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WHAP
Chapter 1 From Human Prehistory to the Early Civilizations
STUDY U!DE
TIMELINE
Place the letter of the following events in the correct chronological order on the timeline.
A. Neolithic Revolution Begins
B. Natufian Civilization
C. Civilizations of Sumer, Cuneiform
Alha!et
". "omestication of Corn #maize$ in
%eso&America
'. (ews Settle near the %editerranean
). )irst otter*s wheel
+. Agriculture in ,est Africa
-. Rise of Catal -u.u/
0. 1ransition to the use of !ronze
(. 'nd of the last ice age
23,444 BC' 24&5,444 BC' 6,444 BC' 7,444 BC' 3,444 BC' 8,444 BC' 9,444 BC' 2,444 BC' 4
PEOPLE, PLACES, TERMS
1he following are imortant to .our understanding of the chater. "efine each one in .our notes.
": N:1 ;S' <:;R +=:SSAR< > 1his is a reading assignment, answer in .our own words.
0NC=;"' 1-' PA+' N;%B'R ne?t to .our definition for later reference. #<ou ma. need to
use the internet to identif. some words.$
-unting and gathering
Neolithic age
Agrarian revolution
Culture
Band
Catal hu.u/
Bronze age
Slash and !urn agriculture
-ammura!i
0ndo&euroeans
Civilization
Nomads
-omo saiens
"omestication
Ba!.lonians
-araa
%ohen@o&daro
%esootamia
Paleolithic
Savages
Natufian comle?
Pastoralism
(ericho
Social differentiation A
secialization
0deograhs
Shang d.nast.
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MAP EXERCISE
1he following e?ercise is intended to clarif. the geoh.sical environment and the satial
relationshis among the imortant o!@ects and laces mentioned in the chater. Answer the
following Buestion and locate the following laces on the ma.
2. 1he te?t refers to the regions in which sedentar. agriculture first emerged as core areas.
=ocate the core areas of agriculture for Asia, 0ndia, the %iddle 'ast, Africa, and the
Americas.
9. =a!el at least 7 ma@or river valle.s along which agriculture first arose.
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READING COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS As .ou read the te?t, rovide secific,
concrete answers to each of the following Buestions. 1he Buestions aear in order and age
num!ers will assist .ou. ,rite or t.e .our answer !elow each Buestion. )or grading, 0 will
randoml. select 7 Buestions to evaluate .our overall score. ,e will review and comlete some
Buestions in class. 'ver need helC As/.
!ntro"u#tion$ p%&1'
1. What kinds of challenges did Homo sapiens encounter in their daily
lives?
2. Despite these challenges, identify two positive aspects of Paleolithic
life.
3. What was the greatest achievement of Paleolithic peoples?
. What advancements occurred during the !esolithic period?
". What advancements occurred during the #eolithic period?
The (eolithi# )evolution$ p11&1*
$. Where did agriculture %egin independently? Where did it spread?
&. 's the term (revolution) an appropriate name for this period? *+plain.
,. When faced with the possi%ility of agriculture, how did
hunters-gatherers react? Why?
.. (/griculture set the %asis for more rapid change in human societies)
01tearns, 122. *+plain.
13. Which (age) replaced the #eolithic /ge? When?
11. What %ene4ts did metal tools o5er compared to stone tools? Did
stone tools disappear entirely?
Civilization$ p1*&1+
12. When-where were the earliest, independent centers of
civili6ation?
13. What %ene4ts does writing provide for a civili6ation?
1. What environmental changes occurred with the agricultural
revolution?
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Ti,ris&Euphrates Civilization
1". /long which two rivers did the 4rst civili6ation form
independently?
1$. Which civili6ation developed the 4rst form of writing? When?
Where?
1&. 7o what ma8or science did !esopotamian civili6ations contri%ute?
9ive speci4c contri%utions?
1,. Descri%e characteristics of !esopotamian religions and
architecture?
1.. 7hough your %ook is not very e+plicit 0' will clearly point this out
in class2, take a guess as to how you think the natural environment
in:uenced the cultures of !esopotamia? 7his will %e an important point
of contrast with other civili6ations.
23. What types of social di5erentiation were found in 1umerian city;
states?
21. <se geography to e+plain why the author descri%es the region as
(hard to defend and proved a constant temptation to outside invaders)
01tearns, p 1.2? 7ake a look at a physical map of !esopotamia on page
1& to help you.
22. /lthough the !esopotamian region was fre=uently invaded and
overrun %y outsiders, including 'ndo;*uropeans, what ena%led the
!esopotamian culture to continue?
E,yptian Civilization
23. >ow did *gyptian civili6ation %egin? 0<se the term (cultural
di5usion) in your answer.2
2. ?ontrast *gyptian political structure, art, and religious %eliefs
with those of the !esopotamian civili6ations.
2". What mathematical contri%utions did *gyptians give us?
!n"ian an" Chinese )iver -alley Civilizations
2$. What cities developed along the 'ndus @iver?
2&. What do we know a%out this ancient civili6ation? Why donAt we
know more?
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2,. /long which river did the 4rst ?hinese civili6ation arise?
2.. What type of contact did this civili6ation have with others?
33. ?ontrast ?hinese and *gyptian architecture.
31. 1ome te+ts will refer to the Bia as preceding the 4rst dynastic
line of kings. What was the name for this 4rst dynasty?
The !"ea o. Worl" History in Worl" Histori#al Perspe#tive p/*&/0
32. Crom the ?hinese perspective, how did one transform from
%ar%arian-savage to civili6ed?
33. Who were ?hichimecs and what group was the most famous
?hichimec?
3. Crom the @oman and 9reek perspective, who were the
%ar%arians-savages?
3". 'n recent centuries, civili6ation was viewed as one of several
stages of human development. Who was at the %ottom? 7op?
3$. When did the idea of (civili6ation) adapt a more %iological rather
than cultural tone or de4nition?
3&. When did color %ecome an attri%ute of the idea of civili6ation?
What was the hierarchy?
3,. What did evolutionists such as Darwin %elieve a%out levels of
(civili6ation)?
3.. >ow did *uropeans use a %iological or racial perspective of
civili6ation to 8ustify imperialism in the 1.
th
0and early 23
th
2 century?
3. What forces caused the %iological perspective of civili6ation to
disintegrate in the latter half of the 23
th
century?
1. @ead the last paragraph of the essay on page 2. What
connection can you draw to Dared DiamondAs hypothesis in Guns,
Germs, and Steel?
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The Herita,e o. the )iver -alley Civilizations$ p/0&/1
2. 1ummari6e several accomplishments, or legacies, that the frst
civilizations left for you and me.
3. ?ompare and contrast the link %etween the 4rst civili6ations and
those that followed after 1,333 E?* in ?hina, 'ndia, *gypt, and
!esopotamia?
. What did the Phoenicians contri%ute to later civili6ations?
". What did the Fydians contri%ute to later civili6ations?
$. What is the 4rst monotheistic religion? Where did it develop?
&. Descri%e some %asic %eliefs or values of this monotheistic faith,
as mentioned in your te+t.
,. ?ompare Dehova to gods of the *gyptians and !esopotamians.
The 2e,a#y o. Asia3s First Civilizations$ p/+&/%
.. What is the most signi4cant di5erence %etween the early 'ndian
and ?hinese civili6ations?
"3. What aspects of >arappan civili6ation endured?
"1. Which factors were critical in the failure of the 'ndus civili6ation
to persist?
"2. Why is the ?hinese identity uni=ue compared to the identity of
nearly everyone else in the world?
"3. Which other civili6ations would ?hina go on to in:uence?
". >ow did the geography of the 'ndus region and the Gellow @iver
region in:uence the development of military technology for each
civili6ation? What was the result?
The First Civilizations$ p/4
"". Which early river valley civili6ations (:owed) into succeeding
civili6ations?
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"$. Which early river valley civili6ations (%roke) or (diverted) into
other, sometimes small 0though no less in:uential2, civili6ations years
later?
"&. What sort of trade occurred during this early period of human
history?