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You are on page 1of 20

Guide

& Cookie Lab

Frequency Distribution

What is an organized list of data that

aids in recognizing groups or patterns

FREQUENCY DISTRIBUITON

Write a horizontal/vertical frequency

distribution for the list of Psychology

classmates shoe sizes:

8, 8, 13, 7, 11, 8, 7, 8, 11, 9, 8, 10

7, 7, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 9, 10, 11, 11, 13

N

What represents the total number of

observations of scores?

N

What is this for our shoe sizes?

N=12

What are

Measures of

Central Tendencies?

Mean

The mathematical

AVERAGE of a set of

numbers.

The average is calculated

by adding up two or more

scores and dividing the

total by the number of

scores.

Consider the following

number set: 2, 4, 6, 9, 12.

The average is calculated

in the following manner: 2 +

4 + 6 + 9 + 12 = 33 / 5 = 6.6.

Average number set = 6.6.

Median

The score located at the

center of a distribution.

Consider this set of

numbers: 2, 3, 6, 8, 10.

The median of this

number distribution is 6.

For distributions with an

even number of scores,

take the average of the

two middle scores to find

the median.

#s need to

be ranked

from least to

greatest!

Mode

The most frequently occurring score

in a distribution.

Consider the following number

distribution of 2, 3, 6, 3, 7, 5, 1, 2, 3, 9.

The mode of these numbers would

be 3

3 is the most frequently occurring

number.

Calculate the measures of

central tendency for our shoes:

7,7,8,8,8,8,8,9,10,11,11,13

Mean: 9

Median: 8

Mode: 8

What are

Measures of

Variability?

Measure of Variability

Range: Difference between the lowest and highest

numbers in a distribution

What is this for the salary scales

39,000 (lowest); 98,000 (highest)

= 59,000

Variance: The measure of how different the scores

are from each other.

*MEASURES the ERROR in our SAMPLE!

Standard Deviation: The average distance from

the mean

*MEASURES the AVERAGE Error in our SAMPLE!

MOST IMPORTANT!

Steps

VARIANCE

1. Find the mean

(average)

2. Figure the diff. from

the mean for each

number

3. Square them

(3); (-1) to make

positive

4. Add them

5. Divide by N

(total number)

Standard Deviation

1. Find the mean

(average)

2. Figure the diff. from

the mean for each

number

3. Square them

(3); (-1) to make +

4. Add them

5. Divide by N

(total number)

Take square root

15.75 = 3.968

Lets find

Variance

and

Standard Deviation

Calculate the variance, and

standard deviation for shoe

sizes

7,7,8,8,8,8,8,9,10,11,11,13

N=12

Mean =9 (average)

Median = 8 (middle #)

Mode = 8 (frequently

occurring)

Range= 6

7,7,8,8,8,8,8,9,10,11,11,13

7,7,8,8,8,8,8,9,10,11,11,13

N

Shoe

sizes

#1

Find

the

mean

#2

Fig diff. from

mean to

each #

#3

(Square them)

Get rid of

negatives

#4

Add together

numbers from

#3

#5

Divide

by N

1 7 9

2 7 9

3 8 9

4 8 9

5 8 9

6 8 9

7 8 9

8 9 9

9 10 9

10 11 9

11 11 9

12 13 9

TOTAL ==

Variance = measure of error for sample

7,7,8,8,8,8,8,9,10,11,11,13

N

Shoe

sizes

#1

Find

the

mean

#2

Fig diff. from

mean to

each #

#3

(Square them)

Get rid of

negatives

#4

Add together

numbers from

#3

#5

Divide

by N

1 7 9 7-9=-2

2 7 9 7-9=-2

3 8 9 8-9=-1

4 8 9 8-9=-1

5 8 9 8-9=-1

6 8 9 8-9=-1

7 8 9 8-9=-1

8 9 9 9-9=0

9 10 9 10-9=1

10 11 9 11-9=2

11 11 9 11-9=2

12 13 9 13-9=4

TOTAL ==

Variance = measure of error for sample

7,7,8,8,8,8,8,9,10,11,11,13

N

Shoe

sizes

#1

Find

the

mean

#2

Fig diff. from

mean to

each #

#3

(Square them)

Get rid of

negatives

#4

Add together

numbers from

#3

#5

Divide

by N

1 7 9 7-9=-2 (-2)=4

2 7 9 7-9=-2 (-2)=4

3 8 9 8-9=-1 (-1)=1

4 8 9 8-9=-1 (-1)=1

5 8 9 8-9=-1 (-1)=1

6 8 9 8-9=-1 (-1)=1

7 8 9 8-9=-1 (-1)=1

8 9 9 9-9=0 (0)=0

9 10 9 10-9=1 (1)=1

10 11 9 11-9=2 (2)=4

11 11 9 11-9=2 (2)=4

12 13 9 13-9=4 (4)=16

TOTAL ==

38

Variance = measure of error for sample

7,7,8,8,8,8,8,9,10,11,11,13

N

Shoe

sizes

#1

Find

the

mean

#2

Fig diff. from

mean to

each #

#3

(Square them)

Get rid of

negatives

#4

Add together

numbers from

#3

#5

Divide

by N

1 7 9 7-9=-2 (-2)=4

2 7 9 7-9=-2 (-2)=4

3 8 9 8-9=-1 (-1)=1

4 8 9 8-9=-1 (-1)=1

5 8 9 8-9=-1 (-1)=1

6 8 9 8-9=-1 (-1)=1

7 8 9 8-9=-1 (-1)=1

8 9 9 9-9=0 (0)=0

9 10 9 10-9=1 (1)=1

10 11 9 11-9=2 (2)=4

11 11 9 11-9=2 (2)=4

12 13 9 11-9=4 (4)=16

TOTAL ==

38

38/12=

3.167 Variance = measure of error for sample

7,7,8,8,8,8,8,9,10,11,11,13

N

Shoe

size

#1

Find the

mean

#2

Fig diff. from

mean to each

#

#3

(Square them)

Get rid of

negatives

#4

Add

together

numbers

from #3

#5

Divide by N

#6

Take

Square Root

1 7 9 7-9=-2 (-2)=4

2 7 9 7-9=-2 (-2)=4

3 8 9 8-9=-1 (-1)=1

4 8 9 8-9=-1 (-1)=1

5 8 9 8-9=-1 (-1)=1

6 8 9 8-9=-1 (-1)=1

7 8 9 8-9=-1 (-1)=1

8 9 9 9-9=0 (0)=0

9 10 9 10-9=1 (1)=1

10 11 9 11-9=2 (2)=4

11 11 9 11-9=2 (2)=4

12 13 9 11-9=4 (4)=16

TOTAL ==

38 38/12=

3.167

3.167 =

1.78

SD = measure the

AVERAGE of error for sample

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