.5 Strain Gage Temperature Compensation
)
Two methods are available for eliminating the strain due to thermal expansion; the
dummy gage and the self compensating gage.
The dummy gage consists of a gage mounted on a separate bar and a gage mounted on
the specimen. The separate bar is made of the same material as the specimen. The
two gages are connected to the readout equipment in such a way that equal resistance
changes in the two gages will cancel. If the gages are identical and the bar is
subject to the same temperature conditions as the test specimen, the temperature
effects will cancel and the readout will be in terms of actual mechanical strain
in the test specimen.
The self compensating gage is made in such a way that they are uneffected by thermal
strain. This gage is expensive and each gage is limited to one temperature range
and one material. Its advantage is simplicity.
3.12.6 Stress Determination From Strain Measurements
The purpose of strain measurements is to obtain stress levels in a structure. If
the directions of the principal stresses are known, only two strain measurements are
required. It can be shown by Hooke's law that if the directions are known, the
stresses can be found using the following equations:
0"1
E
(l +JJ2)
=
1 JJ2
3.54
E
(E
2
+JJl)
CT
2
=
l1l
2
3.55
where
p. = Poisson's ratio
0"1
= Principal stress in one direction
0"2
= Principal stress at right angles to CI
1
1
= Strain in the direction of
0"1
2
Strain in the direction of
0"2
E Modulus qf elasticity
373
(...,)
I
.....
.I:'
Rosette
L
a
Types

Required
1 
4
Solution
TwoGage Rectangular Delta T Delta
.
41+
Ejl
+L EtE1+
E
:4
H
3 _1_ 1<.[ E1+q +.....!
Max. Normal
E
2 111 1+ IJ. 3(1f.L) + 1+1' 2 II' 1+J.L
Stress
'(1 + 112)
V<1 "3)2 +! 2E2 (E
1
+ E
3
>1
2
J
Vh \/("1
E
4)2+1(2" (3)2]
(7max 1P.
Min. Normal
.1L[E1 + E3 _
t
E1
+E
2
+? _
1 1<.[1+4 _1
E Stress
2 Ip. 1+[J.
E 3(I#' 1 + IJ 2 11l 1+1l
1J,L
O"min
Y(13)2+[2E
2
("1 +
(1'1
V(E1  (E23)2]
Max. Shearing
I
Stress
E E E
I
E
2 ( 1 + IJ.) (1 2)
2 (1 + W) 1+ ,.,. 2(1+[J.)
T
max
(E1 "3)2+ [2E
2
 (E1 + 3)t
\"1 1+'t 3
1
2
+ (S3t
Vh 14)2+ a?
Angle From
1 It *(12  (23)
Gage 1 Axis
0 ..l.. t an1[2 2 (1+3) ] ..l..tan
1
t
2
(23) ]
To Max ..
tan
2 1 3
2 _ t+ 2+3 2 3(14)
Normal Stress 1 3 _
Axis .. Qo
TABLE 3.13  RELATIONS BETWEEN STRAIN ROSETTE READINGS AND PRINCIPAL STRESSES
'....
. '
/

en
.....
:::a
c
n
c:
::c:I
:D
r
C
...,
en

en
z
31:
:D
Z
c:
:D
r
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
The maximum shearing stress will occur at 45
0
to the principal stresses and is found
as follows:
3.56
If the directions of the principal stresses are unknoWD
t
the problem is more complex.
) The axes of an element are shown in Figure 3.29.
y
====:....x
FIGURE 3.29 STRESSED ELEMENT
. a
The general equation for strain at an angle 9 using the results of a 45 rosette is
_ Ex+y + (EX_Ey) 21'\ +' 'Yxy s1"n2f'lo
EQ  2 2 cos 2
3.57
where
Yxy = the shearing strain
In Figure 3.30 the strain measured along the (A), (B) and (C) axes can be used to
)
2
1
FIGURE 3.30 STRAIN AXES
375
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
calculate the principal stresses which act along axes (1) and (2). When a 45
0
rosette is used, the strain along (B) is measured on an axis at an angle of 45
0
to
the (A) and (C) axes. The angles (AOB) and (BOC) are 45
0
Axis (2) is at an angle
of 90
0
to axis (1). The strains along axes (A), (B) and (C) will have the follow
ing relationships with the (x) and (y) axes of Figure 3.28.
EA
EB
=
C
=
or
E"x
=
y
=
'Yxy
Ex+E:;t: . Ex_EX
2 +
2
Ex+E
X
Yxy
2 + 2
Ex+X

2 2
A
EC
2
E
B(A+C) .
=
Ex
=
Ey
3.58
3.59
3.60
3.61
3.62
3.63
By using the equation for maximum shear and Hooke's law, the principal stresses can
be obtained from the following:
0"1 = + J2(A
E
B)2 + 2(B
E
C)2]
3.64
3.65
3.66
3.67
3.13 ACOUSTICS AND VIBRATIONS
Most periodic waves
J
regardless of the form, can be represented by two or more sine
waves. Most waves can be reduced to simple harmonic or sine wave components which
generally form harmonic series. They have frequencies which are integral mUltiples
of the lowest frequency. The lowest frequency is called the fundamental and the
higher ones are called harmonic.
376
)
)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
'I'll(' or a vibrating hody is the number uf cycles of motion in n unLt tinll'.
The period of a wave is the time elapsed while the motion repeats itself. It is
the reciprocal of the frequency.
The amplitude of a wave is the maximum distance the vibrating particles of the
medium in the path of the wave are displaced from their position of equilibrium.
The wavelength of a wave is the shortest distance between two particles along the
wave which differ in phase by one cycle.
The number of independent coordinates necessary to describe the motion of a system
is called degrees of freedom. Examples of systems with various degrees of freedom
are shown in Figure 3.31. Example (d) in Figure 3.31 is a single degree of freedom
with a mass "mil supported on frictionless and massless rollers attached to a spring
and a dashpot. This is a representation of a fairly common situation occurring in
aircraft and helicopters.
(a) SINGLE
DEGREE
OF FREEDOM
(b) TWO
DEGREES
(c) MULTIPLE
DEGREES
OF FREEDOM
OF FREEDOM
(d) ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM
LINEAR VIBRATION
FIGURE 3.31 EXAMPLES OF DEGREES OF FREEDOM
If a force IIF" which is a function of time Itt" acts on the mass, the differential
equation
dx
+ c dt + kx = F(t) 3.68
must be satisfied at all times,
377
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
\vhere
m the mass of the system
c = the coefficient of viscous damping
k the spr{ng constant
x the displacement from rest
F( t) the external force as a function of time
If an initial displacement of the system the external force ceases to act,
the equation becomes:
+ c dx + kx = 0
t
If the quantity /4m2 >k/m, the m2ss 2m" will not oscillate but will gradually
r('turn to its rest position. If c /4m < kIm, there will result a decaying
tion of circular frequency,
radians/sec
for which the corresponding linear frequency will be
in = 1/2 1r y;./m_c
2
14m2 cycles/sec
where "nIl denotes na tural frequency wi th damping, and
2 1f f
n
3 .. 70
3.71
3.72 I
If c
2
/4m
2
kIm, this is the limiting case for which no oscillation occurs and the
system is said to be critically damped. This particular value of c is designated
c where
cr
C
cr
2rnjk/m = 2mw
n
If the driving force is sinusoidal
F( t)
=
Fosinwt
equation 3.68 becomes
2
dx
d x +
kx Fosinwt m
cTt+
dt
2
378
2k/
w
n
3 .. 7 3
3.74
3 .. 75
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revi s ion F
wll(:re Fo is tilt: maximum value of the sinusoidal force and W Is the forced frl'C)uclH:Y.
Th(; general solution to equation 3.75 is
x =
e (AsinWnt+Bcoswnt) +
2 2 2
(cw) +(kmw)
) where. is the phase angle and A and B are arbitrary constants depending on the
initial conditions. As before:
and
3.76
3.70
3.77
The: first term on side of equation 3.76 vanishes in time due to the
fae t tha t the term, e c. m, constantly diminishes and is called the transient
term. The second term gives the amplitude of the forced vibration in terms of the
system constants and driving force and is called the steady state term. The ampli
tude of the steady state vibration is
y, 2 2 2
x = Fol (cw) +(kmw ) 3.78
This is also expressed in the convenient form
x
V 2 2 2
(Fo/k)1 fl(wIWQ)] + [2(c/c ) (wIWn)]
cr
).79
where Folk is the displacement that would be produced by a static force Fo
Following are equations which predict deflections and mode patterns for beams ..
They are based on simple beam theory and are accurate for beams having a length to
depth ratio of the order of 10 or more.
J.l3.l Uniform Beams
Uniform Bar With Free Ends
The equation for finding the deflection for different mode patterns is as follows:
y = 1/2.04 (sinanX+l. 02cos(Vnx sinhO'rk+l .. 02 coshatnX) 3.80
379
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
" .
Revision F __
where an is the characteristic number for the nth mode and is the root of the equa
tion cosancoshan 1. The characteristic numbers for the first three modes of this
beam are: 4.73, 7.853 and 10.996. Frequencies of higher modes for this beam are
given in Figure 3.32) in which w is the weight per unit length of the beam and
g = 386 in/sec
2
FIGURE
AMPLITUDE
PROFILE
........ , .... .."
..,;..> "',, __ ,> tC ....... _
.... '5"' ,'', .
_ ..... ..; (' ....... lfIIII" """ __ ;x., ... ,,,
MODE"
2 NODES
3 NODES
4 NODES
5 NODES
NATURAL CIRCULAR
FREQUENCY
22.4 j EwIg ,
L2
9.00 Wi.
FIGURE 3.32 UNIFORM BAR WITH FREE ENDS
Uniform Bar With Simple Supports at Ends
The equation of deflection for the fundamental mode is
y = 3.01
if the amplitude is taken as unity at the center. Frequencies of higher modes for
this beam are shown in Figure 3.33.
FIGURE
AMPLITUDE NATURAL CIRCULAR
PROFILE MODE FREQUENCY
r
w.1.== /
EI
9 \
2 NODES
1=
.................... L W
" ...:
......... """
/:* 3 NODES 4wl
.......... """"" ,
*..... , .. , ",. ... *
'." IIII: ........
4 NODES 9wt
,,,, '........
5 NODES 16w
1
. ... "" '''''''''' J''' "'_'"
..
FIGURE 3.33 UNIFORM BAR WITH SIMPLE SUPPORTS
380
\
!
e)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
Uni rorm Cantilever Beam
The frequencies of modes for this beam are shown in Figure 3.34.
Uniform Beam With Clamped Ends
The frequencies of various modes for this beam are shown in Figure 3.35.
Hinged Fixed Uniform Beam
The frequencies of various modes for this beam are shown in Figure 3.36.
Uniform Cantilever Beam With Mass at the End
See Figure 3.37.
Uniform Beam Simply Supported With Central Mass
See Figure 3.38.
3.13.2 Rectangular Plates
t ~ general equation for the frequency of a plate with simply supported edges is
w 3.82
where g = 386 in/sec
2
, p is Poisson's ratio. W is the weight per unit area of the
plate, and M and N are integers depending on the number of nodal lines. Figure 3.39
shows normal modes of rectangular panels with values for M and N.
"L 13. 3 Columns
The equation for the natural frequency for an axially load member is given by
where
W
l
= woJlP/P
cr
~ radians/sec.
P = axial load 2 2
Per = Euler buckling load = n EI/L
Wo natural frequency for zero load
3.83
For the pinended column, Wo is given by Wi for an uniform bar \l1i th simple support
at ends. For the fixedend column, Wo is given by WI for an uniform beam with
champed ends.
381
FIGURE
I'L
E

 i
;.
.....
FIGURE
I" L "I
FIGURE
r_ ===1
Jf: ___
382
STRUCTURAL DESIGN. MANUAL
,
AMPLITUDE
PROFILE


t!!:::  ""..

............
f ..... """ ...... ,,
" ... ,.\
..........  ,... '' ......
t, .... ... ,>'
.... _,,.... "' .......  ,' .......
t>., ... " ..... ,,_ ... ,
_,,1',,_ ... "'_'" , ... :;c __
AMPLITUDE
PROFILE
....  ......
......... .. .... .;:
AMPLITUDE
PROFILE
,Jf)/ l,
...... ,  ....../ ........ ""' ..... 
Jf  ....
........ ' ........ ';
MODE
1 NODES
2 NODES
3 NODES
4 NODES
5 NODES
MODE
2 NODES
3 NODES
4 NODES
5 NODES
MODE
2 NODES
3 NODES
4 NODES
Revision F
NATURAL CIRCULAR
FREQUENCY
NATURAL CIRCULAR
FREQUENCY
22.4 /
E1
9'
2 \'1
L
NATURAL CIRCULAR
FREQUENCY
WJ=
15.4
j
L2
3 .. 24 U1
6. 76 W,
)
)
. . ,
I' ' , , \\
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
\\ :\ , ....
,"
...... 0.
f ... ::...   CI m
 ..
....... '0
nJ EI
IN'1 == 5611 33 3
(m + 140 8)L
EI
17 g 3
(m + )5VL
N=l M=2, N=l N=2
= 2, N= 2 M=3, N=2
Revision F
383
STRUCTURAL DE,SIGN
3.13.4 Stress and Strain in Vibra Plates
The determination of stress and strain in this section is based on a rectangular
plate, perfectly elastic, homogeneous, isotropic with uniform thickness small with
respect to its other dimensions. It is assumed that the deflections are small com
pared to the thickness with no stretching of the mid plane. The strain in a thin
layer indicated by the shaded area in Figure 3.40 located a distance Z from the mid
plane is given by equations 3.84 through 3.86.
e = Z/R
1
a
2
6
=
z
ax
2 xx
3.84
Z/R
2
=
a
2
{j
e = z
yy
a
2
y
'Yxy
=
a
2
y
2z
ax
ay
3.86
e and e are unit deflections in the :x: and y directions" 'Yxy is _ shear deformation
xyYplane and 0 is the deflection of the plate. Rl and R2 are curvatures of
the plate in the xz and yz plane.
Stress is obtained by
fx
E
(e
xx
+ 11 e )
1 ,.,.2
yy
3.87
fy
E
(e
yy
+ J.le
xx
) =
1 ,.,.
2
3.88
T Ge 3.H9
xx:
tvhere
J.l =
Poisson's ratio
z
I dx
FIGURE 3.40  ELEMENT FOR STRAIN DETERMINATION
384
)
\,
\
)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
3.14 BELL PROCESS STANDARDS
The list of subjects covered by Bell Process Standards (BPS) is given in Table 3 1 ~
The BPS should be consulted because most likely procedures have already been estab
lished for a particular aspect of structures design.
A
Acrylic Lacquer, Application of
Acrylic Plastic: Working and
Maintenance of
Adhesion Promoter, Application of
Adhesive Bonding (Nonstructural) of
Silicones
Adhesive Bonding (Nonstructural)
with Film Type Cloth Supported
Epoxy Adhesive
Adhesive Bonding (Nonstructural)
with Rubber Phenolic Adhesives
Adhesive Bonding of Nameplates
Adhesive Bonding of Polycarbonates
Adhesive Bonding (Structural) with
Eldstomer Modified Epoxy
Adhesive Bonding (Structural) with
Epoxy ResinBased Adhesives
Adhesive Bonding (Structural) with
Film Type Modified Epoxy Adhesive
Adhesive Bonding (Structural) Using
Intermediate Temperature Curing
Modified Epoxy Film
Adhesive Bonding (Structural) Using
Intermediate  High Performance
Supported and Unsupported
Adhesive Film
Adhesive Bonding (Structural) with
Rubber Phenolic Adhesive
Adhesive Bonding (Structural) with
Vinyl Phenolic Base Adhesives
Adhesive Bonding Using Epoxy
Based Adhesives
Adhesive System (Structural) for
Honeycomb Sandwich Construction
Alcoholic Phosphoric Treatment
Aluminum Foil Identification Plates,
Application of
Anaerobic Sealants
Anaerobic Sealants, for Bearing
Retention
Anodizing, Chromic Acid
Anodizing, Hard
AntiFretting Treatments for
Titanium
AntiSeize Compounds, Use of
AntiStatic Coating, Epoxy,
Application of
Application of Adhesion Promoter
Application of FlameResistant
Silicone
Application of Powdered Coatings
Application of Suede Coatings
Application of Urethane coating
B
Barrel Finishing of Metals
Black Oxide Treatment of Steels
Blind lIigh strength Steel Fasteners,
Pull Type, Installation of
Bonding Clutch Linings
FW 4386
FW 4302
FW 4398
FW 4392
FW 4429
FW 4401
FW 4335
FW 4434
FW 4415
FW 4402
FW 4408
FW 4423
FW 4458
FW 4400
FW 4328
FW 4403
FW 4449
FW 4300
FW 4l6B
FW 4421
FW 4426
FW 4001
FW 4387
FW 4456
FW 4396
FW 4413
FW 4398
FW 4447
FW 4465
FW 4479
FW 4464
FW 4326
FW 4084
FW 4472
FW 4121
Bonding, Composite
Bonding, Nonstructural
Bonding Structural, with High
Temperature Resistant Epoxy
Phenolics
Brazing, Silver
Brush Cadmium Plating
C
Cable, Control, Fabrication and
Testing
Cables and Terminals, Electrical,
Preparation and Installation of
Cadmium Coating (Vacuum Deposited)
Cadmium, Fluoborate, Plating, High
Strength Steels
Cadmium Plating, Brush
Cadmium Plating (Electrodeposited)
Carburizing and Heat Treatment
of Carburized Parts
Casting Impregnation, Process for
Castings, Aircraft
Castings, InProcess Welding of
Chemical Cleaning of Aircraft
Materials
Chemical Film Treatment
Chemical Machining of Metals
Cleaning and Preparation of Mate
. rials for Resistance Welding
Cleaning, Mechanical, of Metals
Clutch Linings, Bonding of
Coating, Urethane, Application of
Coating, Walkway, Nonslip
Coatings, Powdered, Application of
Coatings, Suede, Application of
Coatings, Tungsten Carbide,
Deposition of
Color Identification of Rivets,
Bolts, Nuts and Washers
Composite Bonding
Compounds, Corrosion Preventive,
for Aircraft Assemblies
Compression Molding of Plastic
Parts
Copper Plating
Corrosion and Abrasion Resistant
Coatings (2216 Mix)
Corrosion Preventive Compounds,
for Aircraft Assemblies
Countersunk or Dimpled Screws, In
stallation and Inspection of
Covering for Model 47 Fuel Tanks
Cyclewelding Metal to Wood
D
Decal, Application of
Dimpling, Hot Coin, of Aluminum,
Magnesium, Stainless Steel, and
Titanium
TABLE 3.14  BELL PROCESS STANDARDS
FW 4446
FW 4171
FW 4448
FW 4098
FW 4312
FW 4108
FW 4332
FW 4436
FW 4466
FW 4312
FW 4006
FW 4420
FW 4432
FW 4163
FW 4470
FW 4139
FW 4182
FW 4389
FW 4113
FW 4343
FW 4121
FW 44 64
FW 4306
FW 4465
FW 4479
FW 4463
FW 4064
FW 444 b
FW 4362
FW 4469
FW 4l1D
FW 4435
FW 4362
FW 4039
FW 4433
4028.
FW 4158
FW 4135
385
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Dopes to Fabric Surfaces,
Application of
Dual Purpose Laminating Glass Cloth
Dynatube Fluid System Fittings,
Installation and Assembly of
Dzus Fasteners, Installation of
E
Edgings, Thermoplastic, Bonding to
Acrylic Assemblies
Elastomer Modified Epoxy,
Bonding with
Electrical Wiring; Installation of
Electrical Connectors, Potting of
Electrical Connections, Soldering of
Embrittlement and Stress Relief for
Plated and Pickled Parts
Epoxy Based Adhesives, Adhesive
Bonding with
Epoxy Primer Surfacer,
Application of
Epoxy Resin Based Adhesives,
Adhesive Bonding with
External Roll Threading of Metals
F
Fabrication of Heat Resistant
Structural Components of Glass
Fabric Reinforced Plastic
Materials
Fabrication of Structural Com
ponents of Glass Fabric
Reinforced polyester Materials
Fairing Compound, Application of
Fasteners, Dzus, Installation of
Fasteners, Installation of Blind,
High Strength Steel, Pull Type
Film Type Modified Epoxy
Adhesive, Structural Adhesive
Bonding with
Fittings, Dynatube Fluid System,
Installation and Assembly of
Fittings, Permaswage, Installation of
Fittings, Rosan Fluid System,
Ins tall_a tion 0 f
Fluoborate Cadmium Plating, High
Strength Steels
FLuorescent Penetrant Inspection
Forgings and Wrought Stock,
Ultrasonic Inspection of
Forgings for Aircraft Application
G
Glass Fabric, Pre impregnated ,
Fabrication of
Glass Fabric Reinforced Polyester
Materials, Fabrication of
Glycol, Polyethylene, Use of
H
Hard Anodizing of AluminumAlloys
Hardness Testing and Requirements
of Hetals
Heat Treating (Annealing)
of Titanium
4024'
FW 4437
FW 4473
FW 4365
FW 4351
FW 4415
FW 4332
FW 4311
FW 4439
FW 4044
FW 4403
FW 4471
FW 4402
FW 4445
FW 4366
FW 4364
FW 4380
FW 4365
FW 4472
FW 4408
FW 4473
FW 4474
FW 4468
FW 4466
FW 4089
FW 4399
FW 4017
FW 4366
FW 4364
FW 4444
FW 4387
FW 4467
4212
Heat Treatment of Carburized Parts
Heat Treatment of Steel
High Visibility Paint System,
Application of
Honeycomb Core Material; Handling,
Cutting, Forming, and Adhesive
Priming of
Honeycomb Cores, Splicing of
Hydraulic Fluids, Handling of
I
Impregnation of Castings
Inert Gas Tungsten Arc Welding of
Aluminum Alloy
Inserts, Installation of
Internal Threading of Swaged
Aluminum Tubing
L
Lacquers, Acrylicj Application of
Lacquers, Cellulose Nitrate,
Application of
Linseed oil Treatment of Closed
Steel Tubular and Hollow Parts
LQw Density Insert Material in Con
junction with Honeycomb Sandwich
Construction, Application of
Lubricants, Solid Film
M
Magnesium Alloy; Chemical Treatments
for Corrosion Resistance of
Magnetic Particle Inspection
Marking Aircraft Parts
Materials for Adhesive Bonding,
Surface Preparation of
Mechanical Cleaning of Metals
MetalCals, Application of
Metal to Wood, Cyclewelding of
N
Nameplates  Adhesive Bonding of
Nital Etch Process
Nitriding of Steel
Nondestructive Testing of Bonded
Components
Nonstructural Bonding, Using Rubber
Base Cements
a
Oil, Hot Linseed, Application of
P
Packaging and/or Preservation of
Aircraft Parts for Stock
Paint, Corrosion Protective Coating
Paint, Epoxy Enamel, Application of
Paint Finishing of Polycarbonates
Paint Stripping of Metal Parts and
Assemblies
Paint System, High Visibility,
Application of
Passivation
3.14 (CONT'D)  BELL PROCESS STANDARDS
386
F\'i 44 2\.
f'W 4140
FW 4397
FW 4339
FW 4425
FW 4305
FW 4432
FW 4404
FW 44 2""
FW
FW 4386
FW 4441
FW 4317
4383
FW 4310
FW
Fly 4 a 7
FW 4'05\.
FW 4352
FW 4343
FN 4168
4028
FW 4335
FW 4092
Fly 4 )04
FW 4424
FW 4171
FW 431.
FW 4102
F'w'J 4428
FW 4427
FW 4438
rw 4357
FW 4397
FW 4007
)
,'

e)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Inspection
Permaswage Fittings, Installation of
Phosphatizing of Steels
Plastic, Acrylic; Working and
Maintenance of
Plastic Parts, Compression Molding of
Plating, Cadmium, Electrodeposited
Plating, Cadmium, Vacuum Deposited
Plating, Copper
Plating, Fluoborate Cadmium, High
Strength Steels
Plating, Selective Brush Cadmium
Plexiglas Panels, Fabrication of
Polycarbonates, Adhesive Bonding of
Polycarbonates, Palnt Finishing of
Polyethylene Glycol, Use of
Polyurethane, Abrasion and
Corrosion Resistant Coating
Polyurethane Enamel
Application of
Polyurethane Striping Material 
Application of
Potting of Electrical Connectors
Powdered Coatings, Application of
Preparation and Application of Fuel
Resistant sealant Compounds
Primer, Epoxy, Application of
Primer, Epoxy polyamide,
Application of
Primer Surfacer, Epoxy,
Application of
Primer# Zinc Chromate,
Application of
Proof Testing of Lines and Tanks
Protective Coating (Strippable)
Protective Compound (Strippable)
Hot Dip
R
Radiographic Inspection
Rivets, Aluminum and Aluminum Alloy,
Processing, Use, and Storage of
Rivets, Blind (Hollow and Self
Plugging Type) Riveting
Procedure for
Rivets,.Chobert Blind, Riveting
Procedure for
Rivets, HiShear, Riveting
Procedure for
Rivets, Universal, Round Head, and
100 Degrees Flush, Riveting
Procedure for
Roll Threading, External, of Metals
Rosan Fluid System Fittings,
Installation of
Rotor Blades, Wood Control and
Bonding Procedure for
Rubber Phenolic Non
Structural Adhesive Bonding with
Rubber Phenolic Adhesives,
Structural' Adhesive Bonding with
S
Safety Wiring Methods
Scotcheal Film, Application of
FW 4089
FW 4.4 74
FW 4384
FW 4]02
FW 4469
F.W 4006
FW 4436
FW 4110
FW 4466
FW 4312
FW' 4351
FW 4434
FW 4438
FW 4444
FW 4457
FW 4442
FW 4452
FW 4311
FW 4465
FW 4407
FW 4325
FW 4451
FW 4471
FW 4367
4020
FW 4381
FW 4055
FW 4309
FW 4316
FW 4036
FW 4315
4038
FW 4019
FW 4445
FW 4468
4083
FW 4401
FW 4400
FW 4043
FW 4358
Screws, Dimpled or Countersunk,
Installation anu Inspection of
Sealing Compound, Fuel Resistant,
Application of
Shot P.eening of Steel, Aluminum,
and Titanium
Shrink Fit Units, Method of ASSY.
Silver Brazing
Soldering of Electrical Gonnections
Solid Film Lubricants
Spotwelding Aircraft Parts
SprayUp Fabrication of structural
Components
Staking of Bearings
Strippable Protective Coating,
Application of
Strippable Protective Compound, Hot
Dip, Application of
Suede Coatings, Application of
Surface Preparation of Materials for
Adhesive Bonding .
Surfacer, Epoxy Primer,
Application of
Swaged Aluminum Tubing, Internal
Threading of
T
Tanks, Fuel, Covering for
Testing; Conductivity, to Deter
mine Heat Treat Condition of
Wrought Aluminum Alloys
Threading, Roll, External,
of Metals
Tightening Procedures for Threaded
Fasteners and Fittings
Titanium, Fusion Welding of
Titanium, Heat Treatment
(Annealing) of
Titanium Sheet, Forming of
Tubing Assemblies: Metal,
Fabrication and Installation of
Tungsten Carbide Coatings,
Deposition of
U
Ultrasonic Inspection of Forgings
and Wrought Stock
Ultrasonic Inspection of Rotor
Blades
Urethane Coating, Application of
V
Vacuum Cadmium Coating
Vibratory and Barrel Finishing
of Metals
Vinyl Phenoiic Base Adhesive,
Structural Adhesive Bonding with
W
Walkway Coating, Nonslip
Waterproofing Electrical Connectors
Using Flexible Compound
Welding
l
Electron Beam
TABLE 3.14 (CONTln)  BELL PROCESS STANDARDS
FW 40.39
FW 4407
FW 4409
FW 4012
FW 4098
FW 4439
FW 4310
FW 4115
FW 4440
FW 4162
FW 4381
FW4055
FW 4479
FW 4352
FW 4471
FW 4419
FW 4433
FW 4453
FW 4445
FW 4018
4207
4212
FW 446.2
FW 4149
FW 4463
FW 4399
FW 4424
FW 4464
FW 4436
FW 4326
FW 4328 .
FW 4306
FW 4311
FW 4455 '
387
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Welding, Fusion, of Titanium
Welding, Inert Gas Tungsten, of
Aluminum Alloys
Welding, Inert Gas Tungsten,
of Steel
Welding (Inl'rocess) of Castings
Welding Operators, Oual.:i,.fication
Procedure for
Welding J. Resistance, Cleaning and
4207
FW 4404
FW 4359
FW "4470
FW 4431
Welding, Resistance, of Aircraft
Parts
Welds, Electron Beam, Ultrasonic
Inspection of
Wood Control and Bonding Procedure
for Rotor Blades
z
FW 4115
FW 4454
4083
Preparation of Materials for FW 4113 Zinc Chromate Primer, Application of FW 4361 .
TABLE 3.14 (CONT'D)  BELL PROCESS STANDARDS
388
)
)
)
4.0 GENERAL
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
SECTION 4
INTERACTION
When a structural element is subjected to combined loadings, such as tension,
compression and shear, it is often necessary to detemine the resultant maximumi
stresses and their respective principal axes. When a body is subjected to a com
bination of tensile and compressive stresses., it is usually designated as a biaxial
or triaxial stress condition. When a combination of tensile, compressive and shear
stresses are present, the body is usually referred to be in a combined stress state.
The material at the inner surface of a thick pressure vessel is subjected to tri
axial stress (radial compression, longitudinal tension and circumferential tension);
a shaft bent and twisted is subjected to combined stresses (longitudinal tension or
compression and torsional shear).
4.1 Material Failures
Fracture of a material is very complex. Generally, failures can be grouped into
two categories, ductile or brittle, depending upon the state of stress and the envi
ronment. Metals with high strength exhibit low ductility prior to failure. Failure
can occur after elongation of the metal over a relatively large uniform length or
after a concentrated elongation in a short length. Shear deformation will also vary
depending on the metal and the stress state. Because of these variations in magni
tude and mode of deformation, the ductility of a metal can have a profound effect on
the ability of a part to withstand applied loads.
Brittle failures are characteristic of the highstrength materials and are accompa
nied by little or no plasticity. The lack of plastic strain generally results in
the brittle failure occurring without warning, and in service can lead to cata
strophic results. The fracture surface is usually distinguished by a cleavage or
rough crystalline texture which appears bright and granular. The fracture surface
of steels will have a herringbone appearance with the chevrons pointing to the
origin of the fracture. A micro analysis of the fracture surface shows a direct
separation of the crystalline planes with the plane of separation normal to the
applied load.
Ductile failures will show substantial amounts of plastic strain. The load
deflection curve will show the failure occurring well out of the linear region.
The fracture surface is generally distinguished by a "hilly" appearance with some
reduc tion in cross sec tion. A micro analysis wiil show that tlle frac ture is a re
sult of slippage between crystalline planes with the plane of failure oblique to
the applied load. The ductile failure is, thus, an action of shear stresses. There
are ductile materials whose fractures appear brittle and brittle materials demon
strate ductile failures. Fracture surfaces often have the appearance of both
brittle and ductile.
There are no precise equations to define the mechanism of fracture. High or low
temperatures affect the mechanism of failure. The strain history and rate of load
application will affect the fracture.
41
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
4.2 Theories of Failure
When one principal stress. exists at a point, the stress is frequently referred to as
a uniaxial or onedimensional stress; when two principal stresses occur, the state
of stress is frequently called biaxial stress, or twodimensional stress, or plane
stress, and when all three principal stresses exist, the state of stress is tri
axial or threedimensional stress.
It is not always possible to produce in a test the exact biaxial or triaxial stress
which exists during operation. Sometimes it is not even possible to test at all.
In such eventsrational analysis procedures must be used. Such procedures are called
theories of failure and require that the general mode of failure of the member under
the assumed service conditions be determined or assumed (failure is usually
or fracture) and that a quantity (stress, strain, energy) be chosen which is asso
ciated with the failure. This means there is a maximum or critical value of the
quantity selected which limits the loads that can be applied to the member. Gen
erally, an ultimate load test of the material with the resulting stressstrain cuive
is a suitable test for determining the quantities associated with theories of fail
ure.
The six main theories of failure for a material that is considered to fail by yield
ing under static loading are:
(1) Maximum principal stress theory  Rankines theory  Inelastic action at any
point in a material at which any state of stress exists begins only when the
maximum principal stress at the point reaches a value equal to the tensile
(or compressive) elastic limit or yield strength of the material, regardless
of the normal or shearing stresses that occur on other planes through the
point.
(2) Maximum shearing stress theory  Coulomb's or Guest1s law  Inelastic action
at any point in a body at which any state of stress exists begins only when
the maximum shearing stress on some plane through the point reaches a value
equal to the maximum shearing stress in a tension specimen when yielding
starts.
(3) Maximum strain theory  St. Venants theory  Inelastic action at a point in
a body at which any state of stress exists begins only when the maximum
s train at the point reaches a value equal to that which occurs when inelas 'I
tic action begins in the material under a uniaxial state of stress as occurs /
in a specimen in a tension test.
(4) Total energy theory  Beltrami and Haigh theory  Inelastic action at any
point in a body due to any state of stress begins only when the energy per
unit volume absorbed at the point is equal to the energy absorbed by the
material when subjected to the elastic limit under a uniaxial state of stress
as occurs in a simple tensile test.
(5) Energy of distortion theory  Inelastic action at any point in a body under
any combination of stresses begins only when the strain energy of distortion
42
per unit volume absorbed at the point is equal to the strain energy of dis
tortion absorbed per unit volume at any point in a bar stressed to the elas
tic limit under a state of uniaxial stress as occurs in a simple tension or
compression test.
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
(6) Octahedral shearing stress theory  Inelastic action at any point in a body
under any combination of stresses begins only when the octahedral shearing
stress becomes equal to 0.47 times the tensile elastic strength of the mate
rial as determined from the standard tension test.
4.3 Determination of Principal Stresses
When an element is subjected to combined stresses such as tension, compression and
shear, it is often necessary to determine resultant maximum stress values and their
respective principal axes. These stresses their angles may be obtained by the
use of Mohrls circle. This is a convenient graphical representation of the rela
tion between principal stresses at a point and the shearing and normal stresses at
the same point on planes inclined to the planes of principal stresses.
fx
FIGURE 4.1 STATE OF STRESS AT A POINT
The following are definitions and sign conventions for terms in Figure 4.1:
f
x
, fy: applied normal stresses
is: applied shear stress
fnmax,fnmin: resul ting principal normal stresses
fsmax= resu 1 ting principal shear stress
Q: angle of principal axes
Sign Convention:
Tensile stress is positive (+)
Compressive stress is negative ()
Shear stress is positive (+) if its action is a tendency to
rotate the element c"iockwise
Positive Q is
The procedure for constructing Mohr's circle is as follows:
(1) Make a sketch of an element for which the normal and shearing stresses are
known and indic,ate on it the proper senses of the stresses. Such a sketch
is shown in Figure 4.2.
43
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
,
y
f



\

1r
fs
~
.
f
X
ight
and
ace
r
h
f
FIGURE 4.2 TYPICAL ELEMENT IN BIAXIAL STRESS
(2) Set up a rectangular coordinate system of axes where the horizontal axis is
the normal stress axis and the vertical axis is the shearing stress axis.
Directions of positive axes are taken as upward and to the right.
(3) Locate the center of the circle, which is on the horizontal axis at a dis
tance (fx + fy)/2 from the origin. Tensile stresses are positive and com
pression stresses are negative. See Figure 4.3.
(4) From the righthand face of the element prepared in step (1) read the values
for fx and fs and plot as point ItA
u
The coordinate distances to this point ..
are measured from the origin. The sign of fx is positive if tensile, nega
tive if compression; fs is positive clockwise.
(5) Draw a circle with center as found in step (3) through point ttA
n
found in
step (4). The two points of intersection of the circle with the normal stress
axis (fn) give the magnitudes and sign of the two principal stresses. If the
intercept is positive, the principal stress is tensile and vice versa.
(6) The circle will also pass through point liB" which has coordinates of fy and
fs taken from the upper surface of the element in step (1).
(7) Construct a line through the center of the circle connecting points A and B.
The angle formed by this line and the normal stress (f
n
) axis (abscissa) is
29, twice the angle of the principal axes.
(8) Construct the biaxial state of stress at the point in question as shown in
Figure 4.4.
The following equations can now be written using Figures 4.3 and 4.4.
fx + ff
f
nmin
= 2
44
+ J(f
X
 ~ f X
2
; fJ!) + fs
2
2
; fy) + fs
2
4.1
4.2
)
tan2e
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
= 2fs .
fx  f
y
The solution results in J
two angles representing the
principal axes of f
max
& fmin
4.3
4.4
The angles located on Mohr's circle are twice the angles on the biaxial stress ele
ment. The maximum principal stress (fnnuud occurs at point I in Figure 4.3. Point
I is located at a 29 counterclockwise rotation (about point G) from applied stress
point A. In the element, Figure 4.4, face I is located on angle 9 counterclockwise
. (about point 0) rotation from face A. The minimum principal stress (fnnrtn) occurs
at point H in Figure 4.3. It is located 29 counterclockwise from point.S and 180
0
counterclockwise from point I. In the element, face H is 90 from face I or 9
counterclockwise from face B.
The maximum posi tive and negative 'shear stresses (f
smax
) occur at points J and K in
Figure 4.3 and their magnitudes are equal to the radius of the circle. Point J is
the maximum positive shear stress and is located (90  29) clockwise from point B
or 90 clockwise from point H. Face J, in the element, Figure 4.4, is located
(45
0
 9) clockwise from face B or 45
0
clockwise from face H. The shear stress on
face J is positive which is shown producing a clockwise rotation of the element.
Point K is the maximum negative shear stress and is located in the same manner as
point J. The planes of maximum shearing stress are always at 45 to the principal
planes, regardless of the applied stress conditions.
Figure 4.5 shows some typical loading conditions with the resulting Mohrts circle
and the state of stress on an element in the body.
4.4 Interaction of Stresses
The means of predicting structural failure under combined loading without determin
ing principal stresses is known as the interaction method. The critical strength
of structural members with a single type of load is generally defined. That is,
the yield, ultimate or buckling of a member load in tension, compression, shear or
bending can be determined. The critical strength of a member subjected to simul
taneously applied combinations of loads is often difficult to determine. This is
especially true if local or overall stability, plastic bending or torsion are in
volved. The interaction method was developed for predicting ultimate strength of
members subjected to combined loads. It is the most satisfactory method of pre
dicting structural failure without determining principal stresses.
The basis for the interaction method is:
(1) The allowable strength for each simple loading condition (tension, shear,
bending, buckling, etc.) is determined by test or theory.
(2) Each load of the combined load conditions is represented by a ratio (R) of
applied load or stress to allowable load or stress.
(3) The interaction relationship is the effect of one condition on another (or
others) and is 'determined by theory, test or both.
45
46
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
fy
STRESS CONDITION ON
'UPPER FACE OF ELEMENT
fX;fy trX;fY
fx
STRESS CONDITION ON RIGHT
.QF
FIGURE 4.3 MOHR'S CIRCLE REPRESENTATION OF BIAXIAL
STRESS AT POINT "Qn IN FIGURE 4.4
\
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
MAXIMUM
PRINCIPAL
STRESS
PLANE
fx
MAXIMUM
MINIMUM PRINCIPAL
STRESS PLANE
fy
fs
" =...,... i
SHEAR
PLANES
fy
FIGURE 4.4 BIAXIAL STATE OF STRESS
AT POINT "Q"
fx
47
48
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
LOADING
PURE TENSION
f
Y
PURE COMPRESSION
f
UNEQUAL BIAXIAL
TENSION
f
EQUAL B lAX IAL
TENSION
X
x
fx
EQUAL TENSION AND
PURE SHEAR
5
0
+f
0
MOHR'S CIRCLE
f
smax
s
f = 0
s
+f
!x=:j
y
+fs fsmax=x
n
ELEMENT STRESS
 
"fy/2
fy/2
x
f
x
=fx= fy
f = f
max s
f. =f
mln" s
FIGURE 4.5  ELEMENT STRESSES
)
,)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
The stress ratio, R, is expressed as!
R = applied load or stress
allowable load or stress
The margin of safety is then
MS = l/R  1
Revision F
4.5
4.6
Generally, for a combined system of loadings the interaction relationship is ex
pressed as
4.7
where R
1
, R2 and R3 are stress ratios and x, y and z are exponents defining inter
action relationships. '
When only two loading conditions exist, such as bending and torsion, equation 4.7
can be plotted as a single interaction curve of Rb and R. When three or more load
ins conditions exist, the equation of interaction a surface and can be plot
as a family of curves. When the exponents are equal, the interaction curve is'
a straight line and indicates the maximum interaction. This might occur when bend
ing is present with tension or compression. Making one exponent equal 2 gives a
parabola. With both exponents equal 2 the interaction curve is a circle. Complete
independence or zero interaction is obtained when the exponents are infinite.
The amount of interaction between two loads is detennined by theory or test. The
analyst must use good engineering judgment and common sense to determine the rela
tionship of one load to the other. For instance, if torsion and bending are pres
ent and torsion is the predominant stress, then the interaction equation using the
maximum shear' stress theory should be used. If bending had been the dominant
then the interaction equation based on maximum principal stress should be used. The
end points of the interaction curves are always correct; at least they represent
failure under simple loading. This reduces the probable error when one type of load
ins dominates. The prime advantage of this method is that it yields good results
anyonE loading condition dominates and exact results when only one loading
condition is present.
'rho effect of one loading R1 on another simultaneous loading R
Z
is represented by
an equaLion or interaction curve like that shown in Figure 4.6. This curVE repre
scnLs all the possible combinations of Rl and R2 that will cause failure. The
curve is used as follows:
(1) Let the value of Rl and R2 locate point "a". A positive margin of safety is
indicated because It is inside the curve.
(2) Failure can occur at three points
a. Point lid" by a proportionate increase in Rl and,R2
b. Point "h" by an increase in Rl with R2 constant
c. Point "g" .by an increase in R2 wi th Rl constant
49
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL

1.0
z
0
H
U)
z
W
:l
.. R
e
R2
U) b
'"
N
.
0
z
0
I
H
/
I
p::
/
If
I
C
o 0
0
Rl RIa
tl 0 1.0
LOAD RATIO NO. 1 (BENDING, SHEAR)
FIGURE 4.6 TYPICAL TWOLOADSACTING
INTERACTION
y
z
fy
:z
8 1.0
Ul
Z
fl
""
:r:
CI) ,
.
0
z
0
H
fl
Cl
<r!
0
H
Rl RIa
1.0
LOAD RATIO NO. 1 (BENDING, SHEAR)
FIGURE 4.7 TYPICAL THREELOADSACTING
INTERACTION
fx
FIGURE 4.8 BIAXIAL STRESS CONDITION
410
tit
'. )
)
)(
\' ,; ........... .
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision F
( 3) The margin of safety for the loading .represented by point "a
u
can be found in
three ways
a. MS = od/oa  1
b. MS = bh/ba  1
c. MS cg/ca  1
Values of od, bh and cg are referred to as allowables (load or stress) and oa, ba
and ca are applied load or stress. Using this procedure and equation 4.7 procedures
for two loads acting and three loads acting be determined.
4.4.1 Procedure for Margin of Safety for Two Loads Acting
(1) Using yield or ultimate criteria and equation 4.5, calculate the
stress ratio for each load acting alone.
(2) Using the calculated stress ratios locate point tla" on the proper interaction
curve (using Figure 4.6 as an example).
(3) Draw a straight line from the origin "0" through point u a" and intersect the
interaction curve at point "d". Read the stress ratios R
1a
(ed) and R
2a
(fd).
(4) _Compute the applied stress ratios R
1
(ba) and R
2
(ca).
(5) Compute the margin of safety
= R1a/Rl  1 = R /R ... 1
2a 2
4 .. 4.2 Procedure for Margin of Safety for Three Loads Acting
4.8
(1) Using buckling, yield or ultimate criteria and equation 4.5, calculate the
stress ratios for each load acting above.
(2) Using the appropriate interaction family of curves locate point "a" corre
sponding to the calculated stress ratios Ri and R2 as shown in Figure 4.7.
(3) Draw a straight line from the origin "0" through point I'a".
(4) Extend this line to locate the allowable point "x" which must satisfy the fol
lowing relationships:
4.9
or
4.10
Point Ilxtl is obtained by trial and error in the following manner:
(a)
Select an arbitrary value of Ria"
(b)
Calculate R3 from equation 4.10 using the known value of Rl and R3 and
h b
' a I f R
tear ltrary va ue 0 la'
411
,
STRUCTURAL DESI.GN. M:ANUAL
. 
(c) Locate point "x" on the line "oa" using the calculated R3 from step (b) "e
and compare the corresponding Rla with the assumed R
1a
. a
Cd) Repeat steps (a) through (c) until the assumed Ria and the "x" value of
Ri converge. At convergence, Ri ,R
2
and R3a wIll be at a common
a 1. It II a a
pOInt on Ine oa.
(5) Compute the margin of safety
MS = R1 IR..  1
a ..L
4.11
4.5 Compact Structures
A compact structure is one in which failure does not occur by crippling or buckling.
This section presents interaction criteria for compact structures with biaxial
stress in a rectangular volume such as in plates, membranes and shells and with uni
axial stress in a plane such as in beams, round bars and ,bolts.
4.5.1 Biaxial Stress Interaction Relationships
Tests have been conducted to determine the failure theories of biaxially loaded iso
tropic ductile materials. The maximum shear stress theory and the octahedral shear
stress theory adequately predict the yield and ultimate strengths. There are a few
cases where convenientmargin of safety calculations possible. These are shown
, )
in Table 4.3. A general interaction method is required. It is shown in Figure 4.8.
The method is applicable to stress conditions which combine in a twodimensional
manner like that shown in Figure 4.8. This condition exists in a rectangular volume
and not on a single plane. Tension is positive, compression is negative. The int(!r
action equations and curves are applicable for ultimate and yield by use of the
parameters given in Table 4.1.
The interaction equations contain certain factors which relate one stress to the
other. They are defined as follows:
The constant relating interaction in terms of tension or shear strength allowabies:
K == F IF
su tu
Tests show this value to vary from 0.5 to 0.75.
The transverse shear and torsional stress ratios combine as
R = R + R
S S5 st
The directional tension and bending stress ratios combine as
R
x
R
Y
The directional compression and bending stress ratios combine as
412
R
x
4.12
4.13
4.14
4.15
4.16
)
/
(
\
)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision A
4.17
equations 4.1 and 4.2 and substituting the previous relationships the following
is de ri ved.
R
Rx + Ry + tRx
nmax:':: 2 "".:.:
4.18
Rnmin = RX Ry  4.19
4.5.1.1 Maximum Shear Stress Theory Interaction Equations
The maximum shear stress theory states that yielding or fracture occurs when the
maximum shear stress in a combined stress element equals the maximum shear stress
in a pure tension test specimen subjected to the yielding or ultimate stress of the
material. The substitution of fX = Ftu' fy = 0 and fs = 0 into equation 4.4 results
in the maximum shear stress in a pure tension specimen at fracture equal to 1/2 Ftu.
Dividing equation 4.4 by Ftu' substituting equations 4.12 and 4.13 and parameters
conLained in Table 4.1 and setting f
smax
= 1/2 Ftu results in
4 .. 20
K = 1/2, which is the theoretical value of K determined for a specimen loaded
in tension, the equation 4.20 yields
4.21
This equalion is plotted as the dashed lines in Figure 4.9. The maximum shear stress
is obtained in terms of the three principal triaxial stresses (f
1
, f2 and f3) as:
f
smax
+ (f 1 f 2 )
4.22
4.23
4.24
[Ising Figure 4.9 and testing equations 4.22, 4.23 and 4.24 in each quadrant for the
hiaxial slress state (f
3
= 0) results in the maximum shear stress theory interac
lions. These arc shown in Table 4.2.
OClahedral Shear Stress Theory Interaction
The ()ctahedral shear stress theory states that yielding or fracture occurs when the
octahedral shear stress in a combined stress element equals the octahedral shear
sLrf'SS in a pure tension test specimen subjected to the yielding or fracture stress
413
4 ... 14
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
TABLE 4.1 STRESS RATIO PARAMETERS
STRESS TYPE
Tension u x" Direction
Tension u y" Direction
Compression "x" Direction
Compression U ylt Di rec tion
I Bending tlXU Direction
Bending .t y" Direc tion
Transverse Shear
Torsional Shear
Subscripts:
Notes: (1) Assume Feu F
tu
STRESS RATIO PARAMETER
YIELD CONDITION
R =f IF
S5 ss S
R =f
t = tension
(2 )
(2)
c = compression
b = bending
ULTIMATE CONDITION
R =f If? (1)
ex ex Cll
R =f IF (1)
C C Cll
R =f IF
ss ss su
R =f
55 = transverse shear
st = torsional shear
s  shear
Subscripts x and y on Rand f refer to
x and y directions, respectively.
Subscripts y and II on F refer to yield
and ultimate strength conditIons,
respectively.
(2) Assume F = F = KF
sy sty ty
K = 0.50.75 for most isotropic ductile materials
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
TABLE 4.2. M A X ~ M U M SHEAR STRESS THEORY INTERACTION EQUATIONS
QUADRANT
CONDITIONS EQUATION INTERACTION EQUATION
s
(Figure max
4 ~
= +, f =+
n n
+f /2 1 max min R
=
I
n n
f > f
max max
n n
max .. min
f = +, f
= +
n n
+f /2 1
max min R =
I
n
min
n
f >
max
n
min
n
max
f f = +
f

f
R R 1 = 
, n n

=
n n max min n n
II
max min
2
max min
f = , f
= 
n n
min f /2 R 1
III
max

=
\fnmaxl
n n
Ifnminl
max max
>
.)
f  , f = 
n n
f /2 R 1 max min
 =
III
I f nmax I
n
min
n
min
Ifnminl
>
f = +, f
+f 
R
 R
= 1
= 
n
n
n n max min n n
IV max min
2
max min
415
LOADING LOADING INTERACTION CURVE
CASE PICTURE DESCRIPTION EQUATION FIGURE
fs
Uniaxial
 f
Tension 4.9
1
R 2 + R 2 :;;:
1 or
+
x s
4.10
.... Shear
fs
...;;...a, f
Uniaxial
4.9
2
Compression
R 2 + R 2
= 1 or
+
x s
4.1"0

Shear
Biaxial 4.9
3 Tension
T
Biaxial 4 .. 9
4 + Compression
All other
5 states of 4.9
biaxial stress
NOTES:
(1) Tension is positive, compression
(2) R = R + R
s ss st
is negative.
(3) Rx = R
tx
+ Rbx
(tension) ; R =
x
R + Rb (compression)
ex x
(4) R = R + Rb
Y ty Y
(tension); R =
Y
R + Rb (compression)
ey y
::
f IF R
st s Sy,
(5) R
t
= f IF R
t ty, c
:;;:
f IF t
:;;:
c y,
fb/F
by
, R
ss
MARGINOFSAFETY
EQUATION REMARKS
1
1
JR 2 + R 2
x s
1
1
JR 2 + R 2
x s
Refer to section
4.5.1 and use:
(1) Table 4.1
( 2) Equations
4.18 and 4.19
(3) Figure 4.9
f IF
st sty
(YIELD)
= f 1Ft
R ;: f 1F
t
Rb = fb/Fbu, Rss
= f IF
R ::
st
f IF
st stu
(ULTIMATE)
t u, c c u,
Sj'
,'
(I)
<:
...,.
til
...,
0
::1
tD
P.I
.c:
.
w
Vt)
.
I
ZO
:::a t:='
c:
...,:;otJ
trtr13
OIltJ
n ZtoCCf.I
\
!
I
ozc::
=
...,
I
I
;
!
t
:::a 13:;0
tr:I
::Da
t'11t:.DCf.I
ZC::.
G')(")t;.D
r
""pH
:t:Hs<
=
ZH
C":l>
t""1
.."
itr
(I) .
Htr:I

CD 1:"'"1).>
Z
oz
:I:
c:::n
::Da
tltl
tItl
Z
...:3H
=
tr:I>
::Da
r
e
)
.''
fL.,' I' \ \\
" \
\ \ \ ,., ........ '
srRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
, '" \ .' '
",: .... iL" ."
Revision A
of the materiaL.
stress equation
By substituting fx Ftu' fy = 0, fs = 0 into the octahedral shear
thc' octahedr.al shear stress in a pure tension specimen at fracture equals IT/3 Ftu'
By proceeding as described previously the octahedral shear stress theory interaction
equation becomes
Uslng K
RX
2
+ Ry2  RxR
y
"+ 3K2Rs2 = 1.
1/ ['3' equation 4.25 becomes
2 2 2
Rx + Ry  RxRy + Rs = 1.
Equation 4.26 can be rc:arranged to form
(R ) 2 + (R ) 2 + (R
n n . n
max min max
_ R )2
n .
m1n
Thts equation is plotted as the solid line in Figure 4.9.
4.5.1.3 Margin of Safety Determination
4.25
4.26
2
4.27
The procedure for determining the margin of safety where orient.ation of applied
slress wilh respect to the grain direction is unknown is as follows:
(1) Assume the allowable stresses in each direction of applied stress are the
same as in the weaker direction.
( 2)
I
Evaluate K := F IF
su tu
(3) If 0.5 KI .577, use K = 0.5 in calculating the principal stress ratios
4.18 and 4.19) and use the maximum shear stress interaction curve,
Fiburc 4.9.
(4) If Kt 0.577 , use K = 0.577 in calculating the principal stress ratios
(equations 4.18 and 4.19) and use the octahedral shear stress interaction
curve, Figure 4.9.
(5) [n evaluating Rx and R
y
, the allowable stress is taken to be Fty (yield) or
Ftu (ultimate) regardless of whether the applied stress is tenslon or com
pression. Applied tension is positive, applied compression is negative.
(6) Calculate the Inargin of safety using the twoparameter procedure outlined in
sccLion 4.4.1.
'fhe procedure [or deLermining the margin of safety where orientation of applied
stress with respect to the grain direction is known is as
(1) Determine applied stresses on an element with sides parallel and perpendicu
lar to the grain direction.
417
1/;1\,\,
\ \\ , .. ," ... " ..
\.'\. J I !,.
..... 1/.::""
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
2 I '2 ' '2
=
(Rn ma x) + (Rnmin} + (RnmaxRnmin) = 2 :
17
.....
e
=
/
p::
........
'"
+
k
/
to 1"
Rnminl 
.... 7:!Y
/
V/
. I
/.
V/
0..8
/
I \
RnmaxRnmjn=l
J
/
I
vy
0.6
/
/
V
2
A
O.!.
,I' J
//
i
"1
/
tfnI nin
!l I
/
I ...
I I
V
 I 4
11/
/
fnmaJ
V
1
..
V
,
It:R.
X
/1
0 .. 8 0
:6 .0.4 02 /
o 4 0.6
0.8 !
+1
nmalx
1/1

I I I .. :
I:
p
"  IV .IV
if; / Octahedral
t /
" l/ I Shear Stress_
I
'/
I)( r .
(Rnrnaxl
l/
O.!'!
, va 
I
/
.
I
Maximum
\
Shea.r Stress
V'
o .. e
The.oTr
Rn
mi
:r2
rRnmaxRnmin= 1
1<:=
\ 2
1
I I
1

r
.=
......
FIGURE 4.9 INTERACTION CURVES FOR BIAXIALLY STRESSED STRUCTURES
418
)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
(2) Evaluate'
where:
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
T and L refer to the and longitudinal grain direction.
J
If 0.5 K .577, use K = 0.5 and the appropriate transverse and longi
tudinal allowable stresses in calculating the principal stress ratios (equa
tions 4.18 and 4.19) and use the maximum shear stress interaction curve,
Figure 4.9.
If Kt 0.577 use K = 0.577 and the appropriate transverse and longitudinal
allowable stresses in calculating the principal stress ratios (equations 4.18
and 4.19) and use the octahedral shear stress interaction curve, Figure 4.9.
In evaluating Rx and Ry the allowable axial stress is taken to be Fty (yield)
or Ftu (ultimate) regardless of whether the applied stress is tension or com
pression. Applied tension is positive, applied compression is negative.
Calculate the margin of safety using the twoparameter interaction procedure
outlined in section 4.4.1.
4.5 .. 2 Uniaxial Stress Interaction Relationships
When compact structures such as beams are loaded by axial load, bending moment and
shear, methods other than those presented in section 4.5.1 must be used. Such con
ditions where shear does not combine in a simple twodimensional manner like that
shown in Figure 4.8 and conditions where shear, tension and bending must be combined
in the plastic region. Table 4.4 shows conservative interaction equations to be
used when combining these stresses. It is sometimes convenient to combine the maxi
mum bending stress and maximum shear stress even though these stresses do not occur
at the same It is recommended that several points in the section be checked
for their actual conditions of stress to reduce the conservatism.
4.5.3 Thick Walled Tubular Structures
The interaction stress ratios for the design and analysis of thick walled tubular
structures must be determined from critical tube strength and stability criteria.
Bending stress ratios must include the effects of secondary bending, if any, and
compressive stress ratios must be based on column stability criteria. For cases
involving combined tension and bending the exponents of 1.5 is conservative. Also
for combined shear and bending the exponent of 2 is generally conservative. Table
4.5 shows the applicable interaction equations and margin of safety equations along
with the applicable interaction curve.
4.5.4 Unstiffened Panels
The interaction stress ratios for flat rectangular and curved unstiffened panels are
based on elastic initial buckling. If a panel is subjected to direct axial stress,
tension is considered as negative compression using the critical compression allow
able. Table 4.6 shows the interaction relations
.
419
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
4.5.5 Unstiffened Cylindrical Shells
The shell structures for which interaction is shown must have a radius to thick
ness ratio greater than 10. Otherwise the interaction relationships given for
tubes should be used. The interaction stress ratios must be based on initial
buckling criteria. If direct axial stresses are present, tension is treated as
negative compression using the compression buckling allowable. Table 4.7 shows
the interaction relations.
4.5.6 Stiffened Structures
Table 4.8 shows combined loads interaction data for the design and analysis of
stiffened panel and cylindrical shell structures. The interaction stress ratios
must be based on stability criteria.
420
I
CASE
+y'
1
"'
2
3
+'" 4
N
......
/
I
TABLE 4.4 COMPACT STRUCTURESUNIAXIAL INTERACTION CRITERIA (NO CRIPPLING OR BUCKLING)
YIELD AND ULTIMATE CONDITIONS OF STRENGTH
Axial, bending (simple and complex), and shear (snnple and complex) on
beam cross section (symmetrical and unsymmetrical)
LOADING
Axis
LOADING
DESCRIPTION
Axial Tension
or
Compression
+
Bending
Axial Tension
or
Compression
+
Shear
Bending
+
Shear
Axial Tension
or
Compression
+
Bending
+
Shear
INTERACTION CURVE
EQUATION FIGURE
Ra + Rb
;::
1 4.10
R 2 + R 2
=
1 4.10
a s
R 2 + R 2 ;::
1 4.10
b s
(Ra + Rb)2
4.10
+ R 2
= 1
s
MARGIN OFSAFETY
EQUATION
1 1
R
a + Rb
1
JR2+R2
1
a s
1
jR2+R2
... 1
b s
1
+ R 2
s
1
REMARKS
CI)
.....
::a
C.
n
.....
c::
::a
:D
....
t:I
...,
(I)

C)
Z
:D
Z
c:
,.
r
+"
I
N
N
I
tTl
+"
.
+"
.()
110
t;>
0
t3
t30
111"3
"""t'r.l pjen
OC:
02::
2::11
Ss<
.iH
'Z
CIlH
!Z
0;3
en>
;i3g
tTlH
ZO
G')Z
t3
::J:O
,. H
(');3
()H
t;'"'4>
c:
t:I ".....,
trlZ
00
0
14
"'t1
"d
tI
H
Z
G')
0
:;d
IJj
c.:
(')
F
H
z
.......
Axial, bending (simple and complex), and shear (shnp1e and complex) on
beam cross section (symmetrical and unsymmetrical)
LOADING INTERACTION CURVE MARGINOFSAFETY
CASE LOADING DESCRIPTION EQUATION FIGURE EJ2UATION REMARKS
ROUND BARS
fst
Tension
1
1
rf:ft
2 2
JR 2 + R 2 5 +
R
t
+ R
st
:::
1 4.10
Torsion
t st
RECTANGULAR BARS
fst
1
Tension 1
2 2
VR 2 + R 2 6 + R
t
+ R
st
:::
1 4.10
Torsion
t st
BOLTS (FINGERTIGHT NUTS)
fs
7
ft
Tension
R 2 + R 3
= 1 4.24
+
t s
Shear
(1)
Rb ;: R
bx
' + f
(2) R R 2 + R
2
(4) M,,' M (cos a cos 8 + sin O! sin e )
=
s sx' sy'
M' = M (cos (l < sin e + sin a cos 9 )
)
y
( 3) 8 1/2 tan
.. 1
( 5)
Vx
t
= V (cos f3 cos e + sin t3 sin 8 )
=
V '
::;;;:
V (cos {3 sin e + sin (3 cos () )
y
(6)
R
f
t R
f M.
R
by
'
M f
sx'z::,
f
sz::'z::
=
,
= ......,..,
Rbxt
:::_K_, = ....L...., R
sx'
= R = (YIELD)
t c
sy'
F ty
F M'
M. F F
cy x'y
Y y sy sy
f
R
f M
t
fsx'
f
R;;;: t,
= .........,
Rbxt
;; _x_,
Rby'
 , R
= R (ULTIMATE)
t  c
sx'
'
sy'
F
tu
F M M F F
tu x'u y'u su su
(7)
(8) M
x'y,
M
xu,
M
y'y,
and M
y'u
are yield and
ultimate allowable bending moments.
f f
sx'u,
f
sy'
and f t are yield and ultimate
plastic bending shear stresses.
sx y,
sy u
(9)

<

e
LOADING LOADING TNTF.RAr.TTON r.lJRVF. MARGINOFSAFETY
CASE PICTURE DESCRIPTION EQUATION FIGURE EQUATION REMARKS
ROUND TUBES
Gee
;b
Compress.ion 1
1
1
+ R
c + Rb ==
1 4.10 R
c + Rb
Bending
tI
@)b
Let
Tension
R 1.5 + R R
t
R1
2
+
:::::
1 4.23
t b
Rj) ;;: R2
fl,pniiinc
tst
Bending
1
.. 1
(0
+ R 2 J 2 2 3 + =
1 4.10
Torsion,
st
Rb + R
st
'
(I)
4
::.:I
=
Gjb
Tension
K
bt
 it/R
t
1
a at
Ge
+
R 2 + R 2
IjR L+R2
1
vhcre R
t
and Rb are ob
4 a t:3
4
Bending
=
1 4.10
talned ft:om figure 4.k' (R
t
;
bt s bt s R ib R2t n 1.5) by
+ tAe tvo.loadsacting
Shear
procedure as outlined in
eection 4.4.1
n
.....
c:
:::a
l:II
r
Compression
Let
,
1 _]
R
c + Rb R1
+
;;:
5 Bending
(Rc + Rb)2 + R
i
4.10
j<Rc + Rb)2 + Rs
2
R = R
fs +
s s 2
Shear
C
rI1
(I)

1
1
6 . Bending R 2 + R 2
= 1 4.10 }R2+R2
+
b s b s
fs
Shear
Gt
1
BC @ ft
Tension
R 2 + R 2
JR 2 + R 2
1
7
+ = 1 4.10 .
Torsion
t st t st
CD
z
3:
l:II
Z.
=
Compression
1
In using figure
00
+
R 2 + R
2
+ jR 2 + R 2
1 4.11 follow two
8
=
4.11 R loadsacting pro
Bending b st c b st
cedures as au t
(lR )2
+
lined in section
Torsion
c
t... Q 1
:;c l:II
CD
r
<
.....
til
.....
0
::s
to
TABLE 4.5 THICKWALLED TUBULAR STRUCTURESINTERACTION CRITERIAYIELD AND ULTIMATE
CONDITIONS OF STRENGTH, INCLUDING THE EFFECTS OF COLUMN STABILITY (CONCLUDED)
LOADING LOADING INTERACTION CURVE MARGINOFSAFETY
CASE PICTURE DESCRIPTION EQUATION FIGURE EQUATION REMARKS
Compression
ru)
+
1
In using figure
Bending
R
c + R
st
1
4.12, follow two
9
4.12
+
.5
a
loadsacting
.;,
Torsion
+ 1
Rc+R
st
+ Rb+Rs proced':Jre as out
+
lined in section
Shear 4.4.1
fst
Tension
R 2 + R 2
+
1
10
8C00
Torsion
t st
4.13
1
2 + R 2 + R 2
t
+
+ R 2
= 1
Internal
p
t st p
Pressure
STREAMLINE TUBES
CC
Bending 1
1
11
+ Rb + R
st
= 1 4.10
IJRb + R
Torsion
SQUARE TUBES
ec
Let
Cqmpression
R
= Rl
12
+ 4.14 c
Torsion
R
:::
R2
s
NOTES:
(1) R must be based on the tube column allowable.
(2) must be based on the material strength allowable.
(3) Rb and R t must be based on tube strength al1owables.
(4) Rb must fnclude the effects of secondary bending.
(5) For shearbending analysis use f = f and fb = fb even though the locations of the two
maxima do not coincide. The is equal to the lower of 1.20
times the allowable torsional shear stress and the material allowable shear stress.
(6) R = pd/2t F
t
d = tube mean diameter, t wall thickness.
p u

CD
z
!I:
:lit
Z
=
:lit
r
.r:
I
N
t.n
CASE
1
2
3
4
B
B
./'
LOADING INTERACTION CURVE
LOADING DESCRIPTION EQUATION FIGURE MARGINOFSAFETY
(
I
,
J f
ex
or ftx
Longitudinal
Compression
8DB 8
or
Tension 4.15
+
f f f t fey
Transverse
Shear
f f f
1'ty
Longitudinal
t
I I
or
Compression
Df
cx
+
Transverse
Compression 4.15
or
f
1
I . 1
Tension
I I I
j
Longitudinal
2
BDsO'a
Compression R
+ R 2
= 1 R V t + 4R
ex s ex ex s
or
4.14
or
Tension
or
R + R 2 1
2
1
+
= (1)
+
tx S
Shear
4R
fs
s
t
j
J
f ftv
+
I I
or
f fev .
Transverse
1CJt
f
s
Compression
or
Tension 4.16
+
n
I
Shear
r t
I I l
TABLE 4.6. UNSTIFFENED PANEL INTERACTION CRITERIA (INITIAL BUCKLING)
REMARKS
R or R
tx
= Rl
ex
R ;;;;; R
s 2
. 
CI)
.....
::a
c:
c)
.....
c:
:::a
::a:
r
et
...,
CI)

CD
z
:i:
::a:
z
c:
::a:
r
LOADING TN'T'F.RAr.TTON fIIRVI(
CASE LOADING DESCRIPTION EQUATION MARGINOFSAFETY REMARKS
f
ex
f
bx
Longitudinal In using Figure
Compression 4.17, follow two
S
+
4.17
loadsacting as
Longitudinal outlined in
Bending Section 4.4.1.
......:
f
+ s
c:::lt':::'!:l""
Longitudinal In using Figure
I
i
l f cx
f
bx
Compression 4.18, follow
+
loadsacting as
Transverse
4.18
outlined in
6
Compression Section 4.4.2.
+
t f f t fey Longitudinal
Bendink!
* I Jfcy
Longitudinal
Compression
+
7
Transverse
4.19
Compression
+
Shear
.
L :[Jf
CY
f
bx
Transverse In using Figure
Compression 4.20, follow
+
loadsacting as
8
Longitudinal
4.20
outlined in
Bending Section 4.4.2.

fa t=r=n
+
Shear
f
bx
Longitudinal In using Figure
Bending 4.20, use R /R
s
9
+
4.20 = 0 curve an
Shear follow twoloads
acting as outlined
s
in Section 4.4.1.
TABLE 4.6 (CQNT'D). UNSTIFFENED PANEL INTERACTION CRITERIA (INITIAL BUCKLING).
I .
LOADING
INTERACTION CURVE
CASE LOADING DESCRIPTION EQUATION FIGURE, REMARKS
ttl ffCY n using Figure
!Bending use R =
" 10
+
4.18 follow
,trransverse oadsacting of
I I , t'
Compression 4.4.1.
R + R 1.75=1
Compression
=
Rl
11
+
ex bx
jL.ongitudinal
;)
=
R2
:\cx
f
, f ex or 'tl(
I I
12
8 BDB B
or .
rension
+
f f f
transverse
r:omnression
t I f
tftv
or
.... ongitudinal
.
t J I
lfCY
t;ompression
+
13 Compression
or
t 1ft
trension
I I I J
TABLE 4.6 (CONT'D). UNSTIFFENED PANEL INTERACTION CRITERIA (INITIAL BUCKLING)
0
(I)
I
=a
c:
.....
C
:::IC
::1:1
r
C
rr
v.

a:
:2
:I
:1:1
:I
C
21
,.
LOADING INTERACTION CURVE
CASE LOADING DESCRIPTION "EQUATION FIGURE MARGINOFSAFETY REMARKS
t
I I
"tv
,
j
I
Transverse
Compression R = R
cy 1
or
R = R
Tension s 2
14 + 4.14
Shear (2)
f
I I
t
I I I J
fs
f
ex or f
tx
2 1
R = R
BBiD:BB
Longitudinal ex 1
Compression R
+ R 2
= 1 + R 2 + 4R z R = R
ex s ex ex s s 2
15
or
4.14
Tension
or  2
or or

R + R
;:;
1 (1) 2 R = R
+
tx s 1 tx 1
Shear
Rtx+JRtx
2
+
4R "L
Rs = R2
s
,
Longitudinal
f Q tfex
.
:
Bending
+
16 Transverse 4.22
Compression
,
+
! I I J s
Shear

Jfcy
I
I I Transverse

Compression
+ R 2
2
2,1
+ R = 1
2 +
R = R
17
Shear
cy s 4.23 + R 4R s 1
cy s
R = R
n,,
ey 2
TABLE 4. 6 ( r .... 'TT t D). UN STIFFENED PANEL T 1.1'rERACT I ON CRITERIA (I NITI AT. BUCKLING)
e
e
I
CASE
18
19
20
LOADING
LOADING
DESCRIPTION
to I ri::: Longitudinal
bx! Bending
, +
, Transverse
itt t \ Compression
f f
....... . ..a.. ex
1 Compresslon
.1 e +
, ,_ ...... _ : Shear
LUMVr..;U
f . Longitudinal
S 'ex Of' fhl Compression
21
INTERACTION CURVE
EQUATION FIGURE
4.22
4.14
( 3)
MARGINOFSAFETY REMARKS
2
In using Figure
4.22, R = 0 and
follow
acting as outlined
in Section 4.4.1.
R = R
R + R '2 = 1
ex s
+1R 2 + 4R 2
4.23 ex lcx S
Eo 1
or
2
R
t
+ R = 1
x s
4.14
(1)
R = R
cx 2
2
+: IR 2 + 4R 2
ex ex s
or
2
+ R
t
2 + 4R 2'
x x s
TABLE 4.6 (CONT'D). UNSTIFFENED PANEL INTERACTION CRITERIA (INITIAL BUCKLING)
CI)
.....
::a
c:
n
.....
c:
:::a
>
r
CI
,.,
CI)

G)
Z
s::
>
z
c:
>
r
LOADING INTERACTION CURVE
CASE LOADING DESCRIPTION EQUATION FIGURE MARGINOFSAFETY
~ D ~
Longitudinal
Compression R
2
1 Rpl
=1 4 .. 24

22 cx
+
Internal
f p f
ex Pressure ex
f
$
...:.... ..... ~
Shear
pl)[]\
+
R 2
I Rp\
1 4 .. 24
 =
23 Internal
s
Pressure
~ ' I I . '  '   
NOTES:
(1) R, R
b
, and R must be based on panel initial buckling allowables.
c s
(2) R is negative and is based on compression allowable.
t
(3) R is negative and is based on external collapsing pressure.
p
(4) S  simple supports, C = clamped supports, e = elastic supports.
(5) Dimensions; a = long side, b = short side.
TABLE 4.6 (CONT'D). UNSTIFFENED PANEL INTERACTION CRITERIA (INITIAL BUCKLING)
REMARKS
R =
Rl
cx
R =
R2
p
R
~
Rl
s
R
R2 =
p
CI)
.....
~
c:
n
I
c:
::a
:r:
....
~
rn
CI)

Ci)
z
31:
:r:
z
c:
:r:
r
CASE
1
2
3
4
5
6
LOADING
INTERACTION CURVE
LOADING DESCRIPTION EQUATION FIGURE MARGINOFSAFETY REMARKS
Longitudinal
1
Compression
R + R ;;: 1 4.10 R
c + Rb
 1
+
c b
Longitudinal
"
./
Bending
Longitudinal
f
t Tension
+ 4.25
R
t
= Rl
Rb + O.9R
t
= 1
Longitudinal
Rb = R2
Bending
Longitudinal
R
+ R t
2
1
2
iI
'.fst
;:;;
R \fR 2 +
R = R
Compression c s
4.23 4R
st
st 1
+ R = R
Torsion
c c
c 2
'
./
Longitudinal
R
st
3
IRtl IRtl < 0.8
=
1
Tension
st
+ 4.24 R = R
st 1
Torsion
IRtl
= R
\..... ./ 2
Longitudinal

ill. 1.5 + R 2
Bending = 1
Rb = Rl '
b st
4.24
+
Torsion
R ;;: R
st 2
fSo
Longitudinal
3
Bending =
1
b 5
4.10
+
Transverse
Shear
TABLE 4.7. UNSTIFFENED CYLINDRICAL SHELL STRUCTURES (INITIAL BUCKLING)
(I)
I
::a
c:
n
c:
::a
,..
r
CJ
,..,
(I)

CD
z
51:
,..
z
= ,..
r
CASE
7
8
9
10
I
LOADING
LOADING INTERACTION CURVE
DESCRIPTION WIGURE MARGINOFSAFETY
Longitudinal
Compression
or
Tension or
Lon;itudina1 11: + Rb + Rst
2
= 1
Bending
+
Longitudinal
Compression
+
Longi tudinal 1 Rc + Rb
3
+ Rs
3
i ... 1
Bending
+
Transverse
Shear
Longitudinal
Bending
+
Torsion
+
Transverse
Shear
Longitudinal
Compression
+
Longit:udinal
Bending
+
Torsion
+
Transverse
C:'ho.!:IT'
2
RbP+(R
s
+ R
st
)
= 1
R + R 2
c st
+ 3 + R 3 i
" b s .
 1
4.14
(1)
4.23
2 1
+..., +J<ac: + ,\)2 +' 41,tt i 
or
2 '
", + IlJ + + ',,8../ 1
REMARKS
RC + Rb = Rl
R
st
:; R2
or
R
t
+ Rb = R1
R
st
;; R2
If
R + VR 3 + R
cbs
MS ;;:: +
For
R
st
$' Rs
P = 1,
R < R
st s
P ;;;;; 1.5
If
R + R 2
c st
+ IR 3 + R 3 '< 1
" b s
MS +
TABLE 4.7 (CONTID). UNSTIFFENED CYLINDRICAL SHELL STRUCTURES (INITIAL BUCKLING)
A.


CASE
11
12
13
14
15
NOTES:
LOADING
LOADING
DESCRIPTION
fst Torsion
p +
f ~
uP
Internal
Pressure
Transverse
Shear
+
Internal
Pressure
Longitudinal
Bending
+
Torsion
+
Transverse
Longitudinal
Bending
+
Transverse
Shear
Longitudinal
Bending
+
Torsion
',,.
EQUATION FIGURE MARGINOFSAFETY
Rb
2
+ (R + R ) 2 "" 1 4 1 0 1 .. 1
S st .. /
Rb
2 + (R + R ) 2
l s st
I
4.10
1
2 2 1
R + R
b x
1
"Ji""="Jiii=I=IIIJIIIIl
4 .. 10
REMARKS
R + Rl
st
R = R
P 2
Rb :;; Rl
R + R = R2
s st
(1) R, R
b
, R , and R must be based on cylindrical shell initial buckling allowables.
c st s
(2) R
t
is negative and is based on compression buckling allowable.
(3) For shearbending analysis, use f = f and fb :;; fb even though the locations of the maxima
s smax max
do not coincide. The transverse shear buckling allowable stress is equal to 1.2 times the
torsional buckling allowable.
(4) The interaction equations are applicable to both internally pressurized and unpressurized
cylinders.
, TABLE 4.7 (CONT'n). UNSTIFFENED CYLINDRICAL SHELL STRUCTURES (INITIAL BUCKLING)

+'"
t...J
+'"
)II
to
tt
t;Ij
(X)
til
H
I"1j
I":j
I:lj
Z
I:lj
t='
CIl
8
()
t3
c::
el
til
CIl
.3
rn
H
t.
H
.3

LOADING
CASE
FT.A'l' RF.C'.1'ANc:nT.AR r.ORRTTI"!A.TED PANELS
f t f t'e
Longitudinal
rfIJ f'kfi;.!V
Compression
1
rl ti
+
Shear
t

, I I J
CURVED PANELS
Longitudinal
Ig:
Compression
2
1 ts.
+
Shear
CIRCULAR CYLINDERS
'b
Longitudinal
Bending
' ..... r .........
'r
...... i/
+
3
' ....
Torsion
, ...........
fb
Longitudinal
...LL
Bending
" .... _""',,!
+
4
'r. "","
Shear
'!"0 r .... "
, .............
'c
Longitudinal
c.:,) fit
r.r.
Compression
,...,....
5
.... """i"
+
Torsion
, .....
INTERACTION CURVE
EOtTA1'TON
R
+ R 1.7
= 1
c s
4.23
+ R 2
4.23
R
=
1
c s
2
Rb + R
1
st
4.23
ROO
00
= 1 +R
b s
4.10
(Zero Interac
tion)
1.5
R +R .... 1
c st
4.23
2
+JR
c
2
+
2,1
R 4R
c s
2  I
1
Rb
+: Rb
2
+ 4R
2
st
I
Rb
I or
1
1
 
Rs

Ci)
:z
!I:
,..
:z
c:
,..
NOTES: r
(1) R, R , and R must be based on stiffened structures stability criteria.
c p st
(2) For shearbending analysis of circular cylinders use f = f and fb = fb even though the
s smax max
locations of the maxima do not coincide. For circular cylinder general instability failure cridilif
e the allowable shear stress 0.8 times the .. torsional shear str
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
1.0
m
00
20
10
)
8
0.8
6
5
0.6
R2
3.5
3

0.4
2.5
1.6
0.2 1.4
m m
Rl + R2 =1
1.2
1
0
)
0 0.2 0 .. 4 Or6 0.8 1..0
Rl
FIGURE 4.10 GENERAL INTERACTION CURVES
435
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
;f."
': ,
" .
:, .
,', , c
.' I   ,,';
FIGURE 4.11. INTERACTION CURVES FOR THICKWALLED ROUND TUBES COMPRESSION,
BENDING, AND TORSION (REF. TABLE 4.5, CASE 8).
436
)
..r;:..
l,..)
...J
tt
1.0 O.B
Rb
2
t A/
RC
0.6
v
0.4
Rc
~
ttl[JJ}
fs

0.2 o
1.0
0.8
0.6
=
a:
0.'1
0.2
o
o 0.2
~ .  /
0.4 0.6 0.8
Rb
2
+ R,/
FIGURE 4.12. INTERACTION CURVES FOR THICKWALLED ROUND TUBES: COMPRESSION, BENDING,
TORSION AND SHEAR R ~ F . TABLE 4.5, CASE 9).

Cf)
.....
:=tt
c:
n
I
c:
:::a
,.
.
= ",
Cf)

a,
z
:I:
,.
Z
1.0 .
Ie::
,.
r
...
a:
438
STRUCTURAL MANUAL
O.S !_ ....... ....;L. ""':
R
For: Rp < R t' use ..,.,J! with R l
S lOst S
R
st
For: Ru < R useR with R
p p p
__ __
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
FIGURE 4.13 INTERACTION CURVES FOR THICKWALLED ROUND TUBES
TENSION, TORSION AND INTERNAL PRESSURE (REF.
TABLE 4.5, CASE 10)
1.0
)
)
e
i
\
I
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
1
T I ( 1.8 .
. I
i ....
Io<D
'"
r::::::
1.6
.f..
N
a::  1.4
I
l
.
/
1.2

V
V
r
@...../
,
/
lr<D

,
/
c
f
r
I@
.
V //
0.8
K
t

I.
CURVE
REFERENCE
NO. EQUATION TARLE NO. CASE NO. l I 0.6
I
CD
2
4.6 3,15 ;23
R1 + R2 1
.
4.7 7
1
4 .. 6 14
\

@ 4.6 19
0.2
.... _GJ
4.5
12
,\
I . I
I
I I . I . .
0
1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 o 0.2 0.4 0.6 , 0.8 1.0
FIGURE 4.14. GENERAL INTERACTION CURVES
439
"8 STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
....   .
alb
.
'f
41.4
tJ...J,
i', J 1
" co
""l
I
....
.........
i'" r ....
=

.
>
0.8
u
cc
I
I
0.6
!
t
f fey
f f f , I I
 '1111
r
1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0
I
Rtl(
0.2
I
J
l:
a:
I
 0.6
I
I
0.8
""""
...
" ',I""
l'\
,
"

f
cy
' "
, I I I
l '"
0.2 0.4 0.6
. .
/(
__
mvb
I I
.. 1
1
T7
, ...... ""
J'tr/"
,r l
" ,
"
N
0.8
l\
.1.2
aI b
co,
4
3
2
1
I
fty I
L'Rcx

,
i\.
alb
1
.\
!'
....
!
f
1
ex
j4
f I I I t

i

2
3
4
co
I
',.0

440
'
FIGURE 4.15. INTERACTION CURVES FOR FLAT RECTANGULAR PANELS
(REF. TABLE 4.6, CASES 1 AND 2)
I
.....
,
t+I E t t t t
..... ........ ...... ......1 fI
1 !+!=I I
t+'+ f.
...... ___ ..... of
+ * + +
"_/
1.4
1.2 rI +++11++++1
I 1.0 ......... I alb
O.S
fc:y . __
1+......  7.c:: '<: 'I '" 0::
i + iTI
0.6 1 _ __ _
0.4
I : ED' I
1+ , b " r f
i .. l S
......  ""'l1lI:'"
t f J t t
0.2
o
0.8 0.6 0.4
R
tv
.
0.2 o 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 O.S 1.0
Rev
FIGURE 4.16. INTERACTION CURVES FOR FLAT RECTANGULAR PANELS (REF. TABLE 4.6, CASE 4)
tit
).1
;;:
,
(I)
I
:::u
c:
n
.....
c:
:=a
:Da
r
et
.."
(I)

t:i)
z
B:
:Da
Z
=
:Da
r
+::.
I
.+::.
tv
t.o
f$ f
ex
1.0
0.8 I '< 'Y" '" I'" 1<:
0.6
)(
I
0.4
Q2 I
o
0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 o 0 0.2
0,4 0.5 0.8 to
Rcx R,.
FIGURE 4.17. INTERACTION CURVES FOR FLAT RECTANGULAR PANELS (REF. TABLE 4.6, CASE 5)
a
(I)
......
c:
n
......
c:
:.:.
r
C
..,,
(I)

cu
z
E
.:.:..
z
c:
:.:.
r
.)
~
tt:
')
')(
.D
~
)
srRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
alb" 0.8
alb = 1.0
1.0       p    . . .   . . . .   ~  . . .       . . . . _ _ r _ _ 1.0
0.8
0.6
0.'"
0.2.
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6
Rcy
alb" t.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2.
0
0 ()'2. 0.4 0.6
Rcy
FIGURE 4.18.
0.8
0.6
~
u:
0.4
0.2
0
0.8 1.0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6
Rey
alb c 1.6
1.0
0.8
0.6
I
II:
0.4
0.2.
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6
Re:y
INTERACTION CURVES FOR FLAT RECTANGULAR PANELS
,(REF. TABLE 4.6, CASES 6 AND 10)
0.8
0.8
. 443
1.0
.\
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
I,f/
alb 2.0
alb 3.0
1.0
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.6
11
lit
')
.D
a:: a::
0.4
0.4
0.2 0.2
o
a
a 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
a 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
o
o 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.9 1.0
Rcy
FIGURE 4.18.
,
(CONT'n) INTERACTION CURVES FOR FLAT RECTANGULAR PANELS  (REF. TABLE 4.l .1
6 AND 10)
4 .. 44
)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
alb c: 1
1 ,0
0.9
0.8
O. 7
0.6
0.5
a:
>
u
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
Rex
alb .... 2
1.0
0.9
0.8
a:: 0.5 ........
0.4 .....+to.rfo
C.3
0.2
0.1
o 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
Rex
alb 4
1.0
0.9
O.B
O. 7
0.6 Ir+...+'I...+'
0.5 ..........
a::
0.4 I+'Ir+
0.3
0.2
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 O.S 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
G'
ex
alb" 1.1ft
1. 0
0. 0
> 0.6
CJI
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.1 0.20.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 O.B 0.9 1.0
R
ex
alb 3
1 .0 __ ............
0.9
0.8
O. 7 I+..........
O. 6
>
u
a:
0.3
0.1
o
o 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
R
f
cv
ex
FIGURE 4.19. INTERACTION CURVES FOR FLAT PANELS (REF. TABLE 4.6,
CASE 7)
445
I
0'
1.0
e
fey
t Jt=tf
.... ................ s
 ........  f.
4 J I '" bx
alb == CD
1.0
O.S
O.S I
I Rex
R.
I I I I
l(
0 .0
I
0.+
o.i
r
0.4 to
I J

. I
r I
I
0.6
0.2
t
O.S
o
0.8 0.6 0.4
0.2 o o 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
Rey
RS
FIGURE 4.20. INTERACTION CURVES FOR FLAT RECTANGULAR PANELS (REF. TABLE 4.6, CASES 8 AND 9)
e
CD
f: '\
<
 '..." \\
.....
en
;:1111 ;;;J
.....
0
::s
tJj
"en
......
:=tel
c:
cJ
......
c:
::a
:r
r
et
...,
(I)

Ci)
:z
31:
:r
:z
c:
:r
r
1.0
e
e)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
fey 0.4
_1+++'' ~ f ~ ~
4 I I 4 4 4 411
1.0 0.8 0.6
t++++!++O.61++I+++++I4....J.+""'I
FIGURE 4.21. INTERACTION CURVES FOR FLAT RECTANGULAR PANELS
(REF. TABLE 4.6, CASES 12 AND 13)
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STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
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(REF. TABLE 4.6, CASES 16 AND 18)
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STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
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FIGURE 4.23. UNSYMMETRICAL GENERAL INTERACTION CURVES
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STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
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FIGURE 4.24. SPECIAL INTERACTION CURVES
A
1.0 ___
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FIGURE 4.25. LINEAR INTERACTION CURVES.
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5. L GENERAL
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
SECTION 5
MATEPIALS
This section describes the materials corrunonly used at Bell Helicopter. The forms,
temper designations, properties, design limiations and testing methods are dis
cussed. The information contained herein is in agreement with MILHDBKS and
MILHDBKI7. For information on materials not shown in this section the appro
priate material specification or the previously referenced handbooks should be
consulted.
5.1.1 Material Properties
The physical properites of some materials are shown in Table 5.1. This is a sum
mary of commercially pure eJ ements and is presented for comparison only.
Primary strength properties of metallic materials are minimum values at room
temperature, established on an A, B, C or S basis.
Elongation and reduction in area properties presented in the referenced handbook
property tables are minimum values at room temperature, established on an A or
S basis. Elongation and reduction in area at other temperatures, as well as
elastic properties (E, Ec, G and IJ), physical properties (w, C, K and a), creep
properites and fracture toughness properties are average unless otherwise speci
fied.
A Basis  The mechanicalproperty value indicated is the value above which at least
99 percent of the population of values is expected to fall, with a confidence of
95 percent.
B Basis  The mechanicalproperty value indicated is the value above which at least
90 percent of the population of values is expected to fall, with a confidence of
95 percent.
S Basis  The mechanicalproperty value indicated is usually the specified n ~
mum value of the appropriate Goverrunentspecification, or SAE Aerospace Material
Specification for this material. The statistical assurance associated with this
value is not known.
C Basis  The mechanical property value indicated is the value developed by
tests at Bell Helicopter.
5.1.2 Selection of Design Allowables
Specification MILS8698 contains the general requirements which in combination
with specific model detail specifications set the requirements for structural
design, analysis and test of helicopters. It is required by these specifications
that minimum guaranteed values (A values) be used with nominal dimensions. Nomi
nal is the average between tolerances.
The use of B values must be approved by the procuring agency. If conditions such
as crash, rollover or impact produce loads in excess of maneuver design loads,
consideration should be given._to requesting permission for use of B values.
51
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
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MATERIAL
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ALUMINUM 27 .098 1215 3733 168 .226 2912 13.1 2.66 10
BERYLLIUM 9 .. 067 2345 5036 581  6.3 18.5 42
CADMIUM 112 .. 313 608 1411 24 .055 1215 27.8 7.6 10
CALCIUM 40 .. 056 1564 2719 143 .157

12.9 4.6

CHROMIUM 52 .258 2822 4500 .J8 .12 924 4.2 13.1 36
COBALT 59 .322 2696 5252 107 .099 924 6.2 9.7 30
COPPER 64 .323 1981 4703 92 .. 092 5169 8.5 1.7 16
GOLD 197 .697 1945 5371 29 .. 031 3959 7.4 2.4 12
GRAPHITE 12 .081 6740 8730

.17 1800 1.2 78.0 7
INCONEL 56 .300 2600
 
.109 200 6.2 98.0 31
IRON 56 .284 2795 5438 119 .108 1064 6.1 9.8 29.7
LEAD 207 .410 621 3171 11 .03 1652 15.2 20.7 2.6
MAGNESIUM 24 .063 1204 2025 118 .249 2106 13.2 4.5 6 .. 3
MANGANESE 55 .269 2268 3904 118 .107

11.7 185 23
MERCURY 201 .489 38 675 5 .033 112

95.8

MOLYBDENUM 96 .369 4748 8677

.065 1938 2.8 4.8

NICKEL 59 .320 2646 5252 135 .112 784 7.1 6.9 30.
PLATINUM 195 .775 3224 7932 50 .032 932 4.5 9.8 24 .. 2
SILVER 108 .379 1761 3634 44 .056 5454 9.} 1.6 11.2
trIN 119 .264 449 4118 26 .548 879 11.5 11 .. 5 4.0
IrITANIUM 48 .163 3272 9212

.142 223 3.7 3 .. 0 15.5
TUNGSTEN 184, .697 6098 10701 80 .034 2666 2.3 5.5 )1.4
URANIUM 238 .676 3075 6332

.028

..
60.0

VANADIUM 51 .205 3110 5432

.115 373 5 26.0 19
ZINC 65 .258 787 1665 44 .093 1501 23 6.2 17.0
TABLE 5.1  COMPARISON OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ELE.MENTS
52
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C values must also be approved by the procuring agency. These values should be
developed in accordance with the procedure outlined in MILHDBK5 for allowable
development.
Regardless of the values used the structure must sustain static ultimate load with
out failure. The use of any value in excess of A values does not justify static
test failures.
5.1.3 Structural Design Criteria
It is the responsibility of the Airframe Structures group to prepare a Structural
Design Criteria report for each model helicopter. This document is based on the
requirements of the detail specification for the helicopter. It contains the
structural criteria to which the helicopter will be designed and tested. This
report shOUld specify the materials, limitations and allowable basis.
5.2 MATERIAL FORMS
The metallic materials most cmnmonly used at Bell Helicopter come in a variety of
forms. They are available as pla'te, sheet, bar, extrusion, forging and casting.
The selection of a form for a particular part should be based on material proper
ties, machining costs, compatibility with part shape and manufacturing methods,
total manufacturing cost and availability.
All of the rolled, drawn, extruded and forged forms exhibit anisotropic properties.
These properties often differ considerably along the principal axes particularly
in forgings. The directional characteristics are produced by moving the material
during forming. Castings, since they are formed in the molten state, do not exhibit
these directional properties. The anisotropic properties are defined as longitudi
nal (L), long transverse (LT) and short transverse (ST). These terms define the
direction the grain is formed within the material. Figure 51 shows typical
examples of grain directions in various forms of materials.
5.2.1 Extruded, Ro.lled and Drawn Forms
These forms are produced by rolling and by forcing or drawing metal through dies
to the proper shape. In these processes, the grains are elongated in the direc
tion of extrusion or rolling and are parallel to the longitudinal direction of
the finished product as it comes from the mill. These processes can be used to
make many different products. Some common products and forming methods are defined
as follows:
Sheet  rolled flat products less than .250 inch thick (most materials)
Clad  a thin coating of metal bonded to the base alloy by cold rolling. The
purpose is to improve the corrosion resistance of the basic metal.
Thickness of the clad is generally ~  5% of the total. thickness per
side.
Plate  rolled flat products generally .250 inch or greater in thickness.
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STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
MACHINED BAR EXTRUSION
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ACROSS OR NEAR
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FORGED BLOCK
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SHEET, PLATE,
RECTANGULAR BAR,
HAND FORGING
A = LONGITUDINAL
B = LONG TRANSVERSE
C = SHORT TRANSVERSE
BAR (EXTRUDED, FORGED,
DRAWN, ROLLED, WIRE)
ROUND
SQUARE
HEX
TUBING
FIGURE 5.1  OF GRAIN DIRECTIONS IN VARIOUS MATERIAL FORMS
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STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Extrusion  formed by forcing metal at elevated temperature through a die.
Stepped extrusion  a single product with one or more abrupt changesin
cross section.
Impact extrusion  a product formed by a punch striking unheated metal in
a confining die and consequently extruded through an opening or
around the punch.
Hot impact extrusion  the same as the previous impact extrusion except the
metal is preheated.
Drawing  forming the cross section by pulling it through a die.
Wire  a drawn form with a diameter or width across the flats of less than
.375 inch.
Rod  a drawn form with a diameter greater than .375 inch.
Bar  a drawn form with a width across the flats greater than .375 inch.
5.2.2 Forged Forms
Forged forms are produced by impacting or pressing the material into a predetermined
configuration. Preforge stock has generally been pressed, rolled, hammered or
extruded to produce a well wrought material. Pressure is then applied to force the
preforge stock into the desired shape. Preforms and multiple dies are often
necessary to produce the desired configuration and tolerances in die forgings. The
mechanical properties of maximum parallel to the grain flow. This is
the primary advantage of a forging. Parts should be designed to fully utilize
these properties. However, the disadvantage of a forging is that the mechanical
properties transverse to the grain flow and parallel to the compression forces exerted
on the material are minimum. These are called the short transverse properties and
the part should be designed to minimize the occurrence of areas where short transverse
can occur.
Terms normally used to describe forgings are as follows:
Forging  plastically deforming metal into desired shap'es. Dies mayor may
not be used.
Hand forgings  a product formed by hot working the material, usually between
simple flat dies, into the desired shape. This process requires
the least expensive dies but most expensive machining. These
forgings come in two types:
Hand forged billet  aforged block with basically unidirec
tional properties. Must be completely machined to shape.
Shaped hand forgings  a product forged into a shape that
generally outlines the basic contour of the desired final
configuration.
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STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Blocker die forgings  the final forging the machined configuration
and is generally on all surfaces. Approximately .25 to .50
inch excess material is allowed on all surfaces of the blocker forging
depending on part size, configuration and material. Low die cost.
High material cost.
Conventional die forgings  made in caosed dies. The final forging more closely
resembles the machined part than the blocker die forging. Usually some
lias forged" surfaces are left on the finished part. Medium die cost,
__ machine cost.
Closetoform die forging  the forging approximates the finished part as closely
as possible. Machining is minimized and most surfaces are used ttas forged".
Highest die cost. Lowest machine cost.
Flash  metal which is extruded through the space be.tween dIe halves along
the parting line.
Mismatch  the die halves will not match perfectly. The offset of the dies
at the parting line.
As Forged  the term "as forged" is used to describe the surfaces that are not
machined. Forged surfaces of steel and titanium are usually chernmilled
to remove decarburization and alpha case but are still referred to as
"as forged" surfaces.
All forgings produced at Bell Helicopter must satisfy the requirements of Bell
Process Specification BPS FW40l7. This specification must be shown on the drawing.
5.2.3 Cast Forms
A casting is a product made by pouring molten material into a mold of predetermined
shape. The material is allowed to solidify and then removed from the mold.
There are generally four types of castings available:
Sand casting  a mold of compacted sand is made for each individual part
to be poured. The mold is broken away from the part after solidifi
cation.
Permanent mold casting  a mold of high strength steel alloy is most
commonly used. The mold is reusable. Castings produced in these
molds usually yield high quality parts due to the chilling action
of the mold and core.
Investment casting  a mold of plaster is formed around an expendable or
plastic pattern. The pattern is burned out of the mold leaving the
desired cavi ty into which the mol ten met.al is poured. More intricate
parts can be cast by this method.
Die casting  molten metal is injected into metal dies under pressure.
Die castings are not used in structural applications.
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STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Casting strengths are not significantly directional but they do vary from part to
part, lot to lot, and even within the individual part. This is usually caused by
cooling rate differences due to thickness changes. It can also be caused by poor
manufacturing techniques; such as improper location of chill blocks, risers and
gates. Cooling rate can be controlled by use of chill blocks which tend to improve
the structural quality of the casting.
Bell Process Specification BPS FW4163 should be specified on the drawing of all
castings except die castings. The drawing should also contain the casting classifi
cation. The Structures Engineer should make sure the stress analysis contains the
casting factors specified in the Structural Design Criteria and check to see that
the casting is properly classified according to one of the following:
c'lass IA  A class IA casting is a casting, the single failure of which
would result in the loss of the aircraft, one of its major components, or
loss of control.
Class IB  Class IB includes all critical castings which are not included
Class IA and which would cause unintentional release of or inability to
release anyarmament/store, failure of gun installation components, or
failure of which may cause significant injury to occupants of the aircraft.
Class IIA  Class IIA castings are those not included in either Class IA
or Class IB, which have a margin of safety of 200 percent or less
(MS 2 .. 0).
Class lIB  Class lIB castings are those castings having a margin of safety
greater than 200 percent (MS > 2.0), or those for which no stress analysis
is required ..
The Structures Engineer is responsible for insuring that an Xray diagram is
shown on the drawing. All engineering drawings for Classes IA, IB, and IIA shall
contain an Xray diagram. This diagram shall contain the following information:
(a) Areas of casting that mayor may not be weld repaired per BPS 4470
when applicable.
(b) Location of critically stressed areas. (The critically stressed
areas shall be shown by encircling those areas with phantom lines.)
(c) Designate Xray views required. The Xray laboratory shall speci
fy the required views and shall initial the diagram if acceptable
for Xray views.
The Structures Engineer shall make certain that the Structural Materials Group and
the XRay Laboratory have approved the. casting drawing. This shOUld be accomplished
before the Structures Engineer approves the casting drawing.
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STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Casting materials commonly used at Bell Helicopter are steel and aluminum. Although
magnesium is readily castable. its properties vary significantly. Magnesium should
not be used without the approval of the procuring agency_
5.3 ALUMINUM ALLOYS
Aluminum is a lightweight structural material that can be strengthened through
alloying and, dependent upon composition, further strengthened by heat treat
ment and/or cold working. Among its advantages for specific applications are:
low density, high strengthtoweight ratio, good corrosion resistance, ease of
fabrication and diversity of form.
Wrought and cast alloys are identified by a fourdigit number, the first digit of
which generally identifies the major alloying element as shown in Table 5.2.
For casting alloys, the fourth digit is separated from the first three digits
by a decimal point and indicates the form, i.e., casting or ingot.
Wrought Alloys Cast Alloys
Alloy Major Alloying Alloy Major Alloying
Number
lXXX
2XXX
3XXX
4XXX
5XXX
6XXX
7 XXX
BXXX
9XXX
Element Number Element
99/ .. Min. Aluminum lXX.X 997 .. Min. Aluminum
Copper 2XX . X Copper
Manganese 3XX.X Silicon with added
and/or magnesium
Silicon 4XX.X Silicon
Magnesium 5XX.X Magnesium
Magnesium and Silicon 6XX.X Unused series
Zinc 7XX.X Zinc
Other Elements BXX.X Tin
Unused series 9XX.X Other Elements
TABLE 5.2 BASIC DESIGNATION FOR WROUGHT AND
CAST ALUMINUM ALLOYS
5.3.1 Basic Aluminum Temper Designations
copper
The temper designation appears as a hyphenated suffix to the basic alloy number.
An example would be 7075T73 where T73 is the temper designation. Four basic
temper designations are used for aluminum alloys. They are F: as fabricated;
0: annealed; H: strain hardened and T: thermally treated. A fifth designa
tion, W, is used to describe an asquenched condition between solution heat
treatment and artificial or room temperature aging. Following is a list of
tempers which define aluminum alloys.
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STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
0: annealed. Applies to wrought products which are fully annealed ..
F: as fabricated: No special control over thermal conditions or strain
hardening is employed. For wrought products, there are no mechanical prop
erty limits.'
H: strainhardened (wrought products only). Applies to products which have
their strength increased by strainhardening, with or without supplementary
thermal treatments to produce some reduction in strength. The H is always
followed by two or more digits. The first digit following the H indicates
the specific combination of basic operations as follows:
Hl: strainhardened only. Applies to products which are strainhardened
to obtain the desired strength without supplementary thermal treatment. The
number following this designation indicates the degree of strainhardening.
The numeral 8 has been assigned to indicate tempers having an ultimate tensile
strength equivalent to that achieved by a cold reduction of approximately 75
percent following full anneal. Tempers between 0 and 8 are designated by
numbers 1 through 7. Materials having an ultimate tensile strength about
half way between that of the 0 temper (annealed) and the 8 temper are desig
nated by the number 4; about midway between 4 and 8 by 6; and midway between
o and 4 by 2. Any of the odd number designations can be obtained in the same
manner, i.e., midway between the adjacent designations. The following generally
defines the twodigit tempers:
HlO: annealed
H12: strainhardened to 1/4 hard
H14: strainhardened to 1/2 hard
H16: strainhardened to 3/4 hard
H18: strainhardened to full hard
H2: strainhardened and partially annealed. Applies to products which are
strainhardened more than the desired final amount and then reduced in strength
to the desired level by partial annealing. The second digit indicates the
same as in the Hl tempers. Temper H24 would be strainhardened and partially
annealed to 1/2 hard.
H3: strainhardened and stabilized. Applies to products which are strain
hardened and then stabilized by a lowtemperature thermal treatment to irtcrease
ductility and prevent stress corrosion (applies only to alloys containing
magnesium). The same second digit rules as described for HI tempers apply
here also.
The third digit, when used, indicates a variation of the twodigit temper
to which it was added. The minimum ultimate tensile strength of a threedigit
H temper is at least as close to that of the corresponding twodigit H temper
as it is to the adjacent twodigit H tempers.
59
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
HIll: Applies to products which are strainhardened less than the amount
required for a controlled Hil temper.
HI12: Applies to products which acquire some temper from shaping processes
not having special control over the amount of strainhardening or thermal
treatment, but for which there are mechanical property limits.
The following H temper designations have been assigned for wrought products
in alloys containing over a nominal 4 percent magnesium.
H311: Applies to products which are strainhardened less than the amount
for a controlled H31 temper.
H321: Applies to products which are strainhardened less than the amount
for a controlled H32 temper.
H323: Applies to products which are specially fabricated to have acceptable
resistance to stress corrosion cracking.
Products which are thermally treated with or without supplementary strain
hardening are designated with a T temper. The T is followed by a digit or
digits which designate the specific thermal treatment. Temper designations
for aluminum alloys are as follows:
Tl: Cooled from an elevated temperature shaping process and naturally aged
to a substantially stable condition.
T2: Annealed (cast products only).
T3: Solution heat treated and then cold worked. Applies to products which
are cold worked to improve strength or in which the effect of cold work in
flattening or straightening is recognized in mechanical property limits.
T31: Solution heat treated and then cold worked by flattening or stretching.
Applies to 2219 and 2024 sheet and plate per MILA8920. Also applies to
rivets driven cold immediately after solution heat treatment or cold storage.
2024 rivets are an example.
T351: Solution heat treatment and stress relieved by stretching. This is
equivalent to T4 condition. It applies to 2024 plate and rolled bar and
2219 plate per MILA8920.
T3511: Solution heat treated and stress relieved by stretching with minor
stretching allowed. This is equivalent to T4 condition and applies to 2024
extrusions.
T36: Solution heat treated and then cold worked by a reduction of 6 percent.
Applies to 2024 sheet and plate.
T37: Solution heat treated and then cold worked by a reduction of 8 percent.
Applies to 2219 sheet and plate.
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STRUC1URAL DESIGN MANUAL
T4: Solution heat treated and naturally aged to a substantially stable condi
tion. Applies to products which are not cold worked after solution heat
treatment, or in which the effect of cold work in flattening or straightening
may not be recognized in mechanical property limi ts.
T42: Solution heat treated and naturally aged by the user to a substan
tially stable condition. Applies to 20140 and 20240 plate and extrusions
which are heat treated by the user from the annealed condition.
T451: Solution heat treated and stress relieved by stretching. Equivalent
to T4 and applies to plate and rolled bar stock except 2024 and 2219.
T45l1: Solution heat treated and stress relieved by stretching with minor
straightening allowed. Equivalent to T4 and applies to all extrusions except
2024 and 2219.
T5: Cooled from an elevated temperature shaping process and then arti
ficially aged.
T5l: Cooled from an elevated temperature shaping process, stressrelieved
by stretching and then artificially aged.
T52: Cooled from an elevated temperature shaping process, stressrelieved
by compressing and then artificially aged.
T54: Cooled from an elevated temperature shaping process, stressrelived
by stretching and compressing and then artificially aged. Applies to die
forgings which are stressrelieved by restriking cold in the finish die.
T6: Solution heat treated and then artificially aged. Mechanical property
limits not affected by cold working. Most alloys in the Wand T4 condi
tions artificially aged to T6.
T61: Solution heat treated and then artificially aged. Applies to forgings
which receive a boiling water quench to avoid internal quenching stress.
Applies to solution heat treated and artificially aged castings when more
than one aging cycle is available for that alloy.
T61l: Solution heat treated and artificially aged. Applies only to 7079
forgings which are quenched in 175
0
to 1850F water.
T62: Solution heat treated and then artificially aged by the user. Applies
to any temper which has been heat treated and aged by user which attains
mechanical properties different from those of the T6 condition.
T65l: Solution heat t r e a t e ~ stressrelieved by stretching and artifi
cially aged. Equivalent to T6 and applies to plate and rolled bar except
2219.
511
srRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
T6510: Solution heat treated, stressrelieved by stretching and arti
ficially aged with no hard straightening after aging. Applies to extruded
rod, bar and shapes except 2024.
T65l1: Solution heat treated, stressrelieved by stretching and artifi
cially aged with minor straightening. Equivalent to T6 and applies to
extruded rod, bar and shapes except 2024.
T652: Solution heat treated, stressrelieved by compressive defonnation
and artificially aged. Equivalent to T6 and applies to hard forged
squares, rectangles and simply shaped die forgings except 2219.
T7: Solution heat treated and then stabilized. Applies to products which
are stabilized to carry them beyond the point of maximum strength to provide
control of growth and residual stress.
T73: Solution heat treated and then specially artificially aged. Applies
to 7075 alloys which have been specially aged to make the material re
sistent to stresscorrosion.
T7351: Solution heat treated and specially artificially aged. Applies
to 7075 alloy sheet and plate which have been specially aged to make the
material resistant to stresscorrosion.
T735ll: Solution heat treatment and specially artificially aged. Applies
to 7075 alloy extrusions which have been specially aged to make the material
resistant to stresscorrosion.
T7352: Solution heat treated and specially artificially aged. Applies
to 7075 alloy which have both compressionstress relief and
special aging to make the material resistant to stresscorrosion.
T8: Solution heat treated, cold worked and then artificially aged. Applies
to products which are cold worked to improve strength, or in which the
effect of cold work in flattening or straightening is recognized in the
mechanical property limits.
T81: Solution heat treated, cold worked and then artificially aged.
Applies to 2024T3 artificially aged to T8l.
T85l: Solution heat stressrelieved by stretching and artifi
cially aged. Applicable to plate, rolled bar and rod.
T851l: Solution heat treated, stressrelieved by stretching and artifi
cially aged. Applies to 2024 extrusions and 2219.
T86: Solution heat treated, cold worked by a thickness reduction of 6
percent and then artificially aged. Applies to 2024 sheet and plate.
T87: Solution heat treated, cold worked by a thickness reduction of 10
percent and then artifically aged. Applies to 2219 sheet and plate.
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"'III1IIIII!!!!!I!!II!Bell STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
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T9: Solution heat treated, artificially aged and then cold worked. Applies
to products which are cold worked to improve strength.
TIO: Cooled from an elevated temperature shaping process, artificially
aged and then cold worked. Applies to products which are artificially aged
after cooling from an elevated temperature shaping process, such as casting
or extrusion and then cold worked to further improve strength.
5.3.2 Aluminum Alloy Processing
) The processes through which various aluminum alloys must be subjected to achieve
a particular temper are shown in Figures 5.2 through 5.4.
)
5.3.3 Fracture Toughness of Aluminum Alloys
Typical values of planestrain fracture toughness, KIC' for several aluminum
alloys are shown in Table 5.3. These are average values for the alloys and
tempers for which valid data are available and are thus representative of the
various products. They do not have the statistical reliability of the room
temperature mechanical properties shown in subsequent sections.
5.3.4 Resistance to StressCorrosion of Aluminum Alloys
The high strength heat treatable wrought aluminum alloys in certain tempers
are susceptible to stress corrosion to some degree, dependent upon product,
section size, direction and magnitude of stress. These alloys include 2014,
7075, 7079 and 7178 in the T6 tempers and 2014, 2024 and 2219 in the T3 and T4
tempers. Other alloy temper notably 2024 and 2219 in the T6 or
T8 tempers and 7049, 7075 and 7175 in the T73 tempers, are decidedly more re
sistant and sustained tensile stresses of 50 to 75 percent of the minimum
yield strength may be permitted without concern about stresscorrosion cracking.
The T76 temper of 7075 and 7178 provides an intermediate degree of resistance
to stresscorrosion cracking, i.e., superior to that of the T6 temper, but
not as good as that of the T73 temper of 7075. A measure of the degree of
susceptibility of various products of these alloys and tempers is given in
Table 5.4.
Where short times at elevated temperatures of 150
0
to jOCpF may be encountered,
the precipitation heattreated tempers of 2024 and 2119 alloys are recommended
over the naturally aged tempers.
Alloys 5083, 5086 and 5456 should not be used under high constant applied stress
for continuous service at temperatures exceeding 150
0
F, because of the hazard
of developing susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking.
In general, the H34 through H38 tempers of 5086 and the H32 through H38 tempers
of 5083 and 5456 are not recommended, because these tempers can become susceptible
to stress corrosion cracking.
513
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
ALL PRODUCTS
ALL TEMPERS
USER SOLUTION
HEAT TREAT
PRODUCER
ANNEALED
MINOR HAND
STRAIGHTENING
EXTRUSIONS,
PLATE, SHEET
STRESS RELIEVE
STRETCH
PLATE, BAR
AND ROD
SHEET, PLATE,
WIRE, ROD, BAR,
EXTRUSIONS, TUBE
PRODUCER
SOLUTION
HEAT TREAT
ROLLED SHEET,
ROD, BAR
FLAT SHEET
AND PLATE
STRETCHED,
STRAIGHTENED
AND ROLLED
COLD
WORKED
6% COLD
WORKED
ROLLED ROD
AND BAR TUBE
NATURAL AGING
ARTIFICIAL AGING
Figure 5.2Temper Processing Chart for 2024 Alloys
514
)
ALL PRODUCTS
ALL TEMPERS
USER
SOLUTION
HEAT TREAT
ALL
PRODUCTS
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
PRODUCER
ANNEALED
SHEET. PLATE,
ROD, BAR,
EXTRUSIONS,
TUBES, FORGINGS
PRODUCER
SOLUTION
HEAT TREAT
STRETCHED,
STRAIGHTENED,
OR ROLLED
COMPRESSION
STRESS
RELIEVE
NATURAL AGING
MINOR. HAND
STRAIGHTENING
PLATE, BAR,
ROD, TUBE
EXTRUSIONS EXTRUSIONS
ALL
PRODUCTS
FORGINGS
ARTIFICIAL AGING
Figure 5.3Temper Processing Chart for 6061 Alloys
515
ALL PRODUCTS
ALL TEMPERS
USER
SOLUTION
HEAT TREAT
ARTIFICIAL
AGING
516
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
PRODUCER
ANNEALED
FORGINGS
EXTRUSIONS
ROLLED ROD
AND BAR
SPECIAL
ARTIFICIAL
AGING
STRESS
RELIEVE
STRETCH
PLATE
BAR AND
ROD < 2 IN
PRODUCER
SOLUTION
HEAT TREAT
ALL PRODUCTS
EXCEPT FORGINGS
AND RODBAR < 2 IN
COMPRESSION
STRESS
RELIEVE
STRETCHED,
STRAIGHTENED,
OR ROLLED
ARTIFICIAL AGING
Figure 5.4Temper Processing Chart for 7075 Alloys
FORGINGS
')
I...n
,
i"
....,
'""
>
ttl

t""'4
trl
(,JJ
l.U
"Zj .3
r::
()
H
Alloy
(')
c:: >
2014
I:"L1
<:
,",,')I
0
8
t'!'j
en
2024
t'!'j
0
C/)
C/)
:;tI
0 0
2219
1'71
7075
t""'4 t:l
14
""
Z M
'"" E::
t""'4 trj
0
7079
r< "t:I
en
7178
,....... z
:;x1
C'll
trj 
'"%j en
H
Z
\,,,'
Product Temper
Plate T651
Forgings T652
Plate T3S1
Shapes T3510,1
Plate T8S1
Extruded Shapes T8510,1
Forgings T852
' Plate TB5l
T37
Plate T651
Extruded Shapes T6510,1
Forgings T652
Plate T7351
Extruded Shapes T73510,1
Forgings T7352
Plate T651
Forgings T652
Plate T651
Extruded Shapes T6510,1
Plate T7671
Extruded Shapes T7650,1

(L)(T)
Product
Thic.kness No.
Range, of Thick.
Inch Inch Min Avg
1  2 3 1 22 23
2  6 4 3/4 25 29
11/2 ..  11/2.  
11/2 2. 2. 11/2

46
1  2
4 13/8 22 23
3/4 4 5 3/4 22 28
2.  6 5 3/4 23 26
1  2 2 13/8 31 33
3/4 1 '3 3/4 2.6 27
1/2 2 6 1/2 25 26
1/2 4 10 1/2 26 28
2  6 2 1/2 24 26
13/8 1 13/8 30
l/Z 4 2 5/8 31 33
1  5 5 3/4 27 31.
1  3 3 1 27 29
2  6 2 3/4 28 30
1/2 2 3 1 22 23
1/2 11/2 1 1

25
1/2 2 3 1/2 26 29
1/2 2 5 1/2 26 29

PlaneStrain Tougnness, K
Ic
' ks1 .,/'in:
(T)(L) (ST)(L)
No. No.
' of' Thick. of Thick.
Max Lots Inch Min Avg Max lLots Inch Min
24 4 1 19 21 23 1 1/2 
34 4 3/4 19 23 30 2 1/2 18
   
.. 2. 1 20
      
25 2 13/8 20 20 20 1 1
 
32 4 3/4 16 17 18 . 

30 4 3/4 17 18 20 3 1/4 16
36 2 1 29 30 30 1 3/4 
28 
  
I l/Z 
27 4 1/2 20 22 23 2 1/2 15
32 10 1/2 19 22 26 4 1/4 18
':8 1 1/2 23  I 1/2 .
 2 1 25 29 33 2. 1/2 19
34 5 1/2 22 24 28 1 1

3S 3 3/4 23 25 26 3 1/2 19
30 2 1 24 24 24 1 1/2 
31 3 3/4 21 23 25 3 1/4 17
26 4 1/2 19 21 23 1 1/2 
11 4 1/2 16 19 20 1 1 
30 2 1/2 22 22 22 1 1/2 
31 3 5/8 18 22 28 1 1/2 
e,
.,.,
Avg Max
18 .
19 19
23 26
 
17

 
16 17
2.0 
20 
16 18
19 22
11

20 2.1
20 
21 25
16 
18 18
IS

14
17 
16 
''", '. _/1/  ,
\{ /,,'
i
(I)
I
::a
c::
n
.....
c:
::a
,.,..
r
et
"' (I)

c:i)
z
:r:
,.,..
z
<=
.....
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision E
Estimate of Highest Sustained Tension Stress (ksi) at Which Test
Specimens of Different Orientations to the Grain Structure Would
Not Fail in the 3 ~ NaCl Alternate Immersion Test in 84 Days
Alloy and
I
Extruded Shapes
Type of Test Rolled Bar Section Thickness, Inch Hand
Temper Direction Plate and Bar 0.251 12 Forgings
2014T6 L 45 45 50 45 30
LT 30
.
27 22 25
ST 8 15
.
8 8
2219T8 L 40
..
35 35 38
LT 38 .... 35 35 38
ST 38
.. .
35 38
2024T3, T4 L 35 30 50 50
.
LT 20 ... 37 18
.
ST 8 10
.
8
.
2024T8 L 50 47 60 60 43
LT 50
" .
50 50 43
8T 30 43
.
45 15
7075T6 L 50 50 60 60 35
LT 45
..
50 32 25
ST 8 15
.
8 8
7075T76 L
49
.
52
. ..
LT 49
..
49
. .
ST 25
..
25 .. .. .. ..
7075T73 L 50 50 54 53 50
LT 48 48 48 48 48
ST 43 43 46 46 43
7079T6 L 55 ... 60 60 50
LT 40
..
50 35 30
8T 8 ... .. . 8 8
7178T6 L 55 ... 65 65
.
LT 38
.
45 25 .. .
ST 8 .... .. . 8
.
7178T76 L 52 .. .. 55
.
.. "
LT 52
.
52 .. .
.
8T 25 ... 25
..
TABLE 5.4COMPARISON OF THE RESISTANCE TO STRESS CORROSION OF VARIOUS
ALUMINUM ALLOYS (REF. 1)
518
'
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
In the recommended tempers, Hll3 and H321 for sheet and plate, cold forming of
5083 and 5456 should be held to a minimum radius of 5T. Hot forming of the 0
temper alloys 5083 and 5456 is recommended and is preferred for the Hll3 and
H321 tempers in order to avoid excessive cold work and high residual stress.
If the HI13, H321, H323 and H343 tempers are heated for hot forming a slight
decrease in mechanical properties, particularly yield strength may result.
In order to avoid stresscorrosion crackinB, such as the use of press
or shrink fits; taper pins; clevis joints in which tightening of the bolt imposes
a bending load on lugs; and straightening or assembly operations; which result
in sustained surface tensile stresses, should be avoided in these alloys: 2014T451,
T4, T6, T651; 2024T3, T35l, T4; 7075T6, T651, T652 and 7178T6 and T651.
Where straightening or forming of heattreated materials is necessary, it should
be performed when the material is in the freshly quenched condition, or at an ele
vated temperature 'to minimize the residual stresses induced. Where elevated
temperature forming is performed on 2014T4, T45l or 2024T3, T351, a subsequent
precipitation heat treatment to produce the T6 or T651, T8l or T851 temper is
recommended.
Specific guidance on safe stress levels for avoiding stresscorrosion cracking is
shown in Table 5.4. These stresses represent the algebraic sum of all the con
tinuous tension and compression surface stresses resulting from any source such
as quenching, forming, assembly and design. These stresses should be kept below
those given in Table 5.4. It is particularly important to consider clampup
stresses and pressfit stresses. If stress levels cannot be kept within the
Table 5.4 limits
t
the Airframe Structures Group Engineer should be consulted.
5.3.5 Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Alloys
The mechanical properites of aluminum alloys are specified in MILHDBKS. A
description of some common aluminum alloys follows:
2014 is an AICu alloy available in a wide variety of product forms. It is useful
for application over the range from cryogenic to elevated temperatures'. Resistance
to stress corrosion is discussed in Section 5.4.4.
2024 is a heattreatable AICu alloy which is available in a wide variety of
product forms and tempers. The T3 and T4 tempers have high toughness while the
T6 and TB tempers have high strengths. The T6 and T8 tempers also offer good
resistance to stress corrosion cracking, while the T3 and T4 tempers should be
considered in light of the guidelines in Section 5.3.4. 2024 alloy is not
weldable by commercial practices.
519
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
5052 is a lowstrength AIMg alloy. It is very ductile and very readily welded and
is usually used in applications where these characteristics are more important
than strength. It is highly resistant to corrosion. It is extremely tough at low
as well as room temperatures.
6061 is a very readily weldable AIMgSi alloy available in a wide range of pro
duct forms. It has high resistance to corrosion.
7075 is a highstrength AIZnMgCu alloy and is available in a wide variety of
product forms. It is available in several types of tempers, the T6, T73 and T76
types. T6 has the highest strength and lowest toughness, and is susceptible to
stresscorrosion cracking. Since toughness decreases with a decrease in tempera
ture, the T76 temper is not generally recommended for cryogenic applications.
The T73 temper has lowest strength, but is relatively tough and very resis
tant to stresscorrosion cracking and exfoliation attack. The T76 temper is a
compromise providing higher strength than the T73 temper and higher resistance
to stress corrosion than the T6 temper.. 7075 is not corrunercially weldable.
201.0 is a highstrength, heattreatable AlCuAg casting alloy. It is readily
weldable. In the T6 (aged) temper, it possesses high strength and good ductility,
but is not recommended for use in environments conducive to
cracking. In the T7 (overaged) temper, it possesses a high strength and moderate
ductility and optimum resistance to stresscorrosion cracking.
224.0 is a heattreatable AlCuZr casting alloy. When solution heat treated and
overaged, it possesses excellent mechanical properties at elevated temperatures,
good fatigue properties and toughness.
295.0 is a heattreatable AlCu casting alloy with high strength at elevated
temperatures. Casting characteristics are only fair and it is very readily
welded.
354.0 is a heat treatable AlSiMg alloy having among the highest strength of
commercial casting alloys. It has good casting characteristics and is readily
weldable. Its use is generally restricted to permanent mold castings.
355.0 is a heattreatable AlSiMg alloy that is readily cast, very readily
weldable and has good pressure tightness.
C355.0 is an AlSiMg alloy similar to 355.0 but has impurities controlled to lower
limits resulting in higher strengths. It is very readily weldable and has good
casting characteristics.
520
e)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
356.0 is among the easiest of alloys to cast by a variety of techniques. It is
heat treatable, has intermediate strengths, is very readily weldable and has
high resistance to corrosion.
A356.0 is an AlSiMg alloy similar to 356.0 but with impurities controlled to
lower limits resulting in higher strengths and ductility. It is very readily
weldable, has good casting characteristics and high resistance to corrosion.
A357.0 is an AlSiMg alloy generally used ror permanent mold and premium
quality castings in which special properties are developed by careful control
of casting and chilling techniques. It has excellent casting characteristics,
is heat treatable and provides the highest strengths available in commercial
castings, together with good toughness. The alloy also has excellent corrosion
resistance and is very readily welded.
359.0 is a relatively highstrength, permanent mold casting alloy. It is heat
t r e t b l e ~ very readily weldable, and has good corrosion resistance.
5.4 STEEL ALLOYS
One of the major factors contributing to the general utility of steels is the
wide range of mechanical properties they are capable of attaining. Softness
and good ductility may be required during fabrication of a part and very high
strength during its service life. Both sets of properties are obtainable in
the same material.
All steels can be softened to a greater or lesser degree by annealing, depending
on the chemical composition of the specific steel. Annealing is achieved by
heating the steel to an appropriate temperature, holding, then cooling it at the
proper rate. Likewise, steels may be hardened or strengthened by means of cold
working, heat treating or a combination of these.
The basic classifications of steels are as follows:
A. Plain carbon steels  contain carbon as the only major alloying element.
B. Alloy steels  contain small percentages of alloying elements, thus
modifying properties of the steel. Alloy steels include: The AISI
alloy steels, the alloy tool steels, the highstrength steels and sili
con steels.
c. Corrosion resistant steels  contain significant additions of chromium
(greater than 12 percent by weight) plus other additions. The corrosion
resistant steels are further broken down into: Martensitic, Ferritic,
Austenitic and Precipitation Hardening. The martensitic and precipi
tation hardening grades are hardenable by heat treatment, the austeni
tic grades are hardenable by cold work and the ferritic grades are
essentially unhardenable. By definition, steels containing 14 percent
chromium or more are classified as corrosion resistant. Alloys with
lesser chromium'content require protective finishing.
521
D.
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Maraging and 9 Ni4Co  New alloys containing substantial additions of
nickel, cobalt and molybdenum. The maraging alloys are machined and
formed in the solution treated condition, then hardened by aging at
approximately 900
o
F. Fabrication and heat treatment procedures for
9 Ni4Co are similar to those used for alloy steels. All usage of
these steels should be used only with the guidance of the Structural
Materials Technology Group.
Cold working is the method used to strengthen both the lowcarbon unalloyed
steels and the highly alloyed austenitic stainless steels. Only moderately
high strength levels can be attained in the former but the latter can be cold
rolled to quite high strength levels, or "tempers". These are commonly supplied
to minimum strength levels.
Heat treating is the principal method for strengthening the remainder of the
steels (the lowcarbon and the austenitic steels cannot be strengthened by heat
treatment). The heat treatment of steel may be of three types: martensitic
hardening, age hardening and austempering. Carbon and alloy steels are martensitic
hardened by heating them to a high temperature, or ttaustenitizing", then cooling at
a recommended rate, often by quenching in oil or water. This is followed by
"tempering" which consists of reheating to an intermediate temperature to relieve
internal stresses and to improve toughness.
A relatively new class of steel is strengthened by age hardening. This heat \
\
trea tmen t is designed to dissolve certain cons ti tuen ts in the steel, then preci . _
pitate them in some preferred particle size and distribution. Special combination'll'
of working and heat treating are being employed to further enhance the mechanical
properties of certain steels.
Another process used in the heat treatment of steels is austempering. In this
process ferrous steels are austenitized, quenched rapidly to avoid transformation
of the austenite to a temperature below the pearlite and above the martensite
formation ranges, allowed to transform isothermally at that temperature to a
completely bainitic structure and finally cooled at room temperature. The
purpose of austempering is to obtain increased ductility or notch toughness
at high hardness levels, or to decrease the likelihood of cracking and distortion
that might occur in conventional quenching and tempering.
Steel bars, billets, forgings and thick plates, especially when heat treated to
high strength levels, exhibit variations in mechanical properties with location
and direction. In particular, elongation, reduction of area, toughness and
notched strength are likely to be lower in either of the transverse directions
than in the longitudinal direction. In applications where transverse properties
are critical,requirements should be discussed with the steel supplier and prop
erties in critical locations should be substantiated by appropriate testing.
5.4.1 Basic Heat Treatments of Steel
The mechanical properties of alloy steels are largely dependent on the use of
proper thermal treatment. Some of these treatments and a description follow.
522
;r
1/ / '/' 1
I / I I \
i' ,. _1_
;
(I)
I
:::.:J
c:
c)
.....
::u
:a:
r
c::.
rPI
(I)

c:i)
z
3:
:a:
z
c:
:a:
r
526
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
TYPE OF PRODUCT
Allov Sheet
t
strip. and plate Bars and forgings Tubing
.
4130 . MILS18729 MILS6758 MILT6736
4140.""""" " . " ........... " .... MILS5626 ............ "" AMS 6381, 6390
4340 .. " ........ AMS 6359 ........ " ........ MILS5000 ... "." " ..... AMS 6415 ....... " .... "
MILS8844 MILS8844
8630 MILS18728 MILT6732
MILT6734
8735 MILS18733 MILS6098 . MILT6733
8740 ........ AMS 6358 ........... " ........ "" MILS6049 ........... " ". AMS 6323 .......... .
D6AC ......... MILS8949 ................. MILS8949 ........ "............ .. ...................... .
4330 S i. .. ............................ AMS 6407............ ... ................
AMS 641 8.. ......................... .AlviS 6418................. . *'
4330 V .. ............. ., ... .. ... ms 6427.................. ................ .
4335V. ... 6434.,................. 6428 . ,. ...... .,......... . ................. .
300M .... MILS8844 .. MILS8844
98BV40 ............................. .AMS 6423 ................ A'tJIS 6423
Table 5.8  Material Specifications for Alloy Steels (Ref 1)
)
e
J
Temper
F
0
H
')
H2, plus one
or more digits
T
T4
TS
T6, T61
\
e)
T7
T8, T8l
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Definition
As fabricated
Annealed, recrystallized (wrought products
only)
Strain hardened (wrought products only)
Strain hardened and then partially annealed
Treated to produce stable tempers other than
F, 0, or H
Solution heat treated
Cooled from an elevated temperature shaping
process and then artificially aged
Solution heattreated (T4) and then arti
ficially aged
Solution heattreated (T4) and then stabilized
Solution heattreated (T4) cold worked
t
and
then artificially aged
TABLE 5.9 TEMPER DESIGNATIONS FOR MAGNESIUM ALLOYS
527
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
5.6 TITANIUM ALLOYS
Titanium is a relatively lightweight, corrosionresistant structural material that
can be strengthened greatly through alloying and in some cases by heat treatment.
It has good strengthtoweight ratios, low density, low coefficient of thermal
expansion, good corrosion resistance, good oxidation resistance at intermediate
temperatures and good notch toughness as well as other metallurgical advantages.
The material properties of titanium and its alloys are determined mainly by their
alloy content and heat treatment, both of which are influential in detennining
the allotropic form in which this material will be found. Under equilibrium
conditions, pure titanium has an "alpha" structure up to l620oF, above which it
transforms to a "betal! structure. The properties of these two are quite different.
Through alloying and heat treatment one or the other, or a combination of these
two structures, can be made to exist at service temperatures.
Titanium is susceptible to creep deformation in its unalloyed form below 300F
o
and above 700 F at stresses above 50 percent F
ty
. This stress level should be
avoided. Alloyed titanium at stresses above 60 percent F
ty
will also be sus
ceptible to creep deformation.
Mechanical and physical properties of titanium are specified in MILHDBK5. Des
cription of some commonly used titanium alloys follow:
Commercially Pure Titanium is unalloyed and is available in a familiar product
form and is noted for its excellent formability. Unalloyed titanium is readily
welded or brazed. It is used mainly where strength is not a requirement since
it cannot be heat treated to high strength levels. Property degradation can
~ experienced after severe forming if asreceived material properties are not
restored by reannealing.
Ti8AllMolV is a nearalpha composition alloy with improved creep resistance
and thermal stability up to about 500
0
F. It is available as billet, bar, plate,
sheet, strip and extrusions and is usually used in the single annealed or duplex
annealed condition. Room temperature forming is difficult, and for severe opera
tions hot forming is required. It can be fusion welded with inert gas protection
and spotwelded without protection.
Ti6Al4V is an alphabeta alloy and is available in all mill product forms as
well as in castings and powder metallurgy forms. It can be used in either the
annealed or solution treated plus aged (STA) conditions and is weldable. For
maximum toughness, Ti6Al4V should be used in the annealed or duplex annealed
condition whereas for maximum strength, the STA condition should be used. The
full strength of this alloy is not available in thicknesses greater than I inch.
This alloy can be fusion welded and spotwelded, but stress relief annealing
after welding is recommended.
528
.)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
5. 7 STRESSSTRAIN CURVES
Many useful properties. are obtained from a stressstrain diagram of a material.
Figure 5.5 shows a typical stressstrain diagram for a metal with no definite
yield stress. Such metals as aluminum, magnesium and some steels fall into
this category ..
5.7.1 Typical StressStrain Diagram
The curve in Figure 5.5 is composed of two regions; the straightline portion
up to the proportional limit where the stress varies linearly with strain; and
the remaining portion where the stress is not proportional to straIn. Most
analysis methods assume stresses to be elastic below the ultimate tensile stress
(Ftu); however, some analyses will employ a plasticity reduction factor to correct
for the nonlinearity of the plastic range.
The properties shown in Figure 5.5 are described below:
E
Fty
Fey
Modulus of elasticity; average ratio of stress to strain for
stresses below the proportional limit. In Figure 5.5,
.E = tan
Secant modulus; slope of the stressstrain curve at any point;
reduces to E in the proportional range. In Figure 5.5,
Es = tanq,r
Tangent modulus; slope of the stressstrain curve at any point;
reduces to E in the proportional range. In Figure 5 5 ~
E
t
= df/dE = tan f/> 2.
Tensile or compressive yield stress; since many' materials do
no exhibit a definite yield point, the yield stress is deter
mined by the 0.2% offset method. A straight line is constructed
with a slope E passing through a point of zero stress and a
strain of 0.002 in./in. The intersection of the stressstrain
curve and the constructed straight line defines the magnitude
of the yield stress.
Proportional limit stress in tension or compression; the
stress at which the stress ceases to vary linearly with strain.
Ultimate tensile stress; the maximum stress reached in tensile
tests of standard specimens.
Ultimate compressive stress; taken as F
tu
unless governed by
instability.
529
\
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Elastic ___ ... Plastic .....
I
"J
,
f
I
(psi)
I
I
I
I
I.002
EU
E
Fra.cture
E (inches/inch)
FIGURE 5.5  A TYPICAL STRESSSTRAIN DIAGRAM
530
)
Efracture
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
The strain corresponding to F
tu
Elastic strain.
Plastic strain.
Fracture strain; a relative indication of ductility of the
rna terial.
There are other properties and terminology used by the Structures Engineer which
are not shown in Figure 5.5. These are defined below.
Fsu
G
Isotropic
Anisotropic
Orthotropic
Yield and ultimate bearing stress; determined in a manner
similar to those for tension and compression. A load de
formation curve is plotted where the deformation is the
change in hole diameter. Bearing yield (Fbry) is defined
by an offset of 2% of the hole diameter while bearing
ultimate (Fbru) is the actual failing stress divided by
1.15.
Ultimate shear stress.
Proportional limit in usually taken as 0.577 times the
proportional limit in tension for ductile materials.
Poisson1s ratio; the ratio of transverse strain to axial
strain in tension or compression. For materials stressed
in the elastic range, may be taken as a constant but for
inelastic strains, J.l. becomes a function of axial strain.
Plastic Poisson's ratio; unless otherwise state d, IJ.p may
be taken as 0.5.
Modulus of rigidity or shearing of elasticity for
pure shear in isotropic rna terials. G = E/2 (l + J.l. ).
Elastic properties are the same in all directions.
Elastic properties are different in different directions.
Distinct material properties in mutually perpendicular
planes.
Stressstrain curves for various materials can be found in MILHDBK5 (Ref. 1).
5.7.2 RambergOsgood Method of StressStrain Diagrams
Many structural problems involve inelastic instability. The solutions require
information from a compressive stressstrain curve. Often it is desirable
to represent this curve analytically. A method has been developed by Walter
Ramberg and William Osgood and reported in NACA TN902 (Ref. 9).
531
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
The RambergOsgood method uses three parameters to represent the stressstrain
relations in the inelastic range. The resulting equations are:
where:
; ~ . 7 = F ~ . 7 + t F ~ . 7 r .................................... (1)
n = 1 + In (1 7 / 7 ) / In ( F 0 7/ F 0 85 ) .............. .. .. " .. .o........... ( 2)
e = strain
E modulus of elasticity
f = stress
FO.7 the stress at which a line of slope O.7E drawn
from the origin intersects the stressstrain
curve (see Figure 5.6)
FO.8S
= the stress at which a line of slope O.8SE drawn
from the origin intersects the stressstrain
curve (see Figure 5.6)
The curves expressed by Equations 1 and 2 are plotted in Figure 5.7 and 5.8.
Consult the stress strain curves of Ref. 1 for FO.7andFO.85 for various materials.
532
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
FO.7
FO.8S
STRESSSTRAIN CURVE
ez...STRAIN
Figure 5.6  RambergOsgood Parameters
)
533
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
__
rnc;"V =kV'
I
/
/
o 0.5
I
1.0 1.5
Eel ro,'?
2.0 2.5
Figure 5.7  RambergOsgood Constant, n. as a function of f/F
O
7
: Ft=i I: I: i 1 :
I" I I I j i I I I I I i
o ! i IlL h 1; I I I I Il_+I
I ill I j{: III! lOb rro,'(/T.)'B5,Jill, i I
"" ! I ! I I I, I i 1\\1 II I
I! I I' 1 i, I!!l, I; 1 11
., I I I Ii.!: "i i I j I ,;
I I I : I I: i i T rt\ I !_
! j' i: I:; ! ! "L I!., 'dd:
! II ' I 1,1 I I I
iii I! i.1 I :1 I I I I1II :
I I! t, I I ; I I I I ! ml i,IL lilT I
I I I 1 llFi I _I __ LL lit'S. I I I I
3d j 'II: II I +i il'(iJ1 !
= If! f Ii' II r I i 111 i: n'" :
?  1 i! l I I ! I II I : i J I i I
= \ : Iii I! I II iii 1.:1 11 itll III
: \.1 .1 .. 1, IJJ...!,U"J",!""". !! I .. 11.1.,1..1.1.,111
l.r
Lill Ll
1'0. i /FO.8S
Figure 5.8  Relation between nand FO 7/F
0.85
534
3,0
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision A
6.1 GENERAL
SECTION 6
FASTENERS AND JOINTS
This section presents BHT policy on design allowables for mechanical fasteners,
metallurgical joints and mechanical joints. Mechanical fasteners include solid
and blind rivets and nuts, bolts and pins. Spotwelds and fusion welds are shown
in t ~ metallurgical joint section, while lugs, sockets, bearings and bonding
are discussed in mechanical joints.
6.2 Mechanical Fasteners
The aclual statE:! of stress in a joint is complex. Such items as stress concen
trations at the edgesof the holes, nonuniform distribution of shear stress across
lhe section of the fastener, and bearing stress between fastener and plate (install
ation stresses) are generally ignored in the sizing of fasteners. Simplifying
assumptions are made for riveted and short bolted (no bending present) joints and
are summarized below:
(1) The applied load is assumed to be transmitted entirely by the fasteners;
friction between connected plates is ignored
(2) When the center of the crosssectional area of each of the fasteners is
on the line of action of the load, or when the centroid of the total
fastener area is on this line, the fasteners of the joint are assumed
to carry equal parts of the load if of the same size; otherwise loaded
proportionally to their section areas.
(3) The shear stress is assumed to be uniformly distributed across the
fastener section.
(4) The bearing stress between the plate and fastener is assumed to be
uniformly distrihuted over an area equal to the fastener diameter
(hole diameter for rivets) times the plate thickness.
(5) The stress in a tension fastener is assumed to be uniformly distributed
over the net area.
(6) The stress in a compression fastener is assumed to be unifonmly distri
buted over the gross area.
No matter how well structural components are designed to carry their intended
loads, a poor use of fasteners joining the components can cause the entire
struclure to fail with catastrophic results.
Joint failures can be grouped in three general categories or combinations of
th(, three:
61
/,;,,>7'1<
@!.I'
" J /
... ', I ...
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision A
(1) Fastener shear
(2) Sheet bearing
(3) Sheet tearout
The first category is primarily a failure of the fastener, whereas the last two
are primarily failures of the material being fastened. The material being
fastened can have an effect on the shear strength of a fastener and the fastt!nt.'r
geometry can have an effect on the bearing strength of the sheet being fastened.
6.2.1 Joint Geometry
In addition to the more obvious considerations of fastener and sheet material,
an equally important consideration, joint geometry, is necessary to provide a
joint capable of developing the fastener and sheet strengths. The three geometry
parameters to consider are:
D, fastener hole diameter
t, sheet thickness'
e, distance (center of hole to edge of sheet)
Joint allowables are influenced by e/D and O/t. Small values of e/D will produce
shear tearout failures and lower bearing allowables. In addition, where fatigue
is a consideration small values of e/D will result in fatigue cracking. For
design, e/D shall not be less than 2.0. In fatigue critical areas, e = 2D + .06
should be maintained. For repair and manufacturing discrepancies the e/D ratio
shall not go lower than 1.5.
The nit ratio influences the sheet bearing stress distribution and fastener
shear allowable. A high O/t indicates a fastener is too large for the sheets
being joined. Above O/t = 3 the bearing stress distribution changes significantly
enough to require a reduction of the basic allowable because the sheets tend to
cut into the rivet.
A low D/t indicates a fastener that is too small for the sheets being joined.
This situation would produce fastener shear failures rather than sheet bearing
failures. This is a very undesirable situation. The joint can literally "zip"
open if a failure of a single fastener should occur. If the joint is properly
designed the sheet will fail in bearing before the fasteners shear. As a joint
is loaded the end fasteners in a pattern will load first. As the first line
loads the sheet deflects at each fastener in the line and a portion of the load
transfers to the next line and so on until the whole pattern is carrying the load.
If the joint is shear critical,the first line of fasteners will shear, then the
second will overload and shear and so on. If the joint is bearing critical, a
load path will remain after the sheet yields in bearing.
62
.)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
The nit ratio shall not exceed 5.5 nor be less than 1.0.
Fasteners shall not be designed closer than 4D nor farther apart than 8D. For
repair and manufacturing discrepancies spacing can be reduced to 3.5D.
Design for sheet bearing to be reached prior to fastener shear.
Do not mix non hole filling fasteners with hole filling fasteners. If a mixture
cannot be avoided the non hole filling f s t ~ n e t should be installed in an inter
ference fit hole.
6.2.2 Mechanical Fastener Allowables
MILHDBK5 allowables should be used for all mechanical fasteners. A description
of fastener types follows.
6.2.2.1 Protruding  Head Solid Rivets
The load per rivet at which the shear or bearing type of failure occurs is
separately calculated and the lower of the two governs the design. Table 6.1
shows the standard rivet hole drill size and nominal hole diameter.
Determination of the design bearing stress for hole filling fasteners is based
on the nominal hole diameter as specified in Table 6.1. The yield and ultimate
bearing stresses for various ma'terials are given in MILHDBK5, and are appli
cable to riveted joints where cylindrical holes are used and where O/t < 5.5.
Where D/t > 5.5, tests to substantiate yield and ultimate bearing strengths
must be performed in accordance with MILHDBK5. These bearing stresses are
applicable only for the design of rigid joints where there is no possibility of
relative motion of the parts joined without deformation of the parts.
In computing the design shear strength of a protruding head rivet, the shear
strength allowable should be multiplied by a correction factor for sheet thick
ness. This compensates for the reduction in rivet shear strength resulting
from high bearing stresses on the rivet and D/t ratios in excess of 3.0 for
single shear joints and 1.5 for double shear joints.
A further shear reduction factor is required if the fasteners are exposed to
elevated temperatures. Figure 6.1 shows the reduction factors applicable to
protruding head rivets at elevated temperatures.
6.2.2.2 FlushHead Solid Rivets
Ultimate and yield allowables are specified in MILHDBK5 for both machine coun
tersunk and dimpled sheet using solid flush rivets with a head angle of 100
0
These strengthvalues are applicable when the edge distance is equal to or
greater than two times the nominal rivet diameter (e ~ 2D). Other strength
values for different edge distances must be substantiated by test per MILHDBKS.
The yield allowable is the average load at which the following permanent set
across the joint is developed:
63
DRILL DEC DRILL
SIZE EQUIV SIZE
80 .. 0135 43
79 .0145 42
1/64 .0156 3/32
78 .016 41
77 .018 40
76 .020 39
75 .021 38
74 .0225 37
73 .024 36
72 .025 7/64
71 .026 35
70 .028 34
69 .0292 33
68 .031 32
1/32 .0312 31
67 .032 1/8
66 .033 30
65 .035 29
64 .036 28
63 .037 9/64
62 .038 27
61 .039 26
60 .040 25
59 .041 24
58 .042 23
57 .043 5/32
56 .0465 22
3/64 .0469 21
55 .052 20
54 .055 19
53 .0595 18
1/16 .0625 11/64
52 .0635 17
51 .067 16
50 .070 15
49 .073 14
48 .076 13
5/64 .0781 3/16
47 .0785 12
46 .081 11
45 .082 10
44 .086 9
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
DEC DRILL DEC
EQUIV SIZE EQUIV
.089 8 .199
.0935 7 .201
.. 0938 13/64 .2031
.096 6 .204
.098 5 .2055
.0995 4 .209
.1015 3 .213
.104 7/32 .2188
.1065 2 .221
.1094 1 .228
.110 A .234
.111 15/64 .2344
.113 B .238
.116 C .242
.120 D .246
.125 1/4(E) .250
.1285 F .257
.136 G .261
.1405 17/64 .2656
.1406 H .266
.144 I .272
.147 J .277
.1495 K .281
.152 9/32 .2812
.154 L .290
.1562 M .295
.157 19/64 .2969
.159 N .302
.161 5/16 .3125
.166 0 .316
.1695 P .323
.1719 21/64 .3281
.173 Q .332
.177 R .339
.180 11/32 .3438
.182 S .348
.185 T .358
.1875 23/64 .. 3594
.189 U .368
.191 3/8 .375
.1935 V .377
.196 W .386
DRILL
SIZE
25/64
X
Y
13/32
Z
27/64
7/16
29/&4
15/32
31/64
1/2
33/64
17/32
35/64
9/16
37/64
19/32
39/64
5/8
41/64
21/32
43/64
11/16
45/64
23/32
47/64
3/4
49/64
25/32
51/64
13/16
53/64
27/32
55/64
7/8
57/64
29/32
59/64
15/16
61/64
31/32
63/64
DEC
EQUIV
.3906
.397
.404
.4062
.413
.4219
.4375
.4531
.4688
.4844
.500
.5156
.5312
.5469
.5625
.5781
.5938
.6094
.625
.6406
.6562
.6719
.6875
.7031
.7188
.7344
.750
.. 7656
.7812
.7969
.8125
.8281
.8438
.8594
.875
.8906
.9062
.9219
.9375
.9531
.9688
.9844
FOR HOLES DRILLED WITH A DRILLING
MACHINE USING SUITABLE JIGS AND
FDITURES, THE HOLE TOLERANCES
DEPEND UPON THE DIAMETER OF THE
HOLE AND INCREASE AS THE HOLE
DIAMETER INCREASES. THE FOLLOW
ING ARE STANDARD TOLERANCES FOR
GENERAL MACHINE WORK AND APPLY
IN ALL CASES EXCEPr WHERE GREATR'R.
OR LESSER ACCURACY IS REQUIRE'
BY THE DESIGN:
HOLE DIA TOLERANCES
+.
.0135 THRU .. 125
.126 THRU .250
.251 THRU .500
.501 THRU .750
+.
+ ..
751 THRU 1.000
1.001 THRU 2.000
+.
( a )
REFERENCE AND 10387
TABLE 6.1  STANDARD DRILL SIZES AND DRILLED HOLE TOLERANCES
64
.. ' :r'\, ~
/. ' , . , \\
(,. \ \ \
", aFBeli
\\ , \\ ,,:''''. '*" 
~ ~ .
STRUC1URAL DESIGN MANUAL
1.0
.9
.8
.7
~
~
~
l
~ ........ .6
o
'\
"
'\
\.
100
~
~
~
'\
'"
"
'\
'\
\.
200 300 400
Temperature of
Figure 6.1 REDUCTION FACTOR FOR ALLOWABLES
OF PROTRUDING HEAD, MS20470AD
RIVETS AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES
FOR FIVE MINUTES
65
STRUCTURAL ,DESIGN ,MANUAL
Revision Fit
(1) 0.005 inch, up to and including 3/16 diameter rivets.
(2) 2.5 percent of the rivet diameter for rivet sizes larger than 3/16
diameter.
6.2.2.3 Solid Rivets in Tension
Solid rivets are not to be used as a primary tension load path. They are to be
used in shear. A tension Load will loosen the rivet. Tests have shown this
loosening will occur at a low load level. When loosening occurs the shear
for the rivet no longer applies since this value was obtained for a tight joinl.
The joInt with loose fasteners is highly susceptible to fatigue and can fail at
a low number cycles of the design shear. .
Often it is impossible to keep tension loads out of rivets. If this condition is
unavoidable it should be held to a minimum. When secondary axial loads are im
posed on a protruding head aluminum rivet such that it is loaded in tension and
shear, the margin of safety is based on the the following interaction:
where R
s
applied shear/allowable shear
R
t
applied tension/allowable tension
6.2.2.4 Threaded Fasteners
Bolts, screws, nuts and nutplates commonly used at Bell Helicopter are shown jn
Tables 6.2 and 6.3. In shear joints the load per fastener at which the shear
or bearing type of failure occurS is separately calculated, and the lower of
two values designs the joint.
Two types of thread forms are available on threaded fasteners. Cut threads,
which conform to MILS7742, are generally acceptable for' use in' shear applica
tions or areas where high tension or repeated loads are not present. Rol led
threads which conform to MILS8879, controlled root radius threads, arc accept
able for use in any appiication. They should be used where tension loads design
the joint or where fatigue is present. Tensile strengths are based on the basic
minor diameter of the thread.
66
.
I
I
STRUCTURAL DESIG,N MANUAL
Revision C
RECOMMENDED
FASTENER DESCRIPTION MATERIAL
USAGE
0
g}=J3
HEX HEAD BOLT ALUMINUM: SHEAR
DRILLED HEAD/SHANK OPT. Ftu=62ksi
t
Fsu=35ksi ALUM 300
0
p
STD. TOLERANCE STEEL, CRES: STEEL 450F
Ftu=125ksi.Fsu=75ks! CRES 800F'
AN3AN17
BOLT STEEL: SHEAR 4S00F
8 a
tPl
PRILLED SHANK OPT. Ftu=125ksi,Fsu=75ksi
TOLERANCE
AN 23AN27
0
(f_I3
HEAl> BOLt SHEAR
PRILLED HEAD/SHANK OPT. Ftu=62ksi,Fsu=35ksi ALUM 300F
CLOSE TOLERANCE CRES STEEL 450F
CRES 800F
AN173AN185
0
HEX HEAD BOLT
STEEL: SHEAR 450F
DRILLED SHANK OPT.
G
CLOSE TOLERANCE
Ftu=160ksi,Fsu=95 ks
SHORT THREAD
Fsu=95ksi
NAb 4M
HIGH STRENGTH
HEX HEAD BOLT STEEL: SHEAR AND TENSION
DRILLED HEAD/SHANK OPT. Ftu=160ksi, 450F
CLOSE TOLERANCE Fsu=95ksi
NAS130JNAS1316
C@ If]
INTERNAL WRENCHING STEEL: TENSION
HIGH STRENGTH Ftu=160ksi
t 450F
:::.1'
DRILLED HEAD OPT. Fsu=95ksi
MS20004MS20017
CO
ID
EXTERNAL WRENCHING STEEL: TENSION
HIGH STRENGTH Ftu=180ksi. 450F
Fsu=108ksi
MS21250
.>
@@
D=G
lOOoCSK HEAD SCREW STEEL: SHEAR
PHILLIPS OR HEX RECESS Ftu=160ksi, 450F
PLOSE TOLERANCE Fsu=95ksi
STRENGTH
NAS333NAS3ljO
p:].
lOOoCSK HEAD SCREW STEEL: SHEAR
PHILLIPS RECESS lFtu=160ksi, 450F
CLOSE TOLERANCE Fsu=95ksi
NAS517
TABLE 6.2 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF BOLTS, SCREWS AND NUTS
67
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision C
FASTENER DESCRIPTION
RECOMMENDED
t1ATERIAL
USAGE
100
0
CSK HEAD SCREW STEEL: SHEAR
PHILLIPS RECESS
Ftu=160ksi. 450F
CLOSE TOLERANCE
Fus==95ksi
DRILLED SHANK OPT.
NAS120JNAS1210
SHORT HEAD
PAN HEAD SCREW STEEL: SHEAR
@
(}==Lj
PHILLIPS RECESS F tu= 160ksi, 450
0
p
STANDARD TOLERANCE Fus=95ksi
SHORT THREAD
NAS623
PLAIN NUT ALUMINUM tENSION
CASTELLATED STEEL ALUM lOOoF
CRES STEEL 450
0
p
CRES 450,
ANliO
PLAIN NUT ALUMINUM
300
0
p CASTELLATED STEEL ALUM
CliES STEEL 450
0
p
CRES 450F
 . . 
AN320
L]J
BARREL NUT STEEL STRENGTH
SELF LOCKINC 450F
FLOATING
NAS577
0
t).
SELF LOCKING NUT STEEL SUPpLEMENTS
!Low HEIGHT CRES MS21042 & MS21043
tLIGHT WEIGHT
HIGH STRENGTH
NAS1291
450F
0
f)
LOCKING NUT STEEL HIGH STRENGTH
tREDUCED HEX
450
0
p
!REDUCED HEIGHT
MS21042
0 t1
LOCKING NUT CRES HIGH STRENGTH
ttEDUCED m:x
HIGH n:MPERATURE

tt,EDUCED HElGHT
SOooF
MS21043
@
g
SELF LOCKING ALUMINUM TENSION
NONMETALLIC INSERT STEEL 250F
RECULAR HEIGHT
MS21044
l'A1H,f': 6.2 (CONT'l)) GE;,\TI':HAL DESCRIPTION OF BOLTS, AND NUL'S
68
0"
I
\D
e
S
l'
tTl
0'
.
w
\:')
t'Tj
z
trj
t:::I
t'Tj
C/.l
H
H
o
Z
o
t'%j
z
c:
.."
E
t'%:l
en
''
I
lm
tTVET SPACING
1ATERIAL
t<.AX.
ISIZE RANGE
FIXED
FLOATING
SPACING
tAX. TEMP.
:RANGE
IPrxED
IFLOATING
TYPE
RIVET SPACING
iMATERIAL :
TEMP.
SIZE RANGE
FIXED
FLOATING
MS21047 MS21Oq8
@ @
TWD LUG TWO LUG
STANDARD STANDARD
STEEL CRES
450
0
450&800
fi4 7/16 il4 7/16
X X
MS21058 MS21059
i!.._..:
100 CSK
CORNER TWO LUG
STANDARD STA.NDARD
CRES STEEL
450
0
&800 450
0
#8 5/16 4t4 3/8
X
X
MS21075 .. 1S21076
TWO LUG rrWO LUG
REDUCED REDUCED
STEEL CRES
450
0
450&800
i,4 5/16 i/4  5/16
I
X X
e

MS210f19 MS21050 MS2 )(151
@
0
...
0
100
0
CSK 100
0
CSK
1:'"1'10 LUG TWO LUG ONE LUG
STANDARD STANDARD STANDARD
STEEL CRES STEEL
450
0
450&800 450
0
5/16 (F8 5/16
"6 7/16
X X X
MS21060 MS21061 MS31062
TWO LUG ONE LUG ONE LUG
STANDARD STANDARD STANDARD
CRES STEEL CRES
450"&800
0
450
0
f+ 50o&8"OOo
4fo4 3/8 ft4 5/16 #4 5/16
X X X
MS21086 MS21087 NASl473
@
fJ
SIDE BY SIDE BY
SIDE. SIDE DOME
REDUCED REDUCED STANDARD
STEEL CRES STEEI,CRES
450
0
450&800 1450&800
0
118 3/8 4f8 3/8 IF8 5/16
X X
X
MS21052 MSZL053 MS210:i4
0 0
0 0
I I
\ I. /,
"""
,....."
100 CSK 1000 CSK
ONE LUG ONE LUG ONE LUG
STANDARD STANDARD STANDARD
CRES STEEL CRES
450
0
&800 450
0
450&800
0
{t6 7/16 IF8 5/16 its 5/16
X X X
MSZ1069 MS21070 MS21071
@ @
@
TWO LUG TWO LUG ONE LUG
REDUCED REDUCED REDUCED
STEEL CRES STEEL
450
0
f+500&800
0
450
in 3/8 /;2 3/8 1f2 3/8
X X X
NAS1474 9000B 90033
e
\0 6
DOME DOME DOME
REDUCED REDUCED STANDARD
STEEL,CRES STEEL STEEL
450&800 450
0
450
1J4  1/4 #6 5/16 D8 5/16
X
X X
MS21055 MS21056
CORNER CORNER
STANDARD STANDARD
STEEL CRES
450
0
450
0
&800
0
ff6 7/16 ff6 7/16
X X
MS21072 MS21073
@
@9
ONE LUG CORNER
REDUCED REDUCED
CRES STEEL
450
ft2 3/8 4il 3/8
X X
90036 90037
0
00
DOME DOME
REDUCED STANDARD
STEEL STEEL
450
0
450
0
(16 5/16 16 3/8
x x:
MS2105
7
th
100 CSK
CORNER
STANDARD
STEEL
4S0
0
118 5/16
X
MS21074
9
CORNER
REDUCED
CRES
4.50&800
0
tt2 3/8
X
90038
Q
DOME
REDUCED
STEEL
450
0
/16 5/16
x
e
,;;1;
(I)
I
::a
c::
c;)
I
c:
::a
r
CJ
rY1
en

Ci)
z
B:
z
c:
:D
r
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
In addition the nut or nut plate allowable must be used to determine the tension
capability of the joint. The nut or nut plate will generally be the limiting
item in a nut/bolt joint.
Determination of the design bearing stress for nonhole filling fasteners is
based on nominal shank diameter of the fastener. The design bearing stresses
for various materials are given in MILHDBK5 and are applicable to joints with
fasteners in cylindrical holes and where D/t < 5.5. Where D/t > 5.5, tests to
substantiate yield and ultimate bearing strengths must be performed in accordance
with MILHDBK5. These bearing stresses are applicable only for the design of
rigid joints where there is no possibliity of relative motion of the parts joined
without deformation of the parts.
6.2.2.5 Blind Rivets
MILHDBK5 gives the ultimate and yield allowable single shear strengths for
protruding and flush head blind rivets. These strengths are applicable only
when the grip lengths and hole tolerances are as recommended by the respective
manufacturers and may be substantially reduced if oversize holes or improper
grip lengths are used.
The strengths have been established by test using e/D equal to or greater than
2. Where e/D values less than 2 are used, tests to substantiate yield and
ultimate strengths must be made.
In view of the wide variance in dimpling methods and tolerances for aluminum
and magnesium alloys, no standard or uniform load allowables are recommended.
Allowables for ultimate and shear strengths of blind rivets in dOUbledimpled
or dimpled, machine countersunk application should be established on the basis
of specific tests. In the absence of such data, allowables for blind rivets
in machinecountersunk sheet may be used.
Blind rivets are primarily shear type fasteners. They should not be used where
appreciable tension loads on the rivets will exist. They should not be used to
attach heavily loaded fittings, in engine air inlets or on the tail rotor side
of vertical fins.
6.2.2.6 Swaged Collar Fasteners
The Ultimate allowable shear and tensile strengths of "HiShear" rivets, lock
bolts and lockbolt stumps may be obtained from MILHDBK5. For all lockbolts
under combined loading of shear and tension installed in material having a
thickness large enough to make the shear cutoff strength critical for shear
loading, the following interaction equation is applicable:
Steel lockbolts, R + R 10 = 1.0
t s
where R
t
and Rs are ratios of applied load to allowable load in tension and
shear, respectively.
610
\
I
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision B
6.2.2.7 Lockbolts
Lockbolts and lockbolt stumps shall be installed in properly drilled holes.
The ultimate allowable shear and tensile strengths for protruding and flush
head lockbolts and lockbolt stumps are shown in MILHDBK5. When both tension
and shear are present the lockbolts should be designed to the same interaction
criteria defined in Section 6.2.2.6.
6.2.2.8 Torque Values for Threaded Fasteners
Proper installation torque is of utmost importance if a threaded fastener joint
is to function properly. The torque values to be applied to threaded fasteners
and fittings are specified in Bell Standard 160007. Torque values for commonly
used nuts and bolts are shown in Tables 6.4 through 6.6. All drawings showing
installations of threaded fasteners should specify "torque per Bell Standard
160007.
H
Two types of torque values are given; one for shear nuts and one for tension
nuts. Type III (shear nut) values are based on developing a nominal 24,000
psi in the shank of the bolt while Type IV values produce 40,000 psi in the bolt.
Table 6.6 shows maximum tightening values. These produce 54,000 psi and 90,000
psi in shanks of shear and tension bolts respectively. When repeated tensile
or bending stresses are present, preload should be applied to the fastener by
torqueing. The amount of preload should equal the maximum tensile stress
expected. This eliminates cycling of the stress in the bolt since the prestress
will remain constant. Often the preload will need to be greater than that devel
oped by the torques in Table 6.6. An equation has been developed which gives a
reasonable estimate of the torque necessary to produce a preload. That equat'ion
is:
T ::= .2 DL
where T is torque, D is the mean diameter of the thread and L is the preload
produced by the torque. This is an empirical equation for dry threads and is
a func tion of many variables. For lubricated threads the coefficient may
) reduce as much as 50 per cent.
'
For large threaded connections, such as mast nuts, the following
equation has been developed.
where Dr is the diameter of the contact ring, y is the friction
d
p
is pitch diameter, B is the lead angle
 arc tan Y I and a = thread profile angle
611
612
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
TYPE III
BOLT NUT
AN3AN20 AN316
AN42AN49 AN320
AN173AN186 AN345
AN525 AN150401AN150425
MS20004MS20024 MS25082
MS20033MS20046 MS35650
MS70073MS20081 MS35691
MS24694 MS51968
MS27039 NASI022
NAS144NAS158
NAS333NAS340
NAS464
NAS517
NASS83NAS590
NAS623
NAS1003NASI020
NAS1202NAS1210
NAS1218
NAS1297
NAS1303NAS1320
NAS1351 (NONLOCKING)
NAS1352 (NONLOCKING)
ALL THREADED STUDS
TYPE III CONSISTS OF ANY COMBINATION
OF NUT AND BOLT SHOWN
REFERENCE BELL STD 160007
TABLE 6.4  TYPE III FASTENERS
.)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
TYPE IV
BOLT NUT
AN3AN20 AN256 MS21061
AN42AN49 AN310 MS21062
AN173AN186 AN315 MS21069
AN525 MS9358 MS21070
MS20033MS20046 MS20365 MS21071
MS20073MS20081 MS20500 MS21072
MS24694 MS21042 MS21073
MS27039 MS21043 MS21074
NAS333NAS340 MS21044 MS21075
NASSl7 MS21045 MS21076
NAS623 MS21047 MS21083
NASI003NASI020 MS21048 MS21086
NAS1202NASl210 MS21049 MS21208
NAS1297 MS210S1 MS21209
NAS13S2 (NONLOCKING) MS21052 MS21991
MS21053 MS122076
ALL THREADED STUDS MS21054 thru
MS21055 MS12227S
MS21056 MS124651
MS21058 thru
MS2fo59 MS124850
MS21060 NAS509
TYPE IV CONSISTS OF ANY COMBINATION OF NUT AND
BOLT SHOWN
REFERENCE BELL STO 160007
TABLE 6.5  TYPE IV FASTENERS
Revision E
NAS577
NAS1291
NAS1329
NAS1330
NAS1473
NAS1474
80006
80007
80013
90002
90003
110061
110062
6 ~ 3
614
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Torque, InLbs
TYPE III TYPE IV
NUT SHEAR TENSION
AND
Recommended Max Allowable Recommended ~ a x Allowable
BOLT
THREAD
Installation Tightening Installation
SIZE
Torque Range Torque Torque Range
(a) (b) (c)
1032 1215 25 2025
1/428 3040 60 5070
5/1624 6085 14'0 100 .. 140
3/824 95110 240 160190
7/1620 270300 500 440500
1/220 288408 660 480700
9/1618 480600 960 8001000
5/818 660780 1400 11001300
3/416 13001500 3000 23002500
7/814 15001800 420'0 25003000
1  12 22003300 6000 37005500
1 1/812 30004200 9000 50007000
1 1/412 54006600 15000 900011000
(a) TYPE III RECOMMENDED TORQUE RANGE IS BASED ON A
NOMINAL STRESS OF 24 KSI IN THE BOLT.
(b) TYPE III MAX ALLOWABLE TORQUE IS BASED ON A
STRESS OF 54 KSI IN THE BOLT.
(c) TYPE IV RECOMMENDED TORQUE RANGE IS BASED ON
A NOMINAL STRESS OF 40 ~ IN THE BOLT.
(d) TYPE IV MAX ALLOWABLE TORQUE IS BASED ON A
STRESS OF 90 KSI IN THE BOLT.
REFERENCE BELL STn 160007
TABLE 6.6  TORQUE VALUES FOR THREADED FASTENERS
AND FITTINGS
Tightening
Torque
(d)
40
100
225
390
840
1100
1600
2400
5000
7000
10000
15000
25000
\
/
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision B
6.3 METALLURGICAL JOINTS
In the design of metallurgical joints, the strength of the joining material (weld
metal) and the adjacent parent material must be considered. Wherever possible,
joints should be designed so that the welds will be loaded in shear.
The allowable strength for both the adjacent parent metal and the weld metal is
given in MILHDBK5. Two types of metallurgical joints are discussed; welding
and brazing. Welding consists of joining two or more pieces of metal by applying
heat,pressure or both, with or without filler material, to produce a localized
union through fusion or recrystallization across the joint. Common welding
processes include: fusion (inert gas, shielded arc with nonconsumable tungsten
electrode  TIG and inert gas shielded metal arc welding using consumable elec
trodesMIG), resistance (spot and seam) and flash.
Brazing consists of joining metals by the application of heat causing the flow
of a thin layer, capillary thickness of nonferrous filler metal into the space
between pieces. Bonding results from the intimate contact produced by the dis
solution of a small amount of base metal in the molten filler metal without fusion
of the base metal.
6.3.1 Fusion Welding  Arc and Gas
In the design of welded joints, the strength of both the weld metal and the
adjacent parent metal must be considered. For materials heat treated after
welding, the allowable strength in the parent metal near a welded joint may
equal the allowable strength for the material in the heat treated condition;
it should be noted that the weld metal allowables are based on 85
percent of these values.
6.3.2 Flash and Pressure Welding
The ultimate tensile allowable strength and bending allowable modulus of rupture
for flash and pressure welds are specified in MILHDBK5 .
. ) 6.3.3 Seat and Seam We lding
Design shear strength allowables for spot welds in various alloys are given in
MILHDBK5j the thickness ratio of the thickest sheet to the thinnest outer
sheet in the combination should not exceed 4:1. Table 6.7 gives the minimum
allowable edge distance for spot welds and seam welds. Combinations of aluminum
alloys suitable for spot welding are given in Table 6.8.
6.3.4 Effect of Spot Welds on Parent Metal
In applications of spot welding where ribs, or doublers are
attached to sheet, either at splices or at other points on the sheet panels,
the a] lowabLe ultimate strength of the spot welded sheet shall be detenmined
multiplying the ultimate tensile sheet strength by the approximate effi
. c1ency factor shown in HLLHDBK5.
615
616
STRU'CTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Nominal thickness of
thinner sheet, in. Edge distance, E, in.
0.016 ............... 3/16
0.020 ............... 3/16
0.025 ............... 7/32
0.032 ............... 1/4
0.036 ............... 1/4
0.040 ........... ,. ... 9/32
0.045 ............... 5/16
0.050 ................ 5/16
0.063 ................ 3/8
0.071
'!!
3/8 ................
0.080 ............... 13/32
0.090 0 7/16
0.100 ............... 7/16
0.125 o ., 9/16
0.160 ............... 5/8
{a} Intermediate gages will conform to the requirement
for the next thinner gage shown.
(b) For edge distances less than those specified above,
appropriate reductions in the spotweld allowable
loads shall be made.
, .' ?
, !l
( , i
~ i
t
TABLE 6.7  MINIMUM EDGE DISTANCES FOR SPOT
WELDED JOINTS
(]'\
I
I'
......
e
t3
'" .
co
(I
I'lJO
0(")
.. t3
I'lJ
t;;G;
(l)tJ:j
tz:!
c:
[ljll
t;:!c
H::3:
Z
CI
t""I
()
o
3:
t:tt
11
Z
H
o
Z
en
Q:>
'"
o
\ ..........
e
Specification ".
QQ'b RQA RQA
t
QQA QQA QQA QQA RQA QQA
250/1 4029
b
4014 250/3 250/4 250/5 250/2 250/8 250/11 250/1:
Material
Bare Bare Clad Bare Clad Bare Clad
1100 2014 2014 2014 2024 2024 3003 5052 6061 7075 7075
Material
QQA250/l 1100
.. ... .. ..
. "
.. .. .. ..
.....
AMS4029 Bare
1:
oJ. .".
"It't
*
..
.. ..
" .
.. .. ..
AMS4014 Bare 2014(bj
..
*
';': i( 1(
(II 0
000 000
" 0
0 0
OOA250/3 Clad 2014
..
.. 't
*
..
*
.. .. ...
*
.. ..
QQA250/4 Bare
..
* *
;':
*
.. .. ..
*
.. ..
QQA250/5 Clad 2024
.. .. ..
o 0
.. .. ..
.. ..
..
QQA250/2 3003 .. . ..
.. ...
.. ..
... .. .. .. .. .. ....
QQA250/8 5052
.. ... .. .. .. ... " .. .. ..
QQ .. A ... 250/ 1] 6061
Q ..
. "
.. " 1/ .. .. ..
.. ... .. ...
QQA 250/ I Bare 7075(b)
..
* * *
...'r
..
.. ...
" . " .
"It'f;
...
QQA 250/1' Clas 7075(c)
.. .. .. II " ..
" .
...
(a) The various aluminum and aluminumalloy materials referred to in this table may be
spot welded in any combinations except the combinations indicated by the asterisk
(*) in the table. The combinations indicated by the asterisk (*) may be spot
welded only with the specific approval of the procuring or certifying agency.
(b) This table applies to construction of land and carrierbased aircraft only. The
welding of bare, highs th alloys in construction of seaplanes and amphibians
is prohibited unless fically authorized by the procuring or certifying agency.
e
". 1
:
.
(I)
....
::a
c:
n
....
c:
:I>
r
= rn
(I)

=
:z
(c) Clad heattreated and 7075 material in thicknesses less than 0.020 inch shall not
31:
:I>
:z
be welded without specific approval of the procuring or certifying agency.
=
:I>
r
/ f ..  \ \,\
Revision B
, /
/
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
6.3.5 Welding.of Castings
Inprocess repair welding of rough castings is permissible when accomplished
in accordance with drawing requirements or other authorized documentation.
BHT designed castings are repair welded to BPS 4470 procedures. These basic
procedures, as listed below, shall also be considered when supplier designed
castings are to be repair welded.
A. Dpfects shall be carefully and completely remo.ved by grinding
t
routing or
filing and reworked area shall be thoroughly cleaned.
B. Fluorescent penetrant or radiographic inspection shall be used to insure
complete defect removal prior to. welding.
C. Acceptable heat treat conditions of castings at time. of welding shall be
in accordance with BPS 4470 or as otherwise authorized by the BHT Metallur
gical Laboratory.
D. Welding method shall be tungsten inert gas (TIG) and shall be specified
per specifications MILW8604 for aluminum alloys, MILW86l1 for ferrous
alloys and MILW18326 for magnesium alloys when applied to supplier design
parts.
E. Applicable filler material shall be specified if parts are not welded
per BPS 4470.
F. Zoned sketches shall be required when specific areas or defect sizes to be
welded are limited. Procedures shall confo.rm to BPS 4470 requirements.
G. Welding shall be performed by welders qualified in accordance with BPS 4470
test requirements or as otherwise authorized by BHT Metallurgical Labora
tory.
H. Welded castings shall be properly identified to indicate that the casting
was repair welded.
I. Casting shall be completely heat treated after all welding is completed.
J. All weld repaired castings, except Class lIB, shall be 100% radiographically
inspected after all welding and heat treatment is completed.
K. When supplier designed castings are to be weld repaired, the Structural
Materials Technology Group should be consulted for specific requirements .
618
\
\
)

Ll. I  ' _
\ Bell
\\ .. .
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
6.4 MECHANICAL JOINTS
This section contains design information for lugs, sockets, pins, cables, pulleys,
bearings, bonding, etc.
6.4.1 Joint Load Analysis
The analysis in this section is a thermoelastic analysis of mechanical joints
based on the procedures set forth in Reference 10, WADDTR60S17. The analysis
presented is directly applicable to problems where the stress' levels lie in the
elastic range. Certain aspects of the analysis are shown to be of value in the
solution of problems with stress levels in the inelastic and plastic ranges.
6.4.1.1 OneDimensional Compatibility
The problem is simplified if the overall geometry of the joint does not allow
the joint to bend out of plane. Such a case is shown in Figure 6.2. This re
sults in joint displacements and attachment loads essentially dependent on axial
flexibility of the joint components in the direction of the applied external
loading.' .
The load distribution is obtained by satisfying compatibility conditions for the
joint displacements and the equilibrium equation.
This analyis is applicable to a mechanical joint composed of two dissimilar
elastic materials. It is assumed that the attachments initially fill the holes
and that each attachment hole combination deforms elastically under load. The
presence of "slop" and its influence upon the load distribution is then con
sidered.
Figure 6.3 shows a longitudinal section through a typical joint. Denoting the
shear load at the jth attachment by Pj, equilibrium of forces requires that
N
X = :E p.
j=l ]
(l)
where a tensile applied load X and attachment loads acting to the right on the
upper sheet are positive.
As shown in Figure 6.4, compatibility of displacements requires that the axial
contraction or expansion of the plate material at the common surface, measured
from a datum (defined by the unloaded, unheated spacing between the centerlines
of adjacent pins) must be identical for the upper and lower plates. For the jth
general bay the compatibility equation is
(2)
where T and B denote top and bottom sheet. For the onedimensional case with no
tlslop" there are basicially two types of deformation which contribute to the Ll.js
of the joint.
619
620
~ I STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
~ ~ n
LOAD
/
FIGURE 6.2 TYPICAL SPLICE FOR RIGID BEAM
FIGURE 6.3 ONE DIMENSIONAL JOINT EQUILIBRIUM
)
)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
j j+l
FIGURE 6.4 ONE DIMENSIONAL COMPATIBILITY
r
~
4
.J
jl
P.
! P.
m
J
4IIIIIIf
P. 1
I
. ' 1
J j i,
J+
JlJ
_1=1 S
.",.
FIGURE 6.5 DEFORMATION OF THE JOINT DUE TO LOCAL
DISTORTIONS OF THE HOLES AND ATTACHMENTS
~
P.
S'r.;1 ~
621
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
The first type is uniaxial stretching or contraction of the sheets due to the
combined effects of temperature and mechanical loading. From Figure 6.5 the
uniaxial stretching for the jth bay is
I
(x  t
+ fLj
jT
dX
djT
=
i=l AE jT
E
0
I
(tl
Pi
)
(lE) + fLj
d
jB
jB
dx
jB 0
where a positive increases the spacing between adjacent attachments and
h
L EaT dy
f
h
E dy
o

E
(3a)
(3b)
If the thermal gradient is linear through the thickness, then is approximately
equal to the value aT at the plate midplane.
The second basic type of joint deformation occurs because the internal joint loads
create local distortions of the holes and attachments as shown in Figure. 6.6
The deformation is expressed in terms of an experimentally determined attachment
hole flexibility factor f for the given attachmentsheet flexibility (see Section
6.4.3). Thus, for the top sheet
A\l f f
II j T = Pj + 1 ( j + 1 ) T  P j j T
and for the bottom sheet
A\\ f
L.ljB = Pj+l (j+l)B + PjfjB
Substituting tljT = and ajB = + 6."jB from equations (3) and (4)
equation (2) Ylelds
where
and
622
Ll cPo
J
f.
J
 P. f. + P. + 1 f . + 1 + X (ALE)
J J J J J jT
Lj
! (f
jT
 E
jB
) dx
(4a)
(4b)
into
(5)
)
Bell
.. \ /,' '/
. J
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
L.
J
P.f.
J JB
FIGURE 6.6 DEFORMATION OF THE JOINT DUE TO LOCAL DISTORTIONS
OF THE HOLES AND ATTACHMENTS
623
'!1",
/:/1', \\'
t. j 
Revision B 
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
The compatibility equation (5) which constitutes Nl equations together with the "I
equilibrium equation (1) provides N linear algebraic simultaneous equations for e/
unknown attachment loads, Pj. Since equation (5) is in the of a recurrence
equation, it can be used to express all the attachment loads in terms of Pl, the
load in the first attachment. Solutions can also be obtained by solving the
simultaneous equations directly or by iteration and relaxation techniques. Often
in design, the sheet thicknesses are constant; the attachments are all of the
same type, size and spacing and the temperature through the splice thickness does
not vary appreciably in the direction of mechanical loading. This case of
constant bay properties alters equation (5) somewhat. The coefficients of the
Pj's become constant and a general solution takes the form of
(6 )
(j=1,2, . , Nl)
where
L
ilcp = f (E'  'l ) dx
a T B
and
f = fT + fB
Combining equations (1) and (6) yields the following:
[AjN + BjN (i)] X + BjN ()
(7)
where the subscript jN refers to the j th attachment in a joint of N attachments.
Values of the coefficients AjN, BjN and Z are plotted in Figures 6.7 through
6.20, where
By interchanging the designation of the top and bottom sheets, the curves of
Figures 6.7 through 6.20 can be used to obtain all of the loads in joints having'
as many as ten attachments. When the total number of attachments exceeds ten,
the curves give the loads in the first five attachments from either end of the
splice.
The first term on the righthand side of equation (7) represents the contri
bution of mechanical loading and the second term the contribution of thermal
loading. For constant bay properties the thermal load at the center of the
joint must be zero because of symmetry. Thus, B23 B35 = B47 = = o.
In addition the thermal loads, in joints with constant bay properties, are
symmetrical about the center of the splice, BIN = BNN; B2N = B(Nl)N; etc.
624
)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
v
/ L /'"
L V ~
I / v L L ~ ,/" ~
1
FIGURE 6.7
I I I II I 1/ / ,/ ./ J ~ L
I I I 1I V / / v v V
....4
o
o
.
JOINT COEFFICIENTS FOR CONSTANT BAY PROPERTIES (A
1N
, j=l)
625
a
rI
626
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
L
,/
/
1
/
/
/
V
'"
V
f
1.//
/1/
/L
I //
//
V/
II
/
l1j
I
V V
/
IIf/' I
I I I
1/ III I
V. I I
V I I
Jiv
II
!III
II /
I
I
l///
II I I
;J
rIt
7' I
I I I I
I I I f I
I .
1/ I I I I
1JJ
J I
I
,
I I
ill l II I
vI
'/
/
r
/
V
r.", ..
'lit' P'l
l\l
J
FIGURE 6.8
COEFFICIENTS FOR CONSTANT BAY PROPERTIES (BIN' j=l)
o
o
rI
o
rI
rI
o
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
ii ! J
t=t
I I I /
11
I I /
L
L
L
/
/
/ /
V
V
V V
II
v
V
II
I 1/
",
I ./
L /'
tR=
L
/
L'
Y
v
I v
v
L
,,/
V /
V ,,) ....
V
V
1\ / L
\
/
v
V
v
v
l/
V
VV
V
1I
.... 1'
/
1
V
L /
............
,
I
I'
L
,
I / / ./ ./
."...,..
\ I L
v
./
.......... /,,"
II
/ .
V ./ /" /'
..,.....,..
L
V
L /
......... 1'
""'v
/
1I
/
'/
/1 .....
V
L
/
/v
/V
/'
t;V
.........
v'"
,v
IJ v
)
i Ijl/
vv
V ,,"
v
V"
V
/v
../'
V
TJ
,I
/
V
2
/':
v
v
v
l"
i
............
y
4m
I
v
V
/"'" ./'
_L
,
I L L / i""
 r I / / IL ./ r' L /
I. i. 1/ '/ / /' L ./'
f 1 / J / L ./ /
I 1
1/
l{
II / L lI" k'.:::
I 1 1 I I j
J
LV L !/V ..... V
I I /
ltV
V / L/
V
VV
'i
1/
"/
/
v/
V//I,
J /
II / / v / V
I 11/ V
....I
....I ....I z....l 0
.. N 0 0
<.. ..
FIGURE 6.9 JOINT COEFFiCIENTS FOR OONSTANT BAY PROPERTIES (A
2N
, j=2)
o
o
........
....I
o
.
N
627
..1
I
...
11
i !
: ~
I
I
I
r
11
I
I
I
I
I
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
1/
~
/
/
/
/
V
I
V
N
~
~
P!!
0
~
0
.. II
~
~ ('I")
o N
Zj:Q
.
t
/
i/
/
.IV
V
/
V
V
I
i
/
/
..1
o
I
I
I
I
I
I
..1
o
o
o
o
.I
o
.I
.I
o
FIGURE 6.10 JOINT'COEFFICIENTS FOR CONSTANT BAY PROPERTIES (B
22
, =2, N ~ 2
628
e)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
o
o
I
/) / /
'f"/ / v I
/ L
... fV v /
/ II1I I 1
//1//// I
/7 II I / I
., II f I / I !/
! 1 II I
FIGURE 6.11 JOINT COEFFICIENTS FOR CONSTANT BAY PROPERTIES (B
2Nt
j=2)
N
629
630
\
1\
,
1\
\
\
\
i\
\
j
~
.
~
1\
,
\
1
I
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
./
/
1
/
/
/
V
I
V
/
V
V
/
/ /'
I /'
, ... v
v
""
II
V'
j
= ~
./
/ /:
/ /'" I I V
/
/v
v
VV
/
v
vi'"
V
/
, ....
v
v
V
v
v
/
v
V
I/V
v
"",v
V
J
/ /
,/"
I If / ./
,
/ L
:,.....
I / V L
...... V ,/'
/ / ./ ./ ./
",.
/ I
/V
/:
:,...../
./
/ j /
LV ./"
/'"
V
/
V
V
L
:... .......
v'
./
V
V //
V
......
V
/
/'"
j II /
V
~ l
V
V
V
V
/
:,.v
V
V
V
q..
V
~ I
V
)
~ p
t,.V V
1/
;/ 1 I V ."
I 1/ I / L I.V V
I / / /
Z
V
1 J I If 1/ /
1/
../'
I
II
V
)
J V /
v
1/
/ I
J V
/ / /
l// /
I
I
I /
/ l! ~
/V
I
/ I
V
L /
U'
I
~
V
'I
~
V
l ~
V
V
~ J I
/
V
./'
~
/'
~
V
V
~
v
~
" v ~
~
..,/'
~
V ~
~
<
7
./
/'
~
.
~
~
./
..I
o
o
FIGURE 6.12 JOINT COEFFICIENTS FOR CONSTANT BAY PROPERTIES (A
3N
, j=3)
o
o
..I
o
..I
..I
.
~
o
.
)
.I
I
/
:70: .... "
f i .. "  \
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
\\.' \
.........
a
/
7
/
/
V
/
V
/
f'I) V
lY
;7
/
I /
II /
J
V
17 7
/
j
[7
fT
/
II
V
J
I
N
I
c:G
0
a
II
E u)
o cr)
/
V
V
/
V
vl/
/
V
/
V
/V
[7
vl/
V
/
/
/
/
7
,/
V'
./
/"
V
V
V
/'
V
V
.I
a
a
a
.I
.I
.
.I
a
, FIGURE 6.13 JOINT 'COEFFICIENTS FOR CONSTANT BAY PROPERTIES (B
33
, B
34
, j=3)
N
631
0"
I
W
10
......
.
1
Z
,.",,
B3N
. 1
.01
.01

::::::= :::::: .....
"

r.::::: t:::::
r
r....
I'
;::
r....
i'
r r..

r.
r....
t. r...
.... "..""''"


..........
.......... .......... ,,"'

... ..........
........
............'"

"'"",,,
I"
.... r........
'"
'"
'"
"'
r\
'"
I\.
!'\. '\1\.
I"\:
\ f\\
r\ \\
1\
\"
\'\
\'
\
1 1 10
Z
FIGURE 6.14 JOINT COEFFICIENTS FOR CONSTANT BAY PROPERTIES (B
3N
, j=3)

100
e
:;0
ro /' ' ,
<: ":
11'  __
rn . _.;
1'. \ \ ;1:11.. ___ (
o ',.rI /
::l
tl'
=
(I)
.....
:::cJ
c:
c)
I
c:
::a
,.
r
tJ
",
Cf)

C)
:z
31:
,.
z
c::
,.
r
1
.1
.01
a.
I
W
w .001
e
''
e
'",,,'
J
II
1 .1 1,,'.1 .1
I I IJ].J __
' "" r
T J j" ""'  " ...

r ,.....1"  _ r
 1
,
r S __ _
=  rr"'''' 1 "'.....,"
r 1 ....
" '" r
1
1
 !'.
r. J", ' J
' 7" '" " I
 I
. .. =:".
, ..... '" "
r  r I' "" _
..., 'c "'" I, '" _ "'"
,.... "'" ," 'I\. "
 r.. e:,. 0 '" 1"' '" I>. "", r
K "I' r " "", '\ "l",. t 1"\
l \ '1\, 1 1
r "\ . "" ""', 1,\ 1\ 1\ 1\
" I"'\.. ['\, 'j" I" 1'1. 1 \ , t
I'" I" 1'\ I' 1\ ' ' _
1 "\,, ' ' .\, , I'
' , lO ' " J." _ ,
. "" \ 1\
, ' ""
 " '\ 21" \ "  \.:: "l. \11. Il. n \ IT \ \
1 \J 1\ . i .l \1':. r,.. ....
  1 h \1'\ 1\ 1\ \ ' 1\ i
  1'1\ 1\ 1\ 1 1\ 1\ 1 1 !\11 1 \1 1 LllllJ
I \0 1 \ 1 \1 1 11 1 111 \ t 1 L 1 11111111
.01 . 1
1
10
100
Z
FIGURE 6.15 JOINT COEFFICIENTS FOR CONSTANT BAY PROPERTIES (A
4N
, j=4)
e
, ,
: .
II, ;
:
:;d
(1)
<:
1'.
to
1'
o
:l
;
CI)
.....
:::a
c:
c)
.....
c:::
:::a
:r
r
CJ
.."
CI)

C)
z
:I:
:r
z
c:
::1:1
r
'"
I
v..>
.t:'"
10
1
B4N
 . 1
.01
.01
e
NOTE:
r
rr
B47
o FOR ALL Z
rt ..
r.,.s ,
...
""r..
i'.....

t
""""'"
"
r
"I' "
'"
'"
f'
"
"
i'
"
"
'\ '\ r..
[\. I\.
"
\.
"
'\.
"
r\
"\
" \
:\
""
\
\
"
\
"
\
\
"
"
1\
1\
1\
1\
. 1 1 10
Z
FIGURE 6.16 JOINT COEFFICIENTS FOR CONSTANT BAY PROPERTIES (B
44
,B
45
, B
46
, j=4)
e
""
"
100
';
<:
...,.
til
...,.
o
I (I)
tlj ......
e
:::a
c:
n
......
c::
::::a
::.:.
r
CJ
rn
(I)

Ci)
z
31:
::.:.
z
c::
::.:.
....
10
1
B4N
1
0"
I
w .01
V't
e
r. 12 :?:

........
r....

"
c:t
 !'.

.01
''''''
e
"
...........
i"
"
i'.
...........
t.
"
..... .........
''
.......
"" 'l""
t'
,,,"...,,
.............
'" "'" """ i"'1'
"",,""
" "'''"''
t
'" '\
r.
.......
r. ......
"
'"
"'"
'\
'"
"
" '\'1
'\.
r'\ \'[\.
\ l'
\
\
1\
\
1 1 10
z
FIGURE 6.17 JOINT COEFFICIENTS FOR CONSTANT BAY PROPERTIES (B
4N
, j=4)
i
100
e
CT>
<:
,...
en
,...
o
::s
txJ
I ." .
:"4
,'\, t _ ' .Ii
,,;11 .. /
,
CI)
I
::a
c:
n
I
c:
:::a
:J>
r
CJ
...,
CI)

c,
z
:&:
:J>
Z
c:
:J>
r
0"
I
v.>
0'
1
1
ASN
.01
.001
to'

.,V
I"
V
10



_I"""
r


7
'"
r
t
'"
rifL i"r
r....
r....
r .......
..
1"""""
...
"'
l""
t
............;t .........
"
I'...
 ......
t' ... .........
"
"
"'
........
I"..
""
"
"
"
b.....""" .........
'"
"
!'\
'"
..... ,
""""
rr
.""
"
1\ '\
"
'
'\.
'" "\
'['\
'\
"\
'\
'"
\
i,\
i"t..
" " "
'\
1\
1\
\
'\
""
'"
f'
1\
1\ 1\
'"
'4
1\
1\ 1\
r\
f'
1\ I
"
1\
'\.. _'\ "\. \. \.
r'I..
"
" "
\. \ \ \ I
"
'\ \ \. \
1
t\.
"\
\.u. \ \ 1\ \ 1\
1
\
\ \ \. \ \ 1\
'\
\. \ \ _\
r\ \
\
1\
1\ \'8 \
\
\ f\ !\
1\0\
1\ \
,
\ \
,
\ 1\
\\
\
,
\
1\
1\
1\
.01 .1 1
10
z
FIGURE 6.18 JOINT COEFFICIENTS FOR CONSTANT BAY PROPERTIES (A
SN
' j=S)
 
'"
1"\
100
::t1
ctI
<:
.....
til
....
o
tI1
e
. \
, 1II1II ..
'ct... . I.
(I)
I
::a
c:
n
I
c:
::10
:r
....
c
"'
(I)

G')
z
31:
:r
z
c:
:r
r
e
',"
e
10
1
r
r
!'
NOTE:
r
rr
i
l
t
t
BS9 = 0 FOR ALL Z
I'
t
'"""
'""'r r....... G.
... ,


..........
'
r_
"'
.....
........ f'.
"
"
I ___
""
"
'"
r
r.
'"
r
......
..........
'"
r'\
""'"
",
BSN
"
\
'"
0
1\
i'.
"
... 1
"'
\
,
'\. '\ '\
'"
"
\.
'" \ \. '\
""
I'
\ 1\
'"
f\ \ \
[\
\ f\
'"
\
\
\
\
1\ f\
\ \
1\
r .01
.01 . 1 1 10
Z
FIGURE 6.19 JOINT COEFFICIENTS FOR CONSTANT BAY PROPERTIES (B
SN
' j=S)
e
1'\
""
"
f',
100
, .
(>'
","i
, *" '
" ;CI'  ' :
CI)
I
:xJ
c:
c:)
I
c:
:;a
:1:1
r
ei
,..,
(I)

G)
z
:I:
:1:1
Z
=
:1:1
r
'"
cr
(Xl
10 J __
,
,
,
,
1
BSN
. 1
L"'oo
....
I"'. ..ll ["'.." I ....... L' E1
=  """....

r.r
I r. '", '\
r"rrr
'\. '1\
_'\ \.\
... \\'
\'l\
\
\
.01
.01
\1\\
1\1\ ' I
1 1
z
10

FIGURE 6.20 JOINT COEFFICIENTS FOR CONSTANT BAY PROPERTIES (B
SN
' j=5)

100
('tI I' ,,' \
S. ..
til, ':: '!II :::l
\ '.
" .. ," __"" /
i=:'::::'''/
CI)
.....
:::a
c:
c)
.....
c:
:::c:.
r
CJ
rn
en

G')
:z
s:
:z
c:
r
I
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision E
An example problem best illustrates the procedure. Figure 6.21 shows a bimetallic
splice, titanium and aluminum sheets joined by six steel bolts. The titanium and
aluminum have uniform temperature rises of 300
0
F and 70
0
F respectively.
The results of the example show that the maximum load occurs in the first attach
ment and that the two end attachments carry more than half of the total applied
mechanical load. When plastic deformations occur in the vicinity of the bolt
holes, the bolts tend to carry equal loads.
Example Problem:
f = .900 x 10
6
in/lb (Section 6.4.3)
(L/AE)T 1/(1.5)(,125)(15)(10
6
)
=
.356
( 10" 6)
in/lb
(L/AE)B 1/(1.5)(.250)(10)(10
6
)
=
.267
(10
6
)
in/lb
At. ( a AT)T  (a AT)B
Substituting into equation (7)
(Ajn + B
jn
(.356/.900) 2 0 ~ O O O ) + BJN (1110/.900)
20,000 A. + 9135 B.
In In
The coefficients A. and B. are now determined from Figure 6.7
In In
through Figure 6.20.
z = (( ) + (..h) 1 ( 1.)=
Ae T Ae B f
(.356 + .267) (1/.900) .692
N = 6
A16
.0140; Figure 6.7 B16 .8000; Figure 6.8
A
26
.0239; Figure 6.9 B26 .3200; Figure 6.11
A36
.0500; Figure 6.12, B36 .0880; Figure 6.14
A46
.1090; Figure 6.15, B46 .0860; Figure 6.16
AS6
.2450; Figure 6.18, B56 .3200; Figure 6.19
The curves give values of Ajn and B
jn
up to j = 5, but the splice under consid
eration has 6 fasteners. In order to obtain the coefficients for the last
attachment, the designation of the top and bottom plates must be interchanged
as shown.
639
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
X20000
h
20000
12410
9010
LOAD IN TOP PLATE
I
TITANIUM.
.125xl.SO. a=6.5(lO )
T=300oF
ALUMINUM, E=lO(10
6
2
6
25 Ox: L 5 0, a;;;< 12 (l 0 )
T=700,
7210
5820
3840
.250 OIA.
STEEL BOLTS
20000 1390+ 1980
7590
BOLT LOADS 4030
  3400 _.______
_ 1800 1390 _
I
FIGURE 6.21  EXAMPLE PROBLEM, COMPATIBILITY
As shown above, the last attachment (j  6) in the original designation becomes
the first attachment (j 1) in the interchanged position.
ft = f = .900 (10.
6
) in/lb
= (L/AE)B
(L/ AE)tB = (L/ AE)T
.267 (10
6
) in/lb
.356 (lO6) in/lb
Z' Z = .692
from equation (7)
+ B! (.267/.900(20,000) = (1110/.900)
JU In In In
20,000 A! + 4693
JU In Jll
from Figures 6.7 and 6.8
.BOOO
640
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision B
Substituting coefficients A. and B. into the equations for p.
In In J n
r
16
= 20 t OOO (.0140) + 9135 (.8000) 75901bs.
r 26 = 20,000 (.0239) + 9135 ( .. 3200) = 3400 lbs.
P36 = 20,000 (.0500) + 9135 (.0880) 1800 lbs.
P46 = 20,000 (.1090) + 9135 (.0860) 1390 lbs.
PS6 = 20,000 (.2450) + 9135 (.3200) = 1980 Ibs.
Poo = P'16 = 20,000 (.0140) + 4693 (.8000) = 4030 lbs.
Equilibrium Check
n
= 7590 + 3400 + 1800 + 1390 + 1980 + 4030 =20190 lhs.
j==l
6.4.1.2 Constant Bay Properties  Rigid Sheets
The special case in which the sheets have negligible axial as compared
to the deformations caused by local distortions of the holes and attachment
will be considered now. This condition is possible when the sheets are thick
and the attachments are small or when local yielding causes the effective attach
ment/hole flexibility to become large as compared to the axial flexibility of
the sheets. In this case
(L/AE)TP' 0 and 0
and the compatibility equation (5) in Section 6.4.1.1 reduces to
P.
J
PI (jl) A<P/f
PI is obtained by summing equation (1) over the total number of fasteners:
N
L P.
j:=l J
X NP 1  c/> / f [ t (j  1 >j
J=1
PI = X/N + (Nl)!2 (Ac/>/f)
Substituting (9) into (8)
P
j
= X/N + (N+l/2 ; j)A4>/f
NP
l
 N/2(Nl)
(8)
(9)
( 10)
641
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
The solution shows that for the case of constant bay properties and infinitely
rigid sheets, the mechanical load distributes equally to the fasteners while
attachment loads due to thermal effects vary symmetrically about the transverse
centerline of the joint with magnitudes inverseiy proportional to the attachment/
hole flexibility.
For high loads which cause extensive plastic in the vicinity of the
attachment holes, the effective attachment/hole flexibility may become large as
compared to the sheet flexibility, in which case the solution of equation (10)
is approached. If these plastic effects become large enough, the increase in f
tends to wipe out the effects of thermal loading with the result that
P.  X/N
J
This indicates that near the failure of ductile materials the mechanical load
tends to distribute equally to the attachments regardless of temperature distri
bution.
6.4.1.3 Constant Bay Properties  Rigid Attachments
The attachments may be considered rigid if the attachment/hole flexibility is
negligible when compared to the axial flexibility of the sheet. This situation
seldom occurs in practice since it represents the limiting case of
6.4.1.4 The Influence of IIS10pn
The presence of fls1op" due to manufacturing tolerance and differential thermal
expansions between the plate holes and attachments affects load distribution
through the basic joint compatibility equation. The slop at each attachment
is indicated by the difference in diameters of the plate hole and attachment
and is expressed by
where
and
642
e=e
f
+e
t
; (e>O)
m g emp
e
mfg
e
temp
initial room temperature manufacturing tolerance (clearance
or interference. Interference is negative.)
= thermal slop (clearance or interference due to differential
thennal expansion between plate holes and attachments)
(11)
)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
The::' joint displacements (for compatibility purposes) have been measured from a
datum dQfined by th<:. initial spacing between the centerlines of adjacent attach
ments. When slop is present and thermal and mechanical loads are applied to the
joint, the attachments are displaced from the centers of the holes until they
bear up against sheet material as shown in Figure 6.22. The algebraic sign of
the slop displacements depends on the direction of the joint loads. For the
top sheet, the displacement between adjacent attachments is given by
and for the bottom sheet
a positive 0 increases the spacing between adjacent attachments and
p
TPT
+1 for a positive attachment load and 1 for a negative attachment
load
rhe incompatibility due to slop is therefore
J
S "1'  S. B
J J
Equation (12) is significant in that it brings out the very nature of the slop
problem. Consider, for example, that the slop is the same at all attachments.
In this case equation (12) reduces to
( 12)
(13)
) As the mechanical loads applied to the joint increase, all the attachment loads
t('nd to act in the same direction (opposite to the externally applied load) or
P.
1'1 = +1
The bracket quantity in equation (13) becomes zero and
= a
J
(14)
'643
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
.... L j+ 0jT :a ..... 1
.... 1 ,
I
:!JIIo
P.
.... P'+l
J J
...
P.
P
j
+
1
J
e(j+1)B/
2
L.......__ L.+O.
I" J JB
..I
FIGURE 6.22  ATTACHMENT DISPLACEMENTS DUE TO SLOP
Since the deteLmine the influences of slop on the load distribution, equation
.(14) indicates that for high joint loadings the effects of uniform slop are
elimina.ted. To solve for the load distribution with slop, the basic onedimensional
compatibility expression equation (5) must be modified by the addition of ..
. The compatibili ty equations become: J
Equation (15) and equation (1) provide N equations for the N required attachment
loads Pje The solution of these equations, however, involves more than simply
solving a set of simul taneous algebraic equations. The values of aO
i
on the
right side of equation (15) are given by (12) from which, in order tn de
termine thp aB.'s, thp of th(\ loads (positiv(' or nugnt iv(') musl
be uelC:!flnlncLi. J Hul is nol known ill advance. 'l'hl!:> Irrescnls one of the major
difficulties of the slop problem. The method is as follows:
644'
')
)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
(1) Assume a set of directions for the attachment loads.
(2) Detenmine the dOj*S from equation (12) and solve the simultaneous
capability and equilibrium equations (1) and (15).
(3) If the directions of the loads as obtained from the
solution agree with the initially assumed directions, the solution is
correct.
(A) If the directions of the attachment loads as obtained from the
solution do not agree with the initially assumed directions, the
solution is incorrect. The procedure must be repeated with a new
set of attachment load directions, preferably the oneS obtained
from the solution.
The solution is the correct one when the assumed set of attachment load directions
yields a solution with the same set of directions. An example best illustrates
the procedure. Figure 6.2.3 shows scarfed steel and aluminum plates bolted to
gether with three attachments. The steel and aluminum plates are subjected to
unifonn temperature rises of 640
0
F and BooF respectively and a mechanical load
of 5000 pounds is applied. The manufacturing tolerance is emfg = 0.0003 inch
for all bolts.
5/16 steel bolts STEEL
a = 6(10
6
)in/in/oF
5000
E = 30 10 PS1
a = 6.5(10
6
)in/in/oF
6T = 640
0
F
\ _______
X = 500
.200
11.25 1.25
I
+
I
_ .... __ 2.00
I
+
I
I
L
FIGURE 6.23 .. SCARFED SPLICE
ALUMINUM
E = 107psi
a = 12(10
6
)
6T = BOoF
645
646
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Example Problem:
fl = 1.300 (10
6
) in/lb
f2 = 1.200 (10
6
) in/Ib
f3 = 1.300 (10
6
) in/lb
Using average thicknesses for each bay;
(l/AE)lT
=
1.25
(.175)(2)(30){10
6
)
(l/AF)2T = 1.25
(.125)(2)(30){10
6
)
(I.I flE) IB =
1
1
25
(.225)(2)(10)(10
6
)
0.1 A E) 2B = 1.22
(.275)(2)(10)(10
6
)
=
.119(10
6
) tn/lh
=
.167(10
6
) in/lb
=
.278(10
6
) in/lh
=
.227(10
6
) in/lh
Since the temperature rise in each bay is uniform, the incompatibilities due to
unrestrained thermal expansion is
.6 f> 1 = A q., 2 = [ ( a.6 T )T  (a .6 T)B] L'
= 4000(10
6
) In.
Assuming the temperature of each bolt to be the same as the surrounding sheet
material, the slops due to temperature are given by
( e ) t = ( (a( 6. T ) h  (a 6. T ) ) n h
teMI1 op top s eet . top of attach. ole
= 6.5)(640)  (6)(640)} (,3125)(10
6
)
= 100 (10
6
) In.
= 12 ) ( 80)  (e) ( 80) ) ( .3125) (10 6)
.
= 150 (IO6) in.
)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Since e f ~ 300 (10.
6
) inch, the total slop is given by
m g
= (300 + 100) (10)6
= 4 0 0 (1 0  6) in' :"
= (300 + 150) (10
6
)
= 450 (10
6
) in.
The incompatibilities due to slop, equation (12) are
substituting into equation (15)
and for equilibrium
1st. Assume all attachment loads are positive
1;697 PI  1.200 P
2
= 4595
.394 PI + 1.594 P
2
 1.300 P
a
= 4835
PI + P
2
+ P
3
= ~ O O
._ PI = 3880, P2 = 1850, P,.a = 530
647
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
The above solution would be correct if no slop were present however since J'oint
1
. ,
S op IS present, the solution contradicts the initial assumption that the bolt loads
are all positive and it is therefore incorrect.
2nd. Assume that PI & P2 are positive and P
a
is negative
1.697 PI  1.200 P
2
= 4595
.394 Pi + 1.594 P2  1.300 P
a
= 3985
PI + P
2
+ P
a
= 5000
P
I
.= 3730, P
2
= 1440, P
a
= 170
This is a correct solution since the directions agree with those assumed.
6.4.1.5" TwoDimensional Compatibility
When the boundary conditions are such that the joint is allowed to bow out of
its own plane, the solution is much more complicated. Additional factors such
as rotational and outofplane displacements, beam column effects, moments at
the attachments, etc., enter into the solution. An exact analytical solution
will not be attempted here. Instead, an analysis method is presented which
obtains the first approximation to the solution of the twodimensional problem
by modifying the equations of the onedimensional solution.
Bowing of the joint, Figure 6.24, occurs due to the combined effects of non
uniform temperatures and externally applied mechanical loadings. The solution
presented givestthe shear loads in the attachments for a known set of applied
mechanical and thermal loads where the following simplifying assumptions are
made:
ELASTIC AXIS OF PLATE
1 I I
j j+l
FIGURE 6.24  JOINT WITH BOWED CONFIGURATION
648
)
)
,/
_I
)
)
STRucrURAl DESIGN MANUAL
(1) The bay properties are constant (sheet thicknesses, attachment size
and spacing, stiffnesses, etc., are the same for each bay). The
thennruloading is assumed not to vary in the longitudinal direction
but may vary through its thickness.
(2) Vertical outofplane deflections and clamping loads are assumed
to have a negligible effect on the load distribution (negligible
beam column effects).
(3) Moments at the attachments have a negligible effect on, or ate
included in the attachment/hole flexibility.
(4) The contact faces of the top and bottom plates of the joint are
initially plane; the external axial loading is applied parallel
to this plane in the direction of the line of attachments.
(5) As in the onedimensional case, the joint materials are assumed
to deform elastically under load.
Under the above assumptions
t
the requirements of compatibility at the attachments
yield the following
where
j
fA 2: P.
i=l 1
~  P
jf
+ Pj+lf + Xf
AT
(j = 1, 2, Nl)
2
fA
= U ~ T + U ~ B
L (YT + YB)
+ EIT + EIB
[ ]
EI W + EI 101
l!lq:,
=
6rfJ. L ~ T _ B ,.B (y + y )
EI + E1 T B
T B
fAT
=
(L ) ML [ Y
T
+ Y
B
1
AT T + X EIT + ErE
and W is the curvature due to temperature. If the thermal gradient is linear
through the thickness t then W app.roxima tely equals CiA.T/h where AT/h is the
linear thermal gradient through the plate thickness (positive for higher tem
peratures) on the upper face of the plate. Equation (16) and equation (1)
combine to fonn N equations and N unknowns.
(16)
(17)
(18)
(19)
649
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
A comparison of equation (16) with the onedimensional compatibility equation,
equation (6), shows that the two forms are identical. Thus, when the bay
properties are constant, the procedure for the twodimensional solution is
exactly the same aS,for the onedimensional case if the onedimensional co
efficients
are replaced by the expressions on the right side of equations (17), (18), and
(19), respectively. Coefficients AjN and BjN can then be obtained, from Figures
6.7 through 6.20.
6.4.2 Joint Load Distribution  SemiGraphical Method
This is a semigraphical method for determining the load distribution in a joint.,
This method is based strictly on geometry. If a more precise load distribution
is required, the method of strains in Section 6.4.1 should be used.
6.4.2.1 Fastener Pattern Center of Resistance
Locate the center of resistance of the fastener pattern, G, on the basis of
bearing or shear area. If the fasteners are critical in sheet bearing, the
bearing area should be used. If the fasteners are shear critical, use the
shear area.
Equal Areas
Figure 6.25 shows a typical fastener pattern. Assume each fastener has equal
areas. Connect any two of the fasteners and bisect this line. The point of bi
section is the centroid of the first two fasteners. Join this centroid with the
third fastener and locate a point onethird of the line distance from the
previous centroid to obtain the centroid of the three fasteners. Join this
centroid to a fourth fastener and locate a point onefourth of the distance from
the previous centroid. Continue adding a fastener at a time until all areas )'
have been included.
FIGURE 6.25  FASTENER PATTERN CENTER OF RESISTANCE
6 ... 50
"
\
e)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Unequal Areas
Add a fastener at a time as described previously. At any stage where the cen
troid of n bolts has been found and is joined to the (n+l) fastener, the
fractional part of the connecting line measured from the previous centroid is
+ IJ
6.4.2.2 Load Detennination
Figure 6.26 shows a typical joint with an applied load P and three fasteners
AI, A2 and A3. Draw the joint to scale and locate the center of resistance G.
Extend the line of action of the applied load P, and from this line erect a
perpendicular that passes through the centroid G and extends a distance GQ' away
from P, so that
where
GQ
A = area of fastener in shear or bearing
r = radial distance from G to fastener
e = distance from G to line of action of P
FIGURE 6.26  TYPICAL JOINT
651
~
, , ~ , J .
STRUCTllRAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision E
Next determine the radial distance Ll of the number one fastener from Q., The
load P on that bolt is
PeAl Ll
P =
1 ~ A 2
 r
and is directed perpendicular to radial line L
1
Repeat this procedure until the loads for all fasteners are detennined.
6.4.3 Attachment Flexibility
The flexibility of an attachment/sheet combination should be detennined experi
mentally. If loaddeflection curves for a particular fastener/sheet combination
aTe available, the flexibility is the slope of the curve at the estimated load
level.
If loaddeflection test data is not available for the exaat fastener/sheet com
bination, two methods can be used to deteumine a spring rate.
6.4.3.1 Method I  Generalized Test Data
Some test data is available to develop generalized stiffness curves. Figure 6.27
shows a curve of tiD versus K for a single shear joint with a steel fastener.
The procedure for determining joint stiffness is as follows:
DIA 1/8 5/32 3/16 1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16 1/2 9/16 5/B
SRxlO
6
ALUM 1.21 1.51 1.81 2.4r: 1 0" 1 h':l 6. ? r 4.B" 5.17 6.0
STEEL 3.62 4.53 5.44 7.25 9.06 10.9 12.6 14.5 15.5 18.1
TITAN 1.93 2.42 2.90 3.87 4.83 5.81
6.'72 7.73 8.27 9.65
OTHER (Eother/Esteel)xSRsteel
SHEET SPRING RATE = K x SR
JOINT SPRING RATE = l/(l/SRu + l/SRl)
TABLE 6.9  BASIC SPRING RATES
   .  ~  ~    .   .   .  ..   .  .... __.
1. Calculate tiD for upper sheet
2. Calculate tiD for lower sheet
3. From Figure 6.27 determine K for upper sheet
4. From Figure 6.27 determine K for lower sheet
652
1.6
1.4
1.2
L.O
K .8

.6
.4
.2
,
"
.,.
o 0
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
,
,
,
,
.1
,
,
,
,
,
"
,
,
,
,
""
,
"
,
('
.2 .3 ,,4
'"
./
/
/
,
,
,
I I
,,
I I
.,
,
,
,
"
NOTE:
CURVE FOR STEEL ATTACHMENTS
IN STANDARD HOLES. CORRECT
FOR OTHER MATERIALS AND
HOLES AS FOLLOWS:
ALUMINUM  .59K
TITANIUM  72K
CLOSE HOLES  1.33K
COUNTER SUNK  .67K
I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I t I
I I I III I I I II I I I II I I I II I I I I
.5
tID
.6 .7 .8 .9 1.0
FIGURE 6.27  EFFECTIVE SPRING RATES FOR STEEL
PINS IN SINGLE SHEAR
653
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision C
5. If the fastener is steel and in a hole drilled to nonnal tolerance
(Table 6.1), proceed to step 6. Modify the K factors of step A by
the following factors
Aluminum Fastener, K X .59
Titanium Fastener, K X .72
Close Tolerance Hole, K X 1.33
Countersunk Hole, K X .67
Example:
Titanium fastener in close tolerance hole.
From step 4: K
Correct K: .72 x 1.33 x K
6. Detennine SR from Table 6.9. Calculate spring rate for each sheet by
7.
k K x SR
n n
where:
k spring rate of sheet
n
K
=
constant from step 4
n
SR = value from Table 6.9
Calculate joint spring rate
k ..
J01nt
I
6.4.3.2 Method II  Bearing Criteria
or 5
If load deflection data is not available, the limit bearing load criteria of
Reference 1 may be used to obtain an estimate of the attachmenthole flexibility.
These criteria result in an overestimate of the attachmenthole flexibility and
an underestimate of the maximum attachment load at load levels below yield.
As an example of the way the criteria of MILHDBKSB (Reference 1) may be used
to detennine the attachmenthole flexibility factor, consider a joint in which
the bolt diameter is 0.25 inch
t
the upper sheet is 0.125 inch titanium and the
lower sheet is 0.25 inch aluminum. Assuming that the aluminum is 2024T6 and
the titanium is 6 Al4V, the respective bearing yield stress allowables from
Reference I are 78,000 psi and 198,000 psi. The yield loads are then calculated
to be
654
Pal = 78,000(.250)(.250) = 4875 lbs
P. . = 198,000(.125)(.250)
t1tan1um
6200 Ibs
)
e"
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
The average load is then
P (6200 + 4875)/2 = 5590 lbs.
avg
The flexibility is calculated for a deformation of 2 percent of the hole diameter
per Reference 1.
f = ::;
avg avg
6.4.4 Lug Design
This section presents a basic method of analysis and procedure for the design of
lugpin combinations loaded axially, obliquely or transversely.
An accurate analysis of a lugpin combination under load is difficult because
the actual distributions of stresses in the lug and pin involve a combination of
shear, bending and tension of varying amounts, which are a function of the ratio
of lug edge distance and thickness to pin diameter
t
shape of lug, number of lugs
in a joint, material properties, stress concentrations, rigidity of adjacent
s t ru c tu r e , etc
The various modes of failure for a lug are:
1. Bearing of pin, lug or bushing
2. Tension across minimum net section. The full P/A
net
stress cannot be
carried because of the stress concentration around the hole.
3. Hoop tension failure of the lug across the section in line with the
load.
4. Shear tearout failure of the lug.
5. Shear and bending of the pin.
Shear tearout and bearing are closely related and are covered by shearbearing
calculations based on empirical data. Also, the shearbearing criteria precludes
hoop tension failures.
Yielding of the lug is also
permanent set of 0.02 times
checked as it is frequently
from the ratio of the yield
material.
a consideration. It is considered excessive at a
the pin diameter. This condition must always be
reached at a lower load than would be anticipated
stress, F
ty
' to the ultimate stress, F
tu
' for the
655
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
/ /
Revision E
Since lugs are elements having severe stress concentrations, the ductility and/or
impact strength of the material is of importance. For this reason, attention should
be paid to the longitudinal, long transverse and short transverse material prop
erties.
Lugs are a small weight portion of a structure and are prone to fabrication errors
and service damage. Since their weight is usually insignificant relative to
their importance, the following criteria should be used.
1. Design lugs for a minimum margin of safety of 0.15 in both yield and
ul timate.
2. If no bushing is included in the original design, design the lug so
that one can be inserted in the future; however, express margins of
safety with no bushings.
6.4.4.1
F
tu
p
y
M
max
p'
u
p'
bru
p'
bry
p.
tu
p'
tru
pi
y
A
656
Nomencla ture
Ultimate tensile strength; F
tuw
with grain, F
tux
cross grain.
When the plane of the lug contains both long and short trans
verse grain F
tux
is the smaller of the two.
Tensile yield strength; Ftyw with grain, Ftyx cross grain.
When the plane of the lug contains both long and short
transverse grain"directions, F
tyx
is the smaller of the two.
= Compressive yield strength
= Ultimate load
Yield load
Maximum bending moment on pin
= Allowable ultimate load
Allowable ultimate shearbearing load
Allowable yield bearing load on bushing
Allowable ultimate tensile load
= Allowable ultimate transverse load
= Allowable yield load of lug
= Area; Abr projected bearing area, At m1n1mum net section
for tension, Aav weighted average area for transverse load.
)
K
c
R
t
L, T, ST
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Efficiency factor; Kbr for shearbearing, K
t
for tension,
Ktru for transverse load (ultimate), Ktry for transverse
load (yield).
:;:: Yield factor
Load ratio; Ra for axial, Rtr for transverse
= Thickness of lug
Grain direction; (L) longitudinal, (T) transverse and (ST)
short transverse.
Angle of d:>l ique load; ex
and 0 < a < 90 oblique.
o for axial, a = 90 for transverse
Y :;:: Pin bending moment reduction factor for peaking
r [e  D/2] It
6.4.4.2 Analysis of Lugs with Axial Loads ~ = 0)
The determination of the allowable ultimate and yield axial loads for lugs of
the type shown in Figure 6.28 is as follows:
FIGURE 6.28  AXIALLY LOADED LUGS
p
657
STRUCTURAL DE.SIGN MANUAL"
A. Compute: e/D, D/t, W/D
t
= Dt, At = (VV D) t
B. P
b
' = allowable ultimate shearbearing load
ru
c.
1. Enter Figure 6.30 with e/D and D/t and obtain
2. P
bru
P'
tu
allowable ultimate tension load
1. Enter Figure 6.32 with vv/n and obtain K
t
for proper material.
2. KtAtF
tu
D. pt
Y
allowable yield load of lug
E,.
1.
2.
Enter Figure 6.31 with e/D and obtain Kb
p' = K A F ry
y bry br ty
pi = allowable yield bearing load on bushing
bry
1. P
bry
= 1.85 FcyAbrb
Revision
Where Abrb is the smaller of bearing area of bushing on Din, or bearing
area of bushing on lug. Latter value may be smaller due to effect of
external chamfer of bushing.
F. Margins of safety
1. Minimum M.S.
2. Minimum M.S.
.1S for ultimate shearbearing and ultimate tension
o for yield of lug and bushing.
6.,4.4.3 Analysis of Lugs with Transverse Loads (a = 90
0
)
The determination of the allowable ultimate and yield transverse loads for of,
the type shown in Figure 6.29 is as follows:
658
A
av
Dt
A lAb
av I'
6
(1) Al, A2 and A4 are measured on the planes indicated in Figure 6.29(a),
Al and A4 should be measured perpendicular to the local centerline
j
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision E
.
1
Ai
~
(a)
Equivalent
Lug
Equivalen
Lug
A4
(c) (d)
FIGURE 6.29  TRANSVERSELY LOADED LUGS
(2) A3 is the least area on any radial section around the hole.
(3) At, A2t A3 and A4 should adequately reflect the strength of the lug.
For lugs of unusual shape, such as severe necking or other sudden
changes in cross section, an equivalent lug should be used such as
shown in Figure o.29(c) and (d).
B. P
tru
= Allowable ultimate load for lug failure
1.
2.
Enter Figure 6.33 with A ~ and obtain K
t
p' = K A F av r ru
tru tru br tux
c. pi = Allowable yield load of lug
y
1.
2.
Enter Figure 6.33 with A ~ and obtain K
p' K A F av Dr try
y try b ~ tyx
659
~
~ ~ I I
~ M
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
D. Check bushing yield per 6.4.4.2(E).
E. Margins of Safety
1.
2.
Minimum M.S.
Minimum M.S.
= .15 for ultimate transverse load
for yield of the lug and bushing
6.4.4.4 Analysis of Lugs with Oblique Loads (0<0:<90)
In analyzing lugs with oblique loading it is necessary to resolve the loading.into
axial and transverse components (denoted by the subscripts tla
lt
and "tr
ll
respective
ly), analyze the two cases separately and then combine the results using the
interaction equation. The interaction equation:
R 1.6 + R 1.6 = 1
a tr
where, for ultimate load,
R
a
Axial component of applied ultimate load
Smaller of P
b
' or p' (6.4.4.2 B or 'C)
ru tu
R = Transverse component of applied ultimate load
tr
Pt' (6.4.4.3.B)
ru
and for yield load
R = Axial component of applied yield load
a
P t ( 6 4 .. 4. 2D)
R
tr
Y
= Transverse component of applied yield load
pi (6.4.4.3C)
y
The margin of safety should be 0.15 minimum and is calculated using the following
equation:
MS 1  I
= (R 1.6 + R 1.6)0.625
a tr
6;.4.4.5 Analysis of Pins
The ultimate strength for a pin in a single lug/clevis joint as shown in Figure
6.34 will be analyzed first.
660
1.4
1.2
1.0
.8
.6
.4
.2
0
'"
I
'" ......
I
1
I
I
__ __ __ __
.5 .6 .8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 3.0 3.2 3.4
FIGURE 6.30  SHEAR  BEARING EFFICIENCY FACTORS OF
AXIALLY LOADED LUGS
3.6 3.8 4.0
en
I
:=r:J
c:
c)
I
c:
::cJ
)aI.
r
c::I
.."
CI)

CD
z
:r:
)aI
z
c:
)aI
(1)
r
...,
en
1'"
0
t;Ij
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision B
662
Curve (A) is a cutoff to be used for all aluminum alloy
hand forged billet when the long transverse grain direc
tion has the general direction uC
ti
in the sketch.
Curve (B) is a cutoff to be used for all aluminum alloy
plate, bar, and handforged billet when the short trans
vers e grain di ree tion has the general di rec tion "C' in
the sketch, and for die forgings when the lug contains
the parting plane in a direction approximately normal to
the direction tiC".
NOTE: In addition to the limitations provided by curves
(A) and (B), in no event shall a K greater than 2.00
be used for lugs made from .5" thiN or thicker aluminum
alloy plate, bar, or handforged billet.
FIGURE 6.30 (CONT'D)  SHEAR  BEARING EFFICIENCY FACTORS OF
AXIALLY LOADED LUGS
e
2.5
2.0
1.5
K
bry
1.0
.5
o
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
o 1.0 2.0
e/d
3.0 4.0
FIGURE 6.31  BEARING YIELD EFFICIENCY FACTORS FOR
AXIALLY LOADED LUGS
Revision A
663
STRUCTURAL 'DESIGN MANU'AL
_Revision E
K
t
664
1.0
..:
;:


.9 \" ""

'
""
'..

 
\,\
"
:::::

,
r\ .......
'
"
.
,
(,
"
.8
\
.......
S ""P'
\.
\
'...::
Z
,
...........
'..., \
7
.6
\
\
.......,;
............
'\ \

......
\ \
\' ""
\
. ,
'I\.
\
'\
..................
\
!\.
.5 "
1\
""
......
t\. r.:"t.
,
"
"
.4
"',
'\
"
t:;
"
"
.3
.2
.1

t i.) C ,\LOAD ""
"
l'....t
r....
I
"'",


e :i
'"
 .

l i! Itt
"
f
I
o
1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0
FIGURE 6. ,32a  TENSION EFFICIENCY FACTORS FOR
AXIALLY LOADED ALUMINUM AND
STEEL LUGS
\
I
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision B
L, T and ST indica te grain in the "eft di ree tion.
Material
Curv.e
4130, 4140, 4340 and 8630 steel
2014T6 & 7075T6 plate 5
1t
(L, T)
7075T6 bar and extrusion (L)
2014T6 handforged billet 144 sq in (L)
2014T6 & 7075T6 die forgings (L)
2014T6 & 7075T6 pla te >. 5" itt (L, T)
7075T6 extrusion (T, ST)
7075T6 handforged billet 36 sq in (L)
2014T6 handforged billet > 144 sq in (L)
2014T6 hand forged billet 36 sq in (T)
2014T6 & 7075T6 die forgings (ST)
174PH & 177 PHTHD
2024T6 plate (L, T)
2024T4 & 2024T42 extrusion (L, T, ST)
2024T4 plate (L, T)
2024T3 plate (L, T)
2014T6 & 7075T6 plate > 1" (L, T)
2024T4 bar (L, T)
7075T6 handforged billet > 36 sq in (L)
7075T6.handforged billet 16 sq in, (T)
195T6, 220T4 & 356T6 aluminum castings
7075T6 hand forged billet > 16 sq in (T)
2014T6 handforged billet > 36 sq in (T)
Aluminum alloy plate, bar, handforged billet & die forging (ST).
NOTE: ST direction exists only at parting plane
7075T6 bar (T)
188 stainless steel, annealed
188 stainless steel, full hard. NOTE: & 3/4 hard
interpolate between Curves 7 and 8
7075T73 Die Forging (L)
7075T73 Die Forging (ST)
FIGURE 6.32a (CONT'D)  TENSION EFFICIENCY FACTORS FOR
AXIALLY LOADED ALUMINUM AND
STEEL LUGS
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
'5
5
5
6
6
7
8
9
10
665
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision B
K
t
665a
1.0
.9
.8
.7
.6
.5
.4
.3
.2
.1
0
1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0
WID
FIGURE 6. 3Z,b  TENS ION EFFICIENCY FACTORS FOR
AXIALLY LOADED TITANIUM LUGS
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision B
Material
C.P. Ti Type I Comp. B t 1.0
Ti6Al4V Mill Ann. Plate t S 4.0
Ti6Al4V Mill Ann. 8&F t S 3.0
Ti6Al4V Ann. Ext.
Ti6Al4V STA B&F.5 < t 2.0
Ti6Al4V STA B&F t S .5
Ti6Al4V STA B&F 2.0 < t < 3.0
Ti6Al4V STA Plate t $ .75
Ti6Al4V STA Plate .75 < t 2.0
Ti6Al6V2Sn Cond. AI Die Forging t s 2.0
Ti6Al6V2Sn Ann. Ext. t 2.0
Ti6Al6V2Sn Mill Ann. Plate t s 2.0
Ti6Al6V2Sn STA Plate t 1.5
Ti6Al6V2Sn Cond. Al Die Frg. 2.0 < t S 4.0
Ti6Al6V2Sn STA Die Frg. t 1.0
Ti6Al6V2Sn STA Plate 1.5 < t S 2.5
Ti6Al6V2Sn STA Die Frg. 1.0 < t S 3.0
Ti6Al6V2Sn Cond. Al Die Frg. 4.0 < t $ 8.0
Ti6Al6V2Sn STA Die Frg. 3.0 < t S 4.0
Curve
1
2
2
2
3
4
5
6
8
4
4
7

I
7
8
9
9
9
10
FIGURE 6.32b (CONT'n)  TENSION EFFICIENCY FACTORS FOR
AXIALLY LOADED TITANIUM LUGS
665b
K
*K
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision B
tru
t ry
666
. j.
1. 6
'f , :
I .
. ,
"
1. 4
.
" I
1 . 2
:.1'
.
::i
' ,
1.0
"
".
:
,j
10.,.
:;'1
::l::
'.
: , ... ,
" .
T
.8
,
"
"
., "
'. f 'f
'1 "
.2 .4 .6 .8 1.0 1.2 1.4
A'av I A
br
FIGURE 6.33a  EFFICIENCY FACTORS FOR TRANSVERSELY LOADED
ALUMINUM AND STEEL LUGS
.,
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
4it) Revision B
\
I
,

.7_
.4
tru ___ _
2 __ _
o .. 2 .4 .6 .B 1.0 1.2
FIGURE 6.33b  EFFICIENCY FACTORS FOR TRANSVERSELY
LOADED TITANIUM LUGS
667a
1.4
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision B
L, T I and ST indicate' gra:fn in the II C It direction
Material
177PHTHD
2014T6 pIa te ~ .5"
2014T6 pIa te > 5" ~ Itt
2014T6 pIa te > Itt
2014T6 die forgings
2014T6 hand forged billet ~ 36 sq in
2014T6 hand forged billet > 36 sq in
2q24 ... T3 plate ~ .5
11
2024T3 pIa te > .5"
2024T4 pI a te ~ .5"
2024T4 plate > .5
11
2024T4 bar
2024T4 & 2024T42 extrusion
2024T6 plate
7075T6 pIa te ~ .5
u
7075T6 plate > .5 ~ 1"
7075T6 pIa te > 1tt
7075T6 extrusion.
7075T6 die forgings
7075T6 handforged billet ~ 16 sq in
7075T6 handforged billet > 16 sq in
195T6 & 356T6 aluminum! casting'
220T4 aluminum casting
4130, 4140, 4340 & 8630, Ftu = 125 ksi
4130, 4140, 4340 & 8630, Ftu = 150 ksi
4130, 4140, 4340 & 8630, Ftu = 180 ksi
7075T73 Die:Forging (L) ~ 3 t t
7075T73 Die Forging (ST) ~ 3
Ktry, all materials
All curves are for Ktru except the one noted as Ktry. .
Curve
7
8
11
13
11
11
14
5
9
5
9
9
12
12
8
11
13
11
11
13
14
@
6
2
3
4
15
16
1
In no case should the ultimate transverse load be taken as less than that
which could be carried by cantilever beam action of the portion of the lug
under the load. The load that can be carried by cantilever beam action is
indicated approximately by Curve A. S.hould Ktru be below Curve A, separate
calculation as a cantilever beam is necessary_
FIGURE 6.33a (CONT'D)  EFFICIENCY FACTORS FOR TRANSVERSELY
LOADED ALUMINUM AND STEEL LUGS
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision B
L, T and ST indicate grain in the "C" direction
Material Curve
Ti6Al4V Ann. Cond. A Die Forging (T) t $ 5.0
Ti6Al4V Ann. Cond. A Hand Forging (T) A 16
Ti6Al4V Ann. Cond. A Hand Forging (T) A > 16
Ti6Al4V STA Die Forging (L) t 5.0
Ti6Al4V STA Die Forging (T) t 1.0
Ti6Al4V STA Die Forging (T) 1.0 < t 3.0
Ti6AI4V STA Hand Forging (L,T) t 2.0
Ti6Al4V STA Hand Forging (T) 2.0 < t < 3.0
Ti6Al6V2Sn Ann. Plate (T) t 2.0
Ti6Al6V2Sn Ann. Die Frg. (ST) t S 2.0
Ti6Al6V2Sn Ann. Hand Frg. (T) t < 2.0
Ti6Al6V2Sn Ann. Plate (T) 2.0 < t 4.0
Ti6Al6V2Sn Ann. Die Frg. (ST) 2.0 < t 4.0
Ti6Al6V2Sn Ann. Hand Frg. (T) 2.0 < t 4.0
Ti6Al6V2Sn STA Die Forg. (L) All
Ti6Al6V2Sn STA Die Forging (T) All
Ti6Al6V2Sn STA Hand Forging (L,T) t 4.0
Ti6Al6V2Sn STA Hand Forging (T) t > 4.0
1
1
2
2
2
3
1
2
4
4
4
5
5
5
6
7
6
7
In no case should the ultimate transverse load be taken as less
than that which could be carried by cantilever beam action of
the portion of the lug under the load. The load that can be
carried by cantilever beam action is indicated approximately
by Curve A. Should Ktru be below Curve A, separate calcula
tion as a cantilever beam is necessary_
FIGURE 6.33b (CONT'D)  EFFICIENCY FACTORS FOR TRANSVERSELY
LOADED TITANIUM LUGS
667b
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
P/2
P/2
'r!.... P / 2
1,. P /
2
1'_'1
FIGURE 6.34  SINGLE LUG/CLEVIS JOINT
A. Obtain moment arm "bit. For the inner lug of Figure 6.34 calcul
ate r = Determine e and (Pi) min as noted below,
and compute (Plu) min/AQrFtux. Enter Figure 6.36 and obtain the
reduction factor lIyU whl.ch compensates for the "peaking" of the
distributed pin bearing load near the shear plane. Calculate
b = (t
l
/2) + 9 + y (t
2
/4)
where "g" is the gap between lugs as shown in Figure 6.34 and
may be zero. Note that the peaking reduction factor applies
only to the inner lugs.
Determination of e and (P' ) min
u
1. For lugs loaded axially.
Take the smaller of P'bru and P'
tu
for the inner lug as
(P'u)min and e as the edge distance at = 90 degrees.
2. For lugs loaded transversely
'fake (P I ) min = P t and e as the edge distance at Ci. = 90
u tru
degrees.
3. For lugs loaded obliquely
Take (P I ) min
u
P
1.6 1.6 0.625
(Rft. + R
tr
)
and e as the edge distance at the value of
to the direction of load on the lug.
a. corresponding
B. Calculate maximum pin bending moment, "M", from the equation
M = P(b/2)
c. Calculate bending stress assuming a Me/r distribution.
668
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision E
P/2
P/2
FIGURE 6. 35 ACTIVE LUG THICKNESS
D. Obtain the ultimate strength of the pin in bending by use of
Section 9.4. If the analysis should show inadequate pin
bending strength it may be possible to take advantage of any
excess lug strength as follows.
E. Consider a portion of the lugs to be inactive as indicated by
the shaded area of Figure 6.35. The portion of the thickness
to be considered active may have any desired value sufficient
to carry the load and should be chosen by trial and error to
give approximately equal margins of safety for the lugs and
pin.
F. Recalculate all lug margins of safety with allowable loads
reduced in the ratio of active thickness to actual thickness.
G. Recalculate pin bending moment, H = P(b/2) and margin of
safety using value of rib" which is obtained as follows:
Take the sma.ller of Plb and pit for the inner lug, based
ru u
based upon the active I as (P I u) min and compute
F
tux
where A
br
=2t
4
D.'>Enter Figure 6.36 and
obtain "y". Then
b = t3/ 2 + g + y(t
4
/2).
This reduced value of lib" should not be used if the resulting
eccentricity of load on the outer lugs introduces excessive
bending stresses in the adjacent structure. In such cases
pins must be strong enough to distribute the load uniformly
across the entire lug.
Lugpin combinations having multiple shear connections such as
those shown in Figure 6.37 are analyzed as follows.
669
1.0;
.8
.7
.6
'Y
.5:
4'
I
.3
.2 .
.. 1
0
a
6 .. 70
.2
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
! ..
L L .... ..  ..  .:..
r. = .55: :
. .
eD/2
r = t
.4 .6.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0
A
br
F
tux
FIGURE 6.36  REDUCTION FACTOR FOR PEAKING
OF BEARING LOADS ON PINS
)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
p
p
"}__ P2
tit (typ)
FIGURE 6.37  MULTIPLE SHEAR JOINT
A. The load carried by each lug is detennined by distributing the total
applied load "p" among the lugs as shown in Figure 6.37 and the value
of ttC" is obtained from Table 6.10.
B. The maximum shear load on the pin is given in Table 6.10.
c. The maximum bending moment in the pin is given by: M = P
l
b/2 where Itb
tl
is given in Table 6.10.
6.4.4.6 Lugs with Eccentrically Located Hole
If the hole is located as in Figure 6.38 (el less than e2), the ultimate load and
yield lug loads are determined by obtaining Pbrul P
tu
and Py for the equivalent lug
shown and multiplying by the factor (e
l
+ e
2
+ 2D)/(2e
2
+ 2D).
6.4.4.7 Lubrication Holes In Lugs
When lubrication holes are present, the lug may be analyzed as follows.
A. Axially loaded lugs. Modify the calculation of ~ or Ph or both, de
pending upon the location of the hole. (Fig: 6.39)u ru
If P
tu
requires modification, obtain the net tension area using a thick
ness given by tminus lube hole diameter.
If P
bru
requires modification, obtain Abr using a thickness given by t minus
the lube hole diameter. Obtain Kt from Figure 6.31 for WiD = 1.75 using
the weakest grain direction occurringin the plane of the lug. Then
P
bru
~ r u K
t
~ r F tux
671
672
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
"@'.'
Total number of
lugs including C Pin Shear b
both sides
5 .35
.50Pl .28 (t t
; tit)
7 .40 .53P
1
.33(t
l
; til)
9 .43 .54P
1
.37(tt
; til)
11 .44 .54P
1
39 ( t t + til)
2 I
00
.50 .50Pl 50( t t ; tit)
TABLE 6.10  PIN BENDING FACTORS
)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision E
D
FIGURE 6.38  LUGS WITH ECCENTRICALLY LOCATED HOLES
FOR HOLE IN THIS REGION
/ MODIFY P
tu
FOR HOLE IN THIS
REGION MODIFY P
b ru
"FOR HOLE IN THIS REGION
MODIFY P
tu
FIGURE 6.39  LUBRICATION HOLES IN LUGS
673
B.
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Transversely loaded lugs. Obtain pi neglecting lube hole and mUltiply
tru
by 069 (1 _ lube h l ~ diameter).
c. Obliquely loaded lugs. Obtain P ~ u t Pbru' and Ptru according to A and B
above. Then proceed according to Section 6.4.4.4.
6.4.5 Stresses Due to Press Fit Bushin&s
Pressure between a lug and bushing assembly having negative clearance can be
determined from consideration of the radial displacements. After assembly, the
increase in inner radius of the ring (lug) plus the decrease in outer radius of
the bushing equals the difference between the radii of the bushing and ring before
assembly ..
where
8 = u.  u
b
h'
rlng us lng
8 = difference between outer radius of bushing and inner
radius of the ring
u = radial displacement, positive away from the axis of
ring or bushing.
Radial displacement at the inner surface of a ring subjected to internal pressure
p is
u =
D
p
E .
rlng
Radial displacement at the outer surface of a bushing subjected to external pres
sure p is
where:
A
B
=
C =
u = 
B
P
E
bush
inner radius of
outer radius of
outer radius of
bushing
bushing
ring (lug)
D = inner radius of ring (lug)
E modulus of elasticity
~ = Poisson's ratio
Substitution of the previous two equations into the first yields:
614
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
p =
E .
1;'lng
c
2
+ n
2
2 2 + fL
ring
C  n
+ E
bush
Maximum radial and tangential stresses for a ring (lug) subjected to internal
pressure occur at the inner surface ,of the ring (lug) and are
fr = Po f
t
= P
Positive sign indicates tension. The maximum shear stress at this point is
f

f
f
t r
=
s ,2
The maximum 'radial stress for a bushing subjected to external pressure occurs
at the outer surface of the bushing and is
f =p
r
The maximum tangential for a bushing subjected to external pressure occurs
at the inner surface of the bushing and is
f =
t
2 P B2
B2 _ A
2
The allowable press fit stress should be based on stress corrosion, static
fatigue, fatigue life, and the ultimate strength. Any questions concerning the
limits of the press fit stress should be directed to the Airframe Structures
Group Engineer.
675
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
10 ____
9
8
7
5
3
2
1
o
Steel
= Tangential stress at
inner radius of
A aluminum ring
L.l = Bhush ... Brtn B/A
::t::===l====t 1. 2
I..J. 1. 05
1 2 3 4
cIs
FIGURE 6.40  TANGENTIAL STRESSES FOR PRESSED STEEL BUSHINGS IN
ALUMINUM RINGS
0000
\
\
\
.)0000
\
\
\
\
'"
":
o
1
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
.1.
I """"'... f
r ....
B
, RING ,
1\
c
BUSHING
\
"
:
T
'"
BE .. L
f
t
= Tangential stresses @
rANDAl D
\
<roc
Inner radius,Al.Ring
....... .........
INT = (Bbush  Bring)(2)
005

r

f\
rr
r
'"

r
... 006
r
I


""'
007
0
.........



'

.008
"'




I
009
'"


010

r
F==::::::
012
::

011


I'
_ () 1
I

r
I
r...... r
r
I. 016
r:::
t::::
r
018
r
uzo

ULL
2 C/B
FIGURE 6.41 TANGENTIAL STRESSES FOR PRESSED
NAS75 BUSHINGS
i
!'"
i


NAS75
3
4
5
6
7
10
11
12
14
16
677
I'J\ 6
o
rI
.X
5
4
3
2
1
o
678
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
f
t
R ,.... MAG.
+ I 1,1 RING
STEEL
/'"
V
r

; BUSHING
./
BUSHING O.D
I
V
BUSHING I.D.
!
/
/
...
l
V
V
L ./
I
V
V




L





I___
f::::::::
.5 .6 .8 1.0 1.2 1.4
OUTSIDE RADIUS OF RING (R)
DIA. OF HOLE IN RING
FIGURE 6.42 MAXIMUM INTERFERENCE FITS OF STEEL
BUSHINGS IN MAGNESIUM ALLOY RINGS
1.05

1.le
1.2C
1.3C
J
2 .. 0
.1
1.6
j.

1.8
" \'
L.  . ,
" :a:aell
..
. ,'/3
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
The presence of brittle coatings in holes that contain a press fit bushing or
bearing can cause premature failure by cracking of the coating or by high press
fit stresses caused by buildup of coating. Therefore, hardcoat or HAE coatings
should not be used in holes that will subsequently contain a press fit bushing
or bearing.
Figures 6.40 and 6.41 determining the tangential stress, ft, for bushings
pressed into aluminum rings. Figure 6.40 presents data for general steel bushings
and Figure 6.41 presents data for NAS75 class bushings. Figure 6.42 gives limits
:J for maximum interference fits for steel bushings in magnesium alloy rings.
6.4.6 Stresses Due to Clamping of Lugs
Joints which are clamped should be checked for the residual stresses developed
in' the lugs. This ftclampup" stress can be determined in the following manner.
Figure 6.43 shows a typical lug/clevis joint subject to clamping.
r L
i :
!
.
t
I
i
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
.
1
I
I
I l
I
I l
I
I
FIGURE 6.43  TYPICAL LUG/CLEVIS JOINT
The stress produced in the lugs by clamping is f = where 0 = (x
r
 d)/2.
This assumes that the total clearance x  d is equally divided between each lug.
If some other distribution of clearance is required, the stress in each lug must
be calculated ..
The allowable stress
t
Fall = Ft
y
/2, should not be exceeded in order to minimize
the possibili ty of s tx:ess corrosiog. r '
e 6.4.7 Single Shear Joints
In single shear joints lug and pin bending are more critical than in double
shear joints. The amount of bending can be significantly affected by bolt
679
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUA.L
The presence of hard brittle coatings in holes that contain a press fit bushing or
bearing can cause premature failure by cracking of the coating or by high press
fit stresses caused by buildup of coating. Therefore, hardeoat or HAE coatings
should not be used in holes that will subsequently contain a press fit bushing
or bearing.
Figures 6.40 and 6.41 penmit detenmining the tangential stress, ft, for bushings
pressed into aluminum rings. Figure 6.40 presents data for general steel bushings
and Figure 6.41 presents data for NAS75 class bushings. Figure 6.42 gives limits
for maximum interference fits for steel bushings in ,magnesium alloy rings.
6.4.6 Stresses Due to Clamping of Lugs
Joints which are clamped should be checked for .'the residual s tresses developed
in' the lugs. This "clampup" stress can be determined in the following manner.
Figure 6.43 shows a typical lug/clevis to clamping.
/
t L
f
:
I
t
I
:
I
I I
I
I
I
I t
I
I
. :
I
I I
I
,
FIGURE 6.43  TYPICAL LUG/CLEVIS JOINT
The stress produced in the lugs by clamping is f = 3Eot/L
2
; where 5 = (x  d)/2.
This assumes' that the to tal clearance x  d is equally divided between each lug.
If some other distribution of clearance is required, the stress in each lug must
be calcub;'ted.
The allowable stress, Fall = Fty/2, should not be exceeded in order to minimize
of stress corrosion failures.
6.4.7 Single Shear Joints
In single shear joints lug and pin bending are more critical than in double
shear joints. The amount of bending can be significantly affected by bolt
679
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision B
clamping. In the case considered in this section, no bolt clamping is assumed
and the bending moment in the pin is reacted by socket action in the lugs.
Therefore, even though Figure 6.44 shows a bolt/bushing arrangement, the analysis
is applicable to solid pin/sockets.
p
M
w
FIGURE 6.44  SINGLE SHEAR LUG JOINT
In Figure 6.44 a representative single shear joint is shown with centrally
applied load (p) in each lug and bending moments M and Ml that keep the system
balanced. Assuming no gap be tween the lugs, M + Ml = p( tl + t)/l. The indivi
dual values of M and Ml are determined from the loading of the lugs as modified
by the deflection, if any, of the lugs.
The following analysis procedure is applicable to either lug. The joint strength
is determined by the lowest margin bf safety of the various failure modes.
The bearing stress distribution between lug and bushing is assumed to be similar
to the stress distribution that would be obtained in a rectangular cross section
of width, D, and depth, t, subject to load, P, and moment, M. At ultimate load
the maximum lug bearing stress, fbr, is approximated by
where kbr is the plastic bearing coefficient for both the lug material and is
assumed to be the same as the plastic bending coefficient for a rectangular
section which may be found in Section 9.6. The ultimate allowable is found by
the methods defined in Section 6.4.4 for shear bearing.
680
e!
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision A
The ultimate tensile stress in the outer fibers in the lug net section is
approximately
where kb is the plastic bending coefficient for the lug net section. The allow
able ultimate is found by the methods defined in Section 6.4.4 for axial tension.
The bearing stress distribution between bushing and pin is assumed to be similar
to that between the lug and bushing. At ultimate bushing load the maximum bushing
bearing stress is approximated by
where kbr, the plastic bearing coefficient, is assumed the same as the plastic
bending coefficient for a rectangular section. The allowable ultimate value is
Fey for the bushing material.
The maximum value of pin shear can occur either within the lug or at the common
shear face of the two lugs, depending upon the value of M/Ft. At the lug
ultimate load,the maximum pin shear stress (s) is approximated by
fs = 1.273 P/Dp2; (M/Pt ::;;2/3)
fs
1.273 P
Dp2
j 2M/P t) 2 + 1  1
2M/Pt)+1 v(2M/Pt)2
(M/Pt )t 2/3)
The first equation above defines the case where the maximum pin shear is obtained
at the common shear face of the lugs. The second equation defines the case
where the maximum pin shear occurs away from the shear face. The allowable
ultimate is Fsu of the pin material.
The maximum pin bending moment can occur within the lug or at the common shear
faces of the two lugs, depending on the value of M/Pt. At the lug ultimate
load,the maximum pin bending stress (f
bu
) is approximated by
10.19 M
kb Dp3
10.19 M
kb Dp3
~ ~  1) ; (M/Pt ~ 3/8)
(vi 2M/Pt) 2 + 1
2M/Pt
(M/Pt > 3/8)
where kb is the plastic bending coefficient for the pin.
681
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision E
The equation for (M/Pt < 3/8) defines the case where the maximum pin bending moment
is obtained at the common shear face of the lugs and the equation for (M/Pt > 3/8)
defines the case where the maximum pin bending moment occurs away from the shear
facet where the pin shear is zero. The allowable ultimate value is Fbu for the
pin or if deflection or fatigue is critical Ftu should be used.
6.4.8 Socket Analysis
The method presented here applies to sockets or sleeves made of aluminum or
steel alloys. It is based on the assumption that the socket or sleeve walls
(section cut by a plane parallel to the beam or pin centerline) are rectangular
or nearly rectangular.
The method for obtaining bearing pressures within the socket orsleeve is
also applicable to sockets or sleeves whose wall crosssections vary appreciably
from rectangular. An analysis suitable to the wall configuration must be used
for the determination of the wall strengths.
This method may also be used for the analysis of single shear lug joints by
considering the lug as a socket and the bolt as the beam.
The maximum allowable wall strengths of sockets or sleeves having
rectangular or nearly rectangular wall cross sections (section
cut by a plane parallel to the beam or pin centerline) may be
determined from the following equations. Note that \vhen e/D
approaches 1.0 Pall may be larger than the allowable lug load as
determined by Section 6.4.4. In all cases the lesser of the two
allowables should be used for the margin of safety.
(D/t
1
+ T
1   _ ... _
the above result in pounds per inch
e = edge distance of socket, inches
D = diameter of beam or bolt, inches
LI
K = tension efficiency factor, Figure 6.32
Kb
t
= bearing rupture factor, Figure 6.45
F
TU l' '1 h'
= u tlmate tensl e strengt , PSl
wall thickness of socket, inch
682
(D/t >10)
t
J
t e
rt
)
2.6
2.4
2.,2 .
2.0
1,8
. 
1..6
1.4
::;j
H
..0
1 .. 2
1.0
.8
.. 6
.4
.2 .
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
:
..
..
I
i' j
! .1
.j .. .
,
\
.i
;
I
t
.!
I
i
l,
. r"
"_ 1
J ,
1.. '
, "
'1
!
;
... L
, I
r
o
,
!
 . i
"" 7.. .. ,'" '"
, '
,t
[
t" '
.
. ,
,.
,,,..l. __ ,,_..... _ ..... ,
!
, iI"
L. , ' I : I ,
i I
, ,
.. 1 .... .... " .. l._. ... ,tt'" '.
_ f .!' I
l ;. .
'. 'oo i ,. I
,
i"
1 "I' :
....  ........ . _.;.. ..
i ,j . t
:.;. .,: '0 ..: . ,:
_, ' I
 ... D.:.. .I ,._, ._.
j. :''!"
: i '
_ ..l.'
j'
I
'j.
l' 1
... :' .. :.. oo r," , ..
" . I
,,!. . l' ..
'i
, i
,
,._  ..... j ... ,
!
 1
,: t: 0 "
.1. .. ".
.... :
i
!
D/L
FIGURE 6.45BEARING RUPTURE FACTOR .... K
b ru
683
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
e
80
,
. :
7 0 ::. _ ... :
I .
6 0 .. 1.. .....
! .
"
(PaIl)e . ,I. ,
. #
20 . '.. .
. I ,"
:: .;
1 
;.. I
.... .. L .' j .
!.. ..  " l' .., ,,,,. t ;", .. t  ,
_. f f ' : t
O __ __ __ .i_, _' __ ___
.5 .6 1.0
FIGURE 6.46 ALLOWA BLE LATERAL LOAD
684
I
P .... unit lo.ad kips/in
M ..... moment .... inkips
at end of socket
PI = KIS/L
P
2
== K
2
S/L
a =KaL
Smax== KsS
'max= Km
SL
o .2 ,4
M/SL
8
7
.6 .8

G')
:z
31:
:III
Z
c::
:III
r
0"
00
0"
L
P"'unit load'"lkips/in
Ml'oJmoment IIOJ inkips
at 'end of socket
P = K
1
M/L
2
1 2
P
2
K2M/L
a = KaL
Smax=KsM/L
Mma x = Km Ivl
__ __    .     ~ ~     ~     ~   ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 0
9
/...r.+ .....   .  ~  : : . . 0 0 1 fI

~
~ ~
~ e l l
~ ..
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision B
Figure 6.46 shows the correction factor for obliquely loaded sockets.
Multiplication of the axial allowable loading of the socket or sleeve
by this correction factor gives the allowable loading when the load
is applied at an angle to the axis of symmetry.
Figures 6.47 and 6.48 show the methods for determining the bearing
pressure loadings in the beam  socket.
6.4.9 Tension Fittings
The analysis methods presented here apply to the most common types
of tension fittings. The fitting design should also comply with the
following design practices:
A. Bolts highly loaded in tension should be assembled with a
washer under both the head and the nut.
B. Eccentricities in fitting attachments should be kept to
a minimum.
C. In order to keep deflections to a minimum and to increase
fatigue life, it is desirable that the fitting end pad
thickness be not less than the bolt diameter for aluminum
alloy fittings, nor less than .70 of the bolt diameter for
steel fittings.
D. Fitting and casting factors as specified in Structural
Design criteria shall always be used in the analysis. If
in any application both a fitting and a casting factor are
applicable, they shall not be multiplied, but only the
larger shall be used.
6.4.9.1 Wall Analysis
Tension and bending stresses in the fitting wall may be determined
by conventional methods
. ) 6.4.9.2 End Pad Analysis
Tension fitting end pads should be analyzed for both shear and bend
ing. The shear surface area is the bolt head periphery through
the end pad. Then the shear stress is
p
21Tr t
o e
where r is the bolt head outer radius and te is the end pad thick
ness. ~ n d pad bending in common types of tension fittings may be
tit analyzed as shown in Figures 6.49 through 6.55.
687
Revision B
Wall
Thickness
tw
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
d
r. Bolt
Hole
Effective
Bearing Area
Radius
(Nominal
P Applied Load
.. ' ,X:o
Bolt Head
Radius
Ref. Figures 6.51 and 6.52
FIGURE 6.49 BATHTUB FITTING  END PAD BENDING ANALYSIS
Load
Wall
. Actual Fitting
P Applied
B
Bathtub Fitting
A +
a :::'I
TT
d = a 
(C
+
D)
2
'p
f = :1Kl K2
b t
e
Ref. Figures 6.51 and 6.52
FIGURE 6.50 ANGLE FITTING  END PAD BENDING ANALYSIS
688'
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
3.
2
1
o
1.0 1.5
FIGURE 6.51 BATHTUB
1.0 .,:
.8
K
Z
.6
.4
.3
o 2
r./a
J.
2. 0 ' 'a'd 2 5
ro
FITTING  END PAD K1 VALUES
4 6
FIGURE 6.5Z BATHTUB FITTING  END PAD K2 VALUES
.4
8
Revision B
.3 .2 .1
3.0
.... .,.
t
10
689
Revision B
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
<f.,
Wall
f = P(2d  tb)K3
b
B

B
t 2a
e
Ref. Figure 6.55
Section
AA
Wall
a
ct Base
FIGURE 6.53 CHANNEL FITTING  END PAD BENDING ANALYSIS
Ref. Figure 6.56
FIGURE '6.54 PI FITTING
690
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision B
.10
1.0
.13
.. 9
.16
.8
.20
.7
.25
.6
.30
.5
.40
)
.4
t
r./a
l.
.3
1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0
b/a
FIGURE 6.55 CHANNEL FITTING END PAD K3 VALUES
691
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision B
Figure 6.54
o
mil
_C" A iRB:
C
First Calculation Center BqltlLoad
M '(6 t
2" I
YR'
A
Second Calculation
Assuming 50% Fixity
Assumed Distributed
I I
I I
I I
I I
I
 I
Moment Diagram
1. Determine the fixed end moment for a beam continuous over
three supports assuming all loads as concentrated.
2. Assume 50% of the above values asend moments and determine
bolt loads (concentrated).
Analyze the end bolts for the combined loading (moment
plus tension) and the center bolt for direct tension.
3. To determine the bending moment curve, assume the center
bolt load computed in (2) is uniformly distributed over
the bolt head flat.
FIGURE 6.56 PI FITTING  END PAD BENDING ANALYSIS
692
e
i
e
)
400
200
1.00;
til
IX'!
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
ALLOWABLE *LOADS FOR SINGLE ANGLES
t
1
I
I
I
J 032
 I,
I
i
24ST
p = + lo910Ll t
p
, 09 '. '102
Revision C
L = LENGTH (IN)
! ..
..,:1
8_0_
l ... . ?25.......
I
X _DJL
H
H
40
___ 20.:
1, :
+ ... : .. 020.+
!: 
!
I
I
IL = 1
1
JL
= 2
L = 3
L = 4
TYPICAL
_____ i
,
, ,
;
I
i
, t
: ,!
i
___ .In ________ J _______ . __ . ___ i ___ .,._ ' .1. ___.. L". __L.J ' L_
." ." ,::. .. '" J Ctf _.;.1 . . '. '1, "'. b.
Notes: *These are limit loads. This design is not recommended
where the angles are subjected to repeated loads which
produce high stresses. These curves are for leg A
restrained, for little restraint use half these values.
Beaded corners increase the failing BM approx. 6.5 times.
Deflection is decreased about 50%. Ref. LAC 8M 63 P 2.
For thick angles, the bolt may be critical. .
Ref. Rpt. R900, pg. 11
Figure 657 Vega A.C.
693
DESIGN
2000
1500
1000
In
..0
800
t
e
.""
Po.
6.Q,0
400
200
1
.  ........, "
694
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
t =
t ==
. ..
t =
= 1
.L = 2
L
=
3
L = 4
typical
.
"s
1 ... ;.
J !
f ;
1
. .
Revision C
!
!
1
. t
i.l.t:
'r
,
j
1
I
,
i .,.
.L 1.
I .,
t ! :
i
I
l
'L = length,
l.St > R >
(in)
I
tl
I
,j
i
\
!
I
, . I .:., .. __ L ...
. . r 'l ,. I I !
L ... r' C"T"'
i j. 1 ...
; i : i
 .! .. .!. '... I
I '
. ! . t
I 1
: I
.... j.
i
'f 
I
.1
I
I
i
:
i j
. i ". t ,  "! . , .
.:..._. j ......_. .l __ L.i.. ..
.!t .w .! .h 1. :1. 4. E... 6.
C  inches
Note: These curves are for leg A restrained.
For little restraint use half these
values ..
. Figure 6 58
Ref. Rpt. R900, pg. 10
Vega A.C
0.04
tIS
UJ
a:
t;;
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision C
ALLOWABLE COMPRESSION IN L[GS OF FORMED ALUMINUM CHANNELS
UJ
LEG 1 IN.
>
u:;=
w
o::U')
0..0
0....J
Uz
WIDE AS TESTED
t
R'= 1.50t
0.50 IN.
=i: ..... ::'::'""" v" I N. 80 L TIN T E 5T
w
..J
al
<{
:s:
o
Dcflectic' ,,;
At limit load 0.02 in.
At ultimate load 0.05 in.
j 12 w..u.L::.:J.;:..L!J.I.L.I.J..U
<{ 0.04 . 0.08 0.12 0.16
NOTE: No allowance need be made for tensile
THICKNESS OF CHANNEL t (in.) strength of material.
FIGURE 659
ALLOWABLE TENSION IN LEGS OF FORMED ALUMINUM CHANNELS
0.24
TOTAL THICKNESS OF BASE t (in.) (includes filler)
NOTE: Deflections at limit load up
to 0.025 in. per channel; up
to 0.07 in. at ultimate toad
(applicable through range of chart).
For radius larger than l.5t, increased
bolt spacing or, bases or fillers less
than required for minimum deflections,
conservative allowances must be made.
40 .:;.
30
20
10
.:.:
(/)
U'"J
LU
0:::
l
V)
til
...J
(/)
Z
w
I
o
UJ
....J
<i
w
0:::
<t:
U)
U)
o
n:
<.9
ut
1
co
o
...J
..J
<{
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision C
6.5 CABLES AND PULLEYS
The strength of MILW83420 flexible wire rope is shown in Table 6.11 for var.ious
size cables. The load/deflection relationship of these cables is s o w ~ in
Figure 6.49.
NOM. TYPE MILW83420, TYPE I (NONJACKETED)
DIA.
OF
CONST. COMPOSITION A COMPOSITION B APPROXIMATE
CARBON STEEL CRES
WEIGHT
LBS/IOO FT
MIN. BREAKING MIN. BREAKING
STRENGTH (LBS) STRENGTH (LBS)
1/32 3x7 110 110 .16
3/64 3x7 230 230 .33
3/64 7x7 270 270 .42
1/16 7x7 480 480 .75
1/16 7x19 480 480 .75
3/32 7x7 920 920 1.60
3/32 7x19 1000 920 1.74
1/8 7x19 2000 1760 2.90
5/32 7x19 2800 2400 4.50
3/16 7xl9 4200 3700 6.50
7/32 7x19 5600 5000 8.60
1/4 7x19 7000 6400 11.00
9/32 7x19 8000 7800 13.90
5/16 7x19 9800 9000 17.30
11/32 7x19 12500

20.70
3/8 7x19 14000 12000 24.30
Cable Terminal Efficiency (% of Cable Strength)
FiveTuck and Nicopress Type SpliceFlexible Cable .. 75%
Shackle and Ferrule Loop Terminal  Hard Wire .... 85%
Wrapped and Soldered Splice  19 Strand Wire ..... 90%
Swaged Ends .......... It III ........... I ........... ., '" .1007D
TABLE 6.11 STRENGTH OF STEEL CABLE
697
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision C
t= 1 r tJ P r. G. all ,. n f'  f" r F r T I (V,
8000 (',I\RPnt' rs
(RFC. ,111.llf)r.y 5)
3/8" 7xlr'1
7000
6000
5000
til
.c

/4H
7x19
C
4000
0
c.n
C
Q.;
t
Q)
..r 3000
It!
L
2000
1000
7x7
o .002 .004 .OOG .008
Elnny,ation Inches/Inch of rahle
698
.)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
7.1 Introduction to Plates
SECTION 7
PLATES AND'MEMBRANES
This section covers the analysis of plates as commonly used in aircraft struc
tures. In general, such plates are classified as thin; that is deflections are
small in comparison with the plate thickness (y t/2). These plates are capable
of carrying compression, bending, and shear loads; however, critical values of
these loads produce a wrinkling or buckling of the plate. Such buckling produces
unwanted aerodynamic effects on the surface of the aircraft, and also may result
in the redistribution of loads to other structural members, causing critical
stresses to develop. Thus, it is essential that the initial buckling stress of
the plate be known. In addition, if the buckling stress is above the proportional
limit, the panel will experience ultimate failure very soon after buckling.
The critical buckling of a plate depends upon the type of loading, plate dimensions,
material, temperature, and conditions of edge support.
This section considers the various loadings of both flat and curved plates, with
and without stiffeners. Single loadings are considered first followed by a
discussion of combined loadings.
7.2 Nomenclature for Analysis of Plates
a
A
b
st
b
ei
c
C
e
E
E
E
S
t
E , E
fS
F
F
O
.
7
'
F
cr
F
cr
F
crs
Fpl
Fcl
F
cy
F
f
FR
t
plate length
stiffener area
plate width
effective panel width
core thickness, signifies clamped edge
compressive buckling coefficient for curved plates
strain
modulus of elasticity
secant modulus
tangent modulus
secant and tangent moduli for clad plates
ratio of cladding thickness to total plate_thickness
stress
F
O
.
85
secant yield stress at O.7E and D.8SE
critical normal stress
critical normal stress, clad plates
critical shear stress
stress at proportional limit
proportional limit of cladding
compressive' yield stress
crippling stress
free (refers to edge fixity)
71
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
g number of cuts plus number of flanges
k buckling coefficient
k compressive buckling coefficient
k
C
shear buckling coefficient
s
kc equivalent compressive buckling coefficient
L' effective column length
n shape number of half waves in buckLed plate
p rivet pitch
P total concentrated load
r radius of curvature
R stress ratio
ss simply supported
t thickness
t skin thickness
t
S
web thickness
t
W
total cladding thickness
1
w unit load
w total load, energy
y deflection 2 2
Zb length range parameter b (1  v ) Irt
ratio of cladding yield stress Eo core stress
P
g
crippling coefficient
E ratio of rotational rigidity of plate edge stiffness
plasticity reduction factor
n cladding reduction factor
A buckle half wavelength
v inelastic Poisson's ratio
v elastic Poisson1s ratio
v
e
plastic Poisson1s ratio
! radius of gyration .
7.3 Axial Compression of Flat Plates
The compressive buckling stress of a rectangular flat plate is given by Equation
(71).
Fer =
k
1T 2 E
)
(
t
r
(71)
2
b
l2(1Ve)
The relation is applicable to various types of loadings in both the elastic and
the inelastic ranges and for various conditions of edge fixity.
The case of unstiffened plates is treated first and then stiffened plates are
discussed.
The edge constraints which are considered vary from simply supported to fixed.
A simply supported edge is constrained to remain straight at all loads up to and
including the buckling load, but is free to rotate about the center line of the
edge. A fixed edge i6 constrained to remain straight and to resist all rotation.
72
)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
These two conditions define the limits of torsional restraint and are represented
by E = 0 simply supported edges and E = <Xl for fixed edges.
Plates are frequently loaded so that the stresses are beyond the proportional
limit of the material. If such is the case, the critical buckling stress
is reduced by the plasticity reduction factor ~ , which accounts for changes
in k, E, and v. This allows the values of k, E, and v to always be the
elastic values.
The second reduction factor in Equation (71) is the cladding factor Tf. In order
to obtain desirable corrosion resistance, the surface of some aluminum alloys
~ e coated or clad with a material of lower strength, but of better corrosion
resistance. The resultant panel may have lower mechanical properties than the
basic core material and allowancemust be made. Values for the factor if are
given in Table 7.1.
Loading
FcI<Fcr<Fpl
F
crs
or
Fcr>Fpl
Short plate columns
1 + (3{3f/4) 1
1 + 3f 1
+
3f
Long plate columns 1 1
1
+
3f 1
+
3f
Compression and
1
+
3{3f 1
.shear panels
1
+
3f 1
+
3f
Table 7.1  Simplified Cladding Reduction Factors
7.3.1 Buckling of Unstiffened Flat Plates in Axial Compression
The buckling coefficients and reduction factors of Equation (71) applicable
to flat rectangular plates in compression are presented in this section.
Figures 71, 72, and 73 show the buckling coefficient kc as a function
of the ratio alb and the type of edge restraint; and, in the case of Figure 72,
the buckle wave length and number of half waves. Figure 74 shows kc for
infinitely long flanges and plates as a function of the edge restraint only.
The edge restraint ratio is the ratio of the rotational rigidity of plate edge
support to the rotational rigidity of the plate.
The condition of unequal rotational support can be treated by Equation (72)
l:z
kc = (kc1 k
c
2 ) (72)
73
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision C
The coefficients kCl and kC2 are obtained by using each value of E independently.
Figures 75, 76, and 77 present kc for flanges. A flange is considered to be
a long rectangular plate with one edge free.
The plasticity reduction factor ~ for a long plate with simply supported edges is
given by Equation (73).
2
0.500 + 0.250 [ 1
1  V
For a long plate with clamped edges, the factor is given by Equation (74).
2
~ = [(:s ) ( 1:::2 )] j 0.352 + 0.324 [ 1 + ~ s E
t
) ] I (74)
The value of the inelastic Poisson ratio J) is given by Equation (75).
(75)
The tangent and secant moduli can be determined from the RambergOsgood relation
as shown in Equations (76) and (77).
E
1 +
E
1 +
  ~ ) (
F
F
0.7
F_F __ ) nl
0.7
(76)
(77)
Figure 78 shows the characteristics of stressstrain curves used to
determine the shape factor n. Table 11.1 lists values of E, FO.7, and
n for various materials.
Figures 79 and 710 present values of kc for plates restrained by stiffeners.
This data is included here instead of in the section on stiffened plates because
the stjffeners are not a part of the plate. To be noted is the effect of torsional
rigidity of the stiffener on the buckling coefficient of the plate.
74
)
k
c
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision C
16r
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
c c
3 ___
A
____ E 3 B
c
s
S
C
E
E
S r a , FR
s
3 E }
FR
 Loaded Edges Clamped
Loaded Edges Simply
Supported
Type of
Support
Along
Unloaded
Edges
......... ...... ........ A
B

_ D

____ __
o 1 2 3
5 4
alb
FlrflPE 7.1 Rl1CKLPfG rOEFFIf,(fNTS F0P GlAT REfTI\"Jf.IJL/\R rLI\TfS
75
k
c
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
10.0..
5.
Maximum kc at
transition from
1 buckle to 2
buckles
\
A is buckle wave length
n is no. of half waves in
buckled plate
o
.4.5 .7.8.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
'Alb
FIC"HE 7.2 COnPRESSIVE OF PLATES I\S.A
OF Vb FO R 'I AR I nus At10llNTS OF E()GE ROT 1\ T I 0 L RE STRI\ I NT
76
\.
\
\
)
k
c
STRUCTllRAL DESIGN MANUAL
I
I
,
\
,
\
x
' ... \ Loaded edges clamped
, ,
,
\ .... _'"""
"
........ _,
' .....
ro
__ ____ ______ .50
____ ____ ______
____
o . 4 . 8 1 . 2 1 . 6 2. 0 2. 4 2. 8 3. 2 3 . 6 4 .0
alb
5
2
1 5
o
FrGUrE 7.3 COtlPRESSIVE COEFFICI HJTS OF PLATFS AS A
OF a I h FOR VAR r OlJS Al10UNTS OF FOGE ROTAT I 0 NA l RESTRA I NTS
71
......
I
(X)
kc
Flange
e.
.01
1. 4 i
1.21
1. a l
.81,
.6L
. 41
o
. 1
FlbUP,E 7.4
Flange c
1 1 10 100
i 14
.kc = 1. Z8C
::a
f .1 10
I
\V
Y
I
8
Ie:
::a
kc
kc = 6.96
Pla.te
at = <:0 6
.,.." ... ,..",
C
F' t I
4
.""
en

CD
2
IZ
i:
I I
0
I
,
100 1000 1.0 10
Z
Plate
Ie:
C PRE S S I V E PC K L 'H1 CO E F Fie rENT S , F n R r NFl N I TE L Y l ON G
F L l\ N G E S l\ D P L ATE S AS FUN C T ION S f) F r, E RO TAT I 0 NA L RES T RA PIT S
e e
ttY
)
. .7\, ' ..
1.9
1.8
1. 7
1.6
1. 5
1.4
1.3
1.2
kc
1 1

1.0
. 9
7

.6
.. 5
.4
0
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
alb
Loaded Edges
\ Clamped
\ ,
,
,
,
"
"
"
3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0
50
20
10
5
2
1
. 5
.2
. 1
o
Revision F
rlf"fq;1 7.'; 0r .,\r; nr.
a / h r n R r () t' S , In U 5 rq: r n r r n T '\ T I ()' 1:\ l 11 F T , fiT <)
79
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
'1. 5
1.4
1. 3
k
1.2
c
1.1
1.0
9
.8
7
.6
5
.4
0
STRUCTURAL DESIGN, MANUAL,
1 2 3 4
Maximum kc at tran
sition from 1 buckle
to 2 buckles
0
5 6 7 8 9 10
Alb
rlrpr.[ 7.G COnrrESS1\Jr CrJEFFIr.IEnrS f)F FlArr:FS AS ,"
AI .... rnn \,,,0, nr rflTAT t n'lt\L. f"r.r;Tn.1\ Inrs
710
kc
1. 20
1. 16
At L!b=O
1. 14
1. 12
1. 08
1. 04
.s 1
L/b
.i
10
(a) Plate columns with hinged. loaded edges
2 . 2
Fer = kc TT E/(L/t)
12
kc
2.5
2.0
'V
e
kc at
1. 5
a /b ==
0.456
.30 . 426
1. 0
.35
.395
. 5
alb
(b) Hinged flange s
Fir" P E 7. 7 r. () 4 P H s , V E Po V C L t r I r r: f) E r. 1= I r. I r: T f) r. r L 1\ T F. C n L tI r'\ f\ 'f) r: t.." F
!\ S ,"\ r t!'! r. T I f) 1 fl r pn, I") S ().! t r :\ T , (1
(f)
t
::a'
c::
c:)
I
c:
::a
::DI
r
=
fI1
(f)

CD
z
it:
::DI
Z
c:
::DI
I'D
r
<
1'
fI.l
.....
0
::1
'"rj
.....,
I
FO.74____ S_1_0p_e __
F pl
t
F
e ...
(a) Significant stre s s quantities on a typical
stressstrain curve
n
20.0
15.0
10.0
\
\
9.0
8.0
7.0
6.0
5.0
4.0
3.0
2.5
"
'"
" ,
,
,
""
""'
"
r.....
....
2.0
1. 5
1.0
1.0 1.1 l.2 1.3 1.4 1.51.61.71.&1.92.0
FO. 70/
F
O. 85
(b) Dependence of shape factor on ratio
FO. 70/
F
O. 85
n= 1 +loge(l7/7)/loge(F
O
.
70
/FO.8S}
r I ("f I r [: 7. 3 C 1 ' l\ P /\ r. T [ n 1ST I C '1 r. S T r.  S T P!\ I tJ C I , r: \.) [s r. n r r; T P" C TIt PAt '\ L L n Y
n r n 1 (' T t n t 1;' "T f TIE (I SEn I r T I I r T H rEF r /\ fV\' E T r:: r t 'E T' ! () n

STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
a....
f
Fx bIZ
5
1
Fr
:i
Ar
Fx
at
4 0 0
.05 2
k
1
5
c
15
1 .. 0
.2 2.0
3 .25 .
5.0
)
3
Q)
F
..:t..=
F
(1 +
x
1 2 3 4
)
FIGURE 7.9 COHPRESSIVF.: COEFFICIENT OF FLAT PLATES PESTRAINEO
AGAINST LATERAL EXPANSION (Poisson's ratio = 0.3)
713
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
o 50 100 150 200 250 300
bIt
FIGURE 7.10 BUCKLING COEFFICIENT FOR LONe RECTANGULAR
714
STIFFENED PANELS AS A FUNCTION OF bIt ANn STIFFENER
TO R S , 0 f.i\ l R r G lor TV
)
.)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
7.3.2 Buckling of Stiffened Flat Plates in Axial Compression
The treatment of stiffened flat plates is the same as that of unstiffened plates
except that the buckling coefficient, k, is now also a function of the stiffener
geometry. Equation (7 .. 1) is the basic analysis tool for the critical buckling
stress.
As the stiffener design is a part of the total design, Figures 711 and 712
present buckling coefficients for various types of stiffeners. The applicable
critical buckling equation is indicated on each figure.
A plasticity reduction factor applicable to channel and Z section stiffeners
is given by Equation (78), which is taken from Reference 7.
2
11 = .95 (_:s ) (_IV: )
(78)
1 V
For other structural elements such as hat and rectangular sections, no specific
plasticity correction factor has been established. However, Reference 7 recommends
using the correction for a long clamped flange.
Valuesfor the buckling coefficient, k
c
, for axially stiffened, infinitely
wide plates are given in Figure 713.
Figure 714 presents curves for finding a value for k for plates with transverse
stiffeners. It is noted that in these plotst the torsional rigidity, GJ, of the
stiffener itself is used, whereas in most data for longitudinal stiffeners, no
torsional properties of the stiffeners are included.
In this brief section on buckling, an attempt has been made to present data
that is most often used for routine analysis. Should the user require a more
comprehensive treatment of buckling, References 2, 11, and 12 are excellent
sources of additional data.
715
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
7 ~     ~     ~ ~     ~     ~       ~ ~   
6
5
kw
3
tw/tf
Lu
0.5
Z bf
.6
TLwe[j
.7
. ~
.8
. 1
. 9
1.0
1. Z
1.4
'1.6
2.0"' '1.8
0
0 .2 .. 4 .6 .8 1.0 1. Z
bf
b
w
(a) Channel and Z Section Stiffeners
FIGURE 7.11 BUCKLING COEFFICIENTS FOR STIFFENERS
716
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
1
6
Flange Buckles First
 . 
kw
lT2
E tw
2
Fer = :z
12 (l'J
e
2) b
w
5
4

k
w
3
l ~ r
tw/tf
0.5
2
tw
.6
Web "
b
w
. 1
1
J
.8
t{
. 9
0)
V
!.JLl .. 2
1 .. 4
Flange
............... 1.6
0
0 .2 .4 .6 .8 1.Q 1. 2
hf
b
w
(b)
H Sec t ion Stiffeners
.
F t Gun E 7.11 (COt1T to)
RUCKL I NG COEFF rei E NTS FOR ST I FFE NE RS
717
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
7
tb/th
2.0
1.8
6
==:1.6
,1. 4
5
1.2
4
),0
h Side BUCkle
X

~
First
. 9
b Side Buckles
First
.8
3
7
.6
2
th
T
.5
tb
b
1
L
2
I. h..J
kh rrZ E
~ )
Fcr
=
12 (l'J
e
2
)
0
0 . 2 .4 .6 .8 1.0 1. 2
bin
(c)
Rectangular Tube Sec t ion Stiffeners
FIr,URE
7.11 (CONT'O> BUCK.!.. I NC CO EFF I C I EnTS FOR 5T I FF EN ERS
..
718
\
1
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision E
6 ~   ~     ~     ~     ~     ~     ~     ~    
5
4
3
z
1
o 0
Flange Buckles
, First
.",;, 
r ,
Side Web
Buckles First
Top Web
Side Web
t
+ 2 .4 .6 .8 1.0
Top Web Buckles
First
1.2 1.4
.8
1 .0
1.6
) FIGtH1E 7.12 BIiCKlI ~ G STRESS FOP. HAT SECTION STIFFENERS (t=tf=t",=tt)
719
k
c
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Buckling of Skin
6
Restrained by Stiffener/<
,
5
4
3,
z
1
Buckling of Stiffener
Restrained by Skin
kc 1'2 F. 2 (:5) 2
12(1 V
e
) S
Z.O
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0
.. 9
.. 8
" 7
.5.
6
o .. o .2 .4 .6 .8 1.0 1.2
b /b
w s
a) Web Stiffeners. 0.5 < < 2.0
FIGURE 7.13 LOCAL RUCKLI COEFFICtENTS FOR INFINITElV
"II ) E In EJ\L r ZEO 5T I FFE n FLAT PLATE S
)
7
6
5
4
k
c
3
z
1
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
. 2 . 4 .6
bw/b
f
.8
0.3
.4
5
3
.4
5
1.0 .
b) ZSection Stiffeners. t It = 0.50 and O.S9
w s
1 2
7 .. 13 COMPRESSIVE LOCAL BlJCKLIN(1 COEFFICIENTS FOR
PfFfrr,rELY NinE IDEALIZEO STIFFENEO FLAT
721
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
k
c
6
5
4
3
2
tw
FIGURE 7.13
722
k '1r 2 E ( b
t
s
s ) 2
OCr :::
12(1  Ve 2)
.63
5
tf
1
b
{j
.3
J
.4
ts
b
w
t 5
2 .4 .6 .8 1.. 0
b Ib
w s
c) ZSection Stiffeners. t It = 0.63 and 1.0
w s
1.2
(CONT 'n) COt1PRESS I V E LOCAL RUe Kl 'NG COE FF r erE FOP
INFINITELY \'JIPE IDEAlIZE[) STIFFENED FLAT PlJ\TF.<)
)
k
c
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
tw
t8
1.0
.7
Buckling of Skin
Restrained by ...... f
Stiffener.
Buckling of Stiffener
Re.trained by Skin
bf
b
w
0.3) .4, .5
.3
.. 4
.5
.. 3
.4
.. 5
k 1T2E (t)2
OC=C _5 _
_ r 12(1 _ Ve Z) b
s
.
b Ib
w s
d) TSection Stiffeners. tw = 1.0; bf > 10; b
w
> 0.25
t
f
t
f
b
s
F I r.tJn E 7.13 (CONT If) COMPRESS I V f LOCAL RUCKll COE FF reI E NTS FOP.
ItfFfNITELY \'JlDE IDEALIZED STIFFENEf' FLAT PLATES
723
k
c
STRUCTURAL DESIGN ,MANUAL
75
50
25
GJ
EI
O. 1
.01
o
II ]I II JEJ
Stiffener 7 J a l
100
EI
bD
. (a) alb == 0.20
zoo 300
7.14 COf1PRESSIVE qIlCKl.ING COEFFICIENTS FOP.
SlnPLY SUPPORTED PLATES TRANSVERSE STIFFENERS
724
)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
5 0 ~           ~            r           
40
o 25
Stiffener
EI
bD
GJ
EI
(b) alb = 0.35
50 75
FIGURE 7 .14 (CONT' n) LONG I TUn I NAL COI1PRESS I V E BUCKL I NG COE FF I C IE NTS
FOR S I '1PL Y SUPPORT EO PLA TE S HI TH TRA NSVE RS E ST IFF E f'.'E RS
725
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
k
c
F1GtHtE 7.14
726
5
Stiffener
EI
bD
(e) a/b=O .. 50
GJ
EI _
10 15
(CO NT I [l) LONG' TUD I L cor,1PRESS I V E RUC KL J Nfl COE FF Ie, E NTS
FOR S H1PL Y SliP PORT ED PLATE S \'/1 TH TRA I\'S IJE RS E ST I FF E P.S _
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision E
7.3.3 Crippling Failure of Flat Stiffened Plates in Compression
For stiffened plates having slenderness ratios Ljlp ~ 20, considered to be short
plates, the failure mode is crippling rather than buckling when loaded in compres
sion. The crippling strength of individual stiffening elements is considered in
Section 10. The crippling strength of panels stiffened by angletype elements
is given by Equation (79).
F
f
[
gtwts
(
"
E
) r,85
;;:. f3
g
A
Fey
(79)
Fey
For more complex stiffeners such as Y sections. the relation of Equation ( 7 10)
is used to find a weighted value of
twa
=
(710)
where 8i and ti are the length and thickness of the crosssectional elements of
the stiffener. Figure 715 shows the method of determining the value of g used
in Equation (79) based on the number of cuts and flanges of the stiffened panels.
Figure 716 gives the coefficient ~ for various stiffening elements.
If the skin material is different from the stiffener material, a weighted value
of Fcy given by Equation (711) should be used. Here :ris the effective thickness
of the stiffened.pane1.
(711)
The above relations assume the stiffenerskin unit to be formed monolithically;
that is, the stiffener is an integral part of the skin. For riveted construction,
the failure between the rivets must be considered. The interrivet buckling stress
is determined as to plate buckling stress, and is given by Equation (712).
Fi = (_E7r_
2
YJ_YJ E_) (_t_s )2
12(1 v
2
) P
(712)
Values of (, the edge fixity, are given in Table 72.
After the interrivet buckling occurs, the resultant failure stress of the panel is
given by Equation (713).
)
(713)
)
727
728
i
F
c J
c
F
C
Fyi
FFIFF I
c c
5 cuts
14 flanges
19 = g
STRUC,JURAL DESIGN MANUAL
g= 1 9 g= 19 g= 19 g= 1 9 g= 18
Avera.ge g = 18.85
(a) Ystiffened panel
F
i,gl 1 1! 1 !g).
c
'2 cuts Average g = 7.83
6 flanges
8 = g (b) Z ... stiffened 'panel
Average g = 16.83
5 cuts
12 flanges
17 = g
(c) Hatstiffened panel
FIGURE 1.15 t1 ETHOD OF CUTT' NG ST 1 FF EN EO PAN ElS TO OET R ~ H NE g
e\
\
1
.)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
1.0
. 9
.8
.7
.6
. 5
r
 ,
AI
 r
.". 
.,."",.

f3
g
.4


L
Hat
8. ,Y panels
I I
I I I I
e
V  groove plate, extruded angles,. tubes, multicorner
.3 0
formed sections
Formed Z.panels
0 Formed Hat panels
Extruded Y panels
I I I I
Z
.3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0
twIts
1.5 2.0 3.0
FIGURE 7.16 CRIPPLING COEFFICIENTS FOR ANGLETYPE ELEMENTS
729
730
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
(F ixity  Cae [fie ient)
Fastener Type
E:
Flathead rivet 4
Spotwelds 3.5
Brazierhead rivet 3
Counters.unk rivet 1
TAB L E 7. 2 EN D F I X r T yeO E F Fie r EN T S FOR AN r, L E  TV PE E l E E S
Stringe r Stability
 stable
 >
F
f
 Fw
st
Ff < F
st w
 unstable
Panel Strength
J"w bsts + Fist Ast
hsts + Ast
TABLE 7.3 RrVETEn PANEL DETERt1lrJATtflN
\
)
~
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision E
Here the value b
ei
is the effective width of skin corresponding to the interrivet
buckling stress Fi The failure stress of short riveted panels by wrinkling can
be determined. The following quantities are used:
Ffst crippling strength of stringer alone .(Compressive Crippling
Section 10)
Fw wrinkling strength of the skin
Ff crippling strength of a similar monolithic panel
F
fr
strength of the riveted panel
The wrinkling strength of the skin can be determined from Equation (714) and
Figure 717. Here f is the effective rivet offset distance given in Figure 718.
This was obtained for aluminum rivets having a diameter greater than 90% of the
skin thickness.
(714)
Now, based on the stringer stabil'ity, the strength of the panel can be calculated.
Table 73 shows the various possibilities and solutions.
It is noted that in no case should
should be used.
F f ~ > F
f
Thus, the lower of these two values
The use of the coefficient k w is based upon aluminum alloy da ta for other
materials. The procedure is to use Equation (715) for the panel crippling
strength.
17.9
I
\
(
l ~
(715)
731
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
\
. )
k\lJ
5
4
3
2
7.17 EXPEPH1EtrTALLV COFFFlrlENTS FOR FAILURE
I N un I NKL I NG
732
e
1
)
)
... J'
7.18
DESIGN MANUAL
.P.
d
EXPERlr1ENTALlY OETERMINEO VALUES OF EFFECTIVE RIVET
OFF S ET ( P . = R t ve t S p ac 1 n g )
733
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
7.4 Bending of Flat Plates
The bending of a flat plate can be caused by either inplane or normal loads. In
the former, the plate is subject to various buckling modes depending primarily on
boundary conditions and aspect ratio. Here the critical parameter is the magnitude
of stress at which buckling occurs, since redistribution of load also starts at
that time. Thus, as with axial loads, it is important to know when local buckling
due to bending may be expected.
An exact analysis for a flat plate loaded transversely involves a very complex
mathematical treatment. A plate can be considered as a twodimensional counter
part of a beam, except that plates bend in all planes normal to the plate, whereas
a beam bends in one plane only. Also, plates exhibit varied behavior depending
on thickness and have therefore been classified into four types: thick, medium
thick, thin, and membranes or diaphragms.
Since most aircraft applications of transversly loaded plates involve either
mediumthick plates or membranes, only the two types are included herein. Further
information is available from many sources.
7.4.1 Unstiffened Flat Plates, InPlane Bending
The general buckling relation for plates subjected to inplane bending is given by
Equation 716, which has the same form as Equation 71. The only difference is in
the coefficient, kb
11 T]
2
l2( 1 ve )
 ~ )
2
(716)
Values of bending coefficient, kb ,are given in Figure 719 for various edge
restraints and the number of buckles versus Alb, the buckle wave length ratio,
and in Figure 720 for various edge restraints versus the ratio alb.
734
I
/
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
51
CD
49
2
Maximum kb at
Transition from
1 Buckle to 2 Buckle,s
,5
kb VB 'Alb
/ at e= 5
2.5 '3.5 4.5 5.5 6.5 7.5 8.5 9.5 10.511.512.5
'Alb
FIGURE 7.19 OF PLATES AS A FUNCTION
OF A/h FOR VARIOUS AMOUNTS OF ROTJ\TtOt!AL RESTRAINT
735
60
F ~ l J R E 7. 20
736
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
........ .......;.,..."",,....... ............... 100
23
alb
50
20
10
5
3
1
o
BENDINGRlICKlINr. COEFFICIENTS OF PLATES AS A FIHJCTION
OF a/ b FOR VAR I OUS Ar1011tJTS OF EnGE ROT AT I () Nt\ l RE STRA I NT
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
7.4.2 Unstiffened Flat Plates, Transverse Bending
The data presented in this section are predicated on the following a'ssumptions:
1) The plates are flat, of uniform thickness, and of homogeneous isotropic
material.
2) The plate width, b, is 4t and the deflection,y, is .St.
3) All forces (loads and reactions) are normal to the plane of the plate.
4) The plate is nowhere stressed beyond the elastic limit.
5) Poisson's ratio = 0.3; however, no significant error is introduced if
these coefficients and formulas are used for materials with other values.
For unstiffened flat plates with various types 'of loading, the maximum stress
and maximum deflection can be represented by simple relations by the use of a
series of constants which depend upon the plate geometry and loading. Tables
74 through 79 present loading coefficients for use with Equations (717)
through (7 .22)
Equations (717) (a) and (b) pertain to rectangular, elliptical and triangular
plates. Loading coefficients are presented in Tables 7.4, 7.7 and 7.8 respectively.
(a)
Et 3
Equation (718) (a) and (b) pertain to
supported rectangular plates. Loading
(b) F
=
Kl
w L
t
2
corner and edge forces for
coefficients are presented
(b) V = KwL
2
(717)
simply
in Table 7.5.
(718)
Equations (719) (a) and (b) pertain to partially loaded rectangular plates
with supported edges. Loading coefficients are presented in Table 76.
(a) y = KwL
3
Et
3
(b)
(719)
Equations (720), (a), (b), and (c) pertain to circular plates. Loading coefficients
are presented in Table 7.9.
(a) y::: KWa
2
Et
3
(b) F :::
(720)
Equation (721) (a), (b), and (c) pertain to circular plates with end moments.
Loading coefficients are presented in Table 7.9.
737
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Equations (722), (a) and (b) apply to trunnionloaded plates only. Loading
coefficients are presented in Table 7.9.
738
.
(721)
)
 
HANNER OF LOADING alb l.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.5 l.O 3,5
All edgea supported load avel:' entire
Kl 0.287 0 .376 0.453 O .>L7 0.569 0.610 0.661 0.713 0.727
surface.
K 0.044 0.062 0.077 0.091 0.102 0.111 0.122 0.134 0.137
4f111JV
All edges aupported, distrl
Kl
0.16 0.21 0.25 0.28 0.31 0.34 0.38 0.43 0.47
buted load varying linearly
along length. L b
0.022  I     PltO K 0.048 0.053 0.060 0.070 0.078 0.086
t a ____
All edges supported. distri
1(1 0.16 0.21 0.25 0.28 38
buted load varying linearly
along bread th.
L b
Ii.
t bto! K 0.022 0.031 0.0)8 0.045 0.051 0.056 0.063 0.067 0.069
All edges fixed. unIform load over entire
1(1
0.)1 0.38 0.44 0.47 0.49 0.50 0.50 0,50
surface.
L b
K 0.014 0.019 0.023 0.025 0,027 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.028
AIL edges fixed. uniform load over small concentric K.
0.754 0.894 0.962 0.991 L.OOO 1.004 l.005 1.006 1.007
area of '['adiull r. 11 ... "1'0
2
v.
"
o Wb2
Max .!I .. Kl ;z Hax y K i"tJ K 0.061 0,071 0.075 0.078 0.079 0.079 0.079 0.079 0,019
Lon& edges fixed, short supported,
Kl
0.418 0.463 0.466 0.491 0.497 .498 98 0.499
uniform load over entire surface. L .. b
,
K 0.021 0.ol4 0.026 0.027 0.028 0.02.8 28 0,028
Short edges fixed, long edge. supported.
Kl
0.418 0.521 0.599 0.654 0.691 0.715 0.724 0.733 0.742
unLform load over entire L b
K 0.02l 0.03' 0.066 0.080ll 0.092 
One long edge fixed, other free, short edges
supported, unUoTlll load over entire surface.
Rl
O.H4 0.973 1.232 1.482 1.693 1.914 2.285 2.780
L  b
K 0.123 0.230 D.330 0.435 0.535 0.636 0.860 1.027 1.196
_.
One long edge fixed, other thTee ed&ea supported.
K1
0.50 0.58 0.63 0.68 0.71 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.75
load over entire surface, L . b
ltE
0.038 0.042 0.047 0.050 0.054 0.056 0.OS7 0.058
0.58 0.63 .11 0.74 0.74 0.75 0,75
One short edle fixed. other three edges supported.
uniform load over entire surface. L  b
K 0.030 0.050 0.068 0.100 0.122 O.lll 0.137
one ahort edge free, other three edles aupported, Kl
0.67 0.74 0.76 0.77 0.78 0.79 0.80 0.80
t
,
unlform load over entire surface. L. b ,"
K 0.14 O. L5 0.16 0.l6 0.16 0.16 0.17 0.17
TABLE 7.4 LOADING COEFFICIENTS FOR RECTANGULAR FLAT PLATES UNDER VARIOUS LOADINGS
VJ
I,/:)
I
4.0
0.741
0,140
0.49
0.091
0.38
0.070
0.50
0.028
1.Ooa
0.079
0,500
0.028
0.750

3.000
1.365
0.75
0.058
0.75
0.139
0.80
0.17
Location of Maximum
Stress and Deflection
at the center
at the center
center of long edges
at the center
at the' centeT
at the center
Center of long edges
at the
center of short edges
at the center
center of fixed edle
center of fixed edge
at the center
center of fixed edge
at the center
at center of free edge
at the center

CD
:z
I ......
: I
:.p.
o
......
MANNEl OF LOADING alb l.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0
Location of Haximum
Stress and Deflection
(;.oru"
shot edge free, other
Kl
0.20 0.24 0.17 0.Z9 O.ll 0.32 0.3) 0.36 0.37 0.:J7 at center of free edge
three edges aupported. Dis
tributed load varying linearly
c
along 1 ength.
L b
K 0.040 0.04$ 0.048 0.051 0.053 O.OSS 0.064 0.067 0.069 0.70 at the center
Free !dge
One long edge free. other 0.57 0.48 0.42 0.38 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 at center of free edge
(jl11111 Uv
Kl
0.67
three edge. supported, uniform
load over entit& surfaee. L 
0.08 at the center
Iorf.::.
b
IJoI
K O.llt 0.12 0 . 11 0.10 0.09 0.08 0.08 0.08
{F211lV
One long edge free, other three
Kl
O.ZO 0.18 0.11 0.105 O.lJ O.ll .. .. .. at center of free edge
edges &upported. distributed
load varying linearly along
!. b e bnadth.
L 
K 0.040 0.0)6 0.03l 0.030 0.028 0.025
 
.. . at the center
All edge. supported. d18trl
. Kl
0.204 0.262 0.111 0.352 0.38' 0.411 0.450 0.476 0.476 0.500 at the center
bute4 load In of trl.n
4IZ/F
A gular prism. L '" b
K 0.029 0.040 0.050 0.058 0.065 0.071 0.082 0.085 0.085 0.091 at the center
t III to! a III
.
HANNER Of' LOADING b/a 0.6 0.8 LO 1.2 1.4 1.6 L8 2.0 COIIlIIIenta
Kl
0.ll08 0.1434 0.1686 0.1800 0.1842 0.1872 0.1902 0.1908
{Hax Fb 18 at x O.Sb,
f v 0.5.5.
Kl
0.0636 0.0688 0.0762 0.0715 O.Of112. 0.0509 0.0415 0.0356 at x 0; y =
All edges fixed, dIstributed
Load varying linearly along Kl
0.0832 0.1718 0.2365 0.2561 0.3004 0.3092 0.3100 0.3000 Hax F
ia at x  r a
length.
L a
t; if
Kl
0.0206 0.0497 0.0898 0.1249 0.1482 0.1615 0.1680 0.1709 F a at x = 0; y 0
Kl
0.0410 0.0&33 0.0869 0.1038 0.1128 0.1255 0.1157 0.1148
'a at x 0; y = 0.6a
I a .i
x
K 0.0016 0.0047 0.0074 0.0097 0.0111 0.0126 0.0[33 0.0\36 Hax Deflection
TABLE 7.4 (CONT'D) LOADING. COEFFICIENTS FOR RECTANGULAR FLAT PLATES UNDER VARIOUS LOADINGS

e
I
I
1
)
:
.
It
CI)
.....
::a
c:
n
.....
c:
::a
,.
r
CI
...,
CI)

f:i)
Z
==
,.
Z
=
,.
r
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
(a) Uniform Loading
K Kl
b/a V x(max.) Vy(max. ) R
(a) Uniform Loading
1 0.420 0.420 0.065
1 1 0.440 0.440 0.070
1.2 0.455 0.453 0.074
1.3 0.468 0.464 0.079
1.4 0.478 0.471 0.083
1.5 0.486 0.480 0.085
1.6 0.491 0.485 0.086
1.7 0.496 0.488 0.088
1.8 0.499 0.491 0.090
1.9 0.502 0.494 0.091
:2. Vx
2 (') M'R
L max ,
2.0 0.503 0.496 0.092
R/ 'Vy(max)
3.0 0.505 0.498 0.093 y
4.0 0.502 0.500 0.094
5.0 0.501 0.500 0.095
0)
0.500 0.500 0.095
Remarks
L:::aforVxandV
y
..
TA'lLE 7.5 LOAn I NG CO EFF ref ENTS FOR COR NE R AND EDGE FORCE S FOR
FLAT sn'1PLY SUPPORTED RECTANGULAR PLATES UNOER VARIOUS
lOADINGS'
741
'0/ ..
"xl
1.0 0.126
1.1 0.136
1.2 0.144
t.l 0.150
1.4 O. 1,5
1.5 0.159
).6 0.162
1.1 0.164
\.8 0.166
1.9 0.161
2.0 0.168
3.0 0.169
4.0 0.168
50 0.107
.
0.167
alb V
xl
..
. 
5.0 O.OOB
4.0 O. Oil
3.0 0.023
2.0 0.050
1.9 0.055
1.8 0.060
1.7 0.066
1.6 0.073
1.S 0.080
1.4 0.088
L3 0.097
1.'2 0.106
1.1 O. lib
1.0 0.126
TABLE 7.5
742
K
V x2
0.294
0.30.
D.3111
0.lL3
O.3Z1
O. :nO
0.H2
0.333
0.334
0.335
O. 336
o. H4
0.334
0.333
1<
VxZ

o. on
0.112
0.143
0.197
0.205
0.213
D.2Z1
0.230
0.240
O.ZSO
0.260
0.271
0.281
0.294
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
1<,
"'y
RI 1\2
0.2 I 0 Q.026 0.039
0.199 0.026 0.018
IS9 0.026 D.On
0.178 0.02.1. 0.1)]6
0.169 0.025 0.035
0.160 0.024 o.on
0.151 0.021 O.OH
0.144 0.022 0.0)0
0.136 O.Oll 0.029
O. no O.Oll 0.028
O.lU O.OZO O. D26
0.083 D.!)!4 0.018
0.063 0.010 0.014
O.OSO 0.008 O. all
.  
Kl
Vy RI
R
Z
0.Z50
..
0.250 0.002 0.017
0.251 0.004 0.020
0.252 0.006 0.025
0.251 0.013 0.033
0.251 0.014 0.034
0.249 0.016 O.03S
0.248 0.017 0.036
0,24S
1
0
.
018 0.037
0.243 0.020 0.037
0.2.39 0.021 0.038
0.234 0.OZ3 0.039
0.221 0.024 0.039
0.220 O.Ol!> 0.03<)
0.2.10 0.02b 0.039
Rema.rka
v L" .. lor V xl'
Vx 2
Uee L .. b for Vy
Bec:a.Ll.ae the lOad i. not
.ymmetricai, the re.ac:tiona
Rl are diUerent (rom lhe
I'ea.ctiona RZ, &1.0 V
x
l
i. different than V x2 The
... me appliea to ea. V.3.
Remark.
Use'L
a fot' Vxl'
V:xZ
Uae L b lor Vy
(h) Distributed Load
linearly
(a<b)
V1I.l
.. x
y
, Note.:
I. In thil ca.", only. tbe fDl'mul& {V} for tne corner force
R c .. n be u.ed when lub.Ututlt'll .. (or '0
l V .. (ml.x. J .. nd Vy(max,) Are .t th.e middle oC .lde.
blind .. r.upectlve1y III .hown La the ligure for tbi. t.ble
(c)
nistributerl Load Varying
Linearly Along
(a)h)
/y
/
bIZ
/V
X1
V"2 "
x
VV
y
R/
alZ
y
(CONT'n) LOADING COEFFICIENTS FOR CORNER ANn EDGE FORCES
FOR FLAT S 1t1PLY SUPPORTEO RECTANGOLAR PlJ\T FS fiNO Fr1
VARIOUS LOAI1INGS
".. _ .. _ .. ____ w. __ ___ __ ___ ._. __ . _____ .... _._._
)
.)
)
b/ ..
1.0
1.\
1.2.
1.3
\.4
\.S
1.6
1.7
t.8
'.9
Z.O
3.0
).0
Z.O
I. 9 .
1.8
"7
L'S
1..
1.3
1.2
E.I
L::.. 'I
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
K
Vx(m.ax. )
0.147
0.161
O. 173
D.Is", 0.202
0.191 0.189
0.202 0.17&
. 0.208 o. loa
0.214 0.158
o.no 0 ISO
O.ll" 0.142
o.ns 0.115
0.245 0.090
0.2S0
K KI
. ) Vylmu.} R
o.on I) 0.010
G.on 0.3650 0. DB
O.OU O.lSI O.Ol4
0.098 D.HO a.OU
0.07" O . .J42 O.l>l8
O.OtU
0.09D O.lolZ 0.011
0.0''9 0.111 o.on
0.109 0.2'8 O.OlS
0.12.0 O.2U 0.036
(1.13) a.us 0.031
0.147 O.lSO 0.038
Cd) loarl Distribut@d As
frisM Across Rreadth (a(b)
Remarks
Uu' 1.:: lor V.
U.e L = b lor V y
0.1>30
0.035
0.034
o.on
0.031
0.030
o 02.9
0.028
0.019 y
(e)
Loan nistrihutp.rl As Triangular
Pri SM Along
(a)b)
Remark.
U.e L; .. lor V:II
U .. L", b for Vy
A
X
R ,
" "
V,(maxt R
y
TI\RlE 7.5 fORflERANf)' EnGE FORCES
FnR FLAT S 1t1PL Y SUPPORT ED RECTAtJ(1l1lAR PLATES UNOER
VARIOUS LOADINGS
. 743
.......
I
.(:'
"lIb
a./b t
b1/b 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
0
 1 82 1. 38 1. 12 0.93 0.76
o.a I. 82 1.28 1.08 0.90 0.76 0.63
0.4 1.39 1. 07 0.84 0.72 0.62 0.52
0.6 1.12 0.90 0.72 0.60 0.52 0.43
0.8 0.92 0.76 0.62 0.51 0.42. 0.36
1.0 0.76 0.63 O. 52 0.42 0.35 0.36
Note: Total load W =
K t factor (or maximu.m stress at center (F :: F
b
)
alb =: t.4
0 0.2. 0.4 0.8 1.2 I 4 0 0.4

2.0 L SS 1. I Z 0.84 0.75 I 64
1 78 1. 43 1. 23 0.95 0.74 0.64 1. 71 I. 31
1. 39 1.13, 1. 00 0.80 0.62 0.55 l. 32 1. 08
L 10 0.91 0.82 0.68 0.53 0.47 1. 04 0.90
0.90 0.16 0.68 0.57 0.45 0.40 0.B7 O. 76
0.75 0.62 0.51 '0 .. 47 0.38 0.33 0.71 0.61
alb = 2.
0.8 I.Z
1.20 0.97
t.03 0.84
0.88 0.74
O. 76 0.64
0.63 o 54
0.53 0.45
1.6
0.78
0.613
0.60
0.54
0.44
0.38
2.0
0.64
0.57
O. 50
0.44
0.38
0.30
All edges supported
Uniform load over
central rectangular
area shown shaded
K hlctor (or maximum deflection
r
b>a. b/s. 2 1. 5 1 4
L a K O. lOB 0.099 0.096
"
b<e. a>b 1. 1 1. Z 1.3
L b K 0.088 0.101 0.114
1 '.3 I.Z 1.1
0.092 0.OB7 0.081
1.4 1.5 2.0
0: [26 0.137 0.178
l.0
0.074
..
0.227
I
a
l
All .edge s supported. Uniform load
along axis of symmetry pa rallel
to the dimension a (b. very
Note: Use unit applied load w in this case (lb. lin. )
TARLE 7.6
e
LOAnING cnEFFICIEtTS FOR PARTIALLY LOAnFn
n ECTA Nr,ULI\R FLAT PLAT ES
e
e
, __ r .
1
CI)
i
:=a
c:
n
=
:=a
2:a
r
c:J
rn
(I)

G)
Z
s:
2:a
Z
c:
2:a
r
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Edge Supported Edge Fixed
Uniform Load Over Unifo rm Load Ove r
Entire Surface Entire Su rfac e
Manner of
Kl
K
Kl
Loading
K
1.0 0.70 1. 24 O. 171 0.75
1. 1 0.84 1. 42 0.20 0.90
1.2 0.95 1. 57 0.25 1. 04
1.3 1. 06 1. 69 0.28 1. 14
1.4 1. 17 1. 82 0.30 1. 25
1.5 1. 26 }. 92 0.30 }. 34
1.6 1. 34 2.04 0.33 l. 41
alb
1.7 1. 41 2.09 0.35 1. 49
1.8 l. 47 2.16 0.36 1. 54
1.9 1. 53 2.22 0.370 1. 59
2.0 1. 58 2.26 0.379 1. 63
2.5 1. 75 2.45 0.40 1. 75
3.0 1. 88 2.60 0.4'2 1. 84
3.5 1. 96 2.70 0.43 1. 89
4.0 2.02 2.78 0.43 1.9
L b b
I
Locations of F max. at center F max. at end of
I
t !" e g" and Y max. at center shorter principal
deflection axis. Y max. at
center
      .. 
7.7
.  ,._
LOADING COEFFICIENTS FOR FLAT ELLIPTICAL PLATES UNnER
UN I FORt1 LOAD
745
'.....,
I
. .po
.0\
Plate nelcriptlon and Type of Edge Support
9 4.5 60 90 l80
0
Locations of Stress and Deflection
IC
L
0.102 0.147 0.240 0.522 Max radial stress. on line to midpoint of circular edge
a ~
All edges supported. L a
Kl
0.114 0.155 0.216 O. )L2 Hax tangefitlal stress, at midpoint of circular edge
qe
I
K 0.0054 0.0105 0.0250 0.0870 Hax deflection is at midpoint of circular edge
Kl
0.1500 0.2040 0.2928 0.4536 Hax radial stress is at curved boundary
Straight edges supported. Circular
Circular Se.ctor edge Uxed. L '"' a K 0,0035 0.00&5 0.0144 0.0380
Plate Description and Type of Edge Support Coefficients Locations of Stress and Deflection
~
t
Equilateral Triangle Kl
0.1488 Max F x at y ~ 0, x  0.062.
Y ... 0 1,i
All edges supported. ~
0.1554 Max F y at y 0, x 0,129.
L a
K 0.0112 Max deflection is at 0
~
Right Angle Isosceles Kl
0.131 Max Fx
t
DO data available on location l
Triangle
y to 8
j
Kl
O.llZS Max F no data available on location
All edges supported.
y
L .. a
K 0.0095 Hax deflection, no data avallable on location
TABLE 7.8 LOADING COEFFICIENTS FOR CIRCULAR SECTOR AND TRIANGULAR FLAT PLATES UNDER UNIFORM LOAD
e
e
e
en
......
:=ct
c:
n
......
c:
::a
,.
r
~
rn
en

Ci)
Z
iI:
,.
Z
c:
,.
r
""J
I
.c:
....,
..

Outer edge lupported
Uniform load over
,plare actual lurCaee
Out.,. edge lupporled
Uniform load along
inner edge
Inner edee lupported
UnHof'm load ove r
ennre actual .uda<:e
Out. r edge fixed
and .upported
Uniform load
entire actual surface
O\lte r edge fixed
and liupported
Uniform loa.d
along inne r edge
Inner edge Cixed
and su.pported
Uniform lQad over
entire actual
Inner edge fixed
and supported
Uniform load
along outer edge
Outer edge supported.
inner edge fixed
Uniform load ove r
entire actual surface
@.
witb
or
._  ___  __ ._ I':
W :0 \II" (il' b
Z
)
HH.J ,. "J
lr' """'tl.
W
l
8
W = \101" (a
l
. b
Z
,
U,U
, 'l+' ,.......8
W =U,tTT{a
Z
_ b
Z
)
W
W = wn (a
l
b
Z
)
H.U 'Itl.
W
,
I
W::: wn(a Z _ b
Z
,
I 1.

0.163
. o. S.U
_.
0.186
.. 0.919
.
a.HI
. 1.1:)
  I 646
 I 7!;8
  Q.

O.S84
. 0.884
. 1.01l
 0.0018
 O.
.. O. Oil
.. 0.093
. 0.005
. o. OZS
. 'J. 1 q:,
. ::I. !ll""
0.002
r'
. O. II
 O.rlll
. 0.0051

  ['1.046
_.
0.003
.. 0.108

0.09!
e
',
alb or afro
I.S Z 3
"
S
F "ClOrs'
1< ftlr df."flt!'("! ;.lM
o. Z37 O.Z90 0.295 O.l'J7 o Z&9 1<
O.5SQ O.blZ 0 .. 613 3.704" 0.7Z5 K 11f
t
,'I inner t"dgel
0.679 0.0"0 PHI 0.401 0.379 KZ OIl ouh,,. !ft'
O.HI :l.61,! 0.447 03>.5 O.ZqO K2: at .nner edlklt"
::I. on 0.114 O.714 0.704 K
1. Z6 J. HI 1. 81:1 Z.17 2.34 1<1 (Ft at inn(l' ,,',:;d
1. .f7::l 1.237 1.006 0.895 O.8ll K.2. at ullter
1.6S0 I.HS 1.2'8 1.082 O.93Z K? al inn("l' ,dgC'
0.21:11 0.383. O. 137 444 0.434 K (at oute r
0.682 0.867 1.196 1.4 Sij 1.6SH K 11F
t
at inner t'dx,e)
0.794 !'l.606 a.S6' n.492 0.448 KZ at out!:'l' .. dge
0.910 0.8&2 0.791 n.lz6 at innt1' t"dge
0.0015 0.024 0.046 O.rt5S K
O.OZS 0.069 ;).145 O.IC)2. O. UZ 11Ft at innl:"l' eodf')
O. OJ!) 0.069 ;).096 0.096 0.08,9 Kl at ioner
0.148 0.204 O. ZlS O.NO 0.242 . KI (F
r
at ollter edge)
!>.O2:4 O.OBI O. )71 0.215 0.237 K
0.01:17 0.269 0.670 I. (l18 1.300 K I {F
t
at inner e'dge}
0.320 0.41)5 :1.539 n. C"IS O. HZ K I (F
r
at UIII(' ... 't"dgd
0.1[5 O. Z69 O.44!:i D.SIO 0.522 KZ at inIn:r edl?E.>
0.010 D.040 O. lOS rl. I S2 0.18i ". I . t outf'r edgl")
O.l'" 0.442 0.770 1.014 Lll K I IF r al inot" r t>dgll
1'.040 0.097 fl.171 O.lZl ().ZH "2 al Ollier ..
O.02S O.OI:Hl 0.209 0.293 O 350 K ta! uuter I'dt,td
O.IZ8 0.153 ). lOS I. 514 !.745 K I inne!' t"dl!"\
0.10:' 0.239 0.403 0.499 t<Z itt oult'r edg ...
0.018 O.OS) 0.104 0.141 0.163 K
O.19Z 0.l14 0.431 0.491 O. !)Z6 K 1 {F'r at innf'r ('df:'1
0.ll3 0.197 0.Z60 0.2.97 0.30& K Z at ,outer
TABLE 7.9 LOADING COEFFICIENTS FOR CIRCULAR FLAT PLATES UNDER
VARIOUS LOAOINGS
e
K I for stre
"K2: ror lope

en
.....
::a
=
c:)
.....
c:
::a
:D
r
C
ITI
(I)

CD
:z
31:
:D
Z
c:
:III
r
.....
I
,t.
CO
,.
ro
I
alb or a/ro
Circular
ci rcular Concentric;: Hole or
@
'"
Loading' Plate Circ;ular Flange
Outer edge fil(f"d
Uniform moment along
inner edge
lnne r edge fixed
Ulluorrn moment illong
outer edge
Inner edge lupported
Uniform moment ... Iong
outer edge
Outer edge supported
Uniform moment along
inner edge
Outer edge fixed and
Il.Ipported. inne r edge
{lll:ed Uniform load
over entire actual
.urface
Outer edge fixed
lupported. inne r
edge fixed Uniform
lo.a.d "'long inne r
Both edge s fixed
Balance loading
(pi.ton')
No .upport
Ubiform edge moment
TABLE
e
(. M M
,.....M M "'"'\
\.... B
M (M".",.
W ::. WTT (a Z _ b Z )
w
W ': wn (a 2 _ b
Z
)
M M
c:.
7.9 (CONT'O)
1.2.5 I 1. S 2. 3 4 s
KI for: l5tre&&
K (or deflection KZ for slope
o. ZO 10. 0.B5 0.94 0.80 0.66 K mal(. at inner edge
0.37 In.86 2.44 4.10 4.84 5. II KI mal(, at inner edge
l.20 13.16 3.88 1.31 3.IZ Z.72 K
Z
at inner edge
O.l3 10.66 12.55 13.10 13.41 K molX, at outer edge
6. B 7 17. SO 1 B, 14 IL 71 B.94 9.04 K 1 max. at inner edge
2.3013.84 Is.67 16.94 17.8Z 18.!7 K
Z
a.t outer edge
10.37 9.23 r.so 16.31 K max. a.t outer edge
t+33 . 3 21.616.013.5 Kl max.(Ft at inner edge)
S1.00 12.8.00 116.40 111.60 110.2.3 I 9.611 KLatouter edge
53.30 127.80 115.60 18.78 I 6.N I 4.86 I KZ at innH edge
8.87 I 6.92 I 4.65 I Z.StJ I 1.()9 I 1.21 I KI max at inner edge
27.36 115.60 110.0 I 7.50 I 6.80 I 6.50 I KI max. F
t
at inner
42.70 118.75 I 7.81 I 2.93 I 1.56 I 0.94 I KZ at ou.ter edge
44. 90 I 2Z. j 5 Ill. 27 I 5. 52 1 4.08 I 3. 17 I K 2 at inne r edge
10000410.00310.01'0 O.OZ3 10.031 fO.031 K
10,036 ,IO.!J65 10.104 (r. 151 10. 176 192 KI (F .. t in"er edge)
O. D6Z 10. IDS' 10,153 0.195 10. ZJZ 1'1. Z21 K I (F at oute r edge)
0.062 10.09Z 10.114 K
10.115 10 220 10.405 0.70310.933 11.130 KI (F r .t inner edge)
10.098 10,168 IO.l57 O. 347 10, 390 10. 4 I 5 K I (F r lit inner edge)
10.000.1 0 .00310.014 10.0391906110.077 K
10.08010.156 10.30Z 10.55110.75610.927
K 1 (F r at inne r edge)
4 K mal(. at cenler
6 KI (FI Fl at any point)
8 At edge
LOAniNG COEFFICIENTS
UNDER VARIOUS
FOR CIRCULAn FLAT PLATES
LnAD I
a
''
a
yr .f..!
i.J : .J
. , ,
I
._
en
I
:::a
c:
c)
I
c:
::a
:.:
r
CJ
...,
(I)

CD
Z
31:
:.:
z
c:
:.:
r
......
I
+""
.D
a
Edge. Iu.pported
Uniform load ovet'
concentric circular
area of rl.dha 1'0
ManDer of lo.din,
!:dgu lu?ported
Ceatral cou.ple,
tru.a.nion loading
Edgu fixed
Central couple.
trunnion loadina
!(Xi!
\2J
Ir
21:'0
"'"
fA>(a
te '" ith
role or
_,_ __ nge
W " '1I1f ro l
'.''''"l r.
LrolroJ
O. I 0.15 O.ZO 0.25
0.71 0.97 L ZZ I. 60
4.36 3.80 3.27 2.80
0.67 }'23 1. 68 l.31
!..06 5.40 4.52 3.40
TARLE 7.9 (C'lrIT'!")
alb or a/ro
1 \.25 I
1.5 Z
I
]
I
.. S
Factorf;: K 1 Cot' stre
K.for denection K'Z (or .lope
O.lIZ 0.295 0.350 0.413 0.469 O.49Z 0.50) K
0.)Q8 0.568 0.700 0.900 1. 161 l.lS3 1.500 1 (F I:' at c::enter,
0.636 KZ

rola
0.30 O.}S 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80
KZ slope
K I .tr ....
l.O 2.5,0 3.53 5.60 B. S4 I Z. 00 16.30 24.10 41.4 BZ.C I&Z,O 1<2 max. at c::eonter
2.17 2.. 10 I. 84 1.58 1." J L 16 l. 07 o 90 0,78 0.70 0.S7 K, m'llI;. F a.t center
3. 10 4,00 5.45 8.20 12.40 18.0 lB.t, 44.0 77.9 15&.0 f14,Q Kl max. at center
2.0,5 2.. IS J, 75 I.'H L l4 0.B9 0.68 0.57 0.47 0.35 K I max. 'F at center
, , 
L n A,", I I G CO E F FIr. I E r1 T S FOP. C I P r. " LA R F L J\ T P L l\ T S
urlOER "AR t OUS L('I.I\f\ I
I
I
It
l; .....  ...... \1
'r
: ./A/
, =:::::::/
(I)
I
::a
c::
n
I
c:
:.:
r
CJ
rn
(I)

en
z
:I:
:.:
z
c:
:.:
r
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision A
7.5 Shear Buckling of Flat Plates
The critical shearbuckling stress of flat plates may be found from
2
Ks rr E
11 11 
2
Figure 721 presents the shear coefficient kg as a function of the size ratio
alb for clamped and hinged edges. For infinitely long plates, Figure 722
presents ks as a function of A/b. Figure 723 (a) presents k
s
.
oo
for long
pIa tes as a function of edge restraint, and Figure 723 (b) gives ks/kg 00 as a
function of b/a
t
thus allowing the determination of ks.
The nondimensional chart in Figure 724 allows the calculation of inelastic
shear buckling stresses if the secant yield stress, F
O
7
' and n the shape para
meter is known (Table 710).
The plasticityreduction factor 11 for shear panels can be obtained from Equation
723.
2
)
11
Es
(
1 ve
(7 .. 2.3) =
E I
v 2
Cladding reduction factors, 11 , are given in Table 71.
7.6 Axial of Curved Plates
The radius of curvature of curved plates the method to be used to analyze
their buckling stress. For large curvature (b /rt < 1), they may be analyzed as
flat plates by using the relations in Section 7.3. For elastic stresses in the
transition length and width ranges, Figure 7.25 may be used to find the buckling
coefficient for use in Equation (724).
=
2
12 ( 1 ve )
(+)
2
(724)
For sharply curved plates, (b
2
/rt > 100), Equations (725) and (726) can be used.
Fer =
?leE
(
t
)
r
(7  25)
2
E E
t
(1 ve )
11
2
E
Es
(1 v )
(726)
Figure 7.26 gives values of C in terms of r/t. Figure 7.27 gives 11 in a non
dimensional form. Here the quantity Eer = Ct/r.
)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
e)

 .  ""."
n Material
)
3
Onefourth hard to full hard 188 stainless steel. with grain
Onefourth hard 188 stainless steel, e 1'oss grain
5
One  half hard and three  fourths hard 188 stainless steel,
cross grain
Full hard 188 stainless steel, cross grain
10 2024T and 7015T aluminumalloy sheet and extrusion
20Z4RT aluminumalloy sheet
2024T80, 2024T81, and 2024T86 aluminumalloy sheet
20 to 25 2024  T aluminum alloy extrusion
SAE 4130 steel heattreated up to 100, 000 psi ultimate stress
35 to 50
2014T aluminumalloy extrusions
SAE 4130 steel heattreated above 125.000 psi ultimate stress
QO
SAE 1025 (mild) steel
fABLE 7 .. 10 VALUES OF SHAPE n FOR SEVERAL ENGINEERINn
t,1AT ER' AlS
)
751
15
13
11
9
7
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Symmetric
Mode
z
alb
Clamped Edges
Hinged Edges
Symmetric,
Mode
3 4 5
FIGURE 7.21 SHEARRUCKLINGSTRESS COEFFICIENTS OF PLATES AS A
FUUCTION OF alb FOR ANn HINGED EOGES
752
)
.)
lZ.5
12.0
11. 5
11. 0
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Maximum ks at Tran
s ition from 1 Buckle
to 2 Buckles
12
F::U

kd VB Alb
at e= 5
5.0 2 4
.4 .6 .8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 .
Alb
FrGur.E 7.22 COEFFICI'ENTS FOR PLATES OBTAINEfl
FR011 ArJALYSIS OF INFINITELY LONG PLATES AS A FUNCTION
OF Alb FOR VARIOUS Ar10UNTS OF EDGE ROTATIONAL RESTRAINT
753
__ STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
/
FIGURE 7.23
754
1 o
(a) Ksoo as a functIon of E
Long Edges
Simply Supported
b/a
(b) as a funtion of b/a
CtJRV ES FnR EST U1AT ION OF SHEARRUCK L t Nfl CO EF Fie I ENTS flF
PLATES NITH VARIOIJS M10lHITS OF Enr.E ROTATImlAL rESTRAlh
F ere
F 0.7
STRUC1URAL DESIGN MANUAL
n
.6
.5
. I .2. .3 .4 1.0
ksn2:
lZ(lve )F
O
7
F rGURE 7.24 CHART OF NOND 'MENS IONAl SHEAR BUCKll NG STRESS FOR
PANELS WITH EDGE ROTATIONAL RESTRAINT
...._ ..  .. ...
755
k
c
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL.
1000
100
20
10
8
6
4
3
2
1/
~
V
V
V
/. V /
~ ~
V
2 3 4 6 8 10 20
z _ b
2
(1 _ v 2).5
b  rt e
/
v/
~
v/
V//
/
V
v/
1/
VV
100
FIGURE 7.25  BUCKLING COEFFICIENTS FOR CURVED PLATES
/
~
V
/ V
/
~ /
V
./
V
V
V
L
V ~
V
r/ t
300
500
000
1000
c
.6
5
.4
3
Z
1
.01
;:
::
t:"
l
I
l
I
l
I
I I
10
l 3
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL

r
rIo...
........
'"
'"
'"
I I'll .1111
5 7 102
2 ')
r /t
FIGUI1E 7.26 f10DIFIED CLASSICAL RUCKLING AS A FUNCTfON
OF r/t FOR AXIALLY COMPRESSEn CYLINDRICAL PLATES
1.4,
n
1.2
n
Fer
') F!).7.6
.4
o .2 .4 .6 .8 1.0
2.0
E
.7
FrGURE 7.27 RDCKLING CHART FOR AXIALLY
CURV ED PLATE S
11 = ( E s / E) ( E t / E) ( 1 v Po
2
) / ( 1 v
2
) ) 5
757
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
7.7 Shear Loading of Curved Plates
Large radius curved plates (b
2
/rt < 1) loaded in shear may be analyzed as flat
plates by the methods of Section 7.5. For transition length plates (1<b
2
/rt<30),
Figure 728 can be used to find k for use in Equation (727).
F
ers
=
 ~  /
12(1 v:)
For (b
2
/rt > 30), Equation (728) may be used.
0.37 (Zb ) ~ (F )
crs flat plate
Curved plates under shear loading with stiffeners can be analyzed by using
(727)
(7 ... 28)
Figure 729 for the value of the buckling coefficient ks. Both axial stiffeners
and circumferential stiffeners are treated,
7.8 Plates Under Combined Loadings
1
,/
In general, the loadings on aircraft elements are a combination of two or more
simple loadings. Design of such elements must consider the interaction of such .a
loadings and a possible reduction of the allowable values of the simple stresses ~
when combined loads are present. The method using stress ratios, R, has been
used extensively in aircraft structural design. The ratio R is the' ratio of the
'stress in the panel at buckling under combined loading to the buckling stress
under the simple loading. In gen'eral, failure occurs when Equation (729) is
satisfied. The exponents x and y must be determined experimentally and depend
upon the structural element and the loading condition.
(729)
7.8.1 Flat Plates Under Combined Loadings
Table 711 gives the combined loading condition for flat plates. Figures
730 and 731 give interaction curves for several loading and support conditions.
It is noted that the curves present conditions of triple combinations.
7.8.2 Curved Plates Under Combined Loadings
For curved plates under combined axial loading and shear wi th 10 < Zb< 100 and
1 < alb < 3, the interaction relation of Equation 730 may be used.
2
Rs +
1 (730)
This may be used for either compression or tension with tension being denoted
by a negative sign.
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
TABLE 7.11 COMBINED LOADING CONDITIONS FOR WHICH INTERACTION CURVES EXIST
Theory Loading Combination Interaction Equation Figure
Biaxial compression For plates that buckle in
square waves, R + R = 1 7.31
x y
Longitudinal compression For long plates, R +
R 2
= 1 7.30
and shear
c s
Longitudinal compression None 7.31
and bending
Elastic
Bending and shear
RL+R2=
1 7.30
b s
Bend
J
s h e r ~ and trans None 7.30
verse compression
Longitudinal compression None 7.31
and bending and transverse
compression
Inelastic
R2+R
2
Longitudinal compression
=:
1
and shear
c s
)
759
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
!
l 0 3 ~ ~
10
5
2
1
1 2 5 10
(a) Long si:mply supported plates )
FIGURE 7.28 SHEAR BUCKLING COEFFICIENTS FOR VARI()US CURVEt) PLATES
760
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
e
l
1
)
(b) Long clamped plates
F I GlJRE 7.28 (CONT t [) SHEAR BUCKL I NG CO EFF I C I ENTS FOR VAR I OOS
CURV EO PLATES
761
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
10
2
a
b
ks
1.0
1.5
2.0
Cylinder
10
5
2
1 1
10
(c) Wide, simply supported plates
F I GORE 7.28 (CO 10) SffEAR BUCKlltJG CO EFF rei ENTS FOR V J\R r
C lJRV Et') PlA TE S
762
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
.)
10
3
_,
Cylinder
ks
/
.)
10
. t b
f .
'"
'"' 
10 10
2
10
3
'
)
Zb
(d) Wide clamped plates
FIr.UPE 7.28 (COtJT'O)
SHEA R RUe K LING CO E F F rei E NT S FOR VARIOUS
ClJRV En PLATES
763
764
200
100
60
40
20
10
30
20
k 10
s
30
20
10
6
,...
l


:=
...
'

I
=
l
I
I
E
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
,

E1
bD
a
b
1
1 1.5
1
1.5
2
2
1.5
Zb
I, 000
100
2
30
1. 5 1
2
(a) Center axial stiffener; axial length greater than cir
cumferential width
FIr, 11 R E 7. 2 9 S HE A R  B tJ C K LI N G C 0 E F Fie I EN T S F OR 5 n 1 PLY SUP PORT F. n
CURV Ell PLATE S \'II TH C ENTE R 5T' FFENEJ1
\
!
e)
)
ks
200
100
50
20
10
30
20
10
30
20
10
6
30
20
10
6
1
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
a

b
Zb
1
1. 000
Cylinder
1. 5 1
100
2
Cylinder
l I

1.5 30
~
2
~
_ylindert to
~
I'
I
1
.10
Cylinder
11
1
r
b
1
CY,Under
~
lB(!
~ \1
o . 1 1 10
EI
bD
(b) Center axial stiffener; circumferential wiatu greater than
axial length. .
F r GUR E 7.29 (CONTI D) SHEARBUCKll Nl COEFF ref ENTS FOR S 1r1PLY
SlIPPORT EO ClJRVEO PLATES Nt TH CE NT ER STI FF EN fR
765
766
ks
~
300

~
~
'200
~
f:=
~
100
i
!
60
~
~
~
30
20
~
10
l=
I
40
20
10
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
a
b
Zb
1
~ ~ 
2 1.5
],000
~ ~
.0
1
 ~
1.5
100
2
 
a;I
. __ t
1
~ ____ +r:o
. I
rl.5
2
E1
bD
10
11
l a ~
 
30
10
fiITJII
~ \1
 
(c) Center circumferential stiffener; axial length greater than circl1l'r1
ferential width.
F'I G U R E 1. 29 ( eON T 1 0 ) SHEA R Bue K L I rr; Co E F Fie lEN T S FOR S Ir 1 PLY
SUPPORTFn CURVEt" PLATES NITH CEtlTfR STIFFEtlEP.
")
)
300
I
200
I

100
:::

60 :::

40 ::;
..
20 
10

40
20
ks
10
30
20
10
6
30
20
10
6
4
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
a
b
!
,...
1.L
 Cylinder
L..!..:..5
2
EI
bD
Cylinder
1 1.5 2
Cylinder
Zb
1,000
100
30
10
Cylinder
(d) Center circumferential stiffener; circumferential width greater than'
axial length
FtC:tJHE 7.29 (CONTln) SHEARBUCKLING COEFFICIENTS FOR SH1PlY
SUPPORTED CURVED PLATES WITH CENTER STIFFENER
767
.2
1.0
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
.i
.4
Rt:'
.6
.8
rn====, 1. 0
.2
1. 0 1.....__ "'01: __ '
o
o .2 ,4 .6 .8 1.0
(a.) Uppe r and lower edge s simply s uppo
.2 .4 .6 .8 1.0)'z'
}, 0
.8
.6
.2
.8
.2
1. O ...... IIIIIICiiii:.::::....____ ...J
1.0 "Ii b .4 .2 o
o
Rc
(b) Upper edges simply supported. lower edges clamp.ed
Flr,unr 7.30 JUTERA.CTt0N CUnVf.S FOR LONG FLAT "N(,)ER \',\P.IOPS
NAT I () NS OF I () r, R FtHl' ANn SH FJ\P
768
e\
.6
. z
)
I CoUP. E 7. 31
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
J. 0r=___.
.1:1
.6
.2.
. z
.2 4 .0 .B 1.0 o .2. .4 .6 .8 1.0 .l 4 '.1;; .8 I. ()
Ry fly
It)'
(a)a/b=O.8 (b) alb = 1. 0 (c) a /b = 1. 20
l..!) .====,
.IS
.6
(d) alb = 1. 60 (e) alb = 2.0 () alb::: 3.0
F'y
Ry
(g) alb = <b
nlTE RACT InN C rlRV ES FOR FLAT n ECTANGUllR PLAT fS l.t tln ER I
RIAXI AN' LONGITUf') PJAlR ErJf'f Nr, LOAt1INGS
769
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
7.9 Triangular Flat Plates
Figure 732 presents buckling coefficients for isosceles triangular plates
loaded under shear and compression. Equation 731 is the interaction equa
tion for shear and normal stress on this type of plate.
2Fs
(
Fcrs+ + Fcrs
2
+ u) +
F
2
(lu) = 1 (731)
The + and  subscripts refer to either,tension or compression along the altitude
upon the hypotenuse of the triangle caused by pure shear loading. Table 712
contains values of kc' ks+ and k
s
 for various edge supports.
7.10 Buckling of Oblique Plates
In many instances, the use of rectangular panels is not possible. Figures 733
and 734 give buckling coefficients for panels which are oriented oblique to the
loading. Figure 733 covers flat plates divided into oblique parallelogram
panels by nondeflecting supports. Figure 734 covers single oblique panels.
770
Edge Supports
( a) k
ks+
k
c s
AIl edges simply supported 10.0 62.0 23.2
Sides simply supported,
hypotenuse clamped 15.6 70.8 34.0
Sides clamped, hypotenuse
simply supported 18.8 80.0 44.0
aHypotenuse = b in Figure 7.32
TABLE 7.12 BUCKLING COEFFICIENTS FOR RIGHTANGLE ISOSCELES TRIANGULAR
PLATES LOADED INDEPENDENTLY IN UNIFORM COMPRESSION, POSITIVE
SHEAR, AND NEGATIVE SHEAR
"J
I
"J
I'

',",

"'/
25
20
6 )'1 
"""".,r
y........ ., .. "','
F , ../ ""'/ F
it ........... "',,..
L
"' ... ..... ,
. '.
,,", ..'
/.. .. \
r
F /../' \ .. F :: Fb
s . 0:.\ s 2a
a /.' ",
L
I..,{ .>\
I\, \
f"f"t"T"'t",
b J
3:")
\ ,.."", ... ""'''''\... iIIo'''..\" .. ', ....." ....
tF t t t t t
kg
,
Claf"!":ped
IS
3 )
IO 2,)
Sim pI y Suppa rted
5 10
O'
I I /
0 0 .J 1.0 1 . :; 2.0 .. 5 1.0 1 . :; 2.0
<lib aiL
C(YV)r05sion r
7.32 rnFr.Tlrr F"TS r:nn, TR1.l\t!r.I'L\n PLATE'S
e
ro
<:
1"'
C/l
1"
o
;j
'Tj
..,
"/ ",
' ..
\' /, r'
,II;  ... /
;
(I)
::a
c:
n
.....
c:
:::a
:.:
r
rn
(I)

CD
z:
:.:
:z
c:
:.:
r
kc
x
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MAN,UAL
ZQ
Fx
15
10
5
o 2 3 4 5
alb
(a) Loading in xdirection
2
alb
F
Y
3
(b) Loading in ydirection
4 5
r: f r t I r. 7. 3 3 r; (l H f'l r r r; S I ',1 1:  fH J r f l. I r! n c n r r ric I PIT;' FOR r L':\ T S I E E T f) !
'I t') if f'; r: r L Fe: T' r r; I r r r 0 R T S f\ I V I r F. r I: IT () P 1\ r 1\ L L [ L n n n 1\" 
C;I!Arrn D/\td[LS (/\11 nilnpl sidf's rlrf"
772
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Z O ~ ~ _
r
ei
=!6Y
c
;>=
. C 'I 
:: c =
e 
20.__
15
10
....ooiI8.98
3
3 .
2
alb
.1 . .2
(a) Compressive loading
(b) Shear loading
FIGURE 7.34 BUCKLING COEFFICIENT OF ClAMPEn ORllQUE FLAT PLATES
)
773
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
7.11 Introduction to Membranes
A membrane may be defined as a plate that is so thin that it may be considered
to have no bending rigidity. The only stresses present are in the plane of the
surface and are uniform throughout the thickness of the membrane. This section
consists of methods of analysis of circular membranes, long rectangular mem
branes (alb> 5), and short rectangular membranes (alb < 5).
7.12 Nomenclature for Membranes
a
b
D
E
f
f
max
n
l
p
R
r
t
x, y
{j
Oc
p.
n7
length dimension of membrane
width dimension of membrane
diameter
modulus of elasticity
calculated stress
= calculated maximum stress
,coefficients given in Figure 7.40
pressure
outside radius of circular membrane
= cylindrical coordinate
= thickness of membrane
= rectangular coordinates
deflection
center deflection of circular membrane
Poisson's ratio
7.13 Circular Membranes
Figure 7.35 shows two views of a circular membrane with the edge clamped under
a uniform pressure, p.
The maximum deflection of this membrane is at the center and is given by
DC = 0.662 R \j3/ P R
Et
(732)
The deflection of the membrane at a distance, r, from the center is
774
8 ~ STRUCTURAL DESliSN MANUAL
FIGURE 7.35. CIRCULAR MEMBRANE WITH CLAMPED EDGE
The stress at the center of this membrane is
n
Ep2R2
f = 0.423 t2
(734)
while that at the edge is
)
Vilf
Ep2R2
f = 0.328 t2
(735)
775
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
7.14 Long Rectangular Membranes
Figure 7.36 shows a long rectangular membrane (alb> 5) clamped along the two
long sides.
a
thic knes s ::.: t
FIGURE 7.36. LONG RECTANGULAR MEMBRANE CLAMPED ON TWO LONG SIDES
The deflection and stress at the center of a long membrane clamped on all four
sides are approximately the same as those in a long membrane clamped along the
two long sides. The maximum stress and center deflection of the membrane in
Figure 7.36 under uniform pressure p are given by Equations (736) and (737).
f
max
(736)
(737)
These equations are presented graphically in Figures 7.37 and 7.38 for = 0.3.
A long rectangular plate may be considered to be a membrane if P/E(b/t)4 is
than 100.
776
.....
I
.....
.....
4l.
= .25 L b.. .75
70 I ,,1 I I I" I
60 i .' I I' 7' I ......... "'
1.0
50 l I" 1/ I :>1': I
f
40 I I'" Ate ,.< ::;iII'I"=
max
(KSI)
30 I A;,,' A ..,"'F
20 I } J' bI' " V" J....""= 1
5
."0
10.0
10
o 0 "2' ..
4 6 8 fa i2 14 16 18 20
p J10E/10
4
FIGURE 7.37 MAXIMUM STRESS IN LONG RECTANGULAR MEMBRANES (alb> 5) HELD ALONG LONG SIDES ( = 0.3)
e
.....'
en
I
::a
c:
n
c:
::a
r
et
,..,
en

a)
z
31:
:z
=
r
.......
I
......
(X)
0
b
.071 ::::aJ. 1 GOOt =
b
.061 I ~ I I ..
051 :::;;P'l:;li#"'" r= : : : : l ; ; . . . ~ " 75
.04
I
. f Y/ ./I ~
0 2 L .u:: L w:::
~
. 0111" 7'::JP
2 4 6 8 10
l07p
E
12 14 16
I
5
I J
18 20
i
.25
FIGURE 7.38 CENTER DEFLECTION OF LONG RECTANGULAR MEMBRANES (alb> 5) HELD ALONG LONG SIDES ( ~ = 0.3)
e ,

en
I
:::a
c:
n
t
c:
:::a
:w:.
r
CJ
,..,
en

t:i)
z
i:
:w:.
z
c
:w:.
r
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
7.15 Short Rectangular Membranes
Figure 7.39 shows a short rectangular membrane (alb < 5) clamped on four sides
under a uniform pressure p.
y
thickness = t
FIGURE 7.39. SHORT RECTANGULAR MEMBRANE CLAMPED ON FOUR SIDES
The deflection at the center of such a.membrane is
Vtf
na
{j = n
1
a .,t;.;;;.
Et
(738)
where 01 is given in Figure 7.40.
The stresses at various locations on short rectangular membranes are given by
the following equations for which the values of the coefficients TI2 through n7
are given in Figure 7.40.
Center of plate (x b/2, Y = a/2)
f
x
f
Y
D2 V 2 E ~ ) 2
D3 V 2 E ~ )2
(739)
(740)
779
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Center of short side (x = b/2, Y 0)
f
x
f
Y
n
4
V p2E({ )2
Center of long side (x =
V
2
f
n6
p2E({ )
x
= n7 V p ZE( { ) Z
f
Y
0, y
=
a/2)
(741)
(742)
(743)
(744)
It should be noted that the maximum membrane stress occurs at the center of the
long side of the plate.
780
.u
(l)
'H
(j
H
4:1
4:1
o
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
!
4 5
alb
4IIJ FIGURE 7.40 COEFFICIENTS FOR EQUATIONS (738) THROUGH (744)
781/782
, . ~ ~ ' 1  . ~ ~
ii
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
SECTION 8
TORSION
8.0 GENERAL
This section presents the analysis methods and allowables for members torsionally
loaded. Members subjected to torsion are categorized according to their cross
sections for analysis purposes, i.e. (1) solid sections, (2) thin walled closed
sections and (3) thin walled open sections.
8.1 Torsion of Solid Sections
The torsional stress (fs) and resulting angle of twist (0) for an applied twisting
moment can be determined when the material and section properties of the bar are
known.
The torsional shear stress (fs) distribution on any cross section of a circular
bar will vary linearly along any radial line emanating from the geometric cen
troid and will have the same distribution on all radial lines. The longi
tudinal shear stress (fx) which is equal to the torsional shear stress (is) pro
duces no warping of the cross section when the stress distribution is the same
on adjacent radial lines. For noncircular sections the torsional shear stress
distribution is nonlinear (except along lines of symmetry where the cross sec
tion contour is normal to the radial line) and will be different on adjacent
radial lines. When the torsional and longitudinal shear stresses are different
on adjacent radial lines, warping of the cross section will occur.
When the warping deformation induced by longitudinal shear stresses is restrained,
normal stress (u) are induced to maintain equilibrium. These normal stresses
are neglected in the torsional analysis of solid sections since they are small,
attenuate rapidly and have little effect on the angle of twist. Restraints
to the warping deformation occur at fixed ends and at points where there is an
abrupt change in the applied twisting moment.
The torsional analysis of solid cross sections is subject to the following limi
tations:
1) The material is homogeneous and isotropic.
2) The shear stress does not exceed the shearing proportional limit and is
proportional to the shear strain (elastic analysis).
3) The stresses calculated at points of constraint and at abrupt changes
of applied twisting moment are not exact.
4) The applied twisting moment cannot be an impact load.
5) If the bar has an abrupt change in cross section, stress concentrations must
be used.
The basic equation for determining the torsional shear stress at some arbitrary
point on an arbitrary cross section is
f
s
8.1
81
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
where T(x) is the applied torque at some distance x along the beam and Q is
the torsional section modulus at the same place.
The basic equation for determining the angle of twist between two points x
distance apart is
dx 8.2
where K(x) is the torsional constant. The areamoment technique can be used to
determine the angle of twist between any two sections by plotting T(x)/GK(x)
for the b e ~
Table 8.1 shows equations for calculating stress and angle of twist for some
commonly used cross sections. The equations are for points of maximum torsional
shear stress. Some cross sections have torsional stress equations shown for
more than one section. The angle of twist equations are for a bar of length
L and constant cross section.
When a circular beam of nonuniform cross section is twisted, the radii of a
cross section becomes curved. Since the radii of a cross section were assumed
to remain straight in the derivation of the equations for stress in uniform '
circular beams, these equations no longer hold if a beam is nonuniform. However,.
the stress at any section of a nonuniform circular beam is given with sufficient
accuracy by the equations for uniform bars if the diameter changes gradually. If
the change in section is abrupt, as at a shoulder with a small filLet, a stress
concentration must be applied.
In nonuniform circular beamshaving gradual diameter changes, the angle of twist
can be determined using equation 8.2. This equation is used to determine the
equations for 0 in Table 8.2 for various beams of uniform taper.
8.2 Torsion of ThinWalled Closed Sections
A closed section is any section where the center line of the wall forms a
cl6sed curve. The torsional shear stress distribution varies along any radial
line emanating from the geometric centroid of the thinwalled closed section.
Since the thickness of the thin walled section is small compared to the radius,
the stress varies very little through the thickness of the cross section and
is assumed to be constant through the thickness at that point.
The angle of twist of a thinwalled closed beam of length, L, due to an applied
torque, T, is given by
J dtU 8.3
82
\
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
T = Appii ed Torque(inIb)
L Length of Beam(in)
K= Torsional
Q= Section Modulus (in
3
)
SEeTlON K
SOLID CIRCLE
HOLLOW CIRCLE
O.1406a
4
SOLID SQUARE
.t
A
... T {j b a
3
B a {j= f.333.21 (1
'IAto.I.l L (b/a) (b,Al)
B
I ..
b 1
SOLID RECTANGLE
SOLID ELLIPSE
Revision E
G= of Rigidi ty(psi)
f/J= Angle of Twist (rad)
fs= Shear Stress(psi)
Q
4 4
'IT
2r (ror
i
)
o
MAX: STRESS
at of
each side
@A: fs=
@B: fs= Ta
Qb
@A: fs:::
@B: {s= Ta
Qb
TABLE 8.1  EQUATIONS FOR STRESS AND DEFORMATION IN SOLID
SECTIONS LOADED IN TORSION
83
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
SECTION
@M
C
B
~ ~
SOLID
EQUILATERAL TRIANGLE
0)
SOLID HEXAGON
SOLID OCTAGON

fg\
E I F
\2)m: I ':
BID
I ;c :
; I I
I ~
H I G
SOLID
ISOSCELES TRAPEZOID
SOLID RIGHT
ISOSCELES TRIANGLE
HOLLOW ELLIPSE
. a
4
(3'
80
0.1045 d
4
0.1021 d
4
a
3
20
Q
0 .. 1704 d
3
O .. 1751d
3
MAX STRESS
atA,B & C
at midpoint of
each side
at midpoint of
~ c h side
Form equivalent rectangle through points Band D. Then
use equations for rectangle to determine stress and twist.
To locate Band D, construct perpendiculars from centroid
(c) to each side (B and D).
O.0261a
4
rra3b3(1 q4)
a
2
+b
2
q
= ao = l\,
a: b
at center of
long side
at A
TABLE 8.1 (CONT'D)  EQUATIONS FOR STRESS AND DEFORMATION IN SOLID
SECTIONS LOADED IN TORSION
84
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
SECTION
.. t "
dL = element length
along median
@ Urea
K
4Ix
(
1 + 16Ix)
AL2
SOLID FAIRLY COMPACT J=Polar Moment
SECTION WITHOUT of Inerti a
REENTRANT ANGLES
r. D. t,.
as case
_ O.105d(1_ d
4
[3 C
.
Q!= 1,,0 .. 15 + 0.1 t)
Revision C
Q IMAX STRESS
For cases 12 through 18, f occurs
f h
max.
at or very near one 0 t e pOlnts
where the largest inscribed circJe
touches the boundary unless there
is a sharp reentrant at some other
point on the boundary causing hi
local stresses. Of the points
where the largest inscribed circle
touches the boundary, f occurs
at the one where the curva
ture is algebraically least. Con
vexity represents concavity
negative, curvature of the boundary.
At a point where the curvature is
positive (boundary of section straigh
or convex) the maximum stress is
given approximately by:
D)1
2r J
D = dia. of largest inscribed circle
r = radius of curvature of boundary
at the point (convex)
A = area of section
fs = G0C/L or fs =
max max
C = D '2 4 [1 + I 0 .11Btn( 1 _ D)
16A
2
0. 238D/2r I tanh 2! ]
TABLE 8.] (CONT'D)  EQUATIONS FOR STRESS AND DEFORMATION IN SOLID
SECTIONS LOADED IN TORSION
85
SECTION
e/d := A
d/D=n
@
r
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
K
K
l
+K2+
an4
Kl& K2 per
0'= + 0.076li)
D = 2(3r + b + d)
 +b) (2r + d)
Sum of K's of
consti tuent 'L'Mctions
com'put.ed per@
a 45
0
60 90 1200
C .. 0181 .0349 .0825 .148
a 180
0
270
0
300
0
360
0
C .296 .528 .686 .878
Revision C
Q MAX STRESS
The angle 0 is the angle through
which a tangent to the boundary ro
tates in turning or traveling
around the reentrant portion,
measured in radians.
f r"f't A;
smax
Q:=C r3
TABLE 8.1 (CONT'D)  EQUATIONS FOR STRESS AND DEFORMATION IN SOLID
SECTIONS LOADED TN TORSION
. 86
'
)
TYPE OF BEAM
L
INSIDE TAPERED,
OUTSIDE CONSTANT
SOLID BEAM,
OUTSIDE TAPERED
1 ........ ...... L
INSIDE UNIFORM
OUTSIDE TAPERED
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
ANGLE OF TWIST
e 8TL 2 arctan (nD32'2arctan(DDl'
\\., I  7TG(P2D].)D3
3
1 r
THIN TAPERED TUBE WITH
CONSTANT WALL THICKNESS
TABLE 8.2  EQUATIONS FOR ANGLE OF TWIST FOR NONUNIFORM
CIRCULAR BEAMS IN TORSION
87
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
where A is the area enclosed by the median line of the thickness, t, and u 'is the
length along the median. The shear flow is constant around the tube and is
q
T
2A
8.4
The shear stress is assumed to be constant through the thickness and is
q/t = T/2At 8.5
If the cross section is of nonuniform thickness, the shear stress will be
maximum where the thickness is minimum.
Table 8.3 shows the angle of twist and shear stress for thinwalled closed
sections subject to an applied twist, T.
8.3 Torsion of ThinWalled Open Sections
An open section is one in which the centerline of the wall does not form a
closed curve. Channels, angles, Ibeams, Tees and wide flanges are among struc
tural shapes characterized by a combination of thinwalled rectangular shapes.
Additionally many thinwalled open sections are curved. This section presents
the means to calculate the stress and twisting angle for these sections.
For a bar of rectangular cross section of width b and thickness t the equations
for maximum shearing stress and the angle of twist are
f
s
max
8.6
8.7
where aand f3 are defined in Table 8.1, Case 4. When the ratio bl t becomes
very large, a and become 0.333. Equations 8.6 and 8.7 become
f = 3T/bt
2
s
max
8.8
8.9
These equations, 8.8 and 8.9, are applicable for narrow rectangles. They also
apply to an approximate analysis of shapes made up of thin rectangular members
such as those shown in Figure 8.1
88
)
)
a L
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
_,t"ftELfCQP"t'1:1I
,
SECTION K
47r
2
t rCa .5t)2(b.5t)2]
U
U:::: length of median
U== 7T(a+bt)[l +a27(ab)2]
ta+ b)2
4A
2
t
U
U==length of median
A:::: mean of areas
enclosed by two
boundaries
Q
21ft(a.5t)(b.5t)
2tA
e)
4A2
U & A same as
2tA
)
2tt,(a t)1b tl)2
Itat + b t,  t
2
 t,2
A
@A: 2t(at}(bt,)
@B! 2t
l
(at)(bt.)
Equations for twist and stress are shown in Table 8.1
TABLE 8.3  EQUATIONS FOR STRESS AND DEFORMATION IN HOLLOW
CLOSED SECTIONS LOADED IN TORSION
MAX STRESS
constant if t is
small
const ant if t is
small
There wi 11 be
higher stresse s
at inner corners
unless fillets oJ
fairly lavge
radius are used
89
. /...,?
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
b
FIGURE 8.1  BEAMS WITH THIN RECTANGULAR MEMBERS
WITH CONTINUOUS CENTERLINES
For the members shown in Figure 8.1, b can be taken as the continuous centerline
of the member and equations 8.8 and 8.9 used to determine stress and angle of
twist.
Shapes with a member of thin rectangular members such as T and H sections shown
in Figure 8.2
810
t
b
2
J
Il
r b3
1.L
I I I I
t
T
.
t2
t
2

f
t3
b
l
b
2
r I
r b
l
1T
tl
FIGURE 8.2  BEAMS WITH THIN RECTANGULAR
MEMBERS OF COMPOSITE SHAPES
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision A
can be analyzed using equations 8.10 and 8.11
(
s
max
n
3Tt / J: bt
3
n
3TL/G bt
3
For the T s('ction in Figure 8.2 the angle of twist is
and the shear stress is
3 3
f
3T t I AD J t 1 + b
2
t2 )
s
I
f
3Tt
Z
/(b] tl.
3 3
+ b
2
t2 )
s
2
8.10
8.11
8.1.2
8.13
8.14
The same procedure is applicable for any type of shape; however, the accuracy
is considerably improved when sharp corners are avoided by the use of liberal
T a eli i .
8.4 Multicel.l Closed Beams in Torsion
FigUT(' 8.3 shows a multiceLl tube with an externally applied torsion. The torsion
is reacted in the tubE! by internaL shear floylS acting around each cell.
FIGURE 8.3  MULTICELL TUBE IN TORSION
811
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
The tube has n cells with a pure torsion, T, applied. The torsion apptit'd
externally must be reacted internally. This is expressed by
8. L5
where Al through A are the areas enclosed by the median lines of cells t through
n. ql Ehrough qn ~ r e the reaction shear flows acting on cells 1 through n.
For elastic continuity, the twist of each cell must be equal, or
o =
2
.. = 0
n
The angular twist of 8 cell is
o = q/2AGfdS/t
or
2G0 = q/A ds/t
8.16
8. j 7
8.18
Thus for each cell of multicell structure an eXPlession for q/A !dS/t can be
written and equated to 2G0. The line integral Ids/t is represented by a .. Then
8KL is the value of the integral along the wall between cel] s K and L wher('! the
area outside the tube is designated as cellO. The shear flows acting in a
clockwise direction are assumed to be positive. Using this rotation, equation
8.13 Can be applied to each cell resulting in the following:
cell (1) :
1/A1[q1a
10
+ (ql  q2)al21 = 2G0
8.19
cell (2):
1 A 2 1 ~ 2  ql)a
12
+ Q2
a
20 + (q2  q3)a
23
] =
2G0 8.20
cell
(3): .t/A
3
[(Q3  q2)a
23
+ q3
a
30+ (q3  q4)a
34
J
2G0 8.21
8.22
8.23
The shear flows, ql through qn' may be found by solving equations 8.l5 and 8.J9
through 8.23 simultaneously. From these shear flows, the shear stresses may be
found using f = q/t.
s
As an example, consider the multicell beam shown in Figure 8.4.
812
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
A
t=.03
t=.03
t=J)4 10
FIGURE 8.4  EXAMPLE OF MULTICELL BEAM IN TORSION
Cell Areas:
Al = 39.3
Line integrals for each cell:
a
lO
= 1/2(rr)(10)/.025 = 628
a
12
= 10/.05 = 200
a
20
= 2(10)/.03 = 667
a
23
= 10/.03  333
a
30
= 2(10)/.03 + 10/.04 = 917
Equate external torque to internal reactions:
T = Zq1A
1
+ 2q2AZ + ZQ3A3' Equation 8.15
100000 = Z(39.3)Ql + Z(lOO)Q2 + 2(100)q3
100000 = 78.6Ql + 200Q2 + 200Q3
Write the expression for angular twist of each cell:
Cell (1): 1/39.3 ( 628q l + 200(ql  Qz)] = 2G0 = Zl. 07q l  5. 09Q2
Cell (Z): 1/100 [200(Q2  Ql) + 667q2 + 333(q2  q3] = 2G0 = 2q l + 12q2  3. 33Q3
Cell (3): 1/100 [333(q3  Q2) + 9 7 Q ~ = 2G0 = 3. 33QZ + 12. 5q3
813
STRUC1lIRAL DESIGN MANUAL
Solving the equations simultaneously:
234 #/in, q3 = 209 #/in, 0 = .0002288 Tad
8.5 Plastic Torsion
The previous methods of analysis are based on stress levels in the elastic range.
These stress levels are based on limit loads. For ultimate loads, it is often
desirable to allow the section to operate in the plastic region. All types of
cross sections not subject to local crippling can be analyzed for allowable
torsion by use of the plastic torsion theory at ultimate load. The method of )
analysis is called the It sand heap" analogy. ./
If the maximum amount of dry sand is heaped on a level platfonm having the same
shape as the cross section of the beam in torsion, the slope of the heap
represents the shear stress. The shear stress for this condition has the same
magnitude over the entire cross section. The torsional moment) T, is related
to the volume of the heap, V, by
T 2VF
su
8.24
where F is the ultimate allowable shear stress. The difficulty of the sand
heap a n ~ o g y is determining the volume of the heap. This is simplified somewhat
by constructing contour lines. A contour line defines the contour of the heap
at some constant elevation. It is a plane passed through the parallel to
the torsional section. Also, it is assumed that themaximum possible slope of
the heap is achieved, i.e. slope is equal unity.
It is easy to construct a contour map of the sand heap surface. Contour lines
intersect normals through the section boundary at right angles and at a distance
from the boundary equal to the elevation of the contour line.
I'.
'\
"
/
"
/
"v/
vk6,
1/ ....
II
"
/
V
RECTANGLE
814
/
/
'\
"
I
1
\
r
\
"

I
,/
NOTCHED
CIRCLE
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision E
It is possible to determine the volume of the sand heap for any cross section
by integration. Figure 8.5 'shows equations for sand heap volumes with various bases.
For a surface with a hole, subtract the volume of sand that could
be heaped on the hole alone.
I L"I I
1 a 1
V= Ar
3'
A= Area of triangl e
FIGURE 8.5  SAND HEAP VOLUMES
) 8.6 Allowable Stresses
For limit load conditions, the applied stresses should be kept below the ultimate
shear stress, Fsu' These are defined for various mate'rials in MILHDBK5.
The torsional failure of tubes may be due to plastic failure of the material, in
stability of the walls, or an intermediate condition. Pure shear failure will not
usually occur within the range of wall thicknesses commonly used for aircraft tub .
ing. Torsional allowable stresses are shown in Figure 8.6 through 8.22. These
curves take into account the parameter LID and are in good agreement with experi
mental results.
Interaction data of Section 4 should be used when other stresses are combined
with torsion.
815
srRUCTURAL DESIG MANUAL
,0
o
o
"
....
.... tn
"
4 0
~
~
~ ~ .....
:"/0:2
30
I LID =5
,

t LID:: 10 JiI
~
Ik/D:20
20
.
10
0
o 10
,
iIIII,
I'
"
"
....
~
~

"
h..
1
20
,,
L/D:I
~ ..
"
I'
t..
......
~
"'
r ....
I
30
'"
LID: 1/2
"or
.... r.."'"
 ~ r ....
~ r 
._
.
40
Olt
I"
1"'0 .....

50
l/O:O
~
~
1"00
~ 1.. ....
60
FIGURE 8.6  TORSIONAL MODULUS OF RUPTURE  PLAIN CARBON STEELS
F = 55 ksi
o
o 6
o
,
'u..'t
5
4
3
0
0
Of
"
0
0
o
tu
i'
\
\
~
"
, , ~
~
~
~
I
L
10

. ......
"
"'" ......
~
r..
"""
100..
;:
r...
10...
r.
~
....... ....
~
~ ...... ~
r..
"""
~
""
..... ~
2.0

""""
....
~
'
t.. ...
r
.....
~
,.....
~
,.....
30
1""0
""
""
100...
IE
...
i"""'"
r
r ....
r
r
40
O/t
r
t
~
l"
r ......
roo
r .....
l"
I""

I'"

r
'
r
r
roo
I
~
1" ....
r
r.
~ r 
r

.....
 ~ I" r.;..,.
50 60
t T T 11 I,
f1u: 55
ksi 
1
 ~ 

LID:
~
~
~ .....

r
,
'1 I
70
80
' ' r
.
: F
tu
=90
kSI
f
... ~
r .......
i"""'oo
~
r
w

r

I"
LID
o
1/2
I
2
~
""'"
r........
5
10
"
r
70
""
~
20
30
FIGURE 8.7  TORSIONAL MODULUS OF RUI'TJ<.T. ..  ALLOY' STEELS HEL\.1 '!"'REATED
TO F = 90ksi
tu
816
)
)
o
'0
o
,

80
70
60
50
4/"
.......
30
o
\.
,
\.
,
'
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
t

' ... """,,:00.
~
'
~ """'...
"
'"
.....
""
~
f'
...
,
..... """'.
~ ~
ill..
"
.......
......
,
~ ....
~
~ .......
.....
'"
""""'
10 20


......

....... ....
.... ,
'
.....
.....
...
....
.....
....... 

....
....
30

I
.......
....
......
~ ....
.........
......

......
......
..... .

.
IiiiiiiiO
......
..... 
'
I"'Iiiiii
......
....
 .....


m
40
O/t
......
.....
....

.....

....

.....
......
~ 

.....

.... .... 
.......
....

....
....
....
 ......
...... 
50 60
. .
 , F
t
=95 ksi
_ u "_

.....


.......
......
 .....
,70


''III!

....
L/O
o
114
112
,
2
5
JO
......
......
20
80
FIGURE 8.8  TORSIONAL MODULUS OF RUPTURE  ALLOY STEELS HEAT TREATED TO
F = 95 ksi
tu
',
,
~
90
"
....

l'..
........
"
........ .....
0
7
0
0
~ ~
~
...
!..o

~
0
.......

~
,

 ~
r
......
""""""
.........
~
r.....
.......
r
.
"
......
~
I"'ii

..
LL'" " 5 0
i
10 20 30
.......
.... 
.......

~ ....
~
.......
.......
40
CIt
"
....... ......



.... .....







.....

......
........
......

50 60
. ~ . J, I
Ftu = 125


......
......
I
ksi 


r
LID
o
1/2
2
S
10
~
......
.......
20
80

70
FIGURE 8.9  TORSIONAL MODULUS OF RUPTURE  ALLOY STEELS HEAT TREATED TO
F :<:: 125 ksi
tu
817
21 0
19 0
17 0
15 0
13 0
0
\
j II
I\
....
9 0
7 0
5 0
3 0
o
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
...
"
....
.....
"
t iii...
I'"
......
Iioo..
....
""'"l1lI

.........
r..
10 20 30

......,......
r.
r
 r
100..
.....
......
......
"""'
...
rIooo.
40
D/t
.....


r
r. ......
r.
"
r.
.........
.....
r
50
F
tu
=150 ksi

r......
I'
""
"""""
loo.
j""'"oo
I'
....
.........
r..

r"
.....
I'
60 70
I
'""
"
.......
.........
r.
I
L/O
0

1/2
,
r
2
5

10
""'" 20
80
FIGURE 8.10  TORSIONAL MODULUS OF RUPTURE  ALLOY STEELS HEAT TREATED TO
F 150 ksi
tu
818
)
o
o
o

21 0
19
10
17 '0
15
,0
13 0
. r"
""
t
9
O
7 '0
5 0
30
o
~
[\
,
~
" ....
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
t
......
~
I ~

r\
~
.... ~ r
~
Il1o.. ,..."
I'
l'
~
I'
"
r
... ,
i'
......
.....
~
~
, r
.......
~
'"
......
.
.......
,
.......
'"
;"'II ,
'
......
......
'1iIo..
10 20 30

r
t ~
~
r
~
~ ....
40
Olt
......
......
.......
......
~

r0
t
...
.....

.....
......
.....
.......
r
~
~
~
50
F
tu
= 180



...
..... ......
 ~
~
......
'~
~
......
,
.....
~
~
"
60
...

~ .
ksi  ~ 

...... 
. . 1
.. _.
r
'&_
 _ ..


~ ....
.....
......
.......
.......

~ ...
..... ~ ....
..
..... ~ .....
~ .

'

~
r
......
.....
......
LID
o
"4
112
2
10
r
~ .....
20
80 70
FIGURE 8.11  TORSIONAL MODULUS OF RUPTURE  ALLOY STEEL HEAT TREATED TO
F = 180 ksi
tu
819
8
o
::::
...
b.U)
2 10
19 0
17 0
;n '

15
13 .0
to
9
7 0
5 0
10 3
0
,
\
\
\.
,
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
,
.....
.....
'"
"
i'
10

 i
_.
. 
.
"

1:t::
"
"""'III
.....
.....
,
"
.......
:
"
i'
..... ,

i' .....
"
I""
""

........
"
"
""
.......
"'
......
"
' ...
,
..... ,
l'\
f'
I
R
20 30 40
0/1
F
tu
=200 ksi
I
!
I
...........
 .......
.... ......
......
......

.. ......

.......
......

.......
........
......
.......
........
........
r
.......
......
"""'"
............
.......
'"",
I'
"
"'II
,
1'"
""......
' .....
....
..... , .....
r
50 60 70

LID
0

1/4

,/2

..
2
,
.......
r.. ......
I o
............
20
80
FIGURE 8.12  TORSIONAL MODULUS OF RUPTURE "ALLOY STEELS HEAT TREATED TO
F 200 ksi
tu
820
)

\
)
)
0
0
0
""
LL1n
2(0
190
170
ISO
130
atO
90
70
50
30
o
,
~
\
,
\
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
t
~
~ ~
"
'"
...... ~
~
........
,

""
~
~ ~
........
""'
......
~
""""
" ~
i'
r...
~ ,.....,
'"'
~
'"
..
"
~
'"
....
f'
~
~
"
,
L
10 20
i
it
1'0 ......
r
'"""""
'"""""
t...
...
r ....
l"""'
I"
~ ...... 
r
'"""""
~
~
~
"'
'"
 ~

..... ,
..... ~
.......
"""
r......
~
........
~ ~
"""III..
..... ~ ..
30
..... ,
""
40
Olt
,
\..
F"tu = 220 ksi
t
......
......
~
~
r
~
"'"
~
~
~
""""
..
..
........
~  
r......
r

.......
.......
.
.....
""

.....
~ ......
r"""

 ~
r..
"'
r..
LID
o
1,4
1/2
2
'
......
..............
.....
~
" ' ....
'
~
"
'IlL
~
~
~
i
50 60
~
"'
"...
~
5
f ~
' ...
'.
 10
.....
,
~
Iro..
70
20
80
FIGURE 8.13  TORSIONAL MODULUS OF RUPTURE  ALLOY STEELS HEAT TREATED TO
F = 220 ksi
tu
821
o
o
o
,
....
..... 
2 10
90
70
50
30
IlO
90
70
50
30
o
1\
\
1
\
,
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
I"
'"
i..
...
"",,
,
......
r..
~
~ 
~
~
~ ~
~
. ~
~
~
'"
'
....
~ , 
'
f'
~ ~
r..
~
"""
~
"
10 20
~
r .......
...
~
100.....
r
""""
:.
~ ~
.......
r..... ~
r.
........
,....."
~ .... ~
r...
1'0......
,
.........
.... ~
. ~
"'
f' ~ ~
.... ~
~
~
""',
""
30
~ ~
"
I'
40
Ott
r\.
'1u =240 ksi
II
"


~ ~

......
I....
r.,
~
!"""I'III
.....
"""'"
~
~
r...
r..
......
........
.....
1' .....
"""'"
........
~ ....

~
I' ,
"
:""III,
~
""
""
~
,
~ '",
~ i'...
~
, , ~
~
"'
. ~
"'
....... ~
50 60 70
".....
r
"'
~ ....
""
~

r
.......
~
LID
o
V4
112
2
5
l
~ ~
r..
r...
10
20
BO
FIGURE 8.14  TORSIONAL MODULUS OF RUPTURE  ALLOY STEELS HEAT TREATED TO
F 240 ksi
tu
822
.:
\
)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
210
,
Ftu :.260 ksi
\
0
,
I
19
,
0
f'
.......
17
r

\.'
"
"
I'
....
0
r\
!\.
I'
""
15
1\"
I\
,
i'"' .....
io...
"
"
t'.

..
"
or\.
"'
I'
I'
"""" '"'"
.......
t..
0
"fII.
.....
r
13
f""",
r.
...
,
...
r..
..
......

0
1000...
"'"'
I'
t'....
1000...
"
r"."",
0
0
Q
" , I
..
,
"
........
' ""'"
'"
0
'
,
'...
9
'"
" '
""
....
7
"...
......
0
, ....
"
0
5
.....
!'
0
10 20 30 40
Olt
50 60 70
FIGURE 8.15  TORSIONAL MODULUS OF RUPTURE  ALLOY STEELS HEAT TREATED TO
F
tu
= 260 ksi
80
LID
o
112
2
10
20
823
en
.!II!
..

60
50
40
30
2C
to
o
o
..
,
f\.
~
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
. ~
..... t....
~
"""""
r . ~
I'
;:
~
i""'"
10""",
r
~
~
"
!'oo.
l""
t... ..
r
~
"""' ...
f"""ooo
""""
I""
""""

~
""'"' I"""
""""
1'0
I
,",""
""'
tm
I
,
10 20 30
I 1 I J I I I I I I I , I
2014T6 rolled rod
F
tu
=65 ksi
I""'"
""'"'
r
I""
~
~
40
D/t
"
~ I!!.
i'
~
~
~
.."
\
50
r Io. ....
..
,..
r
""'"
.....
r
...... ~
!'o .....
r
~
60
""""'
r .
....
r""II"",,
......
i""" ........
:
~
70
r
~
""'
~
LID
o
1/4
1/2
I
2
5
!o
20
80
FIGURE 8.16  TORSIONAL MODULUS OF RUPTURE  2014T6 ALUMINUM ALLOY ROLLED ROD
824
)
"C;;
....:
1J...v,
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
60
50 ,
"
'
i"'..
:."""
! """'t
"
40
"
.........
....
""""

....
....
!'ooo.
r
............ ! ..... I"r.
......
1"_

..... ! .

....
30
......
20
:r Note: J'he curve representing material

failure (L/o=O) is computed for
fO
F
tu
=39,OOO, and does not allow for
p.
the possibility of reduced strength
:. along the porting plane.

. . . I . ..
___ l i i
o
o
J I 1111 I I 11 I
10 20
I I I
30 40
D/t
I I I I I I I r I I
2014 T6 forging
Ftu=65 ksi

"""



 r r_


....

" ...
.........
r_
't
.....
100.
....
"

Df
50 60 70
r
....
""'"
.....
LID
o
1/4
1/2
I
2
5
10
20
80
FIGURE 8.17  TORSIONAL MODULUS OF RUPTURE  2014T6 ALUMINUM ALLOY FORGING
0 6
5 0
1'\
4 0
..........
;..,
'"'
...... ........ r_
"I'
r..
...............
, .....
.... ..... ...... to j
........
0
........
....
...........
1
.
r
:3
r ....
' , !'ooo.
.... """
""",I '1""'
....
I I 1 t I
2024T4 tubing
F
tu
=64 ksi
 rr.

I"r._
r_
...

....
r
r ...
""'" 
1
m
1""
:t$
r""",
LID
o
1/4
1/2 '
I
....
.... r_
2
0
m
p.

2
OR
__ I _
,""
0.
o 10 20 30
..... 
I I I
I I I
I
40
D/t
i
...........
r"'oo!'ooo.
I I
t I
I
50 60
""",,,
....
rr_
r.
.... """
....
70 80
5
10
20:
FIGURE 8.18  TORSIONAL MODULUS OF RUPTURE  2024T3 ALUMINUM ALLOY TUBING
825
50
40
30
20
" 10
.0
o
DESIGN MANUAL
"
.....
1 l'iii:r
"
1 ..... 1'0
"""
I"
10
l=ti
,
I I

r"
r"""
"" .....
........... ...
f""o .... r ......
!""
.... r. 1""'1" ....
"""
r"'oo
I""'i"oo
!' r"'oo ....
........ :.
r"'oo
1"'",,",
,..."""
I""' ....
.... 1'0 ....
r ....
It
20 30 40
Olt
I T 11 I f
2024T3 tubing
F
tu
;62 ksi
E ttt
1
1m=
;;;;;;;

I".....
1""'0""" .....
r
........
....
r_
..........
""'"
r
tio....
I.....
to
I"""!
'....
r
f"oo. .... ..... r!o
1""'01"""
i
LID
o
1/4
1/2
I
2
5
10
20
50 60 70 80
FIGURE 8.19  TORSIONAL MODULUS OF RUPTURE 2024T4 ALUMINUM ALLOY TUBING
0;;
..:ac
..
lLV,
50
40
30
20
10
o
o
i i
,
10..
....
I i I
! I
.....
r;",.._
....
.....

r
i""i""
10 '20 30
i
,
606!  T6 tu bing
r
I""'!
:.
40
D/t
50
F
tu
=42 ksi
Im
!
....
........
10.
..... r.
:m
..
60 70
'
l
f
e

....
LID
o
1/4
t/2
1
2
5
to
20
80
FIGURE 8.20  TORSlONAL MODULUS OF RUPTURE  6061T6 ALUMINUM ALLOY TUBING
'826
)
)
)
U;
u;
LL
50
40
30
20
10
o
o
1'\
11
1
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
i\
......
Iiii::!_
'"
1""'0 ......
r...."" """'10..
!'oo... :"'01 ....
"" ..... ""
r""",
""'"''''''
..... ""'
r" ""' .... i'o
"
Io..l"""oi'o
r"""j....1.....
I r"1'..
:j....
I r.
"
1
I
I
i0 20 30
I I I " 1111 , , I
7075 T6 rolled rod
F tu= 77 kSI
I
.... 1 ...
r,.....""",

r1,
to. .... 1
I
....
[""Iii
r_
.... r.. 10 ......
.... :""0001'0..
..... 
r.. .....
...........
....
1
i'
....
:""00010...
to.
.... ioo..
""'IIi"",,..
.
,
,
t
40 50 60 70
Olt
P""'
....
i'oloo...
....
.... 1
LID
o
1/4
1/2
2
5
10
20
80
FIGURE 8.21  TORSIONAL MODULUS OF RUPTURE  7075T6 ALUMINUM ALLOY ROLLED ROD
50
' .. 30
...
20
10
o
 ..
i
i
I I
! t
I
7075T6 fORGING
,' !
, ,
I
F
tu
=75 ksi
\1
,
I I
I
I
,
I
' t I
;
i
I i
T
: "i ..... 10....
I
! I 1
:
,
l""'o .....
1'1"""__
I
I
i
.,..... .... r.i.. i I
t
r: .... I
I I
1""'0 .... ... ro;......;..
i
t i :
.....
i'oo.i.
, .... r.. i
10.. .' :
,
j ! !
['i.... 1""'0 ....
, T
!'HL.
!
i
,
I
'I
I
l'
I
i
I
I
,
I i
r
I I !
;;
"
i , .... 1" I
.... ,.....0,
t
I
: :
1 i
, .
..... ""'
I
I
t
1
I
: ...... i'oo"
:
,
J ...... , .........
T
I
r,..
.......
. J
.....
I
I ! I
.,..
i
....
T I
,
i
rl NO TE, jHE CURVE liE PR E SE N TlNG MATERIAL
!
T
(l/Jv) IS '::OMPU1EO FOR
1
: i Fl = 45,000, AND DOES NOT A.LLOW fOR
W5SI!llIlY RE:>UCED STRENGTH
ALONG THE PLANE.
i
I
!
J I I f I T
i 1 I I I I i j i
,
T
o 10 20
30
40
DIt
so 60
:0 ....
........
""1
70
fII
"'"'
2
1"100...
10
i""of..,
20
80
FIGURE 8.22  TORSIONAL MODULUS Or RUPTURE  7075T6 ALUMINUM ALLOY FORGING
827/828
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
SECTION 9
BENDING
9.1 GENERAL
This section presents methods of analysis of beams in bending. Formulas for
shear, moment, and deflection are shown in simple beam analysis. Beam column
data for use in the threemoment procedure are included ,in this section, as
are strain energy methods, plastic bending analysis, curved beam correction
factors, and a bending analysis of boltspacer combinations. Allowable bending
moments for 'tubes and channels subject to local crippling are also presented
in this section.
9.2 ~ p l e Beams
9.2.1 Shear, Moment, and Deflection
The general equations relating load, shear, bending moment, and
deflection are given in Table 9.1. These equations are given in
terms of deflection and bending moments.
Title y
M
Deflection t:. ::::
y
t:.
=
J (M
J El
dx dx
Slope Q
= dy/dx 9
f d x
ding Moment M
= EI d
2
Y/dx
2
M
Shear
V = EI d
3
y/dx
3
V
=
dM/dx
Load
W
=
EI d
4
y/dx
4
W = dV/dx
=
d
2
M/dx
2
TABLE 9.1 SHEAR, MOMENT, DEFLECT ION EQUAT IONS
Sign Convention
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
x is positive
y' is positive
M is positive
fibers are at
W is positive
negative y.
to the right.
upw:ard
when the compressed
the top.
in the direction of
x
w
+x
'...... _="'{f X
....
V is positive when the part of
tends to move upward under the
vertical forces.
the beam to the left of the section
action of the resultant of the
91
/,/  \  \ ~
~

_ 4  ..   \ _ \
\s:s\M .. ~ '
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
r / //
, "/#
The limiting assumptions are:
a) The material follows Hooke's Law.
b) Plane cross sections remain plane.
c) Shear deflections are negligible.
d) The deflections are small.
The deflection of short, deep beams due to vertical shear may
need to be considered. The differential equations of the deflection
curve including the effects of shearing deformation is:
dxdx
E1
dx 9.1
(K) is the ratio of the maximum shearing stress on the cross section to the
average shearing stress. The value of (K) is given by the equation:
K
A
I b
a
f b'ydy
o
(I) is the moment of inertia of the
crosssection with respect to the
centroidal axis and (a), (b), (b
'
), and
(y) are the dimensions shown in Fig. 9.1
(A) is the area of the crosssection
FIGURE 9.1 DEFINITION OF VARIABLES FOR DETERMINING K
Table 9.2 presents beam formulas for several different types of load
cases.
92
Notation: W = load (lb); w = unit load (lb. per linear in.); M is positive when clock
wise; V is positive when acting upward; y is positive when upward. Constraining moments,
applied couples, loads; and reactions are positive when acting as shown. All forces are
in pounds, all moments in inchpounds; all deflections and dimensions in inches. Q is
in radians and tan Q = Q
Type of loading and
Case number
2.
x
Cantilever Beams
React ions, Vertical Shear, Bending Moments, Deflection y t and Slope
RB = +W; V = W
M = Wx; Max M =WL at B
x
1 W ~
y =  i :1 (x
3
_3L
2
x+2L
3
); Max y
3' E1 at A;
RC : +W; (A to B) V = 0; (B to C) V = W
(A to B) M = 0; (B to C) M = W(xb); Max M =
(A B)y
1 W 322
to
:::;;
 6 E1 (a +3a L3a x):
(B c)y
lW' ~ 3 2 3]
to
=  6 E1 (xb) 3a (xb) + 2a ;
1 W 2 3 1 Wa
2
Max y =    (3a La) 0 =   (A to B)
6 E1 ' 2 E1
TABLE 9.2 BEAM FORMULAS
1 WL
2
Q = "2 E1 at A
Wa at C
CI)
I
:0
c:
n
I
c:
:::a
>
r
c;,
rn
CI)

C')
z
31:
>
z
=
>
r
I
Cantilever Beams
Type of loading and
case number
Reactions, Vertical Shear, Bending Deflection Y, and Slope
3. Y W= wL
w
I L "
RB = +W; V =  I x
M =  1 I x
2
; Max M =  i WL at B
1 W 4 3 4 1 WL
3
Y =  24 EiL (x 4L x+3L ); Max y =  '8 EI
i RB
1 WL2
Q = + '6" EI at A
4.
y
Rn = +W; (A to B)V = 0: (B to C)V = (xL+b); (C to D)V ; W
L k..J 1 W 2
r. (A to B)M = 0; (B to C)M =  2 (xL+b) ;
W=w(ba)1.
a
4
IIIIIIIDw (C to n)M =  W (2x2L+a+b); Max M =  i W (a+b) at D
x 1 W [2 2 3 2 2 3J
C (A to B)y =  i4 EI 4(a +ab+b ) (Lx)a ab a hb ,
( )
1 W [ 2 3 (L_X_a)4]
B to C Y =  i4 EI 6 (a+b) (Lx) 4(Lx) + ba ;
B
(c to D)y =  A. [3(a+b)(Lx)2 2(LX)3]
Max y =  _ab
2
_
a2
b_b
3
] at A;
() = + i :1 e+
ab
+
b2
) (A to B)
TABLE 9.2 ( CONT t D) BEAM FORMULAS

..
I
Cantilever Beams
Type of loading and
case number Reactions. Vertical Shear, Bending Moments. Deflection Y. and Slope
5.
RB = +W; V = ; x
2
L
=  1 x
3
Max M =  1 WL at B
3 L2' 3
= _ (x
5
.SL
4
X+4L
S
)6, M 1 WL
3
at A.,
60 E IL ax y =  T5 E I
1 WL
2
= + 12 EI at A
6. Rn = +W; (A to B)V = 0; (B to C)V =  (C to D)V = W
(b:"a)
(A to B) M = 0; (B to C) M = _! W(xL+b)3
y 3 (ba)2
1 1 .
J ra (C to D) M =  '3 W(3x3L+b+2a); Max M =  3' W(b+2a) at D
W= (ba) 1 W I; 2 2 3 2 2 3J
w (A to B) y =  60 EI !iSb +10ba+l5a ) (Lx) 4a 2ab 3a bb
A B  C D (B to C) y =  6
1
0 EWr lO(L_x)3 +5 (Lxa)4 _ (Lxa)SJ;
r
 _tR ba (ba)2
L, D 1 W r: 2 3l
(C to D) y =  6 EI 02a+
b
) (Lx) (Lx) J;
1 W [2 2 3 2 2 3J
Max Y =  60 EI (5b +lOba+15a ) L4a 2ab 3a bb at A
1 W 2 2
8 = +T2 EI (3a +2ab+b ) (A to B)
TABLE 9. 2 ( CONT D) BEAM FORMULAS

Type of loading and
case number
8.
y
w(b .. a)
If
I
_:___ ===_..,iI!X
A : C n
.... r _B  L iRn
Cantilever Beams
Reactions, Vertica.l Shear, Bending Moments, Deflection Y , and Slope
1 W 5 4 4 5
 60 BIL2 (x 15L x+5LX +IIL ); Max Y
g :;: + ! L2 at A
4 EI
11 WL
3
=  60 EI at A
Rn :;: +W; (A to B) V = 0; (B to C) V :;:  W [1 _ (L a  x
2
J ;
(ba)
(C to n) V = w
(A to B) M :;: 0; (B to C) M :;: _ 1 W [3(XL+b)2 _
3 ba (ba)2
1 1
(C to D) M =  3 W(3L+3x+2b+a); Max M   3 W (2b+a) at D
(A to B) y =  1
60 EI
. 5
(B to C) y =  !O 10(Lx)3+(lOa+20b) (L_x)2]
(C to D) y =  i Ea+2b)(LX)2 (L_x)3]
1 W r 2 2 3 2 2 3J
Max Y =  60 EI +10ab+15b )La 2a bJab 4b at A
(A to B)
TABLE 9.2 (CONT I D) BEAM FORMULAS
;
en
I
::a
c:
n
I
c:
=cJ
):II
r
c:::::.
",
en

CD
z
!I:
):II
z
c:
):II
r
I
Cantilever Beams
Type of loading and
case number
Reactions, Vertical Shear, Bending Moments, Deflection Y , and Slope
9 ~ _ Y
.. ~ RB = 0; V = 0
r ~ _ jB :K M
L LIMo 2 2 __ 1 MoL
2
r By=   (L .. 2Lx+x ); Max y  at A;
M ; Max M = M (A to B)
o 0
Q  
10.
s_
2 E1 2 E1
RC = 0; V ;;; 0
(A to B) M = 0; (B to C) M = Mo; Max M = Mo (B to C)
(A to B) y ~ ~ a (..  t a  x)
(B to C) y ~ { ~ [<XL+a)2 2a(xL+a) +a
2
J
Max y ; ~ ~ (L  { a )at A;
Q =  Maa (A to B)
EI
TABLE 9.2 (CONTID) BEAM FORMULAS
MoL
at A
EI
e
'
(I)
I
:::a
c:
n
.....
c
:::.::11
:D
r
C
.....
(I)

CD
z
:c:
:D
Z
c:
:D
r
Type of loading and
case number
11.
12.
Simply Supported Beams
Reactions, Vertical Shear, Bending Moments, Deflection Y, and Slope
1 1 1 1
RA = 2 W; RC = 2 W; (A to B) V = 2 W; (B to C) V =  2 W
(A to B)
1 1 1
M =  Wx (B to C) M = 2 W (Lx); Max M = 4' WL at B
2 '
(A to B)
1 w 2 3 1 wr.
3
y = 48 EI
(3L x4x ); Max y =
 48 Er at
B ,
1 WL
2
Q .=  16 EI at A;
1 WL
2
Q := + IT EI at C
Wb Wa
RA := + L ; RC = + L ;
Wb Wa
(A to B) V = + L ; (B to C) V =  L
(A to B)
Wb
(B to C)
Wa Wab
M := +  X' M = + L (Lx); Max M = +  at B
L ' L
(A to B)
Wbx
[ZL(LX)
2 2 ]
Y :=
 b (Lx) ;
6EIL
(B to C)
Y = _ Wa(Lx) [2 Lb_b
2
_(L_X)2].
6 ElL '
Wab
at x (a +2b) Max y
=
 27EIL (a+2b)
When a > b;
1 W ( b
3
)
Q =  6' EI bL  L at A;
1 W ( b
3
2)
Q := +   2bL +   3b at C
6 EI L
TABLE 9. 2 ( CONT I D) BEAM FORMULAS
'
.,
en
t
:::a
c:
n
I
c:
:::a
:J:a
r
= ,..,
en

C)
:z
51:
:J:a
:z
c:
:J:a
r
Type of loading and
case number
13.
Y
W=wL
14.
W= wc
d=
S imply Supported Beams
ReactionsJ Vertical Shear, Bending Moments, Deflection YJ and Slope
w w w (
RA = 2; RB ::;; 2; V ::;; + 2 1
_ :). = + (x _ 2!:2 )
L' 2 L
WI, L
Hax. M = +  at x = '
8 2'
Wx 3 2 3
Y ::;;  24EIL (L 2Lx +x );
5WL
3
L WL
2
WL
2
Max. y ::;;  384EI at x ::;; 2; Q =  24EI at A; Q = + 24EI at B
RA ::;; RD ::;; (a + I) ; (A to B) V = R
A
: (B to C) V = RA _
2
(C to D) V ::;; RAW; (A to B) M ::;; RAx; (B to C) M = R x _ W(xa)
A 2c
(C to D) M = RAx  wG   Max. M = (a + at x = a +
(A to B)
(B to C)
(C to D)
1
Y ::;; 48fi
1
Y ::;; 48Ei
1
Y
:
48EI
{8R
A
(X
3
L
2
X) + Wx +f3+
{SR
A
(X
3
L
2
x) + Wx _ + +2C
2
] _
{8R
A
(x
3
L 2x) + wx _ + ]
(
a 'b) 3
 8W x  '2  2"
2 3:\
+ W(2bc c r
TABLE 9. 2 (CONT' D) BEAM FORMULAS
(I)
......
::a
c:
n
.....
c:
:=0
):II
r
CJ
rt1
(I)

CD
:z
if:
:.:
z
"
c:
(1)
:.:
<!
1'
r
en
1'"
0
::s
Type of loading and
case number
14. (Cont I d)
15.
RpamJO:
Reactions, Vertical Shear, Bending Moments, Deflection Y, and Slope
1
Q = 48EI
1
Q = 48EI
E!. V = w (1:. _ x
2
). M = li ex _ x
3
).
3' 3 2' 3 2'
L L
r: 4 224
M M 0 128 WL t
L Y = Wx(3x 10L x +7L )
ax. =. a x::: 3 ; 2
180EIL
0.01304 WL
3
Max. y =  EI at x = 0.519 L
7WL
2
Q = 
18DEI
at A ; Q ==
8WL
2
18cEI
TABLE 9.2 ( CONT I D) BEAM FORMULAS
at B
en
I
:::c
c:
n
I
c::
:::c
:D
r
=
rn
(I)

Ci)
z
31:
:D
Z
=
:D
r
Type of loading and
case number
16.
17.
Simply Supported Beams
Reactions, Vertical Shear, Moments, Deflection Y, and Slope
w W w( 4x2)
R = _. R = * (A to B) V =  1  
A 2' C 2' 2 2 f
2 L
(B to C) V =  [1  ] ; (A to B)
W ( 4x
3
)
M ;;"6 3x  L2
(B to C) M =  Max. M = at B
(A to B) y;; Wx (L 2x2 _ x
4
_ SL 4). Max y = _ WL60E3I at B
6EIL2 2 5 16 '
5WL
2
Q =  96EI at A ;
5WL
2
Q = + 96EI at C

w W W (L2X)2
RA =: "2; RB ;; 2"; (A to B) V ;; '2 L
(B to C) V = .. !! (2XL\2 ; (A to B) M = l'! (x _ 2x2 + 4X
3
)
2 L 1 2 L 3L2
(B to C) M = r(Lx)  + J ; Max, M = at B
l 3L
W (3 x4 2x
5
3L
2
X) 3WL
3
(A to B) y = l2EI x  t+ SL2 .. 8 ; Max. y =  320EI at B
WL
2
WL2
Q =  32EI at A; Q = 32EI at C
TABLE 9. 2 ( CONT t D) BEAM FORMULAS
I
Type of loading and
case number
18.
y
19.
Simply Supported Beams
Reactions, Vertical Shear, Bending Moments, Deflection Y, and Slope
M M
R =  . R = V = R M = M + R x Max M = M at A
A L' B L A 0 A' 0
Y = (?x
2
 ; Max. y = _ 0.0642 at x = 0.422L
Q =
M L
o
 3E1
at A;
M M
M L
o
Q 6E1
at B
o 0,
R
A
=  r; RC = r; (A to C) V = + R
A
; (A to B) M = + RAx
(B to C) M = + RAX + Mo; Max. (M) = + RAa just left of B
Max. (+M)= + RAa + Mo just right of B
a 1 Mo (A to B) y = [(6a   20 x  ]
(B to c) y = [3a
2
+ 3x
2
_ (2L +
A I_ L 1 eM. ( 2)'
atC
Q = Mo (a _ a
2
_ .!!) at B
E1 L 3
TABLE 9.2 (CONT'D) BEAM FORMULAS

,
Type of loading and
case number
20.
\
''../
e
'",,,,'
Simply Supported Beams
Reactions, Vertical Shear, Bending Moments, Deflection Y, and Slope
Wb WL
RA ~  a; RB = a; (A to B) V = + R
A
; (B to C) V = +W;
(A to B) M
+RAx; (B to C) M= + RAa + W(xa); Max. M = + RAa at B
(A to B) y
Wbx 2 2
;  6aEI (x a );
(B to C) y =  ~ I [(L_x)3  b(Lx)(2Lb) + 2b
2
LJ
Wb
2
L Wah
Max. y =  3EI at C; 9 = 6EI at A;
Wab
9 =  3EI at B
Q =  Wb (2L+b) at C
6EI .

TABLE 9. 2 ( CONT I D) BEAM FORMULAS
I
Type of loading and
case number
21.
y
W
.. t..
.
Statically Indeterminate Cases
Reactions, Vertical Shear, Bending Moments, Deflection Y
t
and Slope
R =!! (3a
2
L_a
3
). R := W R M =!! (a
3
+2aL 2_
3a
2
L
)
A 2 L3 ' C A' c 2 L2
(A to B) V = R
A
; (B to C) V RA  W; (A to B) M = RAx
(B to C) M = RAx  W(xL+a); Max. (+M) = RA(La) at B
max. possible value = 0.174 WL
when a = 0.634 L
Max. (M) = M at C
c
max. possible value = 0.1927 WL '
when a = 0.4227 L
(A to B) Y = [R
A
(X
3
3L
2
X) + 3wa
2
x]
(B to C) Y = {RA (x
3
3L 2
x
) + W (xb) 3J}
If a<0.586 L, max. y is between A and B at x = L
J
'1 
2 2
3La
_ L(L +b )
If a > O. 586 L, max. y is at x  2 2
3L .. b
WL
3
If a = 0.586 L, max. y is at Band := 0.0098 EI ' possible
deflection
Q = (a
3
_ a
2
) at A
4EI L
TABLE 9 .. 2 (CONT' D) BEAM FORMULAS

I
Type of loading and
case number
W==wL
Statically Indeterminate Cases
Reactions, Vertical Shear, Bending Moments, Deflection Y, and Slope
3L
128 at x ]i; Max. (M) ;  s at B
(+M)
Max.
I' W 3 4 3
23.
(C to D)
y; 48EIL (3Lx 2x L x); Max. y == 0.0054 EI at x ; 0.4215 L
L RB
WL
2
Q =  48EI
at A
TABLE 9.2 (CONT'n) BEAM FORMULAS
(I)
.....
::.::
c::
n
.....
=
".
r
CJ
rn
(I)

a)
.:z
3:
".
:z
c::
".
r
Type of loading and
case number
24. Y
Statically Indeterminate Cases
Reactions, Vertical Shear, Bending Moments, Deflection and
R
=.!'!:. R == 4W. M = 2WL. V == w (1 _ x2) . M = W _ x
3
)
A 5 t B 5' B 15' 5 2' 5 2
L 3L
A _ w x Max. (+M) = 0.06 WL at x : 0.4474 L; Max. (M) =
RA L 4 RB Y =  L3
x
 { ) ; Max. Y = 0.00477 at x = Lfi
9 ==  60EI at A
25. 3M
o
/
L
2_
a
2) 3M
o
(L
2
_a
2
). M == Mo (1 _ L3
2
a
2
)
RA =  2L L 2 ; RC = 2L L 2 c 2
(A to B) V == +R
A
; (B to C) V = +R
A
; (A to B) M = +RAx
(B to C) M = +RAx + Mo; Max. (+M) = Mo ( 1 _
just to the right of B
Max. (M) == M at C when
c
a < 0.275 L
Max. (M) = RAa to the left of B when a > 0.275 L
(A to B) y = ( L (3L
2
x_x
3
)  (La)x)
(Bto C) y = (3L
2
x_x
3
) _ Lx + (x2;a
2
)
Q = ( a _ * _ at A
TABLE 9.2 (CONTID), BEAM FORMULAS


Statically Indeterminate Cases
Type of loading and
case number Reactions, Vertical Shear. Bending Moments, Deflection y, and Slope
27.
llW 9W 7WL (11 2x x
2
) (llX x
2
x
3
)
RA ;: 20; RB :: 20; = 60; V = W 20  r + 17 ; M:: W W  r+ 3L
2
Max. (+M) :: 0.0846 WL at x ;: 0.329 L; Max. (M) ::  at B
y = (ULX
3
 3L 3x _ lOx 4 + )
Max. y :: 0.00609 at x :: 0.402 Lj 0 :: 40EI at A
R :: _ 3Mo. R :: 3Mo. :: Mo. V == _ 3Mo. M :: No (2 _ 3X)
A 2L' B 2L' 13 2' 2L ' 2 L
Max. (+M)
y_ Mo
4EI
Q = 
:: M at A; Max. (M) =  Me at B
o 2
(2x
2 _  L) M
x ; ax. y = 
MoL
ill
at A
27EI
TABLE 9. 2 (CONT' D) BEAM FORMULAS
L
at x :: 
3

,
Type of loading and
case number
Statically Indeterminate Cases
Vertical Shear. Bendine: Moments. Deflection Y and
28ly 1.jw
2 ,(A to B) M = (B to C) M = Max. (+M) = at B
(.
r.. i")...!
A
c, WL W 2 3
MA B MC Max. (.M) =  g at A and C; (A to B) y =  48EI (3Lx 4x )
RA 1 L .f RC Max. y =  at B
29. Wb
2
Wa
2
M Wab
2
M __ Wba
2
RA = 3 (3a+b); RC = 3 (3b+a); = _.
L L a L
2
' c L2
2
(A to B) V = R
A
, (B to C) V = R  W (A to B) M =  Wab + R x
A ' L2 A
Wab
2
(B to C) M =   + R x  W(xa);
L2 A
Wab
2
WL L
Max. (+M) =  + RAa at B, max. value = g when a = 2
Max.
Max.
( ... M) =
(M) ==
M
A
when a < b,
M when a > b,
c
max.
max.
possible value
L
;:; 0.1481 WL when a =
3
2L
possible value = ... 0.1481 WL when a;:;
3
TABLE 9. 2 ( CONT ' D) BEAM FORMULAS
CD
<
1'
til
1'''
0
::s
ttt
e e

'  r
\' J1
t
'
i_
en
I
::c:I
c:
n
......
c:::
::a
:z:
r
c::J
rn
en

Ci)
:z
31:
:z:
:z
c:
:z:
r
and
29 ( Con t t d) Wb
2
x
2
(A to B) y (3ax + bx  3aL)
6EIL
3
Wa
2
(L_x)2
(B to C) y = [(3b+a) (L ... x)  3bV
6EIL3 ::J
2Wa
3
b
2
2aL
Max. y ;;;;  at x =  if a > b
3EI(3a+b}2 3a+b
2Wa
2
b
3
2bL
Max. y ;;;;  2 at x = L  3b+a if a < b
3EI(3b+a)
30.
IY M = .!'!. (x  x
2
 1). Max. (+M) = WL24 at x = .!;2
W=wL 2 L 6'
M Cjl!fE L lITf!lf) WL Wx
2
2 2
A A B Max. (M)  12 at A and B; Y 24EIL (2LxL  x )
R A f. L 4 RB WL
3
L
Max. y =  384EI at x ;;;; 2
TABLE 9.2 (CONT'D) BEAM FORMULAS
I
CD
<
..,.
CIl
.....
o
:;
t:d

I
..0
I
N
o
Types of loading and
case number
31.
W=wc
Statically Indeterminate Cases
Reactions, Vertical Shear, Bending Moments, Deflection Y. and SloDe
R = ~ (12d
2
_ 8d
3
+ 2hc
2
_ c
3
_ c
2
) ; R = W ... RA
A 4L2 L L L D
M = _ .JL (24d
3
.. 6bc
2
+ 3c
3
+ 4c
2
_ 24d
2
)
A 24L L L L ,
W (24d
3
6bc
2
3c
3
2 2 )
~ = 24I \:L  r + L + 2c  48d + 24dL ; (A to B) V = RA
(B to C) V = RA  w x ~ a ) ; (C to n)v = RA  W; (A to B) M MA+RAx
2
(B to C) M = M + R x  W (xa) (C to D) M  M + R x  W(xL+d)
A A 2c' a A
RAe
Max. (+M) is between Band C at x = a +w;
Max. (M) = M
A
when a < (Lb); Max. (M) = .. when a > (Lb)
132
(A to B) y = 6EI (RAx  3M
A
x )
(
B to C) = __ 1 __ (R 3 _ 3M x
2
_ w(xa)4)
y 6EI AX A 4c
(C to D) y = 6ir [R
n
(LX)3  3Mu(LX)2J
TABLE 9.2 (CaNTin) BEAM FORMULAS

e
'
.
\,",
Statically Indeterminate Cases
Type of loading and
case number Vertical Shear, Bending Deflection Y, and
32. 3W 7W WL WL (3 x
2
)
r RA = 10; RB = 10; MA = IS; = TO; V = W 10  17
( 3
(1 M = w  
MA A B MB WL
L_ t Max. (+M) = 0.043 WL at x = 0.548 L; Max. (M) =  TO at B
RA r __ L
W (3 2 x
5
) WL
3
y = 60EI 3x  2Lx  L2 ; Max. y = 0.002617 EI at x = 0.525 L
33. I y 6M
o
2 6Mo 2 Me 2 2
RA =  L3 (aLa); RC = L3 (aLa); MA =  L2 (4La3a L )
No 2
( M =  (2La 3a ); V = + R
A
; (A to B) M =  MA + RAX
M ABC C L2,
A C
r
L iRe (B to c) M =  MA + RAx + Mo
RA (+M) = M (4a _ 9a
2
+ 6a
3
)
Max. 0 L L2 L3 just to the right of B
Max. (M) :::; M (4a _ 9a
2
+ 6a
3
_ 1) just to the left of B
o L L2 L3
123
(A to B) y =  6iI (3M
A
x  RAx )
TABLE 9.2 (CONT t D) BEAM FORMULAS
en
.....
::cJ
c:
n
......
c
::cJ
,.
r
CJ
rt1
(J')

CD
z
3:
,.
z
c
,.
r
,
...0
I
N
N
Type of loading and
case number
33. (Cont'd)
Statically Indeterminate
Reactions, Vertical Shear, Bending Deflection Y, and Slope
1
(B to C) y = 6EI
2 2 2 3
(Mo  M
A
) (3x ... 6Lx + 3L )  RA (3L x  x .. 2L )
Max (y) at x = L
2Mc
if
a < 2L

Rc 3
Max (+y) at
2MA
if
L
x=
a> 
RA
3
TABLE 9.2 ( CONT d) BEAM FORMULAS
(I)
I
:x:J
c::
n
I
c:
::.::J
::III
r
c::J
...,
CI)

CD
z
i:
::III
Z
c:
::III
r
"
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
9.2.2 Stress Analysis of Symmetrical Sections
The bending strl'SS in a beam with at least one axis of symmetry in the cross
.section is
f :: Mc/I
where M is the bcnciing moment at the cross secti.on in question, c is the distance
from the neutral axis of the cross section to the fiber in question and I is
the moment of inertia of the cross section. This equation is valid when the
tol lowing assumptions are satisfied:
a) plane sections remain plane
b) the material follows Hookefs law
This t.'quation is called the flexure formula.
~ a m s arc rarely loaded in pure bending. Generally the bending moment is a
resul t of a shear transfer. This means that the bending moment varies along
tht: beam. This variation in bending moment produces a shear normal Lo a beam
crOHS sc'ction, i.E'., normal to the section resisting the bending moment.
The flexural shear stress normal to the cross section is
[
s
v
] t
c
J ydA
Y = 0
I nit sin t e g rat e d f 0 rHl i tis
f = VQ/lt
s
whcr(' V is the shE'ar paraU el to the cross section, Q is the area moment of the
cross seclion, I is the moment of inertia and t is the section thickness.
923
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision' A
9.2.3 Stress Analysis of Unsymmetrical Sections
The assumption for the flexural formula, f = Me/I, is that at least one axis
of symmetry passes through the section centroid. This condition is not always
possible. The section shown below is a general section
z
Right Hand Moment Rule
y
with no axis of symmetry. The equation for the stress in a homogeneous beam
with axial bending loads is
P
x
(\\:z + +{Mz\z + M/z)z
fx = A  I I  I I I  I 2
9.2
y z yz y z yz
924
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
9.3 Strain Energy Methods
9.3. L Castigliano's Theorem
Castiglianots theorem is used for determining deflections and rotations in
structures. It is useful also in the analysis of statically indeterminate
structures.
Castigliano's theorem states that if external forces act on a member or struc
ture and cause small elastic deflections, the deflection of the point of appli
cation of the force in the direction of the force is equal to the partial
derivative of the total internal strain energy U with respect to the force. That
is
o =
Q
auf aQ 9 ~
where 00 is the deflection in the direction of Q of the point of application
of Q. The deflection of any point due to any system of loads may be found by
introducing a fictitious load at the point in question and writing the expres
sion for the derivative of the strain energy with respect to the fictitious
load at this point.
The method of Castigliano requires that the internal strain energy U
pressed in terms of the loads in each member. Therefore, the strain
expression for each type of loading is
L 2
U = Jp dx/2AE; Axial 9.4
o
u
L 2
f M dx/2EI; Bending 9.5
o
L
u
.f V
2
dx/2AG; Shear 9.6
o
be ex
energy
where A and I are the area and inertia of the element and E and G are the modulus
of elasticity and rigidity. P, V and M are the axial force, shear force and
bending moment in terms of the applied load to an element.
9.3.2 Structural Deformations.Using Strain Energy
The deflection at a point can be obtained by the application of Castigliano's
theorem. Consider the example shown below, a
(
925
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision C
simple beam of span L and constant cross section subjected to a concentrated
load P at the center of the span. The moment at any point of the beam is
M Px12, for x = 0 to x L/2
M Px/2  P{xL/2), for x = L/2 to x = L
From Equation 9.S
L/2
(Px/2)2dx
u 1/2EI M2dx = 1/2 EI f + 1/2EI
0
U
6
p2L3/96EI
aUI oP = 81 ap(p
2
L
3
l96EI) = 2pr:/96EI = PL
3
/48EI
L 2
f [P/2(Lx)] dx
L/2
The example is about as simple as possible, but the theory is applicable to
problems of any complexity.
The rotation of a point can be determined by employing Castigliano's theorem
which becomes
.Q. = aut Be 9.7
where C is an applied or fictitious couple.
Consider the following example. It is
p
L
1
reqoired to find the rotation of the free end of a cantilever beam. Since no
couple acts at the end of the beam, one must be applied. It ~ denoted as C
and since it is fictitious will be set equal to zero after the differentiation
wi.th respect to C. Then the example is solved as follows.
au a J' M
2
dx L M aM dx
,Q aC = Be 2EI = J EI ae
M = e + Px
3MI ae = 1
L
~ = r (e + Px)dx(l)dx
. E1
o
o
Now set C
PL
2
9 =: 2EI
o since it is fictitious, then
This procedure is applicable to slructures with any type of loading.
O_?I..
)
.)
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
9.3.3 Deflection By The Dummy Load Method
The unit load or dummy load method may be used to determine deflection in elastic or
inelastic members. Deflection of inelastic members by this method is given in
section 9.5.2. The theorem as applied to elastic beams is written in integral
form as
L
o = f dx . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 9 .. 8
o
L
o = f dx .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 9 .. 9
o
Where (8) is the deflection at the unit load and (0) is the rotation at the unit
moment. The moment (M) is the bending moment at any section caused by the
actual loads. (m) is the bending moment at any section of the beam caused by a
dummy load of unity acting at the point whose deflection is to be found and in
the direction of the desired deflection. The bending moment (m
r
) is the bending
moment at any section of the beam caused by a dummy couple of unity applied at
the section where the change in slope is desired. It is noted that although
(mt) may be thought of as a bending moment, it is evident from the expression
mt it is actually dimensionless.
EXAMPLE: Find the elastic vertical deflection of point A (Fig. 9.2a) of the
simply supported beam subjected to two concentrated loads.
PRIMARY LOADING DUMMY LOADING
*1
P P r
L
r , 4
r*1
1 LB
iLL
t 1
R=P
.. I 
(a)
4 (b)
4
[M=PX
M
r
V '{M=PX
2
m.e=x2/4
r
XI
I
(c)
(d)
FIGURE 9.2 EXAMPLE OF DUMMY LOAD METHOD
921
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Solution: The actual loading is shown in Fig. 9.2a and the dummy loading is shown
in Fig. 9.2h. The moment for the actual loading is shown in Fig. 9.2c and the
corresponding moment diagram for the dummy loading is shown in Fig. 9.2d.
The deflec tioD by use of equa tion (9.8) noting that
starts at the right
L
o =
EI
3L
4"
+ 1
PL
4EI
L
4
dx
is
L L
4
4
J PX1
eXl)
J PX2
=
4 dX
l
+
0
EI
0
xl starts at the left and x
2
(:2) dX
2
The problem of Figure 9.2 can also be solved using pictorial integration. To find
any deformation in a structure due to any external loading, proceed as follows:
(1) Draw the moment diagram due to the actual loading. Denote these
moments as M
o
(2) Remove the actual loading and apply a fictitious unit load where
the deformation is desired. This unit load must be of such a type
and applied in such a manner that (load) x (deformation) :;: (work);
i.e., if the deformation to be found is a rotation, the unit load
must be a moment. Draw the moment diagram due to this unit load and
denote these moments by M
a
(3) Compute the deformation from
9.10
where 6 is given in TABLE 9.4 for various combinations of moment
diagramgaM
o
and Maa (TfBLE 9.4 is not applicable for curved members.)
Table 9.3 shows the solution of the problem in Figure 9.2 by pictorial inte
The moment diagrams of the actual and unit loads are shown in Table 9.3a.
o is obtained from Table 9.3b, c
t
and d as,
oa
7 + 7 + PL
3
j256 + PL
3
/64 + PL
3
/768
u
oa
:;: VII v
22
v33 =
The deflection at point A is:
o = 1 JEI 6" :;: PL
3
/ 48EI
08 oa
which agrees with the previous solution.
928
\
j
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
a. M _I
o r ,.., PL
M
3L/16 M =x
2
/4 MOMENT DIAGRAMS
b.
c.
_/; Mo2 f0 4
I a FROM FIGURES
1
: M 2 9.2(a) and 9.2(b)
a I a :
xl x
2
UNIT
171 TIMES
8
11
= k(Mo)(Ma)(L)
k = .333: (TABLE 9.4)
011 = (.333)(PL/4)(3L/16)(L/4) = PL
3
/256
TGJ 8
22
= k(Mo)(Maa)(L)
MQ Mo2 TIMES r
a
Ma2 ....L k = .50(1.0 + M b/M );(TABLE 9.')
k = .667 a aa
I L/2 I I L/2 822 = (2/3)(PL/4)( 3L/16)(L/2)=PL
3
/f4
8
33
= k(Mo)(Ma)(L)
k = .333: (TABLE 9.4)
833 = (.333)(PL/4)(L/16)(L/4) =
PL
3
/768
TABLE 9.3  SOLUTION OF FIGURE 9.2 BY PICTORIAL INTEGRATION
929
"8 . STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
A. CORRECTION COEFFICIENTS FOR EQUATION Elo = k(M )2L
max
CASE DEFINITION OF SITUATION k
..L
I. MI I
1.000
...L
II.
.333
TIa L r
)
M C
M.
.333(1.0 + A + A2)
III.
M
Tf.eL
... 1
max
IV.
.333
J..
V.
M T ::::::::::J LM
.333
max IL 1 max
.. T::::=:,. ..L
VI.
TI
.333
Mmax L ...I Mmax
8
VII.
2ND DEGREE
.533 (= )
15
*
VIII.
.200
Tt
L
t
2ND DEGREE
i
.:L
1
IX.
.. 143 (= )
7
Tt L"';
3RD DEGREE
*
1
x. .111 (::; 9)
T 111 L I 4TH DEGREE
.tl
t
M
XI.
.333(1.0 + A + A2)
Mmax B min M
" t L '1
max
TABLE 9.4 CORRECTION COEFFICIENTS
930
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
e)
B. CORRECTION COEFFICIENTS FOR
EQUATION EI () = k(M ) (M ) L
o a
CASE DEFINITION OF SITUATION k
I.
I
lIMa
1.000
It: L l
I
I
I
II.
..500
I
I
I
r
I ,
I .e Ml
Ml
III.
MIl
A =' .50 (1.0 + A)
:J

M
I
.f
a
I
I ,
IV. .500
I I
I I
I I
II
M
a
v.
TIMc::::::::::J
T
.000
I
a I
I I
M
I
rE
a
VI.
LC "2
.000
I I
t
I Mtl I
I
I
I I
)
VII.
.667
I I
2ND DEGREE
I
l
I
I
... 333
VIII. I
I
2ND DEGREE
I I
I
I
I
IX.
I
.250
I I
3RD.DEGREE
I I
,
I
I
x.
I .200
.
I 4TH DEGREE
j
TABLE 9.4 (Cant'd) CORRECTION COEFFICIENTS
931
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MAN"UAL
~ ~ ~ ~ .
(B Cont'd)
XI.
XII.
C. CORRECTION COEFFICIENTS FOR
EQUATION EIo = k (M )(M ) L
o a
A = ~
M
a
K = arc length
L
CASE DEFINITION OF SITUATION
I.
II.
III.
IV.
v.
VI.
VII.
I
I I
~ ~ ~ a
I
I I
I I
L' r M r:::::........ I ___ a
T I ac::::::::::::j T
M I I
a I
M1
A =
M
a
A='
L
NOTE: b is dimen
sion farthest from
Mr.
5 ( B ( 1A) +A)
.5 (!\ (Kl.) + 1.)
k
.333
1
.167 (= 6')
.500
.167 (2.00 + A)
.250
.167 (1.00 + A)
1
.167 (="6)
TABlE 9 4 (Cout'd) CORRECTIoN OQEFFICIENTS
932
I


CASE
VIII.
IX.
x.
XII.
XIII.
XIV ..
xv.
)
XVI.
XVII.
XVIII.
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
DEFINITION OF SITUATION
I I
I I
I ~ ] a
A = ~
L
Ml
A =
M
a
2ND DEGREE
2ND DEGREE
3RD DEGREE
4TH DEGREE
2ND DEGREE
3RD DEGREE
4TH DEGREE
A = ~
L
A=.!
L
k
.167 (1.00  A)
..333
.250
.200
1
.167 (= 6)
1
.083 (= 12)
1
.033 (= 30)
2
.50 (1.0  A )
TABLE 9.4 (CONT'D) CORRECTION COEFFICIENTS
933
/?C\\
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
;
1/ ,/
," w7
Revision B
1__ C. ..... ___ E_j___J)E'lNITION OF SITUATION
(C cant' d) ,.. L ,1.
XIX. :
t. atl
xx.
XXI.
* I B !
I I
D. CORRECTION COEFFICIENTS FOR
EQUATION EId == k(M )(M ) L
M 0 a
A == Ml
o
a
A=
L
A==!.
L
Ml
A =
M
a
CASE DEFINITION OF SITUATION
I.
I I
J. L..r
II.
III.
2ND
IV.
i
I
V.
I
I
3RD DEGREE
,
I
I I
I
I ,
VI.
I
I
4TH DEGREE
I
I
I
I
k
.167 (2.0  A  A2)
.167(A(2A23)+1) ( __ 1 __ )2
AI
k
.50 (1.0 + A)
.167 (2.00 + A)
.083 (3.00 + A)
333 (1. 0 + AB + O. 5
(A+B)
.05 (4.0 + A)
.033 (5.0 + A)
TABLE 9.4 (Cont'd) CORRECTION COEFFICIENTS
934
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
CASE DEFINITION OF SITUATION 'k
(D cont'd)
VII. MaLZ
.333 (1.0 + A)
I+
L tI
2ND DEGREE
I t.!!i
VIII.
.250 (1.0 + A)
I I
a
l
I
IX.
167, (1+ 2A1 (1  A
I I
I
I
LI
lIM
x. r
I a
.167 (1.00  A)
T:
a
I
:
XI.
I.rMa
B = 2 .167 (1  A)(l  B)
T : "":::::z
L
a 1 :
,
I
tt at
XII.
I
1
B =
.50 IA)
B2 + 2 AB)
I
M
I a
L
I I
I
I
I
I
,
.167 IA) B2 + 3AB) XIII. I
L
I
)
XIV.
i , rMa
B
a
.167(t)(A(3Ef6B+2)
L
21 Iai
f
+ 1  3B
2
)
I I
I
I
xv.
.167 (1 + 2A)
I I
I I
I
I
I
XVI.
M2LrlI Ma
M2
.333 (.50(AB+1)+A+B)
B :
M
I
a
I I
TABLE 9.4 (Cont'd) CORRECTION COEFFIG:ENTS
935
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
9.3.4 Analysis of Redundant Structures
The theories of strain energy and Castigliano can be used to determine the
reactions on a statically indeterminate structure. A staticallyindeterminate
structure is one where there are more supports or more members present in the
structure than are necessary to maintain equilibrium of the structure. The
structure will still resist the loads if one or more supports or members are
omitted.
The total strain energy in a structure must be determined, i.e., the summation of
the strain energy contributed by axial, shear, bending and sometimes torsion.
Equations 9.4 through 9.6 are used to determine the energy in each element of !
the structure; Sometimes certain energy terms can be ignored because their contri
bution is small compared to other forms of loading. Such situation occurs in a '
shallow beam which is subjected to shear and bending. The shear energy can be
ignored because bending energy is so much greater.
To determine the redundant forces and moments in a structure for which it may be
assumed that only bending deformations affect the magnitudes of the redundants,
proceed as follows:
(1) Cut the structure at convenient points to make it statically determinate.
(2)
(3)
( 4)
Denote the redundant forces or moments as x , x
b
' x ,etc. The cuts
a c
will generally be at reaction points but do not have to be there. For
instance, because of symmetry, the structure could be cut at the line
of symmetry.
Draw the moment diagram M for the actual applied loads acting on the
statically determinate
Draw the moment diagrams for unit redundant forces or moments (1 lb or
1 inIb) acting on the statically determinate structure with the applied
loads removed. Designate these moments as M , M
b
, M , etc.
a c
The expression for energy is
U = dx/2 EI, (equation 9.5)
Write the moment equations for the structure
One Redundant: M M + x M
o a a
Two Redundants: M = Mo + xa Ma + xb Mb
Three Redundants: M = Mo + xa Ma + xb Mb + Xc Mc
(5) Evaluate the deformations for each redundant using Catiglianos Theorem,
i. e. ,
936
\

(6 )
(7)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
The resulting equations will take the form
M 2
dx
xaL a
EI
+ xb
M M
, a c
xa L. EI
There will be one equation for each redundant. The coefficients of x ,
x
b
' and x can be determined using pictorial integration as explained
a
in 9.3.3.
c
Solve for the redundants, x , x
b
' x , etc.
a c
Calculate the actual moments using the moment equations developed in
step 4 if they are needed.
Examples are shown in Figures 9.3 and 9.4 with problem solutions.
9.3.4.1 Example Problem  Beam With Single Redundant
10,000
1
5
1
Primary 10,000
1
t
2500
M
o ~
37 500
A
D ~
Redundant
I t
.5 X = 1
a
+5
M ~
a
FIGURE 9.3  BEAM WITH SINGLE REDUNDANT
937
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Revision B
M=M +x M
o a a
M2 = M 2 + 2 x M M + x 2 M 2
o a a 0 a a
u = JM 2 dx/2 E1 + J2 x M M dx/2E1 + [x 2 M 2 dx/2 E1
o a a 0 . a a
x '" k M 2 dX/E1 + '" k M M dx/EI = 0
aL a Lao
where k is the constant of integration from Table 9.4.
x (.333)(5)2 (20) + (.333)(2.5)(37500)(5) +
a
+ (.333)(5)(25000)(10) = 0
x = (156094 + 577500 + 416250)/166.5 6906
a
The maximum moment is then
M = M + x M = 37500 + (6906)(2.5) = 20235
o a a
The beam balance and bending diagram is
10,000
f
l
f I
4047 6906 953
)
9530
M
20,235
938
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
9.3.4.2 Example Problem  Beam With Two Redundants
Primary
10,000
f
~
t
500 2500
M
~
37,500
1st Redundant
~ f J
.5 x 1 ... 5
a
+5
~
M
a
2nd Redundant
cp=
1
.05
1.0 75
~
FIGURE 9.4  BEAM WITH TWO REDUNDANTS
166.531 xa + 24.994 xb  989,219 = 0
24.994 xa + 6.333 xb  218,672 = 0
1849
27272"
27,272 9
7939
10,000
l
t
1849
27,&
~ 2 1 2 0
12,423
t
212
I
.05
939
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
9,3.5 Analysis of Redundant BuiltUn Sheet Metal Structut"es
Section 9.3.4 deals with structures in which bending is the primary energy
contributor. In this section, commonlyused ai.rframe structures are discussed.
Such structures are composed of thin webs and axiallnembers. No bending members
ate present since all of the loads can be transferred by shear, tension and
compression.
A new energy term is necessary since shear flow, q, is now present. Equation 9.6
can be written in terms of shear flow.
It then becomes
L
U =fq2 a dx/2Gt 9.11
o
where a is the panel dimension normal to the x direction and t is the web
thickness.
In most airframe structures the shear flow, q, can be assumed to be constant over
a given length. Since axial members are attached to the webs and must react
the shear flow with a concentrated load the axial load will vary in an axial
member. Such a situation is shown below.
L
.... ,.. 
I ......
The axial load in the upper member varies from zero to Pf over the length L.
load at any point x in a member is P
x
= Pf(x/L).
Equation 9.4 is then written as
The
f
L 2 2 2
U = Pf x dx/2 L AE 9.12
o
Pictorial integration of the above equation is possible. Figure 9.5 shows the
integration constant for various axial loading conditions.
A redundant analysis of a sheet metal beam is shown in Figure 9.6 and the
following example problem.
940
)
\.0
I
.p
1'
"':tj
H
(;")
C
tr.1
\.0
VI
H
Z
t3
t:r3
c;":)
H
o
Z
C"')
o
Z
en
en
'":I:j
o
::tI
H
r.:
t"""
o
H
Z
G'::l


e
"'
e
 : : : i
 1
__ . ___ ..
',
1
i
+
t ::::: 1 ' 1 ;' .. : ,.'1+_. . " ,.;
1.... ; . r ._,_,.1. , .... , .\.,... ,
.
::=""p,: P,IA : ... ;_ rri: .. ::: : '1': : :'1 ...
t r" 01" 1:"  ... : :_.: . . : .. r _.;'1''7'1' ':!: .. :'.
. < : '. ..';';'I
r' ,\
.
;
t: .: 'PRIM AR'y . t=pt Rtrp,2 ': : .' r:: ;:  ['_
f.:;'.> i', :,., /' 7
I .. . Pll I : . 1 .  r . ; . ; 1: !
en
I
c:
n
I
i .. . :; : . I . , i. '. i Y"
!j
I. . : ..
.. : .. ;.! ,;_._L! _. .. ,.
\._.; :  : r .. ; 11, U kT'')l Pll :.; +\...:.1 : .. k .
t ' ..  t
t " r" . " :. i .. .; .. ;.1 .... : : 0" kPO
l
P11{A E .
. I
..  'f T ......
. .:.1 !'
1.0 .8
Rp
.4 :2
.2 .4
Rp'
.6
.8
1.0
:::Itt
,..
r
CI
en

CD
Z
z
=
,..
r
\
STRUCTllRAL DESIGN MANUAL
I
!
FIGURE 9.5 (Conttd)  INTEGRATION CONSTANTS FOR AXIAL LOADING
942
.J
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
0000
T
10 t=.05 t=.05 t=.05
1
Af = .1 in
2
tw .05 in
E = 10
7
gSi
G = 4(10 ) psi
t=s
I
,
101
10
PRIMARY
10000
It.
+1
3750
J5.Q.Q
   
.......
   
___ .... __ ....lIlIo. __ :l1000.
q=750
1
+
+
t
1
i
t,
4
t i t
p = p
+ x
0
,
r t
q = qo + x
r t
q=250
q=250
 
  
      ..........
 .... ....... ... ..
 
7500 +3750 +2500 25 0
REDUNDANT
+.25 +.5
P
a a
a qa
 
ill' ........
'!lilt + ;;iJI1"" :III" ;:;000 ==
+, Tension in Flange
  
""'"''::::""

__
., Compression in
1
+
(
+
i
t
Flanges
t
,
q=.05
V
,
H
i
V
lIIoo"
HE]r
,
t
q=.05
t i
q=.05
V


::;111" ...... 
 ,   =.
....c = . ....:::. .....::.....
,
.25

.5
x =1
a
FIGURE 9.6  EXAMPLE OF REDUNDANT SHEET METAL BEAM
943
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Example Problem:
L 2 JLZ
U
TOTAL
= U
AX1AL
+ USHEAR = J P dx/2AE + q adx/2Gt
o 0
)
2 2
U
T
=l:k (p + x p) L/2AE + I(q + x q) ab/2Gt
, 0 a a 0 a a
U
T
= Ik P 2 L/2AE + x Ik P P L/AE + x 2 I k P 2 L/2AE
o a 0 a a a
+ Iq 2 ab/2Gt + x Iq q ab/Gt + x 2 I.q 2 ab/2Gt
o a 0 a a a
aUT/ax = Ik P P L/AE + X Ik P 2 L/AE
a 0 a a a
+ Iq q ab/Gt + x ~ q 2 ab/Gt
o a ~ a
aUT/ax = 8 = 0
a xa
 Ik P P L / AE  Iq q a bIG t
o a 0 a
x .=: =
a Ik P 2 L/AE + 2q 2 ah/Gt
a a
k = constant of integration from Figure 9.5.
944
FLANGE
ab
be
cd
hg
gf
fe
ah
bg
ef
de
)
_/
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
P P L AE k
k P P L
0 a
0 a
x(10
6 AE
x (10
6
)

0 0
5 1.0 .333 1560
+371)0  _ 25
+3750
...
.. 25
5 1.0 .61 5719
.1.2500

5
+2500

.5
10 1.0 .333 4163
0 0
0 0
5 1.0 .333 1560
3750 + .25
1750
+
'II)
5 1.0 .61 5719
2500
+
.5
2500 + .5
10 1.0 .333 4163
{) f)
71)(){)
+
5
10 1.0 .333 12488
0 0
0 0
10 1.0 0 0
10000 0
f) _ 1 ()
0 0
10 1.0 0 0
0
+
5
10 1 .. 0 .. 333 4163
2500 0
L=
...
38135
qoqa
ab
WEB ab Gt
qo qa
x(106)
Gt
x (10
6
)
1 750 .05 50 .. 2 9375
2 250 .05 50 .2 3125
3 250 .05 100 .. 2 6250
L=
12500
x =
a
... [38135(10
6
)] ... [12500(10
6
)]
4.314(10
6
) + 2.5 (10
6
)
50635
6.814
P 2
k
k P L. L
a
a
AE
Ix (10
6
)
.0156 .333 .026
.0156 .7 .055
.. 25 .333 .833
.0156 .333 .026
.25 .7 .875
.. 25 .333 .833
.25 .333 .. 833
0 .333 0
1.0 0 0
.25 .333 .833
L=
4.314
2
q Z ab
a
qa
Gt
x(10
6
)
.. 0025 .625
.0025 .625
.0025 1.250
2:=
2.5
7431
945
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
9.3.6 Analysis of structures with Elastic Supports
The previous example, Figure could also be on spring supports instead of the
rigid ones The additional energy of the springs must be added to the
total strain energy of the system. The energy in a spring is
u . ::
spr1ng L.
where K is the spring rate in lbs/in. Figure 9.7 shows an example.
9.3.7 Analysis of Structures with Free Motion
In the previous sections the partial derivative of the energy with respect to
the' redundant (au/ax ) was set equal to zero. This the theory of least work
which states the does no work. This is a condition of minimum
strain energy and no relative motion exists between the beam and the support.
If, however, a definite free motion exists at some support the partial deriva
tive is set equal to the free motion.
The cantilever beam shown below illustrates
a beam with free motion. The beam is statically determinant until the deflec
tion at the end of the beam is equal the free motion. Then the beam is
statically indeterminant. The total energy in the beam prior to contact of
the support is
U
t
= L: p2 L/2AE + L: q2 ab/2Gt
Selec ting the end support as the redundant,' the total axial load in any member is
p = p + x p
o a a
where P is the primary load in the Dlemher, x is the unknown redundant and P
is the load due to a unit redundant lo:d. The shear flow in the web
where the terms are similar to the previous equation. The total energy in the
beam is
946
.)
)
PRIMARY
(F )
o
REDUNDANT
(F )
a
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
10000
U
T
= U
AXIAL
+ U
SHEAR
+ USPRING
7,500
.5
k (F + x F)2
x = 1
a
2,500
K, SPRING RATE
Ibs/in
+, TENSION IN
SPRINGS
, COMPRESSION
IN SPRINGS
F = F + x F
o a a
: ~ 0 a a
USPRING ~ 2K
x =
a
I,k PoP a L / AE  ~ q 0 q a a b /G t  I F 0 F a /K
Ik P 2 LIAE +Iq 2 ab/Gt +2F 2/K
a a a
FIGURE 9.7  BEAM ON ELASTIC SUPPORTS
947
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
u = 'k (p + x P)
2
L /2AE + ,( q + x q) 2 a b / 2G t
t L" 0 a a L" 0 a a
Expanding and takingout/8xa gives an equation of deflection which is set equal 8
a

au/ax :i:: '" k P P L/AE + x
a L" 0 a a
LkPa2L/AE+
'" q 2 ab/Gt = 8
L" a a
Solving for x gives
a
oa  I. k P P L/AE  '"' q ql ab/Gt
o a ~ 0
x = ~ ~
a I. k P 2 L / AE' + .I q 2 a b /G t
a a
This equation is applicable only if x is applied in the direction to close
the gap_ If x = 0, the condition exists where the applied load deflects
a
,the beam to the support but no further. For this case
which is the same as the virtual load equation.
948
.)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
9.4 Continuous Beams by ThreeMoment Equation
The process of three moments can be applied to a beam with redundant supports
and any type of loading. The procedure is to equate the slopes of the spans
at a support. An equation for any type of loading can be derived and by super
position the slope of the span can be determined. The slope either span at
a support is the sum of the slope produced on a simplysupported span by the
given loading (found from Table 9.2). Consider the beam shown below.
M20
JT 1
F
L
I
At x = 0,
o = llEl (M
l
L/3  M2 L/6)
At x = L,
o = llEl (M
l
L/6 + M2 L/3)
At x,
If the end supports settle or deflect unequal amounts of Yl and Y2' the
increment of slope produced is the same at both ends and is
9.13
9.14
9.15
) where y is positive when upward. The example illustrates the procedure:
The slopes at support B for each of the adjacent spans are
949
~
~
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Span 1:
B
= l/ElI
l
(M
l
L
l
/6 + M
2
L
l
/3)
GMl
M 2 ~
A
~ . 8 B
2
(Table 9 .. 2) = 5 WlL
l
/96
Ell!
~
A
A B
8
B
=
(Y
B
 YA)!L!
A A
A
B
Span 2:
G
M
2
M30
BB
l/E
2
I
2
(M
2
L
2
/3  M3L2/6) (Table 9 .. 2)
A A
B C
r
2 BB
w (bL 
3
= b IL
2
)/6E
2
I
2 2 2
h A
.B C
B
= (Yc  Y
B
)!L
2
A
)\
B C
The slopes for span 1 are set equal to the slopes for span 2. If Ml and M3
are determinate (ends simply supported or overhanging) the equation can be solved
at once for M2 and the reactions then found by statics. If the ends are fixed,
the slopes at those points can be set equal to zero; this provides two additional
equations, and the three unknowns M
I
, M2 and M3 can be found. If the two spans
are parts of a continuous beam, a similar equation can be written for each suc
cessive pair of contiguous spans and these equations solved simultaneously for
the unknown moments.
950

\
)
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
r
9.5 Lateral Buckling of Beams
Beams in bending under certain conditions of loading and restraint can fail by
lateral buckling in a manner similar to that of columns loaded in axial compression.
However, it is conservative to obtain the buckling load by considering the com
pression side of the beam as a column since this approach neglects the torsional
rigidity of the beam.
In general, the critical bending moment for the lateral instability of the deep
beam, such as that shown in Figure 9.8 may be expressed as
KJEI
M = ____ Y __
GJ
cr L
where J is the torsion constant of the beam and K is a constant dependent on the
type of loading and end restraint. Thus. the critical compressive stress is given
by
F
cr
=
M c
cr
I
x
where c is the distance from the centroidal axis to the extreme compression fibers.
If this compressive stress falls in the plastic range, an equivalent slenderness
ratio may be calculated as
L'
P
IE
= 1rVF
cr
1
h
FIGURE 9.B  DEEP RECTANGULAR BEAM
951
Revision E
.STRUCTURAL .DESIGN MANUAL
The actual critical stress may then be found by entering the column curves of Sec
tion 11 at this value of (Lt/p). This value of stress is not the true compressive
stress in the beam, but is sufficiently accurate to permit its use as a design
guide.
9.5.1 Lateral Buckling of Deep Rectangular Beams
The critical moment for deep rectangular beams loaded in the elastic range
loaded along the centroidal axis is given by
3
M = 0.0985 K E (b h)
cr m L
where K is presented in Table 9.5 and b, h, and L are as shown in Figure 9.8.
The stress for such a beam is
F
cr
b
2
KfE(Lh)
where K
f
is presented in Table 9.5.
If the beam is not loaded along the centroidal axis, as shown in Figure 9.9,
a corrected value K
f
t
is used in place of K
f
This factor is expressed as
K t = K (1  n
f f L
where n is a constant defined below:
(1) For simply supported beams with a concentrated load at midspant n = 2.84.
(2) For cantilever beams with a concentrated end load, n = 0.816.
(3) For simply supported beams under a uniform n = 2.52.
(4) For cantilever beams under a uniform load, n = 0.725.
Note: s is negative if the point
of application of the load
is below the centroidal axis.
centroidal
axis
FIGURE 9.9  DEEP RECTANGULAR BEAM LOADED AT A POINT
REMOVED FROM THE CENTROIDAL AXIS
952
\
)
."
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
"\D
J
Type of Loading and Constraint
K{ Km
Side View
Top '(iew

&
1. 86 3.14
e
9
L

3.71 6.28
e

==
:: tL/21
3.71 6.28
e

5.45 9.22
1I11I1H II
2.09 3.54
I
III j I I I Ii 11 i I I i
..
3.61 6.10
, i
11 i 11111 I , I ; ; I i i1
=
4.87 8.24 
I ,
L ===i
k
__0
I
2.50 4.235 
I
I
I
=1
3.82 6.47
I
r'
t
I I
6.57 11. 12
I I
i _.
I
j
7.74 13. I
J i
t.
f
J
3.13 5.29
1!
 == ;::::::::"i
3.48 5.88
J
t
L
2.37 4.01
1 :J
L
;:;;J 2.37 4.01
__ ilH 1I!:1I 1I11l!1

3.80 6.43
::::::J
il WI! 1111
::s
3.80 6.43
TABLE 9.5  LATERAL BUCKLING CONSTANTS FOR DEEP RECTANGULAR BEAMS
953
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
m = KIf. 591
3.0
2.0
I { ~ ~ ~ ~ I
.50
. elL
TABLE 9.5 (CONT'D)  LATERAL BUCKLING CONSTANTS FOR DEEP RECTANGULAR BEAMS
9.5.2 Lateral Buckling of Deep 1 Beams
Figure 9.10 shows a deep I beam.
FIGURE 9.10  DEEP I BEAM
The critical stress of such a beam in the elastic range is given by
954
)
i
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
where Kr may be obtained from Table 9.6 and a is given by
a = .jEI h2/4 GJ
Y
where J is the torsion constant of the I beam. This constant may be approximated
by
J = 1/3 (2b t 3 + h t 3)
f w
This method can be applied only if the load is applied at the centroidal axis.
955
956
"8 STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Type of Loading and Constraint
Side View Top View
Ct=1 ======iD
I i I
i. L ,t
+1  i +j
I. L .1
ml (E)
4
m2 (E,)
4
m3 (E)
16
m
4
(E)
32
ms
16 (E)
m7 CE)
32
rnB (E)
32
* Use Figure 9.11 to obtain m
,
TABLE 9.6  LATERAL BUCKLING CONSTANTS FOR DEEP I BEAMS
600
500
400
300
200
150
100
80
60
50
40
30
20
15
10
8
6
5
4
3
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
"
'"
,
"
"
"
,m7
"\
"
"
"
"
"
'
"
'"
""'"
.......
"
,mL,.
''"
.......
""'
" "
"
........


"
''....
"
:.
"
"
"'"
'"
...........
.....
'..m3
,
........

"
i'.......
t'..
r...
.......
....... """' r
'.........
...............
"

"""
"'
.......
..

"
"
r...ml')
"
"
"
"
illl
" "
......
IT
"
'"
K
.........
i'.....
ttt
"'"
'
..............
""
r
r.
...............
I'
r
r

.6 .8 l.O 1.5 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 15 20 30 40
FIGURE 9.11  VALUES OF mFOR TABLE 9.6

957
6
8
5
4
3
. '
2
1
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
9.6 PLASTIC ANALYSIS OF BEAMS
Revision C
9.6.1 Bending About an Axis of Symmetry
The basic assumption of the classic theory of pure bending in the elastic range
is that a plane crosssection normal to the longitudinal axis of the beam remains
plane under bending deflections. This assumption is also valid for the plastic
range. The strain is directly proportional to the distance from the neutral
axis. The stress distribution across the plane of the cross section in a direc
tion perpendicular to the neutral axis has the same shape as the material stress
strain curve. Such a distribution is shown in Figure 9.12. If a stressstrain
FIGURE 9.12 PLASTIC BENDING STRESS DISTRIBUTION
curve is available from a tension test and if it is assumed that the stress
strain curve in compression is the same as tension, it is possible to de
termine the moment carried by a given section at a specified extreme fiber
stress. In Figure 9.12 the actual stressstrain distribution across a
symmetrical section in bending is shown where fm is the extreme fiber
stress. The stress fro is equal to or greater than Fty and less than or
equal to Ftu Superimposed onto the actual distribution is a trapezoidal
distribution which passes through fm and has an intercept stress of fa.
The intercept stress fa is defined as the stress required for the trape
zoidal stress distribution to produce the same moment about the neutral
axis as the actual stress distribution. This theory was introduced by
Frank P. Cozzone and the following discussions are based on this paper in
the May, 1943, Journal of the Aeronautical Sciences.
Thi.s stress f is a fictitious stress which is assumed to exist at the neutral
axis or at 2 e ~ strain. The value of f is determined by making the requirement
that the internal moment of the true s t ~ e s s system must equal the moment which
results from the assumed trapezoidal stressstrain system. Figure 9.13 shows the
trapezoidal stress distribution consisting of separate distributions, one rectan
gular and one triangular. The total moment Mb can be defined as
958 .
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
N.A.
T
o
+
FIGURE 9.13 ASSUMED STRESS DISTRIBUTION
where ~ = moment produced by the rectangular distribution
~ = moment produced by the triangular distribution
The triangular distribution is equivalent to an elastic distribution and can be
defined as
 f
o
MT = (f  f ) Ilc
m 0
For a symmetrical section, the moment produced by the rectangular distribution will
equal f times twice the area above the neutral axis times the distance from the
neutraloaxis to the centroid of this area
t
or
where
= 2 f (A/2) Y
o
A total cross sectional area
I
Yo
A/2 the area above or below the N.A.
y = e/2 = distance from N.A. to the centroid of the area above or
below N/A
But Ay/2 = Q the static moment of the area above or below the N.A. about the N.A.
m
Then substituting Q
m
M_ = 2 f Q
~ 0 m
and
= 2 f Q + (f  f ) lIe
o m m 0
959
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
Mb ell and k = 2 Q
m
011 then
Fb = f + f (k  1)
m 0
9.16
Fb is a fictitious M ell stress or the modulus of rupture for a particular cross
sectIon at a given maximum stress level. Equation 9.16 is applicable only to
sections symmetric about the neutral axis.
The values of k vary between land 2.0. If the calculated value of k is greater
than'2, use 2. Figure 9.14 shows the value of k for several typical shapes.
k can also
FLANGES
ONLY
k=l.O
THIN TUBE HOUR GLASS RECTANGLE
Z 8
k=1.27 k=1 .. 33 k=1.5
HEXAGON SOLID ROUN DIAMOND
k=1.6 k=I.7 k=2.0
FIGURE 9.14  SHAPE FACTORS FOR TYPICAL SECTIONS
be calculated Jrom
k = 2 Qc =
I
2 c lC y d A
I
9.17
The modulus of rupture Fb may be yield modulus or ultimate modulus. For.yield
modulus of rupture, the value of f in equation 9.16 is F
t
of the material. If
m y
ultimate modulus of rupture is desired, substitute F
t
of the material for f in
U m
equation 9.16. The modulus of rupture may be limited to some stress between
yield and ultimate stress of the material because of local crippling or by exces
sive distortion. Regardless of what value is used for f in equation 9.16, the
m
corresponding value of f
o
must be known before a value of Fb can be determined.
Figures 9.15 through 9.18 give curves for Fb and
various materials.
960
f versus k and strain for
a
)
Fb
(ksi)
160
140
120
100
cc
60
40
20
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
2.0
k 1.7
o. 008 0.009 . O. 010
E (lnche s / inch)
a. Ti8Mn Ti taniurn Alloy
F IGfJRE 9.15  MINIMUM PLASTIC BENDING CURVES FOR TITANIUM
961
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
280
240
zoo
160
)
,Fb
. (kat)
120
80
40
o
0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 O. 025 o. 030 O. 035 O. Ot
I: (inche s linch)
(n
b. Ti8Mn Titanium Alloy
\
F I Ci lJ R E 9. 15  MINIMTJrf PLASTIC BENDING CURVES FOR TIT ANI UM
962
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
.)
200
180
/
1&0
140
120
100
0.012
<: finches/inch)
'c. Ti6Al4V Titanium Al 1 oy,
)
F'rtI'RE 9.15 _ MINIMUM PLASTIC BENDING CURVES FOR'i'i'iANIUH'
963
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
'! (inches/inch) (u
. ct". Ti6Al4V Titanium Alloy
I GllRE 9.15  MINIMUM PLASTIC BENDING CURVES FOR TITANIUM
964
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
.:
k :::: 2.0
k ::: 1. 7
k ::: 1. 5
k = 1. 25
k ::: 1. n
e/
E. (inches linch) En
e. Ti4Mn4Al Titanium Alloy
F 1(;IIRE 9.15  . MINIMUM PLASTIC BENDING CURVES FOR TITANIUM
965
966
STRUCTURAL DESIGN MANUAL
o. 002 o. 004 0.006 0.008
( (inches/inch)
a. 2014T6 Aluminum Alloy Extrusions
_. Thickness 0.499 In,.
k = 2. 0
k=1.7
k=1.5
k = 1. 25
k=l.O
0.010
F I r,URE 9. 16  MINIMUM PLASTIC BENDING CURVES FOR ALUMINUM
I
./
\
)

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