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DEVELOPMENT AND ANALYSIS OF AUTOMOTIVE GEAR USING ALUMINIUM MATRIX COMPOSITES

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CHAPTER-1
INTRODUCTION










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INTRODUCTION
1.1- INTRODUCTION TO LIGHT WEIGHT AUTOMOBILE:
Material competition in the automotive market has been traditionally intensive. Steel has been
the dominant material used in building automobiles since the 1920s. What types of materials are
likely to be winners in the 21st century?
The automotive manufacturers decisions on materials usage are complex and are determined by
a number of factors. The increasing requirement to improve fuel economy triggered by concerns
about global warming and energy usage has a significant influence on the choice of materials.
For- Example
The US government regulations mandate that the automotive companies.
a)-Reduce vehicle exhaust emissions.
b)-Improve occupant safety.
c)-Reduce fuel consumptions.
To meet this requirement, automotive manufacturers are making efforts to improve conventional
engine efficiency, to develop new power trains such as hybrid systems and to reduce vehicle
weight.
Weight reduction is particularly important because average vehicle weight is expected to
increase since the automobile industry will continue to market new models with increased
luxury, convenience, performance, and safety as demanded by their customers. Safety features
such as anti-block systems, air bags, and increasing safety body structure contribute to vehicle
weight gain. Although, the car companies have responded to this by improving design and power
train efficiency, these incremental improvements have not yet enabled a significant reduction in
overall weight. If this is to be achieved, there will have to be a radical increase in the use of light
weight materials. A rule of thumb is that 10% weight reduction approximately equals a 5.5%

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improvement in fuel economy. An important fact is that weight reduction has a ripple effect on
fuel efficiency.
For example- weight reduction enables the manufacture to develop the same vehicle performance
with a smaller engine, and such a smaller engine enables the use of a smaller transmission and a
smaller fuel tank. With this ripple effect, it is estimated that 10% of vehicle weight reduction
results in 810% of fuel economy improvement.
In conclusion, automotive materials can have an important impact on the environment. In a
vehicle, every pound of aluminum that replaces two pounds of steel can save 20 pounds of CO2
from being emitted. The use of lightweight materials can help reduce vehicle weight and
improve fuel economy. The pressure for weight reduction has driven a gradual decrease in the
amount of steel and cast iron used in vehicles and the corresponding increase in the amount of
alternative materials, especially aluminium and plastics.
VEHICLE WEIGHT TRENDS
As size increases and more safety, performance and luxury features are added to vehicles, they
continue to increase in weight. Since 1990, the weight of a typical family vehicle has steadily
risen from 3140.5 pounds to 3357.5 pounds.

A specific example of the increasing weight trend is
the VW GTI. The original version of the GTI, introduced in 1976, weighed 1804 pounds, while
the latest version weighs 2939 pounds. This increase represents a weight gain of approximately
40% over the 18-year life of the GTI. The original VW Golf is a substantially larger vehicle than
the current Smart sub-compact, yet the Smart weighs slightly more than the Golf.
Simultaneous to the weight increase trend, there has also been an increase use of aluminum
castings, which has partially offset further weight increases. The typical family vehicle (i.e. cars,
minivans, SUVs and light trucks) has increased in its aluminum casting content from 92.3
pounds in 1978 to 240 pounds in 2002.

FUEL REDUCTION POTENTIAL ON REDUCED WEIGHT
A vehicle that uses less fuel produces fewer greenhouse gas emissions. Over the average lifetime
of a vehicle, every pound of aluminum that replaces two pounds of steel can save 20 pounds of
CO2 from being emitted. Using aluminum to cut a vehicle's weight by 10% can boost its fuel

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economy up to 8%, or as much as 2.5 extra miles per gallon. BMW studied vehicle weight
reduction through the use of aluminum and reported fuel savings of between five and ten percent
for each 10 percent reduction in weight. The Argonne National Laboratory also studied vehicle
light weighting and reported a fuel savings of 6.6 percent for every 10 percent reduction in
weight.TP 4PT A 6 to 8% fuel savings can be realized for every 10% reduction in weight from
substituting aluminum for steel. Aluminum absorbs nearly twice as much energy as steel, and
during a crash, aluminum folds like an accordion, letting the vehicle - not its passengers - absorb
more of the crash forces. Lighter vehicles generally accelerate quicker and require shorter
stopping distances than heavier vehicles. Aluminum castings have been critical to automakers
meeting or exceeding federally mandated CAF standards. It is estimated that lightweight
castings have increased the CAF fuel efficiency by 5% over the last ten years.

1.2- BACKGROUND:

1.2.1- ALUMINUM:
According to Jefferson Lab, "Scientists suspected than an unknown metal existed in alum as
early as 1787, but they did not have a way to extract it until 1825. Hans Christian Oersted, a
Danish chemist, was the first to produce tiny amounts of aluminum. Two years later, Friedrich
Wohler, a German chemist, developed a different way to obtain the metal. By 1845, he was able
to produce samples large enough to determine some of aluminum's basic properties. Wohlers
method was improved in 1854 by Henri Etienne Sainte-Claire Deville, a French chemist.
Deville's process allowed for the commercial production of aluminum. As a result, the price of
the metal dropped from around $1200 per kilogram in 1852 to around $40 per kilogram in 1859.
Unfortunately, the metal remained too expensive to be widely used.
Aluminium (or aluminum) is a chemical element in the boron group with symbol Al and
atomic 13. It is a silvery white, soft, ductile metal. Aluminium is the third most abundant
element (after oxygen and silicon), and the most abundant metal, in the Earths crust. It makes up
about 8% by weight of the Earth's solid surface. Aluminium metal is so chemically reactive that
native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is found
combined in over 270 different minerals. The chief ore of aluminium is bauxite.

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Aluminium is remarkable for the metal's low density and for its ability to resist corrosion due to
the phenomenon of passivation. Structural components made from aluminium and its alloys are
vital to the aerospace industry and are important in other areas of transportation and structural
materials. The most useful compounds of aluminium, at least on a weight basis, are the oxides
and sulfates.
PHYSICAL
Aluminium is a relatively soft, durable, lightweight, ductile and malleable metal with appearance
ranging from silvery to dull gray, depending on the surface roughness. It is nonmagnetic and
does not easily ignite. The yield strength of pure aluminium is 711 MPa, while aluminium
alloys have yield strengths ranging from 200 MPa to 600 MPa.

Aluminium has one third in
density and stiffness of steel. It is easily machined, cast, drawn and extruded.
Aluminium is a good thermal and electrical conductor, having 59% the conductivity of copper,
both thermal and electrical, while having only 30% of copper's density. Aluminium is capable of
being a superconductor, with a superconducting critical temperature of 1.2 Kelvin and a critical
magnetic field of about 100 gauss (10milliteslas).
CHEMICAL
Corrosion resistance can be excellent due to a thin surface layer of aluminium oxide that forms
when the metal is exposed to air, effectively preventing further oxidation. The strongest
aluminium alloys are less corrosion resistant due to galvanic reactions with alloyed copper. This
corrosion resistance is also often greatly reduced by aqueous salts, particularly in the presence of
dissimilar metals. Owing to its resistance to corrosion, aluminium is one of the few metals that
retain silvery reflectance in finely powdered form, making it an important component of silver-
colored paints. Aluminium mirror finish has the highest reflectance of any metal in the 200
400 nm (UV) and the 3,00010,000 nm (far IR) regions; in the 400700 nm visible range it is
slightly outperformed by tin and silver and in the 7003000 (near IR) by silver, gold and copper.
RECYCLING
Aluminium is theoretically 100% recyclable without any loss of its natural qualities. According
to the International Metal Stocks in Society report, the global per capita stock of aluminium in
use in society (i.e. in cars, buildings, electronics etc.) is 80 kg. Much of this is in more-developed

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countries (350500 kg per capita) rather than less-developed countries (35 kg per capita).
In Europe aluminium experiences high rates of recycling, ranging from 42% of beverage cans,
85% of construction materials and 95% of transport vehicles.
Recycled aluminium is known as secondary aluminium, but maintains the same physical
properties as primary aluminium. Secondary aluminium is produced in a wide range of formats
and is employed in 80% of alloy injections.

1.2.2-ALUMINUM ALLOY:
Aluminium alloys are alloys in which aluminium (Al) is the predominant metal. The typical
alloying elements are copper, magnesium, manganese, silicon and zinc.
There are two principal classifications, namely casting alloys and wrought alloys, both of which
are further subdivided into the categories heat-treatable and non-heat-treatable. Alloys composed
mostly of the two lightweight metals aluminium and magnesium have been very important
in aerospace manufacturing since somewhat before 1940. Aluminium-magnesium alloys are both
lighter than other aluminium alloys and much less flammable than alloys that contain a very high
percentage of Selecting the right alloy for a given application entails considerations of its tensile
strength, density, ductility, formability, workability, weld ability, and corrosion resistance.
Aluminium alloys typically have an elastic modulus of about 70 GPa, which is about one-third of
the elastic modulus of most kinds of steel and steel alloys. Therefore, for a given load, a
component or unit made of an aluminium alloy will experience a greater elastic deformation than
a steel part of the identical size and shape. Though there are aluminium alloys with somewhat-
higher tensile strengths than the commonly used kinds of steel, simply replacing a steel part with
an aluminium alloy might lead to problems.
Aluminium alloys are widely used in automotive engines, particularly in cylinder
blocks and crankcases due to the weight savings that are possible. Since aluminium alloys are
susceptible to warping at elevated temperatures, the cooling system of such engines is critical.
WROUGHT ALLOYS
The International Alloy Designation System is the most widely accepted naming scheme for

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wrought alloys. Each alloy is given a four-digit number, where the first digit indicates the major
alloying elements.
1000 series are essentially pure aluminium with a minimum 99% aluminium content by
weight and can be work hardened.
2000 series are alloyed with copper, can be precipitation hardened to strengths
comparable to steel. Formerly referred to as duralumin, they were once the most common
aerospace alloys, but were susceptible to stress corrosion cracking and are increasingly
replaced by 7000 series in new designs.
3000 series are alloyed with manganese, and can be work hardened.
4000 series are alloyed with silicon. They are also known as sliming.
5000 series are alloyed with magnesium.
6000 series are alloyed with magnesium and silicon, are easy to machine, and can be
precipitation hardened, but not to the high strengths that 2000 and 7000 can reach.
7000 series are alloyed with zinc, and can be precipitation hardened to the highest
strengths of any aluminium alloy.
8000 series is a category mainly used for lithium alloys
USES:
5000 series

Aluminium alloy 5005 is used in decorative and architectural applications that require an
anodized finish.
Aluminium alloys 5052, 5251, and 5754 are very similar grades, only differing in the
amount of magnesium. 5052 has 2.5% magnesium and is commonly used in the U.S.;
5251 has 2% magnesium and is commonly used in the UK; and 5754 has 3% magnesium
and is commonly used in Europe. Due to their formability, corrosion resistance and weld
ability these grades are commonly used in pressure vessels, tanks, fitting, boat hulls, and
van bodies. Their salt water corrosion resistance is better than the 1200 grade and their
strength is better than the 3003 grade.
Aluminium alloy 5083 is an aluminium alloy suitable for cryogenic applications down to
design temperatures of 165 C (265 F), since alloys of this type do not show

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the transition phenomenon. This alloy is also common for the marine applications such as
body materials for ships, underwater vehicles etc.

6000 series

6061-T6 is one of the most commonly used 6000 series aluminum alloys (see 6061
aluminium alloy)
6063 is an aluminium alloy, with magnesium and silicon as the alloying elements. The
standard controlling its composition is maintained by The Aluminum Association. It has
generally good mechanical properties and is heat treatable and wieldable. It is similar to
the British aluminium alloy HE9.
6063 is mostly used in extruded shapes for architecture, particularly window frames, door
frames, roofs, and sign frames. It is typically produced with very smooth surfaces fit for
anodizing.
1.2.3- SILICON CARBIDE:
Non-systematic, less-recognized, and often unverified syntheses of silicon carbide were reported
early, J. J. Berzelius's reduction of potassium fluorosilicate by potassium (1810); Charles
Mansute Deserets (17921863) passing an electric current through a carbon rod embedded in
sand (1849); Robert Sydney Marsden's (18561919) dissolution of silica in molten silver in a
graphite crucible (1881); Albert Colson's heating of silicon under a stream of ethylene (1882);
and Paul Schuetzenberger's heating of a mixture of silicon and silica in a graphite crucible
(1881).Nevertheless, wide-scale production is credited to Edward Goodrich Acheson in 1890.
Acheson was attempting to prepare artificial diamonds when he heated a mixture of clay
(aluminum silicate) and powdered coke (carbon) in an iron bowl. He called the blue crystals that
Formed Carborundum, believing it to be a new compound of carbon and aluminum, similar to
corundum. In 1893, Henri Moissan discovered the very rare naturally-occurring SiC mineral
while examining rock samples found in the Canyon Diablo meteorite in Arizona. The mineral
was named moissanite in his honor. Moissan also synthesized SiC by several routes, including:
the dissolution of carbon in molten silicon; melting a mixture of calcium carbide and silica; and
by reducing silica with carbon in an electric furnace. However, Moissan ascribed the original

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discovery of SiC to Acheson in 1903. Because of the rarity of natural moissanite, most silicon carbide
is synthetic. It is used as an abrasive, and more recently as a semiconductor and diamond stimulant of
gem quality. The simplest manufacturing process is to combine silica sand and carbon in an Acheson
graphite electric resistance furnace at a high temperature, between 1600 and 2500 C. Fine SiO
2
particles
in plant material (e.g. rice husks) can be converted to SiC by heating in the excess carbon from the
organic material. The silica fume, which is a byproduct of producing silicon metal and ferrosilicon alloys,
also can be converted to SiC by heating with graphite.
TABLE 1.1 SILICON CARBIDE PROPERTIES
Mechanical
SI/Metric
(Imperial) SI/Metric (Imperial)
Density gm/cc (lb/ft
3
) 3.1 (193.5)
Porosity % (%) 0 (0)
Color black
Flexural
Strength
MPa (lb/in
2
x10
3
) 550 (80)
Elastic Modulus GPa (lb/in
2
x10
6
) 410 (59.5)
Shear Modulus GPa (lb/in
2
x10
6
)
Bulk Modulus GPa (lb/in
2
x10
6
)
Poissons Ratio 0.14 (0.14)
Compressive
Strength
MPa (lb/in
2
x10
3
) 3900 (566)
Hardness Kg/mm
2
2800
Fracture
Toughness K
IC

MPam
1/2
4.6
Maximum Use
Temperature
(no load)
C (F) 1650 (3000)
Thermal


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Thermal
Conductivity
W/mK
(BTUin/ft
2
hrF)
120 (830)
Coefficient of
Thermal
Expansion
10
6
/C (10
6
/F) 4.0 (2.2)
Specific Heat
J/KgK
(Btu/lbF)
750 (0.18)
Electrical

Dielectric
Strength
ac-kv/mm
(volts/mil)
semiconductor

1.2.4-COMPOSITES:
Mankind has been aware composite materials since several hundred years before Christ and
applied innovation to improve the quality of life. Although it is not clear has to how Man
understood the fact that mud bricks made sturdier houses if lined with straw, he used them to
make buildings that lasted. Ancient Pharaohs made their slaves use bricks with to straw to
enhance the structural integrity of their buildings, some of which testify to wisdom of the dead
civilization even today.
Contemporary composites results from research and innovation from past few decades have
progressed from glass fiber for automobile bodies to particulate composites for aerospace and a
range other applications.
A composite material is a material made up of two or more materials that are combined in a way
that allows the materials to stay distinct and identifiable. The purpose of composites is to allow
the new material to have strengths from both materials, often times covering the original
materials' weaknesses. Composites are different from alloys because alloys are combined in such
a way that it is impossible to tell one particle, element, or substance from the other. Some
common composite materials include concrete, fiberglass, mud bricks, and natural composites
such as rock and wood.

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1.2.5- CLASSIFICATION OF COMPOSITES:
Composite materials are commonly classified at following two distinct levels:
The first level of classification is usually made with respect to the matrix constituent.

1.2.6- POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITES (PMCS):
Polymers make ideal materials as they can be processed easily, possess lightweight, and
desirable mechanical properties. It follows, therefore, that high temperature resins are
extensively used in aeronautical applications.
Two main kinds of polymers are thermo sets and thermoplastics. Thermo sets have qualities such
as a well-bonded three-dimensional molecular structure after curing. They decompose instead of
melting on hardening. Merely changing the basic composition of the resin is enough to alter the
conditions suitably for curing and determine its other characteristics. They can be retained in a
partially cured condition too over prolonged periods of time, rendering Thermo sets very
flexible. Thus, they are most suited as matrix bases for advanced conditions fiber reinforced
composites.
Thermoplastics have one- or two-dimensional molecular structure and they tend to at an elevated
temperature and show exaggerated melting point. Another advantage is that the process of
softening at elevated temperatures can reversed to regain its properties during cooling,
facilitating applications of conventional compress techniques to mould the compounds.
Resins reinforced with thermoplastics now comprised an emerging group of composites. The
theme of most experiments in this area to improve the base properties of the resins and extract
the greatest functional advantages from them in new avenues, including attempts to replace
metals in die-casting processes. In crystalline thermoplastics, the reinforcement affects the
morphology to a considerable extent, prompting the reinforcement to empower nucleation.
Whenever crystalline or amorphous, these resins possess the facility to alter their creep over an
extensive range of temperature. But this range includes the point at which the usage of resins is
constrained, and the reinforcement in such systems can increase the failure load as well as creep
resistance.


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Fig 1.1 kinds of thermoplastics

1.2.7-METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES (MMCS):
Metal matrix composites, at present though generating a wide interest in research fraternity, are
not as widely in use as their plastic counterparts. High strength, fracture toughness and stiffness
are offered by metal matrices than those offered by their polymer counterparts. They can
withstand elevated temperature in corrosive environment than polymer composites. Most metals
and alloys could be used as matrices and they require reinforcement materials which need to be
stable over a range of temperature and non-reactive too. However the guiding aspect for the
choice depends essentially on the matrix material. Light metals form the matrix for temperature
application and the reinforcements in addition to the aforementioned reasons are characterized by
high moduli.
Most metals and alloys make good matrices. However, practically, the choices for low
temperature applications are not many. Only light metals are responsive, with their low density
proving an advantage. Titanium, Aluminium and magnesium are the popular matrix metals
currently in vogue, which are particularly useful for aircraft applications. If metallic matrix
materials have to offer high strength, they require high modulus reinforcements. The strength-to-
weight ratios of resulting composites can be higher than most alloys.
The melting point, physical and mechanical properties of the composite at various temperatures
determine the service temperature of composites. Most metals, ceramics and compounds can be
used with matrices of low melting point alloys. The choice of reinforcements becomes more
stunted with increase in the melting temperature of matrix materials.

Thermoplastics
Polyethylene Polystyrene Polyamides Nylons Polypropylene

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ADVANTAGES OF MMCS
Higher strength-to-density ratios.
Higher stiffness-to-density ratios.
Better fatigue resistance.
Better elevated temperature properties.

THE ADVANTAGES OF MMCS OVER POLYMER MATRIX
COMPOSITES ARE:
Higher temperature capability.
Fire resistance.
Higher transverse stiffness and strength.
No moisture absorption.
Higher electrical and thermal conductivities.
Better radiation resistance.
DISADVANTAGES OF MMCS:
Some of the disadvantages of MMCs compared to polymer matrix composites are:
Higher cost of some material systems
Relatively immature technology
Complex fabrication methods for fiber-reinforced systems (except for casting)
Limited service experience.

1.2.8-CERAMIC MATRIX COMPOSITES (CMCS):
Ceramics can be described as solid materials which exhibit very strong ionic bonding in general
and in few cases covalent bonding. High melting points, good corrosion resistance, stability at
elevated temperatures and high compressive strength, render ceramic-based matrix materials a
favorite for applications requiring a structural material that doesnt give way at temperatures
above 1500C. Naturally, ceramic matrices are the obvious choice for high temperature
applications. High modulus of elasticity and low tensile strain, which most ceramics posses, have
combined to cause the failure of attempts to add reinforcements to obtain strength improvement.

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A material is reinforcement to utilize the higher tensile strength of the fiber, to produce an
increase in load bearing capacity of the matrix. Addition of high-strength fiber to a weaker
ceramic has not always been successful and often the resultant composite has proved to be
weaker.
When ceramics have a higher thermal expansion coefficient than reinforcement materials, the
resultant composite is unlikely to have a superior level of strength. In that case, the composite
will develop strength within ceramic at the time of cooling resulting in micro cracks extending
from fiber to fiber within the matrix. Micro cracking can result in a composite with tensile
strength lower than that of the matrix.

1.2.9 - CARBON MATRIX COMPOSITES (CMCS):
Carbon and graphite have a special place in composite materials options, both being highly
superior, high temperature materials with strengths and rigidity that are not affected by
temperature up to 2300C. This carbon-carbon composite is fabricated through compaction of
carbon or multiple impregnations of porous frames with liquid carbonized precursors and
subsequent pyrolization. They can also be manufactured through chemical vapour deposition of
paralytic carbon. However, their capacity to retain their properties at room temperature as well as
at temperature in the range of 2400C and their dimensional stability make them the oblivious
choice in a garnet of applications related to aeronautics, military, industry and space.
Components, that are exposed to higher temperature and on which the demands for high standard
performance are many, are most likely to have carbon-carbon composites used in them.

1.2.10- GLASS MATRIX COMPOSITES (GMCS):
In comparison to ceramics and even considered on their own merit, glass matrices are found to
be more reinforcement-friendly. The various manufacturing methods of polymers can be used for
glass matrices. Glasses are meant to improve upon performance of several applications. Glass
matrix composite with high strength and modulus can be obtained and they can be maintained up
to temperature of the order of 650C.

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Composites with glass matrices are considered superior in dimensions to polymer or metal
system, due to the low thermal expansion behavior. This property allows fabrication of many
components in intricate shapes and their tribological characters are considered very special.
Since the elastic modulus of glass is far lower than of any prospective reinforcement materials,
application of stress usually results in high elasticity modulus fiber that the tensile strength of the
composite its considerably enhanced than that of the constituents, which is not case in ceramic
matrices
The second level of classification refers to the reinforcement form:

1.2.11-REINFORCEMENTS:
Reinforcements for the composites can be fibers, fabrics particles or whiskers. Fibers are
essentially characterized by one very long axis with other two axes either often circular or near
circular. Particles have no preferred orientation and so does their shape. Whiskers have a
preferred shape but are small both in diameter and length as compared to fibers. Figure 1.4
shows types of reinforcements in composites. Reinforcing constituents in composites, as the
word indicates, provide the strength that makes the composite what it is. But they also serve
certain additional purposes of heat resistance or conduction, resistance to corrosion and provide
rigidity. Reinforcement can be made to perform all or one of these functions as per the
requirements. A reinforcement that embellishes the matrix strength must be stronger and stiffer
than the matrix and capable of changing failure mechanism to the advantage of the composite.
This means that the ductility should be minimum or even nil the composite must behave as brittle
as possible.
1.2.12-FIBRE REINFORCED COMPOSITES:
Fibers are the important class of reinforcements, as they satisfy the desired conditions and
transfer strength to the matrix constituent influencing and enhancing their properties as desired.
Glass fibers are the earliest known fibers used to reinforce materials. Ceramic and metal fibers
were subsequently found out and put to extensive use, to render composites Stiffer more resistant
to heat. Fibers fall short of ideal performance due to several factors. The performance of a fiber
composite is judged by its length, shape, and orientation, composition of the fibers and the
mechanical properties of the matrix. In very strong matrices, moduli and strengths have not been

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observed. Application of the strength of the composites with such matrices and several
orientations is also possible. Given the fact that the vast difference in length and effective dia.













Fig-1.2 types of reinforcements
of the fiber are assets to a fiber composite, it follows that greater strength in the fiber can be
achieved by smaller diameters due to minimization or total elimination of surface of surface
defects. After flat-thin filaments came into vogue, fibers rectangular cross sections have provided
new options for applications in high strength structures. Owing to their shapes, these fibers
provide perfect packing, while hollow fibers show better structural efficiency in composites that
are desired for their stiffness and compressive strengths. In hollow fibers, the transverse
compressive strength is lower than that of a solid fiber composite whenever the hollow portion is
more than half the total fiber diameter. However, they are not easy to handle and fabricate.
Reinforcements
Fibers Filled Whiskers Flake Particulates Directionally
Soeutectics
lidified
Particle filled
Microspores
Solid Hollow

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1.2.13-TYPES OF FIBERS:
Organic and inorganic fibers are used to reinforce composite materials. Almost all organic fibers
have low density, flexibility, and elasticity. Inorganic fibers are of high modulus, high thermal
stability and possess greater rigidity than organic fibers and notwithstanding the diverse
advantages of organic fibers which render the composites in which they are used. Mainly, the
following different types of fibers namely, glass fibers, silicon carbide fibers, high silica and
quartz fibers, alumina fibers, metal fibers and wires, graphite fibers, boron fibers, aramid fibers
and multiphase fibers are used. Among the glass fibers, it is again classified into E-glass, A-
glass, R-glass etc. There is a greater marker and higher degree of commercial movement of
organic fibers. The potential of fibers of graphite, silica carbide and boron are also exercising
the scientific mind due to their applications in advanced composites.
I. GLASS FIBERS:
Over 95% of the fibers used in reinforced plastics are glass fibers, as they are inexpensive, easy
to manufacture and possess high strength and stiffness with respect to the plastics with which
they are reinforced. Their low density, resistance to chemicals, insulation capacity are other
bonus characteristics, although the one major disadvantage in glass is that it is prone to break
when subjected to high tensile stress for a long time. This property mitigates the effective
strength of glass especially when glass is expected to sustain loads for many months or years
continuously. Addition of chemicals to silica sand while making glass yields different types of
glasses.

II. METALS FIBERS:
As reinforcement, metal fibers have many advantages. They are easily produced using several
fabrication processes and are more ductile, apart from being not too sensitive to surface damage
and possess high strengths and temperature resistance. However, their weight and the tendency
to react each other through alloying mechanisms are major disadvantages. Metal wires, of the
continuous version; also reinforce plastics like polyethylene and epoxy temperature and the
resultant steep variations of thermal expansion coefficient with the resins are a discouragement
that limits their application.

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III. ALUMINA FIBERS:
Alumina aluminium oxide fibers, basically developed for use in metal matrices are considered a
potential resin-matrix composite reinforcement. It offers good compressive strength rather than
tensile strength. Its important property is its high melting point of about 2000C and the
composite can be successfully used at temperature up to about 1000C. Magnesium and
aluminum matrices frequently use alumina fiber reinforced composites as they do not damage
the fiber even in the liquid state.

IV. BORON FIBERS:
They are basically composites, in which boron is coated on a substance which forms the
substrate, usually made of tungsten. Boron-tungsten fibers are obtained by allowing hot tungsten
filament through a mixture of gases. The tungsten however remains constant in its thickness.
Properties of boron fibers generally change with the diameter, because of the changing ratio of
boron to tungsten and the surface defects that change according to size. Boron coated carbons are
much cheaper to make than boron tungsten fiber. But is low modulus of elasticity often works
against it.

V. SILICON CARBIDE FIBERS:
Silicon carbide can be coated over a few metals and their room temperature tensile strengths and
tensile moduli are like those boron-tungsten. The advantages of silicon carbide-tungsten are
several and are more desirable than uncoated boron tungsten fibers. However, Silicon carbide-
tungsten fibers are dense compared to boron-tungsten fibers of the same diameters. They are
prone to surface damage and need careful, delicate handling, especially during fabrication of the
composite. Further, above 930C weakening reactions occur between tungsten and silicon
carbide, making it different to maintain balance in high-temperature matrix formations. Silicon
carbide on carbon substrates have several advantages, viz. no reaction at high temperature, being
lighter than silicon carbide tungsten and possessing tensile strengths and modulus that is are
often better than those of silicon carbide-tungsten and boron fibers.



DEVELOPMENT AND ANALYSIS OF AUTOMOTIVE GEAR USING ALUMINIUM MATRIX COMPOSITES
19

VI. QUARTZ AND SILICA FIBERS:
The glass-types typically contain about 50 to 70% silica. Quartz is even more pure, and quartz
fibers are made from natural quartz crystals that contain 99.9% silica, possessing nearly all the
properties of pure solid quartz. They are highly elastic and can be stretched to 1% of their length
before break point. Both silica and quartz are not affected by acid attacks and are resistant to
moisture. Owing to their thermal properties, silica and quartz are the natural choice as fibers in
several applications. They have good insulting properties and do not melt at temperature up to
1600C. In addition, they have a low thermal expansion coefficient which makes them withstand
high temperatures.

VII. GRAPHITE FIBERS:
While use of the term carbon for graphite is permissible, there is one basic difference between
the two. Element analysis of poly-acryl-nitride (PAN) base carbon fibers show that they consist
of 91 to 94% carbon. But graphite fibers are over 99% carbon. The difference arises from the
fact that the fibers are made at different temperatures PAN-based carbon cloth or fiber is
produced at about 1320C, while graphite fibers and cloth are graphitized at 1950 to 3000C.
Cheaper pitch base fiber are now being developed, with greater performance potential and there
are possibilities of the increased use of graphite fibers.

VIII. MULTIPHASE FIBERS:
Spool able filaments made by chemical vapors deposition processes are usually the multiphase
variety and they usually comprise materials like boron, silicon and their carbides formed on
surface of a very fine filament substrate like carbon or tungsten. They are usually good for high
temperature applications, due to their reduced reaction with higher melting temperature of metals
than graphite and other metallic fibers. Boron filaments are sought after for structural and
intermediate-temperature composites. A poly-phase fiber is a core-sheath fiber consisting of a
poly-crystalline core.
1.2.14-LAMINAR COMPOSITES:
Laminar composites are found in as many combinations as the number of materials. They can be
described as materials comprising of layers of materials bonded together. These may be of

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20

several layers of two or more metal materials occurring alternately or in a determined order more
than once, and in as many numbers as required for a specific purpose. Clad and sandwich
laminates have many areas as it ought to be, although they are known to follow the rule of
mixtures from the modulus and strength point of view. Other intrinsic values pertaining to metal-
matrix, metal-reinforced composites are also fairly well known.

1.2.15-FLAKE COMPOSITES:
Flakes are often used in place of fibers as can be densely packed. Metal flakes that are in close
contact with each other in polymer matrices can conduct electricity or heat, while mica flakes
and glass can resist both. Flakes are not expensive to produce and usually cost less than fibers.
Flakes have various advantages over fibers in structural applications. Parallel flakes filled
composites provide uniform mechanical properties in the same plane as the flakes. While angle-
plying is difficult in continuous fibers which need to approach isotropic properties, it is not so in
flakes. Flake composites have a higher theoretical modulus of elasticity than fiber reinforced
composites. They are relatively cheaper to produce and be handled in small quantities.
1.2.16-FILLED COMPOSITES:
Filled composites result from addition of filer materials to plastic matrices to replace a portion of
the matrix, enhance or change the properties of the composites. The fillers also enhance strength
and reduce weight. Another type of filled composite is the product of structure infiltrated with a
second-phase filler material. The skeleton could be a group of cells, honeycomb structures, like a
network of open pores. The infiltrated could also be independent of the matrix and yet bind the
components like powders or fibers, or they could just be used to fill voids. Fillers produced from
powders are also considered as particulate composite.

1.2.17-PARTICULATE REINFORCED COMPOSITES:
Microstructures of metal and ceramics composites, which show particles of one phase strewn in
the other, are known as particle reinforced composites. Square, triangular and round shapes of
reinforcement are known, but the dimensions of all their sides are observed to be more or less
equal. The size and volume concentration of the dispersion distinguishes it from dispersion
hardened materials.

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21

In particulate composites, the particles strengthen the system by the hydrostatic coercion of
fillers in matrices and by their hardness relative to the matrix. Three-dimensional reinforcement
in composites offers isotropic properties, because of the three systematical orthogonal planes.
Since it is not homogeneous, the material properties acquire sensitivity to the constituent
properties, as well as the interfacial properties and geometric shapes of the array. The
composites strength usually depends on the diameter of the particles, the inter-particle spacing,
and the volume fraction of the reinforcement. The matrix properties influence the behavior of
particulate composite too.

1.2.18-COMPARISON WITH METALS:
Requirements governing the choice of materials apply to both metals and reinforced plastics. It
is, therefore, imperative to briefly compare main characteristics of the two.
Composites offer significant weight saving over existing metals. Composites can provide
structures that are 25-45% lighter than the conventional aluminium structures designed to
meet the same functional requirements. This is due to the lower density of the
composites.
Depending on material form, composite densities range from 1260 to 1820 kg/in
3
(0.045 to 0.065
lb/in
3
) as compared to 2800 kg/in
3
(0.10 lb/in
3
) for aluminium. Some applications may require
thicker composite sections to meet strength/stiffness requirements, however, weight savings will
still result.
Unidirectional fiber composites have specific tensile strength (ratio of material strength
to density) about 4 to 6 times greater than that of steel and aluminium.
Unidirectional composites have specific -modulus (ratio of the material stiffness to
density) about 3 to 5 times greater than that of steel and aluminium.
Fatigue endurance limit of composites may approach 60% of their ultimate tensile
strength. For steel and aluminium, this value is considerably lower.
Fiber composites are more versatile than metals, and can be tailored to meet performance
needs and complex design requirements such as aero-elastic loading on the wings and the
vertical & the horizontal stabilizers of aircraft.

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22

Fiber reinforced composites can be designed with excellent structural damping features.
As such, they are less noisy and provide lower vibration transmission than metals.
High corrosion resistance of fiber composites contributes to reduce life- cycle cost.
Composites offer lower manufacturing cost principally by reducing significantly the
number of detailed parts and expensive technical joints required to form large metal
structural components. In other words, composite parts can eliminate joints/fasteners
thereby providing parts simplification and integrated design.
Long term service experience of composite material environment and durability behavior
is limited in comparison with metals.

1.2.19-ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGE OF COMPOSITES:

ADVANTAGES
The advantages exhibited by composite materials, which are of significant use in aerospace and
automobile industry are as follows:
High resistance to fatigue and corrosion degradation.
High strength or stiffness to weight ratio. As enumerated above, weight savings are
significant ranging from 25-45% of the weight of conventional metallic designs.
Due to greater reliability, there are fewer inspections and structural repairs.
Directional tailoring capabilities to meet the design requirements. The fiber pattern can be laid
in a manner that will tailor the structure to efficiently sustain the applied loads.
Fiber to fiber redundant load path.
Improved dent resistance is normally achieved. Composite panels do not sustain damage as
easily as thin gage sheet metals.
It is easier to achieve smooth aerodynamic profiles for drag reduction. Complex double-
curvature parts with a smooth surface finish can be made in one manufacturing operation.
Composites offer improved torsion stiffness. This implies high whirling speeds, reduced
number of intermediate bearings and supporting structural elements. The overall part count and
manufacturing & assembly costs are thus reduced.
High resistance to impact damage.

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Thermoplastics have rapid process cycles, making them attractive for high volume commercial
applications that traditionally have been the domain of sheet metals. Moreover, thermoplastics
can also be reformed.
Like metals, thermoplastics have indefinite shelf life.
Composites are dimensionally stable i.e. they have low thermal conductivity and low
coefficient of thermal expansion. Composite materials can be tailored to comply with a broad
range of thermal expansion design requirements and to minimize thermal stresses.
Manufacture and assembly are simplified because of part integration (joint/fastener reduction)
thereby reducing cost.
The improved weather ability of composites in a marine environment as well as their corrosion
resistance and durability reduce the down time for maintenance.
Close tolerances can be achieved without machining.
Material is reduced because composite parts and structures are frequently built to shape rather
than machined to the required configuration, as is common with metals.
Excellent heat sink properties of composites, especially Carbon-Carbon, combined with their
lightweight have extended their use for aircraft brakes.
Improved friction and wear properties.
The ability to tailor the basic material properties of a Laminate has allowed new approaches to
the design of aero elastic flight structures.

DISADVANTAGE
Some of the associated disadvantages of advanced composites are as follows:
High cost of raw materials and fabrication.
Composites are more brittle than wrought metals and thus are more easily damaged.
Transverse properties may be weak.
Matrix is weak, therefore, low toughness.
Reuse and disposal may be difficult.
Difficult to attach.
Repair introduces new problems, for the following reasons:
Materials require refrigerated transport and storage and have limited shelf life.
Hot curing is necessary in many cases requiring special tooling.

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Hot or cold curing takes time.
Analysis is difficult.
Matrix is subject to environmental degradation.

1.2.20- MATRIX MATERIALS:
Although it is undoubtedly true that the high strength of composites is largely due to the fiber
reinforcement, the importance of matrix material cannot be underestimated as it provides support
for the fibers and assists the fibers in carrying the loads. It also provides stability to the
composite material. Resin matrix system acts as a binding agent in a structural component in
which the fibers are embedded. When too much resin is used, the part is classified as resin rich.
On the other hand if there is too little resin, the part is called resin starved. A resin rich part is
more susceptible to cracking due to lack of fiber support, whereas a resin starved part is weaker
because of void areas and the fact that fibers are not held together and they are not well
supported.

1.2.21-FUNCTIONS OF A MATRIX:
In a composite material, the matrix material serves the following functions:
Holds the fibers together.
Protects the fibers from environment.
Distributes the loads evenly between fibers so that all fibers are subjected to the same
amount of strain.
Enhances transverse properties of a laminate.
Improves impact and fracture resistance of a component.
Helps to avoid propagation of crack growth through the fibers by providing alternate
failure path along the interface between the fibers and the matrix.
Carry interlaminar shear.

The matrix plays a minor role in the tensile load-carrying capacity of a composite structure.
However, selection of a matrix has a major influence on the interlaminar shear as well as in-
plane shear properties of the composite material. The interlaminar shear strength is an important

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design consideration for structures under bending loads, whereas the in-plane shear strength is
important under torsion loads. The matrix provides lateral support against the possibility of fiber
buckling under compression loading, thus influencing to some extent the compressive strength of
the composite material. The interaction between fibers and matrix is also important in designing
damage tolerant structures. Finally, the process ability and defects in a composite material
depend strongly on the physical and thermal characteristics, such as viscosity, melting point, and
curing temperature of the matrix.

1.2.22-PROPERTIES OF A MATRIX:

The needs or desired properties of the matrix which are important for a composite structure are
as follows:
Reduced moisture absorption.
Low shrinkage.
Low coefficient of thermal expansion.
Good flow characteristics so that it penetrates the fiber bundles completely and eliminates
voids during the compacting/curing process.
Reasonable strength, modulus and elongation (elongation should be greater than fiber).
Must be elastic to transfer load to fibers.
Strength at elevated temperature (depending on application).
Low temperature capability (depending on application).
Excellent chemical resistance (depending on application).
Should be easily process able into the final composite shape.
Dimensional stability (maintains its shape).

1.2.23-FACTORS CONSIDERED FOR SELECTION OF MATRIX:

In selecting matrix material, following factors may be taken into consideration:
The matrix must have a mechanical strength commensurate with that of the reinforcement i.e.
both should be compatible. Thus, if a high strength fiber is used as the reinforcement, there is no
point using a low strength matrix, which will not transmit stresses efficiently to the
reinforcement.

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26

The matrix must stand up to the service conditions, viz., temperature, humidity, exposure to
ultra-violet environment, exposure to chemic3l atmosphere, abrasion by dust particles, etc.
The matrix must be easy to use in the selected fabrication process.
Smoke requirements.
Life expectancy.
The resultant composite should be cost effective.

1.2.24- GENERAL TYPES OF MATRIX MATERIALS:

In general, following general following types of matrix materials are available:

Thermosetting Matrix Materials.

Thermoplastic Matrix Materials.

Carbon Matrix Materials.

Metals Matrix Materials.

Ceramics Matrix Materials.

Glass Matrix Materials.

1.2.25- APPLICATION OF METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES:

Application of metal matrix composites in aerospace, transportation, construction, marine goods,
sporting goods, and more recently infrastructure, with construction and transportation being the
largest. In general, high-performance but more costly continuous-carbon-fiber composites are
used where high strength and stiffness along with light weight are required.

I-AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATION:

Example:-
PISTONS AND CYLINDER LINERS
Aluminum engine blocks typically require cast iron cylinder liners due to poor wear
characteristics of aluminum. Porsche is using MMCs for cylinder liners by integrating porous
silicon perform into the cast aluminum block, and Honda uses a similar method incorporating

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27

alumina and carbon fibers in the bores of die cast aluminum. These practices improve wear
characteristics and cooling efficiency over cast iron liners. Providing superior wear resistance,
improved cold start emissions, and reduced weight .Aluminum-based composite liners can be
cast in place using conventional casting techniques, including sand, permanent mold, die casting,
and Centrifugal casting.
CONNECTING RODS
With the advent of nanostructure materials, new materials have been developed with exceptional
properties exceeding those expected for monolithic alloys or composites containing micron-scale
reinforcements. For example, carbon nanotubes have ultrahigh strength and modulus; when
included in a matrix, they could impart significant property improvements to the resulting nano-



Fig-1.3 Partial short fiber reinforced light metal diesel pistons

composite. In another example, incorporating only 10 vol% of 50-nm alumina (Al2O3) particles
to an aluminum alloy matrix using the powder metallurgy process increased yield strength to 515
MPa. This is 15 times stronger than the base alloy, six times stronger than the base alloy

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28

containing 46 vol% of 29-mm Al2O3, and over 1.5 times stronger than AISI 304 stainless steel.
Research is in progress at UWM to cast aluminum-base nano-composites with possible strengths
on the order of 0.5 to 1 GPa. However, some processing problems need to be resolved, and
challenges of scaling up the technology need to be overcome. For components requiring high
strength, such as connecting rods, cast aluminum-matrix nano-composites may be ideal to
produce near-net-shape components to replace steel, forged aluminum, and titanium components,
while reducing reciprocating mass.

SUSPENSION
Many automakers started to use aluminum and light gage steel for suspension components to
reduce unsprung weight and improve vehicle dynamics, but many components are still made of
cast iron. Components such as control arms or wheel hubs made of strong silicon carbide (SiC)
reinforced aluminum or aluminum nano-composites can further improve aluminum alloy designs
by improving strength characteristics similar to cast iron, while using less material than similar
aluminum arms. Self-lubricating graphite-reinforced aluminum bushings can also be
incorporated into control-arm castings to allow for components that do not require service and
will last the life of the vehicle.

BRAKES
Automotive disk brakes and brake calipers, typically made of cast iron, are an area where
significant weight reduction can be realized. SiC-reinforced aluminum brake rotors are
incorporated in vehicles such as the Lotus Elise, Chrysler Prowler, General Motors EV1,
Volkswagen Lupo 3L, and the Toyota RAV4-EV.Widespread use of aluminum composite brake
rotors requires their costs to come down and improved machinability. UWM developed
Aluminum-silicon carbide-graphite composites, aluminum alumina- graphite, and hypereutectic
aluminum-silicon graphite alloys with reduced silicon carbide to help overcome cost and
machinability barriers. Aluminum-fly ash Composites developed at UWM has been explored to
make prototype brake rotors in Australia.


DEVELOPMENT AND ANALYSIS OF AUTOMOTIVE GEAR USING ALUMINIUM MATRIX COMPOSITES
29


Fig-1.4 Vented passenger car brake disk of particle reinforced aluminum

II-AIRCRAFT AND AEROSPACE APLICATIONS:
In military aircraft, low weight is king for performance and payload reasons, and composites
often approach 20 to 40 percent of the airframe weight. For decades, helicopters have
incorporated glass fiberreinforced rotor blades for improved fatigue resistance, and in recent
years helicopter airframes have been built largely of carbon-fiber composites. Military aircraft
applications, the first to use high performance continuous-carbon-fiber composites, drove the
development of much of the technology now being used by other industries. Both small and large
commercial aircraft rely on composites to decrease weight and increase fuel performance, the
most striking example being the 50 percent composite airframe for the new Boeing 787 All
future Airbus and Boeing aircraft will use large amounts of high-performance composites.
Composites are also used extensively in both weight-critical reusable and expendable launch
vehicles and satellite structures. Weight savings due to the use of composite materials in
aerospace applications generally range from 15 to 25 percent.




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Fig. 1.5 Boeing 787 dream liner commercial airplane
III- WIND TURBINES APLICATIONS:
Wind power is the worlds fastest-growing energy source. The blades for large wind turbines are
normally made of composites to improve electrical energy generation efficiency. These blades
can be as long as 120 ft (37 m) and weigh up to 11,500 lb (5200 kg). In 2007, nearly 50,000
blades for 17,000 turbines were delivered, representing roughly 400 million pounds.

IV-MARINE INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS:
Corrosion is a major headache and expense for the marine industry. Composites help minimize
these problems, primarily because they do not corrode like metals or rot like wood and more
weight reduction.



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31

Fig. 1.6 Wind turbines

1.2.26 NANO-COMPOSITES:
A nano-composite is a multiphase solid material where one of the phases has one, two or three
dimensions of less than 100 nanometers (nm), or structures having nano-scale repeat distances
between the different phases that make up the material. In the broadest sense this definition can
include porous media, colloids, gels and copolymers, but is more usually taken to mean the solid
combination of a bulk matrix and nano-dimensional phase(s) differing in properties due to
dissimilarities in structure and chemistry. The mechanical, electrical, thermal, optical,

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electrochemical, catalytic properties of the nano-composite will differ markedly from that of the
component materials. Size limits for these effects have been proposed,

<5 nm for catalytic
activity, <20 nm for making a hard magnetic material soft, <50 nm for refractive index changes,
and <100 nm for achieving superparamagnetism, mechanical strengthening or restricting matrix
dislocation movement.
Nano-composites are found in nature, for example in the structure of the abalone shell and bone.
The use of nano particle-rich materials long predates the understanding of the physical and
chemical nature of these materials.
In mechanical terms, nano-composites differ from conventional composite materials due to the
exceptionally high surface to volume ratio of the reinforcing phase. The area of the interface
between the matrix and reinforcement phase(s) is typically an order of magnitude greater than for
conventional composite materials. The matrix material properties are significantly affected in the
vicinity of the reinforcement. Polymer nano-composites, properties related to local chemistry,
degree of thermo set cure, polymer chain mobility, and polymer chain conformation, degree of
polymer chain ordering or crystalline can all vary significantly and continuously from the
interface with the reinforcement into the bulk of the matrix.
1.2.27-TYPES OF NANOCOMPOSITES:
I) CERAMIC MATRIX NANOCOMPOSITES (CMNC)
In this group of composites the main part of the volume is occupied by a ceramic, i.e. a chemical
compound from the group of oxides, nitrides, borides, silicates etc. In most cases, ceramic-matrix
nano-composites encompass a metal as the second component. Ideally both components, the
metallic one and the ceramic one, are finely dispersed in each other in order to elicit the
particular nanoscopic properties. Nano-composites from these combinations were demonstrated
in improving their optical, electrical and magnetic properties as well as tribological, corrosion-
resistance and other protective properties.
II) METAL MATRIX NANOCOMPOSITES (MMNC)
Metal matrix nano-composites (MMNC) refer to materials consisting of a ductile metal or alloy

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33

matrix in which some nano sized reinforcement material is implanted. These materials combine
metal and ceramic features, i.e., ductility and toughness with high strength and modulus. Thus,
metal matrix nano-composites are suitable for production of materials with high strength in
shear/compression processes and high service temperature capabilities. They show an
extraordinary potential for application in many areas, such as aerospace, automotive industries.
III) POLYMER MATRIX NANOCOMPOSITES (PMNC)
In the simplest case, appropriately adding nano-particulates to a polymer matrix can enhance its
performance, often in very dramatic degree, by simply capitalizing on the nature and properties
of the nanoscale filler (these materials are better described by the term nanofilled polymer
composites). This strategy is particularly effective in yielding high performance composites,
when good dispersion of the filler is achieved and the properties of the nanoscale filler are
substantially different or better than those of the matrix, for example, reinforcing a polymer
matrix by much stiffer nanoparticles of ceramics, clays, or carbon nanotubes.

1.2.28-ADVANTAGES OF NANOCOMPOSITES:
Nanocomposite materials have emerged as suitable alternatives to overcome limitations of
micro-composites and monolithic, while posing preparation challenges related to the control of
elemental composition and stoichiometry in the nanocluster phase. The following are the
advantages of nanocomposites over conventional materials:
1. Greater tensile and flexural strength as compared to matrix material.
2. Reduced weight for the same performance.
3. Increased dimensional stability.
4. High modulus of elasticity and wear resistance.
5. High thermal stability.
6. Improved gas barrier properties for the same film thickness.
7. Flame retardant properties.
8. High temperature creep resistance.
9. Improved specific strength and stiffness.
10. Improved fracture toughness and thermal shock resistance.
11. Higher electrical conductivity.

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34

12. Higher chemical resistance.

1.2.29-APPLICATIONS OF NANOCOMPOSITES:
Nanocomposites are finding applications in the following fields: Aerospace, defense,
automobiles, medicine, electronics, materials, marine, industrial and construction markets etc.
The other applications are:
1. Thin-film capacitors for computer chips.
2. Solid polymer electrolytes for batteries.
3. Automotive engine parts and fuel tanks.
4. Impellers and blades.
5. Oxygen and gas barriers.
6. Food packaging.
7. Drug delivery systems.
8. Anti-corrosion barrier coatings.
9. UV protection gels.
10. Lubricants and scratch free paints.
11. New fire retardant materials.
12. New scratch/abrasion resistant materials.
13. Superior strength fibers and films.

1.3 PROBLEM STATEMENT:
In the automobile industry weight reduction is most important because average vehicle weight is
increased because in market continue new models comes with increased luxury, convenience,
performance, and safety as demanded by their customers. Safety features such as anti-block
systems, air bags, and increasing safety body structure.
Hence if we used steel and cast iron for manufacturing automobile than weight of the automobile
more to more increased.
If weight increased than some problem induced such that-
1. Fuel consumptions increased.

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35

2. Global warming increased due to more pollution.
3. If weight increased than size of engine also increased.
4. If more weight than ride and handling of automobile is difficult.
5. Used Steel absorbs less energy as compare to Aluminum.
The main problem is if used Al-Sic composites (macro particle> 100nm) for light weight vehicle
than toughness of component decrease due to brittleness increase. Hence ability of shock
absorption is decrease. That is a big problem for a vehicle.

1.4- OBJECTIVE:

The objective of this thesis is to study the metal matrix composites and nano composites which
are useful for light weight automobiles. And increasing the nano-sized Sic particles content helps
to strengthen the composites, while the ductility is retained at place of macro SiC particle
(>100nm). And make one part of automobile of Al-alloy, 10% SiC composites, 1% nano
composites, and 2% nano composites and compare its properties like wear rate, hardness, tensile
strength and compressive strength which is useful for replace existing material steel in
automobiles sector. It types we can reduce the weight of automobiles.
Hence reduce the fuel consumption and pollution in environment.

1.5- LAYOUT OF THIS THESIS:
Chapter 1 is Introduction which provides a basic introduction to the light weight
automobiles.
Chapter 2 is Literature Review which provides a summary of the previous work done in
metal matrix composites and light weight automobiles.
Chapter 3 is Experimental work which gives an insight into the experiment adopted in
this thesis.
Chapter 4 is Results & Discussions which contains the important results of study.
Chapter 5 conclusions.
References shows various references used in this thesis.

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CHAPTER-2
LITERATURE REVIEW










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37

LITERATURE REVIEW
1. Rick Borns et.al.(2005) developed some automotive part of aluminum alloy like chassis and
suspension, Knuckles. In Many vehicle chassis and suspension components are constructed of
aluminum alloys, due to the metals relatively high strength-to-weight ratio and inherent
corrosion resistance and it found that Increased use of aluminum in chassis and suspension
systems reduces the overall weight of the vehicle, improves fuel efficiency and emissions
performance while also improving ride and handling through reduced un-sprung mass and it see
that in a vehicle, every pound of aluminum that replaces two pounds of steel can save 20 pounds
of CO2 from being emitted. A 6 to 8% fuel savings can be realized for every 10% reduction in
weight from substituting aluminum for steel. Aluminum absorbs nearly twice as much energy as
steel.
2. Anthony Macke et.al.(2012) try to developed some automotive part of aluminum alloy
composite at the Center for Composite Materials and Center for Advanced Materials
Manufacture University of WisconsinMilwaukee .and it found that these materials can be
tailored to be lightweight and with various other properties including:
High specific strength and specific stiffness.
High hardness and wear resistance
Low coefficients of friction and thermal expansion.
High thermal conductivity
High energy absorption and a damping Capacity.
And it make some parts Pistons and cylinder, Connecting rods, Suspension etc. and it conclude
that the auto industry can customize high-strength, wear-resistant, and self-lubricating
lightweight MMCs for specific applications to make significant weight reductions and improve
fuel efficiency.


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38

3. Manoj Singla et.al.(2009) take Aluminium (98.41% C.P) and SiC (320-grit) has been
chosen as matrix and reinforcement material respectively. Experiments have been conducted by
varying weight fraction of SiC (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, and 30%), while keeping all other
parameters constant. The results indicated that the developed method is quite successful to
obtain uniform dispersion of reinforcement in the matrix. An increasing trend of hardness and
impact strength with increase in weight percentage of SiC has been observed. The best results
(maximum hardness 45.5 BHN & maximum impact strength of 36 N-m). The results as indicated
in Figures 5 and 6 show the increasing trend of hardness and impact strength with increase in
weight percentage of SiC up to 25% weight fraction. Beyond this weight fraction the hardness
trend started decreasing as SiC particles interact with each other leading to clustering of particles
and consequently settling down. Eventually the density of SiC particles in the melt started
decreasing thereby lowering the hardness.

4. S. DAS (2004) developed few prototype automobile components of aluminum matrix
composites such as brake drums/discs and cylinder blocks for four-wheeler as well as for two
wheelers. The test results show that the braking efficiency of AMC-brake drum is around 20%
higher than that of the cast iron brake drum; while the weight reduction is around
60%.Additionally, the temperature rise in AMC-brake drum (97C) is considerably less as
compared to that of the cast iron (147C) brake drum. The report from Vehicle Factory, Jabalpur
stated that the brake drums worked satisfactorily without any difficulty. This work was
sponsored by DRDO.

5. G. B. Veeresh Kumar et.al. (2011) try to decrease wear of aluminum by adding Si-C. Metal
Matrix Composites are being increasingly used in aerospace and automobile industries owing to
their enhanced properties such as elastic modulus, hardness, tensile strength at room and elevated
temperatures, wear resistance combined with significant weight savings over un reinforced alloys
and At any constant load, wear rate decreases with increase in addition of SiCp and improves the
load bearing properties of Al-alloy during sliding. Increase in the addition of SiC restricts the
flow or deformation of the matrix material with respect to load and increase in the density of the

DEVELOPMENT AND ANALYSIS OF AUTOMOTIVE GEAR USING ALUMINIUM MATRIX COMPOSITES
39

composites compared to the base metal hence it concluded that the Al-MMCs will have better
wear resistance than the unreinforced alloys.

6. G. G. Sozhamannan1 et.al.(2011) sea that The Ultimate strength of metal matrix composite
de-creases with increasing holding time. It is revealed that holding time influences the viscosity
of liquid metal, particles distribution and also induces some chemical reaction between matrix
and reinforcement. Hence the hardness values increases more or less linearly with increasing of
processing temperatures from 750C to 800C at 20 minutes holding time.

7. Yong Yang et.al. (2004) studied of costing and found that in costing extremely difficult to
Disperse nano-sized ceramic particles uniformly in molten metal. But if we used Al-based nano-
composites with nano-sized SiC were fabricated by an ultrasonic-assisted casting method. The
microstructure and mechanical properties were studied. The nano-sized SiC particles are
dispersed well in the matrix and the yield strength of A356 alloy was improved more than 50%
with only 2.0 wt. % of nano-sized SC particles. Partial oxidation of SiC nanoparticles resulted in
the formation of SiO2 in the matrix. The study suggests that strong ultrasonic nonlinear effects
could efficiently disperse nanoparticles (less than 100 nm) into alloy melts while possibly
enhancing their wet ability, thus making the production of as-cast high performance lightweight
MMNCs feasible.

8. Ya-Cheng Lin et.al. (2012) developed an effective method for bonding of silicon carbide
(SiC) ceramic to 5083 Aluminum metal-alloys. This method employed the concept of high-
temperature rapid heterogeneous combustion reaction to joint dissimilar materials. An
exothermic mixture of titanium and carbon powders (molar ratio 1:0.4) was utilized as a joining
reactive layer. The concept of using a novel high temperature rapid reactive welding technique
for joining dissimilar materials, i.e. SiC ceramic to Al-alloy 5083, has been verified. The
experimental approach, based on the use of a rapid high temperature heterogeneous combustion
pressing process, has been validated. Two compositions (pure Ti and a mixture of Ti/C powders)
were used to initiate the combustion joining and both demonstrated feasible routes to bond
dissimilar materials. The scaled-up welding system is applied for the first time to join dissimilar

DEVELOPMENT AND ANALYSIS OF AUTOMOTIVE GEAR USING ALUMINIUM MATRIX COMPOSITES
40

material with application of external loads on the sample stack and a more uniform nano-scale
interface is produced.

9. Jae-Chul Lee et.al. (1999) studied and found that in general, a frequent problem encountered
in fabricating Al alloy based composites reinforced with various carbides such as SiC, B4C, TiC,
including Graphite, etc. can be the formation of Al4C3 at the carbide matrix interface as a result
of the interfacial reaction between the Al matrix and carbides. Al4C3 are known to be very
brittle and unstable and very sensitive to corrosive environments resulting in the degradation of
mechanical properties of composites. Therefore formation of Al4C3 during composite
fabrication has to be either avoided or minimized. Hence for avoided this problem add Mg in
aluminum alloy with SiC. SiCox2/ (Al + 2Mg) composites were prepared using SiC particles
having an amorphous SiO2 layers. When the SiCox2+ Al composite is exposed at approximately
600C, the SiO2 layer formed at the SiC surface. But reaction with Mg within the matrix alloy to
form Si and MgAl2O4 crystals at the expense of SiO2 layer. Density of Si and MgAl2O4
crystals in this composite, and protect the entire surface of SiC, from the formation of Al4C3
upon exposing at temperatures above 620C. This indicates that the interface not only was
effective in protecting further reactions at the interface, but also possessed an excellent thermal
stability at elevated temperatures. Therefore, combination of the passive oxidation of SiC and the
Mg addition into the Al matrix was considered to be efficient for forming a stable interface in the
SiC/Al composite.

10. R.K. Uyyuru et.al.(2005) studied the tribological behavior of stir-cast AlSi/SiCp
composites against automobile brake pad material was studied using Pin-on-Disc tribotester. The
Al-metal matrix composite (Al-MMC) material was used as disc, whereas the brake pad material
forms the pin. It has been found that both wear rate and friction coefficient vary with both
applied normal load and sliding speed. With increase in the applied normal load, the wear rate
was observed to increase whereas the friction coefficient decreases. Applied normal load is most
important parameter on wear performance. Influence of speed and concentration of abrasives on
the other hand seemed to be composition dependent. When the SiCp reinforcement in the matrix
has wide size distribution, wear rate and friction coefficients are found to be higher compared
with matrix containing nano-size reinforcement. Tribo-layer a thin adherent layer formed mostly

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41

of pin material during the wear test-can act as a protective layer for the matrix material. Thus, the
formation of tribo-layer can have a significant role to play in wear behavior of tribological
couple made of AlSi/SiCp MMC and brake pad during the service.

11. K. Manigandan et.al. (2012) presented and discussed the tensile properties and fracture
characteristics of an AlCuMg alloy discontinuously reinforced with silicon carbide particulates
(SiCp). The SiCp reinforcement phase in this AlCuMg alloy metal matrix, were near uniform
in size. Few of the particles were found to be irregularly shaped and dispersed randomly through
the metal matrix. The elastic modulus of the AlCuMg/SiC/15p-T42 composite is 93.91 GPa,
which is 34% more than the elastic modulus of the matrix alloy with no SiCp reinforcement [70
GPa]. The ultimate tensile strength of the composite is noticeably higher than the yield strength
by 38 pct, indicating the occurrence of strain hardening beyond yield. The presence of the hard,
brittle and elastically deforming SiC particles in the soft, ductile and plastically deforming
aluminum alloy metal matrix caused fine microscopic cracks to initiate at low values of applied
stress. Fractography revealed limited ductility on a macroscopic scale, but microscopically
features were reminiscent of locally ductile and brittle mechanisms. Fracture of the matrix
between the clusters of reinforcing particles, coupled with particle failure by both cracking and
decohesion at the matrixparticle interfaces allows the microscopic cracks to grow rapidly and
link resulting in macroscopic failure and resultant minimal tensile ductility.

12. V. N. Gaitonde et. al. (2012) studied that among the several types of aluminum alloys being
used; Al5000 series are widely used in marine and aerospace applications due to their superior
corrosion resistance, excellent formability and good welding characteristics. Hence the proposed
work to study the effects of Graphite (Gr) and Aluminium oxide (Al2O3) on aluminum hybrid
composites involving both hard and soft reinforcements on wear and corrosion properties. The
experimental investigations of wear and corrosion behavior of Al5083-Al2O3-Gr hybrid
composites. The micro hardness of hybrid composites is higher when compared to matrix alloy.
An increased content of hard reinforcement in the hybrid composites leads to the enhancement in
micro hardness of hybrid composites. The immersion test on developed hybrid composites
indicated that addition of graphite and Al2O3 in to the matrix have reduced mass loss under

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42

identical test conditions. Increased graphite particles reduce the corrosion rate under identical
test conditions. The hybrid composites possess marginally inferior cord- rosin resistance in 3.5%
NaCl medium when com- pared with matrix alloy.

13. Xiaochun Li et.al. (2008) Theoretical and experimental study of dispersion of nanoparticles
and found that it is very challenging to disperse nanoparticles uniformly in A356 melts for
casting. In this study, the feasibility of ultrasonic cavitations based dispersion of nanoparticles in
A356 was theoretically studied and validated by analytical modeling, particularly for a simplified
two nanoparticle system in A356 melt. An experimental system for ultrasonic cavitations based
solidification processing was fully developed and alloy A356 nanocomposites were fabricated
and characterized. With optimized processing parameters, the tensile test results showed that,
with only 1.0wt% nano-sized SiC, the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and Yield strength of the
nanocomposites were improved approximately 100% while ductility is retained. Micro or nano
structure study shows that good nanoparticle distribution and dispersion in the Al matrix were
achieved.

14. Rabindra Behera et.al. (2011) In the present investigation, the hardness and forge ability of
stir cast LM6 reinforced with 5 and 10 wt% SiCp was examined at the different section of the
stepped casting and the effect of weight percentage of SiCp on machinability of the cast MMCs
has been evaluated. The forge ability i.e. percentage of deformation decreases on increasing the
percentage of SiCp and the middle part of the casting (i.e. sectionII) shows low forge ability
comparison to the both end sections in the step casting component because accumulation of
higher percentage of SiCp. That indicates the distribution of SiCp is not uniform throughout the
casting. The machinability of MMC is different from the traditional materials because of
presence abrasive reinforcement particles. During turning operation, the cutting forces have
increased with increase in weight percentage of SiCp. That indicates the power consumption
during machining of aluminium alloy MMCs will increases on increasing the depth of cut. The
surface roughness of cast MMCs increasing with the increasing weight percentage of SiCp.



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15. Yasumasa Chino (2004) investigated the tensile properties and blow forming characteristics
of 5083 Al alloy recycled by solid-state recycling.
The results are three types of machined chip with different volumes were recycled by hot
extrusion and hot rolling, and oxide contamination was investigated. Oxide layers, which were
contaminants from the machined chip Surface, were distributed parallel to the extrusion direction
in the recycled specimens. Oxygen concentration in the recycled specimens increased with the
total surface area of the machined chips per unit volume. Therefore, the size of machined chips is
an important factor for the control of the contamination level of oxides in solid-state recycling.
The recycled specimens exhibited almost the same properties in term of strength and elongation
to failure as the virgin specimen. However, at 773 K, the recycled specimens showed lower
elongation than the virgin specimen, and the elongation decreased with increasing oxygen
concentration. The same trend was found in the blow forming tests, that is, formability decreased
with increasing oxygen concentration. Thus, oxide contamination has a detrimental effect on the
formability of recycled Al alloy.

16. Soheyl Soleymani (2011) employed an innovative technique, friction stir processing (FSP)
to modify the surface layer of Al5083 alloy. In the present investigation, an attempt has been
made to study the effects of FSP and the number of passes on hardness and wear resistance of
Al5083 alloy. Increasing the number of FSP passes also led to the improvement of hardness and
wear resistance. These can be attributed to the micro structural refinement. Wear weight loss and
friction coefficient decreased with decreasing the force applied during sliding. Increasing the
number of FSP passes led to the decrease in weight loss and friction coefficient and also surface
damages. This trend has been observed for the samples worn under lower applied forces and
indicates that more FSP passes can result in the improvement of load bearing capacity of the
alloy during sliding.

17. Suleiman Bolaji Hassan (2006) investigated the effects of varying silicon carbide on the
hardness values of heat-treated AlSiFe/SiC composites. The 525% SiC additions were used
for the production of different grades of AlSiFe/SiC composites. The composites samples
were solution heat treated at 500 C for 3 h and quenched in warm water at 65 C, aged at 100,
200 and 300 C with various ageing time between 60 and 660 min at 60 min interval. The

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44

increase in the hardness values of the composites is due to the precipitates of the second phase
during ageing which cover the surface at the particles matrix interfaces. The results obtained
from the statistical analysis are in agreement with the experimental findings for these ageing time
and temperatures. It was found that hardness increases with increasing weight fraction of silicon
carbide in the alloy and decreases with increasing ageing time after the peak ageing time have
exceeded.

18 A.K.Chaubey et.al. (2012) studied the two distinct approaches have been used for the
dispersion of the reinforcing particles within the Al matrix: manual blending and ball milling.
Manual blending leads to the agglomeration of the AlCa particles to form a cell network
throughout the consolidated sample. On the other hand, the composites prepared by ball milling
more homogeneous distribution of the reinforcing particles. This has a strong impact on the
mechanical properties. Al-based metal matrix composites containing different volume fractions
of nano crystal of AlCa reinforcing particles have been produced by powder metallurgy and the
effect of the volume fraction of reinforcement and dispersion of the reinforcing particles on the
mechanical properties of the composites. The strength increases from 112 MPa for pure Al to
140 and 165 MPa for the manual blended composites and with 20 and 40 vol.%, while the
strength increases to 250 and 280 for the corresponding composites produced by ball milling due
to small size and leads to higher strength as compared to the composites produced by manual
blending.

19. Ali Mazahery et.al. (2012) experimental and modeling investigations were carried out on
the porosity, wear, hardness, elongation, yield strength and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of
these nano-composites. The density measurements showed that the amount of porosity in the
composites increased with increasing the volume fraction of nano-particles. The hard particles
resist against destruction action of abrasive and protect the surface, so with increasing its content,
the wear resistance enhances. Nano-hard particles acting as obstacles to the motion of
dislocation. The addition of nanoparticles resulted in significant improvements in yield strength
and UTS of the composites. Information obtained from the model predictions and simulations
can be used as guidelines during the conceptual design and optimization of manufacturing

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45

processes thus reducing the time and costs that would otherwise be incurred by experimental
methods.

20. A r yazdipour (2011) investigated the microstructures and properties of aluminum alloy
5083 in two different types of welds, Metal Inert Gas (MIG) and Friction Stir Welding (FSW),
have been used to weld aluminum alloy 5083. The microstructure of the welds, including the
nugget zone and heat affected zone, has been compared in these two methods using optical
microscopy. The mechanical properties of the weld have been also investigated using the
hardness and tensile tests. However, FSW samples have shown higher strength in comparison to
the MIG samples. The results also show that the extension of the heat affected zone is higher in
the MIG method in comparison to the FSW method. The weld metal microstructure of MIG
welded specimen contains equiaxed dendrites as a result of solidification process during MIG
welding while FSW samples have wrought microstructures.

21. GU Wan-li (2006) studied of nano-sized Al-SiC powders were prepared by mechanical
alloying method. Two of SiC particle, i.e. nano-sized and popular micron-sized Sic was utilized.
Effects of the particle size and agglomerate state of SiC, as well as the microstructure of Al-SiC
nanocomposite were studied by SEM and TEM. Popular micron ceramic Sic particles can be
broken up to less than 100 nm and disperse in aluminium homogenously by ball milling the
mixed Sic and Al powder for 10 h. This process needs only 2 h if the popular Sic particle is
substituted by nanosized SiC. In the preparation of bulk composite, the reinforced ceramic
particle in aluminium will agglomerate under an ordinary powder metallurgy condition such as
hot pressing at 873 K and 10 MPa. However, the Sic particle about 20 to 50 nm will be dispersed
uniformly in aluminium matrix at a hot pressing temperature of about 723 K under pressure of
100 MPa.

22. S. M. Zebarjad (2008) study concentrated on the role of particle size of silicon carbide (SiC)
on dimensional stability of aluminum. Three kinds of Al-SiC composite reinforced with different
SiC particle sizes (25 m, 5 m, and 70 nm) were produced using a high-energy ball mill. The
standard samples were fabricated using powder metallurgy method. The samples were heated
from room temperature up to 500C in a dilatometer at different heating rates, that is, 10, 30, 40,

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46

and 60C/min. The results showed that for all materials, there was an increase in length change
as temperature increased and the temperature sensitivity of aluminum decreased in the presence
of both micro- and nanosized silicon carbide. At the same condition, dimensional stability of
Al/SiC nanocomposite was better than conventional Al/SiC composites.

23. R. Palanivel et. al. (2011) studied that Aluminium alloys generally have low weld ability
with the traditional fusion-welding process. However, the development of Friction Stir Welding
(FSW) has provided an alternative, improved way of producing aluminium joints, in a faster and
more reliable manner. The FSW process has several advantages, in particular the possibility to
weld dissimilar aluminium alloys. This study focuses on the tensile behavior of dissimilar joints
of AA6351-T6 alloy to AA5083-H111 alloy produced by friction stir welding. Five different tool
pin profiles, such as Straight Square (SS), Tapered Square (TS), Straight Hexagon (SH), Straight
Octagon (SO) and Tapered Octagon (TO), with three different welding speeds (50 mm/min, 63
mm/min, 75 mm/min) have been used to weld the joints. The effect of the pin profiles and the
welding speed on the tensile properties was analyzed and it was found that the straight square pin
profile with 63 mm/min produced a better tensile strength then the other tool pin profiles and
welding speeds.

24. Rajesh Purohit et. al. theoretical and experimental study of CASTING OF Al-SiCp
COMPOSITES AND TESTING OF PROPERTIES. Al-SiC
p
composites with 5, 10, 15, 20, 25
and 30 weight % of SiC
p
in the shape of solid cylindrical pins were fabricated using stir die
casting process. The various properties viz. density, hardness, compressive strength, tensile
strength, surface roughness and wear resistance were measured. The density, hardness,
compressive strength and tensile strength of Al-SiC
p
composites were found to increase with
increase in the weight % of SiC
p
from 5 to 30 weight percentage. The dry sliding wear tests
using pin on disc wear testing machine reveal that the wear resistance of Al-SiC
p
composites
increases with increase in reinforcement content from 10 to 20 weight % of SiC
p
while the wear
resistance decreases on further increase in reinforcement content from 20 to 30 weight % of SiC
p.
Increased wear of Al-SiC
p
composites with higher weight % of SiC
p
composites is due to the
removal of loosely bonded SiC particulates from the matrix. The average surface roughness (Ra

DEVELOPMENT AND ANALYSIS OF AUTOMOTIVE GEAR USING ALUMINIUM MATRIX COMPOSITES
47

value) of cast Al-SiC
p
composites first decreases then increases with increase in reinforcement
content of SiC particulates from 5 to 30 weight percent. The surface roughness values depend
upon the extent of polishing done on the Al-SiC
p
composites.

25. S. O. Adeosun et. al. (2009) examines the effect of addition of 60 micron silicon carbide
particles on the strength and ductility of a wrought aluminum alloy. Cast samples produced using
metal mould contained up to 50 vol % volume fractions of SiCp with respect to the volume of
aluminum. Some of the samples were heat treated at 430C for 8 hours and then normalized. The
rest were not heat treated. Tensile tests were carried out after heat treatment on all the samples.
This shown that addition of SiCp to wrought 1200 aluminum alloy can significantly increases its
strength and elongation characteristics. Good UTS of 157 MPa and 158 MPa can be obtained in
as-cast and normalized samples with 40 vol % and 50 vol % of SiCp respectively, while the
elongations are 13 and 15% respectively. For a combination of strength and elongation as
required in wrought alloys, addition of 20 vol % SiCp will give strength of 125 MPa and
elongation of 23% for sample normalized. The presence of Al3Fe crystals and incoherent
precipitation of intermetallics have been observed to improve elongation.












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CHAPTER-3
EXPERIMENTAL WORK













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EXPERIMENTAL WORK
3.1- COMPOSITION ANALYSIS OF AL-ALLOY 5083:
Composition analysis of Al-alloy 5083 were carried out in AMPRI Bhopal. Result of this
analysis is shown in table 3.1
Al5000 series are extensively used in marine and aerospace applications because of their
superior corrosion resistance, excellent formability and good welding characteristics. Al5000
series are broadly used for the construction of ship buildings/structures; however due to low
strength and poor wear resistance the application of this series is limited.Al5083, a non-heat
treatable high Mg-Al wrought alloy, is extensively used for the marine and automobiles
applications(12).
Table 3.1 percentage of composition in Al-alloy 5083
Element Zn Fe Ti Cu Si Pb Mn Mg Cr Al
%Present 0.03 0.173 0.04 0.0181 0.16 0.0140 0.526 5.13 0.097 Balance

3.2- SEM ANALYSIS OF SIC PARTICLE: SEM analysis of SiC particles were
carried out to find out the size of the particles present in SiC powder.

Fig.3.1 SEM image of SiC macro composites

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50


Fig.3.2 SEM image of SiC nano composites
3.3-AUTOMOTIVE GEAR-AN OVERVIEW:
The power is transmitted from one shaft to the other by means of belts, chains and gears. The
belts and ropes are flexible members which are used where distance between the two shafts is
large. The chains also have flexibility but they are preferred for intermediate distances. The gears
are used when the shafts are very close with each other. This type of drive is called positive drive
because there is no slip. If the distance is slightly larger, chain drive can be used for making it a
positive drive. Belts and ropes transmit power due to the friction between the belt or rope and the
pulley. There is a possibility of slip and creep and that is why, this drive is not a positive drive.

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3.3.1- LAW OF GEARING:
The law of gearing states that the common normal at the point of contact of two bodies which are
in contact, while transferring motion, should always pass through a fixed point called pitch point
on the line joining the centers of rotation of the two bodies.
3.3.2- TYPES OF GEARS:
SPUR GEARS

GENERAL: Spur gears are the most commonly used gear type. They are characterized by teeth
which are perpendicular to the face of the gear. Spur gears are by far the most commonly
available, and are generally the least expensive. The basic descriptive geometry for a spur gear is
shown in the figure below.
LIMITATIONS: Spur gears generally cannot be used when a direction change between the
two shafts is required.
ADVANTAGES: Spur gears are easy to find, inexpensive, and efficient.

Fig.3.3 Spur gear


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52


Fig.3.4 Spur gear

HELICAL GEARS
GENERAL: Helical gears are similar to the spur gear except that the teeth are at an angle to
the shaft, rather than parallel to it as in a spur gear. The resulting teeth are longer than the teeth
on a spur gear of equivalent pitch diameter. The longer teeth cause helical gears to have the
following differences from spur gears of the same size:
Tooth strength is greater because the teeth are longer.
Greater surface contact on the teeth allows a helical gear to carry more load than a spur
gear.
The longer surface of contact reduces the efficiency of a helical gear relative to a spur
gear.
Helical gears may be used to mesh two shafts that are not parallel, although they are still
primarily use in parallel shaft applications. A special application in which helical gears are used
is a crossed gear mesh, in which the two Shafts are perpendicular to each other.

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53

The basic descriptive geometry for a helical gear is essentially the same as that of the spur gear,
except that the helix angle must be added as a parameter.

LIMITATIONS:
Helical gears have the major disadvantage that they are expensive and much more
difficult to find.
Helical gears are also slightly less efficient than a spur gear of the same size.

ADVANTAGES:
Helical gears can be used on non parallel and even perpendicular shafts, and can carry
higher loads than can spur gears.


Fig.3.5 Helical gears

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54


Fig 3.6 Crossed helical gear Fig 3.7 Herring bone gear

BEVEL GEARS

GENERAL: Bevel gears are primarily used to transfer power between intersecting shafts. The
teeth of these gears are formed on a conical surface. Standard bevel gears have teeth which are
cut straight and are all parallel to the line pointing the apex of the cone on which the teeth are
based. Spiral bevel gears are also available which have teeth that form arcs. Hypocycloid bevel
gears are a special type of spiral gear that will allow nonintersecting, non-parallel shafts to mesh.
Straight tool bevel gears are generally considered the best choice for systems with speeds lower
than 1000 feet per minute: they commonly become noisy above this point. One of the most
common applications of bevel gears is the bevel gear differential.

LIMITATIONS:
Cannot be used for parallel shafts.
Can become noisy at high speeds.

DEVELOPMENT AND ANALYSIS OF AUTOMOTIVE GEAR USING ALUMINIUM MATRIX COMPOSITES
55

ADVANTAGES:
Excellent choice for intersecting shaft systems.

Fig 3.8 Bevel gear

WORM GEARS

GENERAL: Worm gears are special gears that resemble screws, and can be used to drive spur
gears or helical gears. Worm gears, like helical gears, allow two non-intersecting 'skew' shafts to
mesh. Normally, the two shafts are at right angles to each other. A worm gear is equivalent to a
V-type screw thread. Another way of looking at a worm gear is that it is a helical gear with a
very high helix angle. Worm gears are normally used when a high gear ratio is desired, or again
when the shafts are perpendicular to each other. One very important feature of worm gear
meshes that is often of use is their irreversibility: when a worm gear is turned, the meshing spur
gear will turn, but turning the spur gear will not turn the worm gear. The resulting mesh is 'self
locking, and is useful in ratcheting mechanisms.

LIMITATIONS:
Low efficiency.
The worm drives the drive gear primarily with slipping motion, thus there are high
friction losses.

DEVELOPMENT AND ANALYSIS OF AUTOMOTIVE GEAR USING ALUMINIUM MATRIX COMPOSITES
56

ADVANTAGES:
Will tolerate large loads and high speed ratios.
Meshes are self locking (which can be either an advantage or a disadvantage).

Fig. 3.9 Worm gear

RACKS (STRAIGHT GEARS)

GENERAL: Racks are straight gears that are used to convert rotational motion to translational
motion by means of a gear mesh. (They are in theory a gear with an infinite pitch diameter). In
theory, the torque and angular velocity of the pinion gear are related to the Force and the velocity
of the rack by the radius of the pinion gear, as is shown below:
Perhaps the most well-known application of a rack is the rack and pinion steering system used on
many cars in the past.

LIMITATIONS:
Limited usefulness.
Difficult to find.



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57

ADVANTAGES:
The only gearing component that converts rotational motion to translational motion.
Efficiently transmits power.
Generally offers better precision than other conversion methods.

Fig.3.10 Miter gear Fig.3.11 Internal gear


Fig. 3.12 Spiroid gear Fig. 3.13 Angular gear


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58

3.4 CASTING OF CURCULAR DISC BY STIR CASTING:
STEPS OF CASTING:
1. Cut the aluminum alloy-5083 ingot weight it and put it in the ceramic crucible in the electric
resistance furnace.

Fig.3.14 Ceramic crucible

2. Start the electric furnace and set the casting temperature 800C.
3. Three castings were done. One for AA5083/10% micron SiC one for AA5083/1% nano SiC
and one foe AA5083/2% nano SiC. When aluminum alloy-5083 fully melt than added SiC
particles 10% micron by weight,1% nano and 2% nano SiC by weight .

DEVELOPMENT AND ANALYSIS OF AUTOMOTIVE GEAR USING ALUMINIUM MATRIX COMPOSITES
59


Fig. 3.15 Furnace with stirrer and nitrogen cylinder
4. After addition of SiC particles it mixed by Mechanical stirring.
5. After the fully mixing of SiC particles. Than crucible take out from the furnace.



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Fig.3. 16 Line diagram of stir casting

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61



Fig.3. 17 Crucible grabber

Fig. 3. 18 Hand gloves

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62

6. Melt was poured in the pre heated mild steel disc die (diameter-62mm, thickness-17mm) for
circular disk and hollow cylindrical die (20 mm dia.) for tensile, compression & hardness
specimen..

Fig. 3.19 Die heater


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Fig. 3.20 Dies for 20 mm dia. rod
7. After solidification of melt casted circular disc were were removed from die.

Fig. 3.21 Al-alloy (5083) circular disc


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Fig. 3.22 Al-alloy with 10% sic composites circular disc

Fig. 3.23 Tensile specimen


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Fig. 3.24 Hardness and Compression specimen
8. Machining on circular disc was done on lathe machine to get the gear of required dimensions
(diameter-57m.m, thickness-12 m.m).
9. After being machined cut the teeth over circular disc by milling machine (28 teeth).


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Fig. 3.25 Final gears made up of composites
3.5-HARDNESS TEST:

Fig. 3.26 Hardness testing set up
Tested the hardness values of cast specimen of Al-alloy, Al-alloy with 10% SiC composites, Al-
alloy with 1% nano composites, and Al-alloy with 2% nano composites measured on the the
various point of the polished surfaces of the samples using B scale on Rockwell hardness tester.

3.6- TENSILE STRENGTH AND COMPRESSION STRENGTH TESTS:
Tensile strength and Compressive strength tested of cast specimen of Al-alloy, Al-alloy with
10% SiC composites, Al-alloy with 1% nano composites, and Al-alloy with 2% nano composites
measured on the polished surfaces of the samples using U.T.M tester.

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Fig. 3.27 Universal testing machine

3.7 WEAR TESTING OF GEAR:
Required setup for wear testing was fabricated which is shown in figure 3.28.
STEPS:
1. First of all measure the initial weight of gears.
2. Now mount the gear on shaft on the setup.
3. Apply 1 kg load on the drive shaft with the help of mild steel strip (shown in fig.).
4. Than start the motor which rotate the meshing gear at constant speed 1470 r.p.m.for 1 hous.

DEVELOPMENT AND ANALYSIS OF AUTOMOTIVE GEAR USING ALUMINIUM MATRIX COMPOSITES
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Fig. 3.28 Wears testing set up for gear
6. After 1 hrs stop the motor and take out the gear from the setup.

DEVELOPMENT AND ANALYSIS OF AUTOMOTIVE GEAR USING ALUMINIUM MATRIX COMPOSITES
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7. Now measure the weight of gear.
8. Find the difference of weight will be the wear rate in weight in 1 hrs.

Fig -3.29 Weighting machine
9. Similar measurements procedure were follow for the wear rate for 2 and 3 hrs for 1 kg.

DEVELOPMENT AND ANALYSIS OF AUTOMOTIVE GEAR USING ALUMINIUM MATRIX COMPOSITES
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10. Similar measurements procedure were follow for the wear rate 2 and 3 kg in 1, 2 and 3 hrs
respectively.
11. In summary , the wear rate of Al-alloy gears, 10% SiC composites gears ,1% nano
composites gears ,and 2% nano composites at 1 kg(1,2,& 3 hrs), 2kg(1,2,&3 hrs) and 3 kg(1,2,&
3hrs).were measured.





















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CHAPTER-4
RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS










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RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
4.1 HARDNESS TEST:
The average Rockwell hardness values of cast Al-alloy, Al-alloy with 10% SiC composites, Al-
alloy with 1% nano composites, and Al-alloy with 2% nano composites measured on the
polished surfaces of the samples using B scale on Rockwell hardness tester are shown in Fig.4.1.
Table 4.1 Hardness of composite
Composition Hardness (HRB)
Al alloy 28.4
Al alloy with 10%sic composite 43.9
Al alloy with 1%sic nano composite 39.8
Al alloy with 2%sic nano composite 47.4

The hardness of Al-alloy with 2% SiC nano composite is more among all tested composition.
But hardness of Al alloy with 10%sic composite is more than Al alloy with 1%sic nano
composite.

4.2. TENSILE STRENGTH TEST:
The average tensile strength values of cast Al-alloy, Al-alloy with 10% SiC composites, Al-alloy
with 1% nano composites, and Al-alloy with 2% nano composites measured on the polished
surfaces of the samples using U.T.M tester.


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Table 4.2 Tensile strength of composites
Composition Tensile Strength (MPa)
Al alloy 223.4
Al alloy with 10%sic composite 238.4
Al alloy with 1%sic nano composite 251.8
Al alloy with 2%sic nano composite 272.3

The tensile strength of Al alloy with 2% SiC nano composite is more among all tested
composition.
4.3 COMPRESSION STRENGTH TESTS:
The average compression strength values of cast Al-alloy, Al-alloy with 10% SiC composites,
Al-alloy with 1% nano composites, and Al-alloy with 2% nano composites measured on the
polished surfaces of the samples.
Table 4.3 Compression strength of composites

The compression strength of Al alloy with 2% SiC nano composite is more among all tested
composition.

Composition Compression Strength (MPa)
Al alloy 312
Al alloy with 10%sic composite 336
Al alloy with 1%sic nano composite 389.5
Al alloy with 2%sic nano composite 529.5

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4.4 WEAR TEST OF GEAR:
Make the table of wear loss in 1, 2 and 3 hrs at 1, 2 and 3kg.
4.4.1 COMPOSITION- Al-alloy:
Load applied- 1 kg
Table 4.4 Weight losses in mg at 1 kg of Al-alloy
INITIAL WEIGHT 1 hr 2 hr 3 hr
gear1 74.3231 74.26687 74.1515 73.98164
Wear 0.05623 0.11537 0.16986
Gear 2 78.16235 78.10893 78.00104 77.83576
wear 0.05342 0.10789 0.16528
Load applied-2 kg
Table 4.5 Weight losses in mg at 2 kg of Al-alloy
Initial weight 1hr 2hr 3hr
Gear1 73.98164 73.91382 73.7771 73.57038
Wear 0.06782 0.13672 0.20672
Gera2 77.83576 77.77063 77.63938 77.4296
Wear 0.06513 0.13125 0.19642
Load applied-3 kg
Table 4.6 Weight losses in mg at 3 kg of Al-alloy
Initial weight 1hrear 2hr 3hr
Gear1 73.57038 73.49807 73.35275 73.13522
Wear 0.07231 0.14532 0.21753
Gear2 77.44296 77.37373 77.23416 77.01878
wear 0.06923 0.13957 0.21538


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4.4.2 COMPOSITION- Al-alloy with 10% SiC composites:

Load applied-1 kg
Table 4.7 Weight losses in mg at 1 kg of 10% sic composites

Initial weight 1hr 2hr 3hr
Gear1 73.66285 73.6147 73.5171 73.37143
Wear 0.04815 0.0976 0.14567
Gera2 76.8062 76.75868 76.6628 76.5198
Wear 0.04752 0.09585 0.14325

Load applied-2 kg
Table 4.8 Weight losses in mg at 2 kg of 10% sic composites
Initial weight 1hrear 2hr 3hr
Gear1 73.37143 73.31752 73.2086 73.04587
Wear 0.05391 0.10892 0.16273
Gear2 76.5198 76.46342 76.35018 76.18046
wear 0.05616 0.11324 0.16972

Load applied-3 kg
Table 4.9 Weight losses in mg at 3 kg of 10% sic composites
Initial weight 1hr 2hr 3hr
Gear1 73.04587 72.97642 72.83122 72.62199
Wear 0.06945 0.1452 0.20923
Gear 2 76.18046 76.11512 75.98339 75.78577
Wear 0.06534 0.13173 0.19762


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4.4.3 COMPOSITION- Al-alloy with 1% nano composites:
Load applied- 1 kg
Table 4.10 Weight losses in mg at 1 kg of 1% sic nano composites
Initial weight 1hr 2hr 3hr
Gear1 65.60956 65.56031 65.46101 65.31312
Wear 0.04925 0.0993 0.14789
Gera2 64.01249 63.96115 63.85753 63.7033
Wear 0.05134 0.10362 0.15423

Load applied-2 kg
Table 4.11 Weight losses in mg at 2 kg of 1% sic nano composites

Initial weight 1hr 2hr 3hr
Gear1 65.31312 65.2597 65.15187 64.99051
Wear 0.05342 0.10783 0.16136
Gear2 63.7033 63.64387 63.52405 63.34482
wear 0.05943 0.11982 0.17923

Load applied- 3kg
Table 4.12 Weight losses in mg at 3 kg of 1% sic nano composites
Initial weight 1hr 2hr 3hr
Gear1 64.99051 64.92919 64.80595 64.62143
Wear 0.06132 0.12324 0.18452
Gera2 63.34482 63.2763 63.13817 62.93165
Wear 0.06534 013813 0.20652


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4.4.4 COMPOSITION- Al-alloy with 2% nano composites:
Load applied- 1 kg
Table 4.13 Weight losses in mg at 1 kg of 2% sic nano composites
Initial weight 1hr 2hr 3hr
Gear1 66.17725 66.14085 66.06495 65.95515
Wear 0.0364 0.0759 0.1098
Gera2 66.75004 66.71474 66.63824 66.53034
Wear 0.0353 0.0765 0.1079

Load applied- 2 kg
Table 4.14 Weight losses in mg at 2 kg of 2% sic nano composites
Initial weight 1hrear 2hr 3hr
Gear1 65.9515 65.91565 65.83615 65.71725
Wear 0.0395 0.0795 0.11891
Gear2 66.53034 66.49184 66.41334 66.29644
wear 0.0385 0.0785 0.0169

Load applied- 3 kg
Table 4.15 Weight losses at 3 kg of 2% sic nano composites
Initial weight 1hr 2hr 3hr
Gear1 65.71725 66.42774 65.59318 65.46906
Wear 0.04132 0.08275 0.12412
Gera2 66.29644 66.25323 66.16631 66.03379
Wear 0.0321 0.08692 0.13252


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4.5 GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF WEIGHT LOSS w.r.t TIME OF
WEAR TEST:
Graph 4.1 Aluminium alloy

Graph 4.2 Al-alloy with 10% sic composite
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
1 2 3
w
e
i
g
h
t

l
o
s
s

(
g
m
s
)

time (Hrs)
3kgs
2kgs
1 kg.
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
1 2 3
w
e
i
g
h
t

l
o
s
s

(
g
m
s
)

time (Hrs)
3kgs
2kgs
1 kg.

DEVELOPMENT AND ANALYSIS OF AUTOMOTIVE GEAR USING ALUMINIUM MATRIX COMPOSITES
79


Graph 4.3 Al- alloys with 1% nano composite


Graph 4.4 Al- alloys with 2% nano composite
We can see that in graph when load increased than weight loss also increased with respect to
time.
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
1 2 3
w
e
i
g
h
t

l
o
s
s

(
g
m
s
)

time (Hrs)
3kgs
2kgs
1 kg.
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
0.4
1 2 3
w
e
i
g
h
t

l
o
s
s

(
g
m
s
)

time (Hrs)
3kgs
2kgs
1 kg.

DEVELOPMENT AND ANALYSIS OF AUTOMOTIVE GEAR USING ALUMINIUM MATRIX COMPOSITES
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Graph 4.5 variation of weight loss V/S time for different composites with respect to time

We can see that in the graph weight loss is minimum in Al-alloy 2% nano composites among the
entire tested component.
But weight loss in 10% SiC composites is less as compare to 1% nano composites.

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CHAPTER-5
CONCLUSIONS













DEVELOPMENT AND ANALYSIS OF AUTOMOTIVE GEAR USING ALUMINIUM MATRIX COMPOSITES
82

CONCLUSION
1. Aluminium matrix composite automotive gear is successfully fabricated with Aluminium
alloy, Al- alloy with 10 % SiC composite and Al-alloy with 1% & 2% nano SiC
composite.

2. The mechanical properties i.e tensile strength, compressive strength, and hardness of the
above material were also tested.

3. It is found that Al-alloy with 2% nano composites have more tensile strength,
compressive strength and hardness among the tested components. But hardness of Al-
alloy with 10%sic composite is more than Al alloy with 1% SiC nano composite.

4. A setup for wear testing for gear design and fabricated than wear test of all gear was done
at different load (1,2,3kg) and time(1,2,3hrs). Al-alloy with 2% nano SiC composite gear
perform to have lowest wear loss and have high wear resistance among the tested
component.

5. Al-alloy with 10% SiC has more wear resistance than Al-alloy with 1% nano composite.

6. The fabricated aluminium nano composite gear have light weight about 1/3 of steel and
good wear resistance .hence can be substituted existing material used for automobiles.







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