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73-96 32.817.73 010(01)-96
ISBN 5-279-01598-9
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................................................................................................................................................................5
1 .....................................................................................................................7
1.1. .............................................................................................................................7
1.2. .............................................................................................................9
1.3 .......................................................................11
1.4 .................................................................................................................15
..............................................................................................................................................................17
........................................................................................................................................18
2. .
...........................................................................................................................................19
2.1 ..........................................................................................19
2.2 ..................................................................................................19
2.3 - .............................................................................22
2.4 .....................................................................................................24
2.5 ..........................................................25
..............................................................................................................................................................26
........................................................................................................................................26
3. ..........................................................27
3.1 .....................................................................................................................27
3.1.1 ..............................................................................................................................................27
3.1.2 ...................................................................................................................................28
3.1.3 ( )...............................................................................................................................28
3.1.4 ..................................................................................................................................29
3.2 .......................................................................................................31
3.2.1 .......................................................................................................................32
3.2.2 ( )..........................32
3.2.3 ......................................................................................................................34
3.2.4 ...........................................................................................................34
3.2.5 .....................................................................................................................35
3.2.6 ............................................................................................................................35
3.3 ........................................................36
..............................................................................................................................................................37
........................................................................................................................................37
4. ......................................................39
4.1 ...........................................................................................39
4.2 .......................................................................................43
4.2.1 .....................................................................................................45
4.2.2 ..............................................................................................................48
..............................................................................................................................................................52
........................................................................................................................................52
5. , .....................................................................53
5.1 .......................................................................................53
5.1.1 .............................................................................................55
5.1.2 ........................................................................................................55
5.1.3 ...............................................................................................................56
5.2 .............................................................................................................................57
5.2.1 ..................................................................................................58
5.2.2 ..................................................................................................................................60
5.2.3 ............................................................................................................................................................62
5.2.4 - .............................................................................................................63
5.2.5 , .....................................................................64
2

5.3 ........................................66
5.3.1. ..........................................................................................................66
5.3.2 ...........................................................................................................67
5.3.3 ................................................................................................................................67
5.3.4 ......................................................................................68
5.3.5 ( )........................................................................................69
..............................................................................................................................................................69
........................................................................................................................................70
6. , ............................................71
6.1 ..............................................................................................................71
6.2 ................................................................................................................76
6.3 ...............................................................................................78
6.3.1 .........................................................................................................79
6.3.2 .....................................................................................................................84
6.3.3. .....................................................................................................88
6.3.4 ............................................................................................91
6.3.5 ........................................................................................................................92
..............................................................................................................................................................93
........................................................................................................................................93
7. ...............................................................................94
7.1 ......................................................................................................................................................95
7.2 .................................................................................................................................................96
7.3 ........................................................................................................................................................98
7.3.1 .................................................................................................................98
7.3.2 ..........................................................99
7.3.3 ................................................100
7.3.4 "/".....................................................101
7.4 ..........................................................................................................................................................102
7.5 ......................................................................................................................................104
7.5.1 .................................................................................................105
7.5.2 ................................................................................................106
7.5.3
()...................................................................................................................................106
7.6 ..................................................................................................................107
............................................................................................................................................................109
......................................................................................................................................109
8. (
).............................................................................................................................110
8.1 ...............................................................................110
8.1.1 ...........................................................................................................................110
8.1.2 .....................................................................................111
8.1.3 .....................................................................................................114
8.2 ...............................................................115
8.3 -.............................................................................................117
8.4 ............................117
.............................................................................................................................................................118
......................................................................................................................................118
9. (
G2-GENSYM CORP., )...............................................................................................119
9.1 ...........................................................................................................................................................121
9.1.1 ....................................................................................................................121
9.1.2 ................................................................................................121
9.1.3 ..................................................................................................................................122
9.2 , .......................................................................126
9.2.1 ............................................................................................................................................126
3

9.2.2 ................................................................................................................................................127
9.2.3 .........................................................................................................................128
9.3 G2......................................................................................................................130
9.3.1 - ..............................................................................................131
9.3.3 ...................................................................................................................135
9.4 ...................................................................................................................136
9.5 /- G2......................................139
9.5.1 G2 Diagnostic Assistant, Statistical Process Control, Neuron-Line..............................................................140
9.5.2 Rethink ( )..................................................................................................................................141
9.5.3 Gensym Scheduling Toolkit, Dynamic Scheduling Package.........................................................................141
9.5.4 Fault Expert....................................................................................................................................................142
9.5.5 Batchdesign_Kit - ........143
............................................................................................................................................................143
......................................................................................................................................144
.............................................................................................................................................................145
, ...................................145
1..........................................................................................................................................................145
- ..................................................................................................................145
............................................................................................................................................................151
2..........................................................................................................................................................152
- "" .....................................152
............................................................................................................................................................168
3..........................................................................................................................................................169
.........................................................................................................................................169
............................................................................................................................................................184
4..........................................................................................................................................................185
, ..........................................185
............................................................................................................................................................195
5..........................................................................................................................................................196
..........................................................................196


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2. .. . - .:, 1965. - 391 .
3. . (Minsky .) ,- .: , 1971. - 364 .
4. .. .
.- ., 1987.-288.
5. . //.-1995. -27(185).
6. Expert system saves 20 million L on pipeline management.//C&I, 1994, July, p.31.
7. Feigenbaum E. A. The art of artificial intelligence: Themes and case studies of
knowledge engineering//The fifth International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence. Boston: MIT, 1977. - P. 1014-1029.
8. Feigenbaum E. A. Themes and case studies of knowledge engineering//Expert systenvin
micro electronic age. - Edinburgh: Infotach Limited, 1979. - P.3 - 25.
9. Harmon P. The Market for intelligent Software Products Intelligent Software
Strategies, 1992. - V.8. '2. - P.5 -12.
10. Hayes-Roth F., Jacobstein N. The State of Knowledge-Based Systems.
//Communications of the ACM, 19 94, March. - V.37. - N3. - P.27 - 39.
11. Loofbourrow . . . - 1995, 5-11
. -36(194). - 21 .
12. Newell A. Production systems: models of comtrol structures//Visual information
processing. - New York: Academic Press, 1973. - P. 463 - 526.
13. Newell A., Simon M.A. Human problem solving. - Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey:
Prentice-Hall, 1972.
14. Perky D.R. Migration to Open Systems. Taming the Tiger. Mc Graw-Hill, 1993. P.252.
17


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Cognitive Systems (ReMind) Esteem Software (ESTEEM).

2.3 -
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retieval and Contents Scanning Systems);
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30 000 70 000 .
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, -, ,
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Software (XpertRule Analyzer), Agnoss Software (KnowledgeSEEKER), Data Patterns (PCMARS).

1 .. Rethink. . /
" ". - : , 1996. - .58 - 64.
2. .. //
" ". - :, 1995.- .5 - 22. .
3. .., .. ..
. - : , 1995. - 126 .
4. .., .. -
// "
". - : ,1996.- .22 - 30.
5. Hall . The Intelligent Software Development Tools Market//Part I. Intelligent
Software Strategies. - 1996. -February. V.12, - 2. - P.1 - 12.
6. Harmon P. The Intelligent Software Development Tools Market//Part I. Intelligent
Software Strategies. - 1995. - V.11. - 2. - P.1 - 13.
7. Hall C. The Intelligent Software Development Tools Market//Part II. Intelligent
Software Strategies. - 1996. - V. 12. - .3. - P. 1 -16.
8. Harmon P. The Size of the Commercial Al Market in the US//lntelligent Software
Strategies. - 1994. - V. 10. - 1. - P.1 - 6.


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2. KBMS (Trinzic), ART (Inference).
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45


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2
3
4

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G2
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Montrex
Stone and Webster, USA
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Mitech, USA
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Intellisys, USA
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Integrated Systems Inc, USA
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Template Software, USA
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Honeywell, USA
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51

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2. Hammer M. and Champy J. Reengineering the Corporation. A Manifesto for Business
Revolution. - New York: Harper Colins. - 1993.
3. Intelligent Software Strategies. - N2.- 1996.
4. Moore ., Memorandum//Copyright. - 1993, April. Gensym Corporation.
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1. . - .
. . - .: , 1992.
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Magazine /USSR/ - 1991. - N3.
3. ..
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4. . . - .: , 1971. -320.
5. ..
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69

6 .. . // . - 1983. - 6. - .31 - 42.


7. . . // -
. - .: , 1984. - .. -.58 - 76.
8. Aikins J.S. Prototypical knowledge for expert systems//Artificatial Intelligence. -1983.
V. 20. - P. 163 - 210.
9. Duda R. O. and others. Subjectiv Bayesian methods for rule-based system //
Proceedings of the AFIPS, 1976, National Computer Conference. - V. 45. -P. 1075 - 1082.
10. Duda R.O., Gaschnig J.G. Knowledge-based exspert systems come of age // BYTE. 1981. V. 6. - 9. - P. 238 - 281.
11. Erman L.O. and others. The design and an example use of HEARSAY-III// The
Seventh International Joint Conference ob Artificial Intelligence. - Vancouver: University of British
Columbia, 1981. - P. 409 - 415.
12. Greiner R., Lenat D. A representation language//The first national conference on
Artificial Intelligence. - Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1980. - P. 165 -169.
13. Minsky M. A framework for representation knowledge//Psychology computer vision. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1975 ( : . - .: ,
1978).
14. Robinson J.A. A machine-oriented logic based on resolution principle. Journal of the
ACM. - 1965. - V. 12. - 1. - P. 23 - 41 ( : .
. - .: , 1970).
15. Winograd . Extended inference modes in reasoling by computer system // Artificial
Intelligence. - 1980. - V. 13. - P. 5 - 26.
16. Zaden LA. Fuzzy sets//Informationand Control. - V. 8. - P. 338 - 353.


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4. . . . - .: , 1973.
5. Moore R. Expert Systems in Real-Time Applications: Experience and Developments
//Proceedings of the Seventeenth Annual Advance Control Conferenc, 1991, October.
6. Nevell A., Simon M.A. Computer science as empirical enquiry: Symbols and
search//Communications of the ACM. - 1976. - V. 10. - 3. - P. 133 - 146.
7. Nilsson N.J. Principles of Artificial intelligence. - Palo Alto; California, Tioga Press,
1980.
8. Winograd T. Extended inference modes in reasoning by computer systems//Artificial
Intelligence. - 1980. - V. 13. - P. 5 - 26.


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1. .. .
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1/. . . .. . - .: , 1993. - 188 .
3. Modern Software Engineering. - Edited by Peter A.Ng., Raymond T.Ych-VAN
NOSTRAND - NY.: 1990.
4. Shekhar H. Kirani, Imran A. Zualkernan, Wei-Tek Tsai. Evaluation of Expert System
Testing Methods//Communications of the ACM. - 1994. - November. -V. 37. - 11.
5. Sherry A. Land, Jane T. Malm. Making Intelligent Systems Team Players. A Guide to
Developing Intelligent Monitoring Systems// NASA Technical Memorandum 104807. - 1995,
July.


1. .
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2. Case-based reasoning//Software Strategies Journal. -1991. - 3.
3. Case-based reasoning//Software Strategies Journal. -1992. - 1.


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118

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1. ..
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2. .., .. . .: , 1972.
3. .., .., ..
(, , ). . - .: ,
1995.
4. .. // . 1995. 2.
143

5. Rock D.,Yu D. Improving Business Process Reengineering //Al Expert, 1994. October.
6. Siegel D. Riddell D. Introducing G2 4.0 //Marketing Bulletin. - Gensym Corporation,
1994, November.
7. Gensym Corp., A Guided Introduction to GDA. - Cambridge: (Mass., USA), 1992.
November.
8. Gensym Corp., G2 Reference Manual. Version 4.0. - Cambridge: (Mass., USA), 1992,
September,
9. Gensym Corp., NeurOn-Line Reference Manual. NeurOn-Line Version 1.0 Beta Rev. 2. Cambridge: (Mass., USA), 1993, July.
10. John E. Girard. NASA Applies Gensym to Real-Time Problems //Research Highlights,
1990. July.
11. Smedley P. Who's Number One in Customer Service? //Control, 1994. November.
12. Harmon Paul. G2: Gensym's Real-Time Expert System //Intelligent Software
Strategies. - Vol. 9. - 1993. March. - No. 3.
13. Robert L. Moore. Expert Systems in Real-Time Applications Experience and
Opportunities, Expert System Application in Advanced Control, Proceedings of the
Seventeenth Annual Advanced Control Conference - West Lafayette (Indiana), 1991, September
30, - October 2.


1. ,
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3. . ++ //PC
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4. . ++ - //PC Magazine /USSR/.l991. - 3. - . 93 - 97.
5. - . The OOP Survial Guide./Agila
C.A.//Computerworld-Moscow. - 1995. - 15. - . 31.
6. .., .., .. .
/ . ... - .: , 1992 - 272 .
7. " " // . - 1995. - 23 - 24.
8. . Making
reuse a reality./Tibbetts J.,Bernstein .//. - 1995. - 18. - . 21, 30.
9. .. -
//PC magazine. - 1995. - 12.
10. Boehm . A spiral model of software development and enhancement //IEEE
Computer. - 1988. - 25(5). - P. 61 - 72.
11. Booch G. Object-Oriented Analysis and Design with Applications //
Bengamin/Cummings, Redword City, CA, USA, 1994.
12. Mood J. Object Methods Tame Reengeneering Madness. - Datamation. - 1995, May. P. 43, 44, 48.

151

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1. ... .. -
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// "
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3. Davenport .. Business Innovation, Reengineering Work through Information
Technology. - Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1993.
4. Flynn K. Critical Success Factors for a Successful Business Reengineering Project
//CASE World Conference Proceedings. - Boston, 1993, October.
5. Hammer M. and Champy J. Reengineering the Corporation: A Manifesto for Business
Revolution. - New York: HarperCollins, 1993.
6. Harmon P. Business Process Reengineering with Objects - Part 2 //Object-Oriented
Strategies. - 1995. - Vol. 5. - 1.- P.1 -13.
7. Jacobson I., Ericsson M., Jacobson A. The Object Advantage: Business Process
Reengineering with Object Technology //ACM Press. - Addison-Wesley Publishing, 1995.

168

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20. Hopfield J.J. Neural Network and Physical Systems with Emergent Collective
Computational Abilities.//Proc.Nat. Acad. Science USA, 1982 - V.79, Pp.2554-2558.
21. Rumelhart D.E.. Hinton G.E., Williams R.J. Learning internal Representations by
Error propagation.//Parallel distributed pocessing, - V .1. - Cambridge (MA): MIT Press, 1968. P. 318-362.
22. Trelieven P. Neurocomputers. - L.: University College, 1989.

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195

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211