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26 2

2006 4

EARTHQUAKE ENG INEER ING AND ENG INEER ING V IBRAT ION

V o .l 26, N o. 2
A pr. 2006

: 1000-1301( 2006) 02- 0001- 07

1, 2

( 1. , 150090; 2. , 150080)

: ,
,
( U BC97) ( EC8)

,
,
,
: ; ;
: P315. 951

: A

State-of-art of applications of strength reduction


factors in seism ic design codes
1

1, 2

Zha i Changha i, X ie L ili

( 1. Schoo l of C ivil Engin eering, H arb in Inst itute of Techno logy, H arb in 150090, Ch in a; 2. Inst itu te of Eng ineering M echan ics,
Ch ina E arthqu ake A dm inistrat ion, H arb in 150080, C h ina)

Abstract: T he force-based se ism ic desig n m ethod is adopted by most of the seism ic codes in th e w orld. In forcebased se ism ic design m ethod, strength reduct io n factors is a key factor in determ in in g se ism ic design force. In th is
paper the prov is ions on the strength reduction factors in US seism ic code ( UBC1997) , Eurcode 8, Japanese Building Standard L aw, M ex ico se ism ic code, Canada seism ic code and Ch in ese seism ic codes are summ ar ized and som e
im portant rem arks on the applicat io n of strength reductio n factors in seism ic codes are presented. A t the end, the
ex ist ing problem s in the fie ld are po in ted, and the trends o f future study are discussed.
K ey w ord s: strength reduction factors, se ism ic design code, reasonable va lu e

( force-based design m ethod) ,


, ,
( strength reductio n factors) ,
,
, ,
, ,
: 2005- 07- 24;

: 2005- 09- 08

: ( 20030213042 ); ( ZJG 03 - 03 )
: ( 1976- ) , , , , .

26

[ 1]

, : UBC ( UBC, 1997)


( R ) ( structural response m odificat io n factor)

( q ) ( behavior facto r)

[ 3]

[ 2]

( EC8, 1994)

( NZS, 1992) ( S p ) ( structura l perfo rm-

[ 4]

[ 6~ 9 ]

ance factor)
( IA EE, 1992) ( 1 /D s ) ( ductility facto r)

C ( ) , ,
( UBC97)
( EC8)

, ,
, ,
, , ,

1
1. 1
UBC97 ( structural response modificat io n factors) R,
R

,
, UBC97
R, 1
1 UBC97 R
T ab le 1 The struc tura l response m odifica tion factors used in U BC 97

bear w all system


w ood light- fram ed wa lls w ith shear pan els

5. 5

concrete or m ason ry shear w alls

4. 5

steel braced fram es

4. 4

heavy t im ber braced fram es

2. 8

bu ild ing fram e system


steel eccen trically b raced fram e

7. 0

w ood light- fram e w alls w ith sh ear panels

6. 5

concrete sh earw al ls

5. 5

m ason ry shear w alls

5. 5

steel ord inary braced fram es

5. 6

heavy t im ber braced fram es

5. 6

s teel special concen trically b raced frames

6. 4

m om en t-res ist ing fram e system s


steel or con crete special m om ent- resist ing fram es

8. 5

m ason ry m om ent- resistance w all fram es

6. 5

s teel special t ru ss m om ent fram e

6. 5

dual system
- con crete shear w alls w ith sm rf ( sp ecia lm om en t- resistance fram e)

8. 5

- m asonry sh ear w alls w ith SM RF

5. 5

- m asonry sh ear w alls w ith m asonry M RW F ( m om ent- res ist ing w all fram e)

6. 0

- steel eccen trical ly braced fram es w ith steel SM RF

8. 5

- steel ord inary b raced fram es w ith steel SM R F

6. 5

- steel sp ecial con cent rically braced fram es w ith steel SM RF

7. 5

inverted pendu lum


cant ilevered column elem ents

2. 2

NEHRP , R = R LR d, R L

, R d , :
, , ,
, , ,
,
, ,
1. 2
EC8 ( behav ior factor) q, EC8: q
5% ,

, ( ductility
classes) ,
q = q0 # kD # kR # kw E 1. 5

( 1)

, q 0 , , 2: ,
q0 , 20% ; kD ,
, kD 1
0. 750. 5; kR , , kR = 1; kR = 0. 8; kw
( factor reflectin g the preva iling failu re m ode in structura l system s w ith w alls) ,
, kw = 1; (
), kw = 1 / ( 2. 5- 0. 5# a0 ), A0
( preva iling aspect ratio )
2 EC8 q0
T able 2 T he behav io r factors q0 used in EC 8

q0

fram e system
dual system

w all system

5. 0
Fram e equ ivalent

5. 0

W all equ ivalen t, w ith coup led w al ls

5. 0

W all equ ivalen t, w ith un coup led w alls

4. 5

w ith coupled w alls

5. 0

w ith uncoup led wa lls

4. 0

core sys tem

3. 5

inverted pendu lum system

2. 0

, ;
, 20% ,
:
q = 5( Au /A1 ) F 8

( 2)

, AuA1
3 EC8
,

[ 10]

, T ab le 3 The behav ior facto rs fo r m asonry struc tures used in EC 8

( overstreng th) (
),

unreinforced m ason ry

1. 5

conf ined m asonry

2. 0

1. 2,

rein forced m asonry

2. 5

1. 67 3
1. 3
( structura l factor) D s ( key response
param eter), 4 D s 1981 ( BSL ) ,
0. 25 0. 5
, D s 0. 3 0. 55, 5 - D s
5 0. 05, 1 /D s,

26

, , ,
,
4 D s

5 D s

T ab le 4 The struc tura l charac teristic factorsD s for

T ab le 5 T he structu ra l character istic factorsD s for

stee l frame used in Japanese code

RC fram e used in Japanese code

( 1 )

( 2 )

( 3) ( 1)
( 2)

( excellen t duct ility)

0. 25

0. 35

0. 30

( good ductil ity)

0. 30

0. 40

( fairly ductility)

0. 35

( poor duct ility)

0. 40

( 1)

( 2)

( 3) ( 1 )
( 2)

( excellent du ct ility)

0. 30

0. 40

0. 35

0. 35

( good du ct ility)

0. 35

0. 45

0. 40

0. 45

0. 40

( fairly ductil ity)

0. 40

0. 50

0. 45

0. 50

0. 45

( poor du ct ility)

0. 45

0. 55

0. 50

1. 4
Q c Q c
, ( , 0. 8 ), :
Qc =

1 + T (Q - 1)
TA

T < TA

( 3)

Q
T E TA
, T , TA (
), Q ( seism ic behav io r factor),

, , Q 1 4
1. 5

( FRF) :
FRF = R /U
( 4)
, U 0. 6, FRF = R L 8, , R L = R, 8 = 1 / 0. 6 = 1. 67, ,
, ( =
R ) ( = 1 /U ) 1. 67
1. 6
6 5 64 6

( 1959)

[ 5]

T able 6 T he structura l influence fac to rsC used in 64cCh inese se ism ic code

[ 6]

) ( 1964)
[ 7]
( T J11- 74) ( )
( T J11- 78)

[ 8]

[ 11 ]

( GB J11- 89)
[ 12]
( GB50011- 2001 ) ,

1 /3
1 /2

1 /3

1 /2
2 / 3~ 1
1 /2
1

5 59 6 C ( ) , 564 6574 6578 6


C , ,
, 8 1 /40,
( 0. 1) , 8 0. 1, ,
,

5 64 6574 6
6
7

7 5 74 6 C
T able 7 T he structura l influence fac to rsC used in
74cCh inese seism ic code

5 78 6 574
6,

, 8 [ 13] T J11- 78
,

0. 30

0. 35

0. 40

5 78 6 C $I

T able 8 T he structural influence factors C and the co rresponding reduction of


earthquake intensity $I used in 78cChinese se ism ic code
C

$I

0. 25
0. 30
0. 30- 0. 35
0. 35- 0. 40
0. 45
0. 45
0. 30
0. 35
0. 40
0. 35
0. 40
0. 50
0. 25

2. 00
1. 74
1. 74 - 1. 51
1. 51 - 1. 32
1. 15
1. 15
1. 74
1. 51
1. 32
1. 51
1. 32
1. 00
2. 00

589 6,
,
,
:

9 5 6
T ab le 9 T he structu ra l influence facto rs C used in Chinese
G enera lR ule fo r Pe rfo rm ance-based Se ism ic D esign of Bu ildings

45
III, 10% ,
( 63% ), ,
1. 55,
3

[ 13]

5 78 6
,
5 2001 6 589 6

, 5 78 6
C , 52001 6

,
,
5
[ 9]
6 578 6
,
, , 9

-
-

-
-
-
-
-

-
-

0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.

25
30
27
27
25
30
55
35
35
38
38
38
38
38
40
40
55
35
38
38
40
45
45
45
45

2
[ 10]

Chia- M ing U ang

NEHRP( 1988) R UBC( 1988) R w


[ 14]

, Eduardo Bertero

26

( NEHRP, 1988; UBC, 1991; Ca ltrans, 1990) , :


, , ,
( overstreng th) , ,
[ 15]

W. K. T so N. Naumosk i ( 1985 N ahanni 1988 Saguenay ) ( NBCC, 1990) ,


: [ 16]
, ( NEHRP, 1991; UBC, 1994)
; ( 1988 Eurocode) ( 1981 Bu ild ing S tandard
L aw ) ( 1987M ex ico C ity Building Code) ;
, : R = R sR LR R, , R s ( per io d-dependent overstrength factor),
R L ( period-dependen t duct ility reduction factor) , R R ( redundancy
facto r)
[ 17 ]
[ 18]
M. F isch in ger Andrew W h ittaker
, , ,
, , , ,
, M. F ischinger

[ 19 ]

: ,

, [ 20] ,
[ 21 ]

L. M. Sa lv tti A. S. E ln asha i : ( EC8)


[ 22 ]
[ 23]
, , A. J. K appos
M. Do lce F. C. Ponzo A. M. Mwa fy
[ 24]

[ 25]

A. S. E ln asha i M ar
a O. M oron i

, : ( Ch ilean seism ic design of Bu ildings, Codes NCh433, D iseo, 1996)


[ 30]
E lana Vassev
,
564 6574 6578 6
, 564 6574 6578 6
[ 31]

[ 26]

( GB50011- 2001) / 0 ( ) I,

/ 0 I- 1. 55, / 0 I+ 1, / 0, / 0 / 0
/ 0,
( T J11- 78)

[ 27]

, , 50 63% 3% 50 10% 1 /3 2
; 50 63% 3% 50 10% 1. 55 1
(

), ,
0. 5
2. 8, 50 63% / 0

[ 28 ]

Po isson,

, ,
,
:
,
, , : / 0 / 0 / 0 1. 55
1. 0, 5 6

R ( C )
[ 9]

[ 29]

3
20 70,
, , ,

, ,
, , ( : ),
(:
) , (:
), ,
, , ,
,
:
[ 1]

U n iform Bu ild ing C ode[ S ]. In ternat ional Con ference of Bu ilding officia,l W h ittier, 1997: 1234~ 1253.

[ 2]

Eurocode 8, D es ign Prov is ions for E arthquak e R es istan ce of S tructu re[ S] . ENV 1998- 1, CEN, Bru ssels, 1994: 854~ 876.

[ 3]

S tandard s N ew Zealand. G eneral s tru ctural des ign and design load ings for bu ild ings[ S ] . N ZS 4203: 1992, Standard N ew Zea land, W ellington,
1992: 352 ~ 397.

[ 4]

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1024.

[ 5]

( ) [ S ]. , 1959: 1~ 54.

[ 6]

( ) [ S] . , 1964: 5~ 47.

[ 7]

, ( TJ11- 74 ) ( ) [ S ] .

[ 8]

, ( TJ11- 78 ) [ S] .

[ 9]

, 5 6 ( ) [ S ] .

[ 10]

Ch ia- M ing U ang. E stab lish ing R ( orR w ) and C d factors for bui ld ing seism ic prov is ion s[ J] . Jou rnal of Stru ctura l Engin eering, 1991, 117( 1 ):

[ 11 ]

G B J11- 89, [ S] .

[ 12 ]

G B5001- 2001, [ S] .

[ 13 ]

G B J11- 89, [ S] .

[ 14 ]

EduardoM iranda, Betero V V. Evaluation of s trength redu ct ion factors for earthquake- resistant d es igns[ J] . E arthqu ake Sp ectra, 1994, 10( 2 ):

19~ 28.

357~ 379.
[ 15]

TsoW K, N aumosk iN. Period-dep endent se ism ic force reduct ion factors for short- period stru ctures[ J] . Canad ian Journa l of C ivil Engin eer ing,

[ 16 ]

A pp lied Techno logy C ounci.l S tructu ral response modif icat ion factors. A TC - 19 R eport[ R ] . A pp lied Technology C ounci,l R edwood C ity, C al-i

[ 17 ]

F ischungerM, Fajfar P, V idic T. Factors con tribu ting to the response reduction. The 5 th N ational Con ference for E arthqu ake Engineering[ C ].

[ 18 ]

A nd rew W h ittaker, G ary H art, Christopher R ojahn. Seism ic response modif icat ion factors[ J] . Journal of S tructural Engin eering, 1999, 125( 4 ):

[ 19 ]

M Fisch inger, P Fa jar. On th e respon sem odif icat ion factors for rein forced concrete bu ild ings. Proceed ings of Fifth U. S. N at iona l Conference of

1991, 18: 568~ 574.

forn ia, 1995: 14~ 65.


Ch icago, U SA, 1994: 97 ~ 106.
438~ 444.
Earthquake Engin eering[ C ] . Ch icago, 1994: 249~ 258.
[ 20 ]

A pp lied Techno logy Counci.l A critical review of current approach to earthquak e res istan t des ign [ R ] . ATC - 34 R eport, A ppl ied Technology
Coun ci,l R edw ood C ity, C aliforn ia, 1995: 25 ~ 68.

[ 21 ]

Salvtti LM, E lnash aiA S. Evaluat ion of b ehavior factor for rc bu ildings by non lin ear dyn am ics analysis. Proceed ings of 11th W orld C on feren ce on
earthqu ake E ngineering[ C ] . A capu lco, M exico, 1996, N o. 1820.

[ 22 ]

A J K appos. Evaluation of behavior factors on the basis of duct ility and overst rength s tud ies[ J]. Eng ineering S tructu res, 1999, 21: 823 ~ 835.

[ 23 ]

M D o lce, F C Ponzo. N on- lin ear seism ic response of EC8 d es igned RC bu ild ing stru ctures[ J] . Jou rn al of E arth quak e E ngineering, 2002, 6

[ 24 ]

A M M w afy, A S E lnasha.i Cal ibrat ion of force reduction factors of RC bu ild ings[ J] . Journal of E arthquake Engin eering, 2002, 6 ( 2 ): 239~

[ 25]

M aria O. M oron ,i M axim ilianoA stroza, Juan Gm ez, R afael G uzm n. E atim ating R w and C d factors for conf ined m asonary bu ild ings[ J] . Jouran al

( 3) : 357 ~ 373.

273.
of Stru ctural Engin eering, 1996, 122( 10 ) : 1208~ 1215.
[ 26 ]

, , . [ J]. , 2002, 32( 1 ) : 37~ 40.

[ 27 ]

, . [ J] . , 1997, 17 ( 2) : 27~ 36.

[ 28 ]

, . [ J] . , 2000, 20 ( 2) : 1~ 6.

[ 29 ]

, . [ J] . , 2000, 22( sup. ) : 192~ 200.

[ 30 ]

E lan a V asseva, G eorg io Fran ch ion,i E vgency K rustev. S eism ic des ign of R /C fram e: A n assessm en t of b ehavior factor and com parison of Eu ro-

[ 31 ]

. [ S ] . 5 6, 2003: 123~ 154.

code 8 and Bu lgarian Seism ic Code. 12W CEE [ C] , A u cland, N ew Zealand, 2000, N o. 562.