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ROAD SIGNBOARD

Road signs in Malaysia are standardized road signs similar to those used in other
nations but with certain distinctions. Until the early 1980s, Malaysia followed closely
the Australia-Japan-Switzerland standard of road signs with diamond warning signs
and circular signs as restrictive signs to maintain traffic. Signs usually use the FHWA
Series fonts (Highway Gothic) typeface also used in the United States, Canada, and
Australia.

Malaysian traffic signs use Malay, the official and national language in Malaysia.
However, English is also used for important public places such as tourist attractions,
airports, railway stations and immigration checkpoints. Both Malay and English are
used in the road signs that are located along the Pengerang Highway (Federal route

), which links Kota Tinggi to Sungai Rengit in Johor state and Genting Sempah-
Genting Highlands Highway which links Genting Sempah to Genting Highlands.

According to the road category under 333 Act, the Malaysian Road Transportation
Act 1987, chapter 67, blue traffic signs are used for federal, state and municipal
roads. Green signs are used for toll expressways or highways only. State roads use
letters. For example, Negeri Sembilan N70, Melaka M70and expressways use letters

E. Federal Roads only use numbers and digits, for example Federal Route .

However, federal road numbers can also be added with the prefix before the
route number, which is normally used by the Malaysian Public Works Department

(JKR) and Malaysian police. For example, Federal Route can also be written as

Federal Route .[1]


Non-tolled Federal, state and municipal roads
Malaysian road signs are blue and have a simple code:-
• JKR hexagon-shaped highway shield with highway code signs are black and
yellow
• Blue with white letters signs for federal, state and municipal roads.
• Blue with orange letters for road names.

Jalan Raja
Laut

EXIT 224 •
PERSIMPANGAN
JALAN TEMPLER EXIT 218 SUSUR
KELUAR
MAJLIS LINK
White with Black letters for exit
signs (Usually at Federal
Highway)
Junction to next Fourth-junction
Malaysian federal Exit to next destinations
destinations (usually for directions
road shield (usually for highways)
trunk roads)

Roundabout
directions Places distance Secondary
Primary milestones
milestones

• Name of
roads

Motorcycle lane
• Malaysian motorcycle lane signs are blue.
Motorcycle lane entrance signs Motocycle lane directions signs

Border signs
Border signs in Malaysia are green for state and blue for district.

Sempadan Negeri
SELANGOR DARUL
EHSAN

State border signs

Sempadan
Sempadan
District border WILAYAH
Daerah Polis
signs PERSEKUTUAN
PETALING
SEMPADAN KUALA LUMPUR
DAERAH
KUALA
SELANGOR

ULU
TIRAM
important signs

These are other important signs in Malaysia such


as government institutions and tourist destinations.
‫مارا ڠ‬
Mara
ng
Tap
ah
Roa
d

• White with black letters for towns and other settlements.

↑ Agensi Angkasa Negara


(ANGKASA)

• Green with orange letters for government institutions.

Masjid
Negara
(National
Mosque)

• White with green letters and


Air Terjun Kota Maroon with white letters for tourist
Tinggi destinations.

Warning signs

Give way
• Malaysian warning signs are diamond shaped and are yellow and black in colour.
Construction signs

KAWASAN
PEMBINAAN
-- m
DI HADAPAN

• The construction signs in Malaysia are diamond shaped and are orange and black in
colour.

Bridge-related signs

FT001/222/
0047
SG
REMBAU • Bridge numbers

River signs

SG
DAMANSAR
A

Sign vocabulary
• National Speed Limit signboard on Malaysian federal roads.

• Common state road signboard which is similar to the signboards on federal


roads.
• Some road signs in Malaysia are in English, such as this one near Jalan
Beringin in Damansara Town Centre, Kuala Lumpur.

• Most road signs in Malaysia use Malay (or Bahasa Melayu); the official and
national language of that country. However, English is still used for important
directional signs such as CIQ checkpoints, airports and tourist attractions.
Below are the translations for the road signs :
 ARAH = Bound
○ Example: ARAH UTARA = North Bound
 UTARA = North
 SELATAN = South
 BARAT = West
 TIMUR = East
 AWAS = Caution
 KAWASAN KEMALANGAN = Accident Area
 KAWASAN KAMPUNG = Village area
 SELEKOH BAHAYA DI HADAPAN = Sharp corner ahead
 KURANGKAN LAJU = Reduce Speed
 SIMPANG KE = Junction to
 SUSUR KELUAR KE = Exit to
 SUSUR MASUK KE = Entry to (usually at weighing bridge)
 PEMBINAAN DI HADAPAN = Construction ahead
 PEMBINAAN TAMAT = End of construction
 BERHENTI = Stop
 JALAN SEHALA = One Way
 BERI LALUAN = Give Away
 ZON HAD LAJU DIHADAPAN = Speed Limit Zone ahead
 HAD LAJU KEBANGSAAN = National Speed Limits
 HAD KETINGGIAN = Height limit
 JALAN = Road
 LEBUH RAYA = Expressway / Highway (Avenue = usually in Penang only for
example Peel Avenue become Lebuh Raya Peel)
 LEBUH = Street
 PERSIARAN = Drive
 LORONG MEMOTONG DI HADAPAN = Overtaking lane ahead
 IKUT KIRI KECUALI MEMOTONG or IKUT KIRI JIKA TIDAK MEMOTONG =
Keep Left Unless Overtaking
 KENDERAAN BERAT SILA IKUT KIRI = Heavy vehicles, please keep left
 KENDERAAN --- KELUAR/MASUK DIHADAPAN = --- Vehicles In/Out ahead
 KECUALI KECEMASAN = Except Emergency
 PERLAHAN = Slow/Slow Down
 LAMPU ISYARAT DI HADAPAN = Traffic lights ahead
 HENTIAN SEBELAH = Layby
 KAWASAN REHAT DAN RAWAT (R&R) (R&R) (R&R) = Rest and Service
Areas
 PLAZA RESTORAN DAN REHAT (R//R) (R//R) = Restaurant and Rest Plazas
 STESEN MINYAK = Petrol Station
 KECEMASAN = Emergency
 RESTORAN JEJANTAS (OBR) (R&R) = Overhead Bridge Restaurant (OBR)
 TEROWONG = Tunnel
 PERSIMPANGAN BERTINGKAT/PERSIMPANGAN = Interchange
 SUSUR KELUAR = Exit
 NYALAKAN LAMPU ANDA or SILA NYALAKAN LAMPU = Turn on your
headlamps/Please turn on headlamps
 ANGIN LINTANG = Crosswind
 GUNAKAN GEAR RENDAH = Shift to lower gears
 LALUAN MOTOSIKAL = Motorcycle lane
 GUNAKAN LORONG MOTOSIKAL = Use motorcycle lane
 KAWASAN SEKOLAH = School area
 AIR TERJUN = Waterfall
 PANTAI = Beach
 KOMPLEKS SEJARAH = Historical Complex
 MASJID = Mosque
 WISMA/BANGUNAN = Building
 LAPANGAN TERBANG = Airport
○ LAPANGAN TERBANG ANTARABANGSA = International Airport
 LITAR LUMBA = Racing Circuit
 PUSAT KHIDMAT PELANGGAN = Customers Service Centre
 PUSAT PENERANGAN PELANCONGAN = Tourist Information Centre
 JAMBATAN = Bridge
 JAMBATAN TIMBANG = Weighing Bridge
 PLAZA TOL = Toll Plaza
 STESEN KERETAPI = Railway Station
 TANDAS = Toilet
 TELEFON = Telephone
 BANGUNAN IBUSAWAT TELEFON = Telephone exchange building
 MENARA = Tower
 STESEN PENGUATKUASAAN JABATAN PENGANGKUTAN JALAN = Road
Transport Department Enforcement Station
 TANJUNG = Cape
 TELUK = Bay
 PULAU = Island
 SUNGAI = River
 PARIT = Canal
 PINTU AIR = Water gate
 KAWASAN TENTERA = Armed forces base area
 KAWASAN LARANGAN = Prohibited area
 KAWASAN BANJIR = Flood area
 KAWASAN KEMALANGAN = Accident prone area
 ZON PERANGKAP HAD LAJU = Speed trap zone

Paint

History

Cave paintings drawn with red and yellow ochre, hematite, manganese oxide and
charcoal may have been made by early Homo sapiens as long as 40,000 years ago.

Ancient painted walls at Denerdera, Egypt, which were exposed for many ages to
the open air, still possess a perfect brilliancy of color, as vivid as when they were
painted about 2,000 years ago. The Egyptians mixed their colors with some gummy
substance, and applied them separated from each other without any blending or
mixture. They appeared to have used six colors: white, black, blue, red, yellow, and
green. They first covered the field entirely with white, upon which they traced the
design in black, leaving out the lights of the ground color. They used minium for
red, and generally of a dark tinge.

Pliny mentions some painted ceilings in his day in the town of Ardea, which had
been executed at a date prior to the foundation of Rome. He expresses great
surprise and admiration at their freshness, after the lapse of so many centuries.
Paint was made with the yolk of eggs and therefore, the substance would harden
and stick onto the surface applied. Some red paint was made of blood of animals.
[citation needed] Pigments were made from plants and sands.

Components

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Pigment

Main article: Pigment

Pigments are granular solids incorporated into the paint to contribute color,
toughness, texture or simply to reduce the cost of the paint. Alternatively, some
paints contain dyes instead of or in combination with pigments.

Pigments can be classified as either natural or synthetic types. Natural pigments


include various clays, calcium carbonate, mica, silicas, and talcs. Synthetics would
include engineered molecules, calcined clays, blanc fix, precipitated calcium
carbonate, and synthetic silicas.

Hiding pigments, in making paint opaque, also protect the substrate from the
harmful effects of ultraviolet light. Hiding pigments include titanium dioxide,
phthalo blue, red iron oxide, and many others.

Fillers are a special type of pigment that serve to thicken the film, support its
structure and simply increase the volume of the paint. Fillers are usually comprised
of cheap and inert materials, such as diatomaceous earth, talc, lime, baryte, clay,
etc. Floor paints that will be subjected to abrasion may even contain fine quartz
sand as a filler. Not all paints include fillers. On the other hand some paints contain
very large proportions of pigment/filler and binder.

Some pigments are toxic, such as the lead pigments that are used in lead paint.
Paint manufacturers began replacing white lead pigments with the less toxic
substitute, titanium white (titanium dioxide), even before lead was functionally
banned in paint for residential use in 1978 by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety
Commission. The titanium dioxide used in most paints today is often coated with
silicon or aluminum oxides for various reasons such as better exterior durability, or
better hiding performance (opacity) via better efficiency promoted by more optimal
spacing within the paint film.
Binder or vehicle

The binder, commonly referred to as the vehicle, is the actual film forming
component of paint. It is the only component that must be present; other
components listed below are included optionally, depending on the desired
properties of the cured film.

The binder imparts adhesion, binds the pigments together, and strongly influences
such properties as gloss potential, exterior durability, flexibility, and toughness.

Binders include synthetic or natural resins such as acrylics, polyurethanes,


polyesters, melamine resins, epoxy, or oils.

Binders can be categorized according to drying, or curing mechanism. The four


most common are simple solvent evaporation, oxidative crosslinking, catalyzed
polymerization, and coalescence. There are others.

Note that drying and curing are two different processes. Drying generally refers to
evaporation of the solvent or thinner whereas curing refers to polymerization of the
binder. (The term "vehicle" is industrial jargon which is used inconsistently,
sometimes to refer to the solvent and sometimes to refer to the binder.) Depending
on chemistry and composition, any particular paint may undergo either, or both
processes. Thus, there are paints that dry only, those that dry then cure, and those
that do not depend on drying for curing

Paints that dry by simple solvent evaporation contain a solid binder dissolved in a
solvent; this forms a solid film when the solvent evaporates, and the film can re-
dissolve in the solvent again. Classic nitrocellulose lacquers fall into this category,
as do non-grain raising stains composed of dyes dissolved in solvent.

Latex paint is a water-borne dispersion of sub-micrometre polymer particles. The


term "latex" in the context of paint simply means an aqueous dispersion; latex
rubber (the sap of the rubber tree that has historically been called latex) is not an
ingredient. These dispersions are prepared by emulsion polymerization. Latex
paints cure by a process called coalescence where first the water, and then the
trace, or coalescing, solvent, evaporate and draw together and soften the latex
binder particles and fuse them together into irreversibly bound networked
structures, so that the paint will not redissolve in the solvent/water that originally
carried it. Residual surfactants in the paint as well as hydrolytic effects with some
polymers cause the paint to remain susceptible to softening and, over time,
degradation by water.

Paints that cure by oxidative crosslinking are generally single package coatings that
when applied, the exposure to oxygen in the air starts a process that crosslinks and
polymerizes the binder component. Classic alkyd enamels would fall into this
category.

Paints that cure by catalyzed polymerization are generally two package coatings
that polymerize by way of a chemical reaction initiated by mixing resin and
hardener, and which cure by forming a hard plastic structure. Depending on
composition they may need to dry first, by evaporation of solvent. Classic two
package epoxies or polyurethanes would fall into this category.[2]

Still other films are formed by cooling of the binder. For example, encaustic or wax
paints are liquid when warm, and harden upon cooling. In many cases, they will
resoften or liquify if reheated.

Recent environmental requirements restrict the use of Volatile Organic Compounds


(VOCs), and alternative means of curing have been developed, particularly for
industrial purposes. In UV curing paints, the solvent is evaporated first, and
hardening is then initiated by ultraviolet light. In powder coatings there is little or no
solvent, and flow and cure are produced by heating of the substrate after
application of the dry powder.

Solvent

The main purposes of the solvent are to adjust the curing properties and viscosity of
the paint. It is volatile and does not become part of the paint film. It also controls
flow and application properties, and affects the stability of the paint while in liquid
state. Its main function is as the carrier for the non volatile components. In order to
spread heavier oils (i.e. linseed) as in oil-based interior housepaint, a thinner oil is
required. These volatile substances impart their properties temporarily—once the
solvent has evaporated or disintegrated, the remaining paint is fixed to the surface.

Solvent-borne, also called oil-based, paints can have various combinations of


solvents as the diluent, including aliphatics, aromatics, alcohols, ketones and white
spirit. These include organic solvents such as petroleum distillate, esters, glycol
ethers, and the like. Sometimes volatile low-molecular weight synthetic resins also
serve as diluents. Such solvents are used when water resistance, grease resistance,
or similar properties are desired.

Additives

Besides the three main categories of ingredients, paint can have a wide variety of
miscellaneous additives, which are usually added in very small amounts and yet
give a very significant effect on the product. Some examples include additives to
modify surface tension, improve flow properties, improve the finished appearance,
increase wet edge, improve pigment stability, impart antifreeze properties, control
foaming, control skinning, etc. Other types of additives include catalysts,
thickeners, stabilizers, emulsifiers, texturizers, adhesion promoters, UV stabilizers,
flatteners (de-glossing agents), biocides to fight bacterial growth, and the like.

Additives normally do not alter the percentages of individual components in a


formulation

Color changing paint

Various technologies exist for making paints that change color. Thermochromic
paints and coatings contain materials that change conformation when heat is
applied, and so they change color. Liquid crystals have been used in such paints,
such as in the thermometer strips and tapes used in fishtanks. Photochromic paints
and coatings contain dyes that change conformation when the film is exposed to UV
light, and so they change color. These materials are used to make eyeglasses.

Electrochromic paints change color in response to an applied electric current. Car


manufacturer Nissan has been reportedly working on an electrochromic paint for
use in its vehicles, based on particles of paramagnetic iron oxide. When subjected
to an electromagnetic field the paramagnetic particles change spacing, modifying
their color and reflective properties. The electromagnetic field would be formed
using the conductive metal of the car body.[4] Electrochromic paints can be applied
to plastic substrates as well, using a different coating chemistry. The technology
involves using special dyes that change conformation when an electric current is
applied across the film itself. Recently, this new technology has been used to
achieve glare protection at the touch of a button in passenger airplane windows.

Application

Paint can be applied as a solid, a gaseous suspension (aerosol) or a liquid.


Techniques vary depending on the practical or artistic results desired.

As a solid (usually used in industrial and automotive applications), the paint is


applied as a very fine powder, then baked at high temperature. This melts the
powder and causes it to adhere (stick) to the surface. The reasons for doing this
involve the chemistries of the paint, the surface itself, and perhaps even the
chemistry of the substrate (the overall object being painted). This is commonly
referred to as "powder coating" an object.
As a gas or as a gaseous suspension, the paint is suspended in solid or liquid form in
a gas that is sprayed on an object. The paint sticks to the object. This is commonly
referred to as "spray painting" an object. The reasons for doing this include:

The application mechanism is air and thus no solid object ever touches the object
being painted;

The distribution of the paint is very uniform so there are no sharp lines;

It is possible to deliver very small amounts of paint;

A chemical (typically a solvent) can be sprayed along with the paint to dissolve
together both the delivered paint and the chemicals on the surface of the object
being painted;

Some chemical reactions in paint involve the orientation of the paint molecules.

In the liquid application, paint can be applied by direct application using brushes,
paint rollers, blades, other instruments, or body parts such as fingers.

Paint application by spray is the most popular method in industry. In this, paint is
atomized by the force of compressed air or by the action of high pressure
compression of the paint itself, which results in the paint being turned into small
droplets which travel to the article which is to be painted.

Rollers generally have a handle that allows for different lengths of poles which can
be attached to allow for painting at different heights. Generally, roller application
takes two coats for even color. A roller with a thicker nap is used to apply paint on
uneven surfaces. Edges are often finished with an angled brush.

After liquid paint is applied, there is an interval during which it can be blended with
additional painted regions (at the "wet edge") called "open time." The open time of
an oil or alkyd-based emulsion paint can be extended by adding white spirit, similar
glycols such as Dowanol (propylene glycol ether) or commercial open time
prolongers. This can also facilitate the mixing of different wet paint layers for
aesthetic effect. Latex and acrylic emulsions require the use of drying retardants
suitable for water-based coatings.

Paint may also be applied by flipping the paint, dripping, or by dipping an object in
paint.

Interior/exterior house paint tends to separate when stored, the heavier


components settling to the bottom. It should be mixed before use, with a flat
wooden stick or a paint mixing accessory; pouring it back and forth between two
containers is also an effective manual mixing method. Paint stores have machines
for mixing the paint by shaking it vigorously in the can for a few minutes.
The opacity and the film thickness of paint may be measured using a drawdown
card.

Oil-based paints when dry tend to be very durable, washable, and long-lasting. The
paint would take about almost 1 day to dry.

Water-based paints tend to be the safest, and easiest to clean up after using—the
brushes and rollers can be cleaned with soap and water.

It is difficult to reseal the paint container and store the paint well for a long period
of time. It should be stored upside down, for a good seal. Storage should be in a
cool dry place, protected from freezing.

Proper disposal of left over paint is a challenge. Sometimes it can be recycled: Old
paint may be usable for a primer coat or an intermediate coat, and paints of similar
chemistry can be mixed to make a larger amount of a uniform color.

If it is necessary to dispose of paint, one approach is to dry it, either by leaving the
lid off until it solidifies (which tends to work well only for small quantities), or by
pouring it into a disposable drying device, such as a piece of plywood surrounded by
a lip. Once dry, the paint may be discarded with normal trash. Wet oil based paint
should be treated as hazardous waste, and disposed of according to local
regulations.

Product variants

A collection of cans of paint and variantsPrimer is a preparatory coating put on


materials before painting. Priming ensures better adhesion of paint to the surface,
increases paint durability, and provides additional protection for the material being
painted.

Emulsion paint is a water-based paint used for painting interior or exterior surfaces.
Varnish and shellac provide a protective coating without changing the color. They
are paints without pigment.

Wood stain is a type of paint that is very "thin," that is, low in viscosity, and
formulated so that the pigment penetrates the surface rather than remaining in a
film on top of the surface. Stain is predominantly pigment or dye and solvent with
little binder, designed primarily to add color without providing a surface coating.

Lacquer is usually a fast-drying solvent-based paint or varnish that produces an


especially hard, durable finish.

An enamel paint is a paint that dries to an especially hard, usually glossy, finish.
Enamel paints contain either glass powder or tiny metal flake fragments instead of
the color pigments found in standard oil-based paints. Enamel paint is also mixed
with varnish to increase shine as well as assist its hardening process.
A glaze is an additive used with paint to slow drying time and increase translucency,
as in Faux Painting and Art Painting.

A roof coating is a fluid applied membrane which has elastic properties that allows it
to stretch and return to their original shape without damage. It provides UV
protection to polyurethane foam and is widely used as part of a roof restoration
system.

Fingerpaint is a kind of paint intended to be applied with the fingers; it typically


comes in pots and is used by small children, though it has very occasionally been
used by adults either to teach art to children, or for their own independent use.

Inks are similar to paints, except they are typically made using finely ground
pigments or dyes, and are designed so as not to leave a thick film of binder.

Titanium dioxide is extensively used for both house paint and artist's paint, because
it is permanent and has good covering power. Titanium oxide pigment accounts for
the largest use of the element. Titanium paint is an excellent reflector of infrared,
and is extensively used in solar observatories where heat causes poor seeing
conditions.

Anti-graffiti coatings are used to defeat the marking of surfaces by graffiti vandals.
There are two categories, sacrificial and non-bonding. Sacrificial coatings are clear
coatings that allow the removal of graffiti, usually by pressure washing the surface
with high-pressure water, removing the graffiti, and the coating (hence, sacrificed.)
They must be re-applied afterward for continued protection. This is most commonly
used on natural-looking masonry surfaces, such as statuary and marble walls, and
on rougher surfaces that are difficult to clean. Non-bonding coatings are clear, high-
performance coatings, usually catalyzed polyurethanes, that allow the graffiti very
little to bond to. After the graffiti is discovered, it can be removed with the use of a
solvent wash, without damaging the underlying substrate or protective coating.
These work best when used on smoother surfaces, and especially over other
painted surfaces, including murals.

Anti-climb paint is a non-drying paint that appears normal while still being
extremely slippery. It is usually used on drainpipes and ledges to deter burglars and
vandals from climbing them, and is found in many public places. When a person
attempts to climb objects coated with the paint, it rubs off onto the climber, as well
as making it hard for them to climb.
Example

Seamaster 6600 Superglo is a high quality


economical enamel finishing paint.
Specially formulated to provide fast drying
enamel finish for interior use on wood and
metal surfaces. Excellent for painting of
metal structures. AVAILABLE COLORS :-
Place your mouse over the colors to determine the COLOR CODE/NAME
but the colors shown above are for illustration only and do not represent
the actual color painted.