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,e;jpa murpayikg;G rl;lk;

gFjp I --- ,e;jpa muRk; mjd; vy;iyfSk; (Art 1-4)


,e; ; jpah- ghujk; vd; gJ khepyq;fs; ,ize; j xd; wpak; .- Art 1 (xd; wpak; -coined by Dr. Ambedkar)
khepyj; jpd; gug;igf; $l;l> ngah; khw; wk; nra;a ehlhSkd; wj; jpw;F mjpfhuk; Art 3
President Kd; mDkjp Njit.
simple majority.
khepyk; - cUthf;Ftjw;fhf mikf;fg;gl;l fkpl;bfs; ; :
S.K. jhh; fkpl;b- Nov 1948- not favour for linguistic states.
JVP committee- 1948 report in 1949
nghl;b =uhKY kuzk;- Me; jpuh cUthdJ- Oct 1> 1953 (nkhopthhpahf gphpf;fg;gl;l Kjy; khepyk; )
khepy kWrPuikg;G fkpl;b- 1953 Dec 22
Chairman- ghrpy; myp
Members- HN Fd;];U
KN gzpf;fh;
16 khepyq;fs;> 3 UTs- ghpe; Jiu
khepy kWrPuikg;G rl;lk;- 1956
14 States & 6 UTs - nkhopthhp khepyq;fs; gphpg;G- 1956.
JK rpwg;G me; j];J- Art 370- eilKiw- Nov 17> 1952.
jdp rhrdk;- 1957> Jan 26
Part II ---- FbAhpik (Art 5- 11)
x Latin word- Civis
x Xw;iw FbAhpik
x FbAhpik rl;lk;- 1955. 1986> 2003 fspy; jpUj; jk;.
x FbAhpik- IBRD
x Registration- 5 years
x Naturalisation- 1 year
x 1948 july 19f;F Kd; India y; FbNawp trpg;gth; fs;.
x FbAhpik ,og;G- Art 10
x ntspehl;L FbAhpikia jhNk tpUk; gp xUth; Vw;why; Vw;fdNt cs;s ehl;bd; FbAhpikia ,oe; J
tpLthh;.
x gpuNtrp ghujpa jpth];- 2003-
Jan 9- LM rpq;tp fkpl;b ghpe; Jiu
x FbAhpik njhlghd mjpfhuk; - Parliament
x Njrpa milahs ml;il- 13.04.2003 y; eilKiw.


Part III -- mbg;gil chpikfs; (Art 12- 35)

1931 fuhr;rp fhq;fpu]; fl;rp khehl;by; jP h; khdk;- jiyik gNly;
Magna Carta of our constitution.
Cornor Stone of Constitution.
Fundamental of Fundamental Rights
kf; fs; Rje; jpukhfTk; kfpo;r;rpahfTk; tho tif nra;fpwJ
rl;lj; jpd; Ml;rp- nla;rp
kf; fshl;rpapd; rhuk;- jdpegh; Rje; jpuk;
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Kjypy; 7- Now 6
1) rkj; Jt chpik- (Art 14-18)
14- Equal Before Law
17- jPz;lhik xopg;G
2) Rje; jpu chpik- (Art 19-22 )
6 Rje; jpu chpikfs;- Art 19(1)
9 Ngr> vOj
9 mikjpahd Kiwapy; $Ltjw;F
9 rq;fq;fs; mikf;f
9 ehnlq;Fk; nry;y
9 tpUk; gpa njhopy; nra;a
9 tpUk; gpa ,lj; jpy; jq;fp trpf;f
3) Ruz;lYf;nfjpuhd chpik (Art 23-24 )
23- nfhj; jbik xopg;G
24-Foe;ij njhopyhsh; xopg;G
(ngz;fSf;Fk;> Foe;ijfSf;Fk; mspf;fg; gl;Ls;sJ)

4) kj chpik (Art 25-26)
5) gz;ghl;L kw; Wk; fy;tp chpik (Art 29-30)
rpWghz; ik kf;fs; ( nkhop & kjk;) fy;tp rhiyfs;mikf; f
6) murpay; eP jp ghpfhu chpikfs; (Art 32- 35)
Heart and Soul of our constitution- Dr. Ambedkar.
5 eP jpg; Nguhizfs;;- High Court (Art 226), Supreme Court (Art 32)
Writs- borrowed from England
Ml;nfhzh; eP jpg; Nguhiz (Habeas Carpus)
rl;lj; jpw;F Gwk; ghd Kiwapy; milj;J itf;fg; gl;bUf;Fk; ; egiu ntspNa nghz;L tu.
jdpegh; Rje; jpuj; jpd; muz;
nraYWj; Jk; eP jpg; Nguhiz (Mandamus)
muR nghJf; flik nra;a itj; jy;
jilAWj; Jk; eP jpg; Nguhiz (Prohibition)
eP jpkd; wk; jd; mjpfhu tuk; ig fle;J nray;gLk; NghJ
newpKiw cWj; Jk; ePjpg; Nguhiz (Certiorari)
fPo; eP jpkd; w tof;Ffis Neubahf cah; eP jpkd; wq;fSf;F mDg;g
jFjp Kiw tpdTk; eP jpg; Nguhiz (Quo Warranto)
muR cah; gjtpapy; ,Ug;gth;fspd; jFjp gw;wp mwpa
7) nrhj; Jhpik (Art 31)
ePf;fg;gl;lJ- nkhuhh; [p Njrha; [djh muR- 44tJ rl;l jpUj;jk;>1978.
Art 300 A- d; gb rhrd chpik. jw;NghJ rl;l chpik.


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nghJ ey kDf;fs;- Art 32 - Australia
Art 34- uhDt rl;lk;
vkh;n[d; rpapd; NghJ midj; J FR- fisAk; [dhjpgjp jw;fhypfkhf uj; J nra;ayhk;- Art 359
Art 19y; Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;s chpikfs; jhdhf uj; J nra;ag;gLk;
Art 17 & 24 Absolute Rights.
Art 21 A--- 6 to 14 tajpw;Fl; gl;l Foe;ijfSf;F fy;tp mbg;gil chpik.
86tJ rl;l jpUj; jk;> 2002 eilKiw- Apr 1, 2010
ghpe; Jiu- Mr;rhhpa uhkKh; j; jp fkpl;b tof;F- Nkhfpdp n[apd; tof;F
Citizens only --- Art 15, 16, 19, 29, 30
Untouchability (offences) Act- 1955--- name changed to Civil Rights (Protection) Act, 1976
Universal Declaration of Human Rights- Dec 10, 1948.
jfty; ngWk; chpik rl;lk;- 2005 - Sweden - June 15 Passed ; Oct 2 eilKiw (except J&K)
ntspg;gilahdmuR. First- Rajasthan
State level RTI act- Tamil Nadu 1997
mbg;gil chpikfs; kf;fSf;F mspf;fg;gLk; cWjpnkhop vd; Wk; ehfhpf cyfj; Jld; nra; J
nfhs;sg; gl;l cld; gbd; if- Dr. uhjh fpU\;zd;.

Part IV - muR topfhl;Lk;; newpKiwfs; (Art 36- 51)
x Nehf;fk;- r%f> nghUshjhu> murpay; eP jp ngWjy;
x KfTiuAld; Neub njhlh; GilaJ.
x kf; fs; eyd; fhZk; muR (welfare state)Art 38
x 23 nghJ ey Nehf;fq;fs;-- fhe; jpa nfhs;if> rkj; Jt nfhs;;if> Nkw;fj; jpa nfhs;ifs;
x eP jpkd; wq;fSf;F nry;y ,ayhJ.- Art 37 --- rhrdj;;jpd; kdrhl;rp
9 Art 40- fpuhk gQ;rhaj; J Art 41- Ntiy> fy;tp chpik
9 Art 44- nghJ rptpy; rl;lk; Art 45- ,ytr> fl;lha fy;tp
9 Art 48- gR tij jil Art - 50 eph; thfj; Jiw- eP jpj; Jiw jdpNa gphpj; jy;

Part IV A- mbg;gil flikfs; (Art 51 A)
42tJ rl;l jpUj; jk;> 1976- d;gb 10 flikfs; . ghpe; Jiu- ];tud; rpq; fkpl;b
jw;NghJ- 11. 11
th
- 86tJ rl;l jpUj; jk;> 2002
fy;tp mspg;gJ ngw;Nwhh; my;yJ ghJfhtyhpd; mbg;gil flik.


o Foe;ij njhopyhsh; FO (1979)- M.S. FUghj Rthkp
o Njrpa Foe;ij njhopyhsh; nfhs;if- 1987
o Foe;ij njhopyhsh; Njrpa FO- 1994 Sep 26
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$l;lhl;rp
yj; jpd; nkhop.
kj; jpa muR & khepy muRfs;.
mbg;gil mk;rq;fs; ;:
1) rhrdj; jpd; jdp Kjy; Mjpf;fk;
2) mjpfhu gfph; T. kj; jpag; gl;bay; ;- 99 khepyg; gl;bay;- 61 nghJg; gl;bay;- 49
3) rhrdj; jpd; nefpohj; jd; ik
4) Rje; jpukhd eP jpj; JiwAk; mjd; eP jpkd; w kW Ma;T mjpfhuKk;
rh;f;fhhpah fkp\d;- kj; jpa khepy cwT Kiw.
xNu muR - xw;iwauR- England, Srilanka.
India is a Quasi federal countryfederation is not mentioned.

Part V kj;jpa muR (Art 52- 151)
ghuhSkd; w kf; fshl;rp Kiw. . 3 mq;fq;fs;.
kj; jpa eph; thfk;; -- President, Vice President, P.M and Ministers
rl;l kd; wk; --- ghuhSkd; wk; ---- Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha
eP jpj; Jiw ---- Supreme Court
FbauRj; jiyth;
o Art 52- FbauRj; jiyth; gjtp
o Kjy; Fbkfd; . mizj; J eph; thf mjpfhuq;fs;
o murpd; jiyth; -Art 53(1) . Kg;gilj; jsgjp-Art 53(2)
i Njh; T Kiw: Art 54 (rkr; rPh; gq;fspg;G> xw;iw khw; wj; jf;f thf;Fg; gjpT)
Njh; e;njLf; fg; gl;l Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha cWg;gpdh;fs;.
Njh; e;njLf; fg; gl;l khepy rl;lkd; w cWg;gpdh;fs;.
Proposal - 50 .Supported by- 50 .Deposit 15,000
Value of an MLA vote = Population of the State 1___
Total elected MLAs 1000

MP vote = ,e; jpahtpYs;s nkhj; j MLA f;fspd; thf;F kjpg;G
ghuhSkd; wj; jpd; Njh; e;njLf;fg; gl;l MP f;fspd; vz;zpf;if
mjpfhuk;- Supreme Court . Neub Njh; jy;.
i jFjpfs;
35 taJ . .Lok Sabha MP-Mtjw; fhd jFjpfs;.
i gjtpf; fhyk; - 5 Years. uh[pdhkh fbjk;- Vice President.
gjtp ePf;fk; - Fw; wj; jhf;fy; (Impeachment)- fhuzk; - rhrdj; ij kP Wjy;.
gjtpg; gpukhzk;- Supreme Court Chief Justice.
,k; gPr;nkz; l; topKiwfs;- Any house of parliament.
members jPh; khdk; mwptpg;G. Kd; nkhopjy;;- after 14 days. 2/3majority.
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mjpfhuq;fs;: ehl;bd; ; nray; jiyth; . Nghh; > rkhjhd cld;gbf;if.
cah; mjpfhhpfs; epakdk; . ,thpd; ifnaOj; jpw;F gpd; Ng rl;lkhFk; . Dissolves Loksabha.
mtrur; rl;lk; (ordinance) gpwg;gpf;fpwhh;. --Kf;fpa mjpfhuk;. --Art 123-- valid for 6 months.
ehlhSkd; wk; $ba 6 thu fhyj; ; jpw;Fs; jhf;fy; ; nra;a Ntz;Lk;.-
$l;L $l;lk; $l;Lthh; . uh[;a rgh-12 . LOK SABHA- 2 Anglo Indians.
rpy kNrhjhf;fSf;F Kd; mDkjp Njit.
3 type of emergency gpwg;gpf;fpwhh;. (on the recommendation of ministry)
Art 352: Njrpa neUf;fb epiy. Nghh; or MAjg;Gul;rpapd; NghJ. 1 khj; jpw;Fs; mq;fPfhuk;.
6 khj fhyk; - fhytuk;gpd; wp ePbf;fyhk;. 3 jlit.
1962-rPdg; Nghh; . NeU- PM. uhjhfpU\;zd;- President.
1971- ghf; Nghh; . ,e; ; jpuh fhe; jp- v.v. fphp.
1975- cs; ; ehl;L neUf;fb-,e; ; jpuh fhe; jp-gf;Ujpd; ; myp mfkJ.
Art 356: [dhjpgjp Ml;rp. khepyq;fspy; murpayikg;G eph; thfk; nraypof;Fk; NghJ.
6 khjq;fs;. 3 tUlq;fs; ePbf;fyhk;. 2 khjq;fSf;Fs;.
kpf ePz;l fhyk;- gQ;rhg;. Fiwe; j fhyk;- fh; ehlfh. mjpf jlit- Nfush> gQ;rhg;. (9)
Kjy; jlit- gQ;rhg; (1951) fiyg;G- Nfush.

In Tamilnadu- 1976-fiyQh;-,e; jpuh fhe; ;jp- gf;Ujpd; ; myp mfkJ.
1991- fiyQh;- re; jpuNrfh; -R.V .1980-MGR-Indira Gandhi- rQ;rPt nul;b.
1988- [hdfp MGR- Rajiv Gandhi- R.V.
Art 360: epjp neUf;fb- ,J tiu gpwg;gpf;fg;gltpy;iy

i ,e; jpa vjph; ghuh nryT epjp (Contingency Fund of India)-apypUe;J nrytopf;f chpik.

i Kjy; [dhjpgjp- Rajendra Prasad- ,uz; L Kiw gjtp tfpj; j xNu [dhjpgjp (1950-62)
i Unopposed- Sanjeeva Reddy (1977) . RNal;ir Ntl; ghsh;- V.V. fphp (1969)
i mjpf thf;Ffs;- Rajendra Prasad (99.3%) . 11
th
- mg;Jy; fyhk;.

gpujpgh ghl;By;- 12
th
and Kjy; ngz; [dhjpgjp. . 13- gpuzhg; Kfh;[p.
[_iy 25> 2007. kfuh\;buh. uh[]; jhd; fth; dh;.
uh[; gtz;- fl; bath; Edwin Landseer Lutyens
Kjy; K];ypk; - [hfph; ; cird; . Kjy; jw;fhypf [dhjpgjp- V.V. fphp.
Kjy; jypj; [dhjpgjp- Nf.Mh; .ehuhazd;.


Jiz FbauRj; jiyth;

Art 63- Jiz [dhjpgjp gjtp
Njh; T Kiw : mizj; J Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha M.P- f;fshy; Njh;T.
jFjpfs;- 35 taJ g+h; j; jp. .Rajya Sabha MP-Mtjw; fhd jFjp.
gjtpf; fhyk;- 5 tUlq;fs;. uh[pdhkh fbjk;- [dhjpgjpf;F vOj Ntz;Lk;.
Fw; wj; jhf;fy; (Impeachment) %yk; ePf;fyhk; -- Rajyasabha-y; Kjypy; jhf;fy; nra;a Ntz;Lk;.
gjtp topNa uh[;arghtpd; jiyth; . [dhjpgjpahy; epakdk; nra;ag;gLfpwhh;.
[dhjpgjp gjtp tpyfpdhy; or ,we; jhy; or cly; epiy rPuhf ,y;yhj NghJk; jw;fhypf [dhjpgjpahf
,Ug;ghh;- 6 khjq;fs; tfpf;fyhk;.
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MP vote = ,e; jpahtpYs;s nkhj; j MLA f;fspd; thf;F kjpg;G
ghuhSkd; wj; jpd; Njh; e;njLf;fg; gl;l MP f;fspd; vz;zpf;if
kNrhjhtpd; kP J thf;fspf;f KbahJ.
13
th
Vice President- Hamid Ansari 14
th
-

gpujk mikr;rh; kw; Wk; mikr;ruit

9 ngUk;ghd;ik fl; rpapd; ehlhSkd; w FO jiyth; .
9 murhq;fj; jpd; jiyth; (Government) cz; ikahd eph; thf jiyth;.
9 mikr;ruitf;F jiyik tfpf;fpwhh;. gjtp gpukhzk;- [dhjpgjpahy;.
9 PM gjtp tpyfpdhy; mikr;ruit gjtp tpyf Ntz;Lk; .
9 Leader of Lok Sabha
9 rkkhdth; fSf;F Kjyhdth; & mikr;ruitapd; mbg;gilf; fy;- khh; yp
9 gjtpapd; topNa jpl;lf; FO> Njrpa tsh;r;rpf; FO> Njrpa xUikg;ghl;Lf; FO- tpd; jiyth;.
9 uh[;a rghtpypUe; J gpujkh; ; Mdth; fs;- ,e; jpuh fhe; jp (1966)> F[;uhy; (1997)> kd;Nkhfd; rpq; (2004)
9 Kjy; Non- Congress PM- nkhuhh; [p Njrha; (1977)- [djh fl; rp.
9 MP- Mf ,y; ;yhj xUth; PM Mfyhk;- 6 khjj; jpw;Fs; VNjDk; xU mitapy;
Njh; e;njLf; fg; glNtz;Lk;.
9 MP Mf ,y;yhky; PM Mdth; fs;- eurpk; kuht; (1991)> Njtnfslh (1996)> nkhuhh; [p Njrha;
9 Jizg; gpujkh; gjtp murpayikg;G rl;lj; jpy; Fwpg;gplg;gltpy;iy.
1) gNly; (NeU) 2) nkhuhh; [p Njrha;(,e; jpuh) 3) ruz;rpq; (nkhuhh; [p Njrha;)
4) n[f[Ptd; uhk; (nkhuhh; [p Njrha;) 5) YB rthz; (ruz;rpq;)
6) Njtpyhy; (VP rpq;) 7) mj;thdp(th[;gha;)
9 nkhj; j cWg; gpdh;fspy; 15% mikr;rh;fshf ,Uf;fyhk;.
9 mikr;ruit $l;lhf- kf; fsitf;F nghWg;GilaJ. jdpg;gl;l Kiwapy;- [dhjpgjpf;F
9 mikr;ruit- 3 gphpT nfhz; lJ.
Nfgpndl; (Cabinet)- jdpj; Jiw. The term included by 44
th
Amendment- eph; thfj; jpd; ikak; .
nfhs;if cUthf;Fk; mikg;G.
,iz mikr;rh;fs;- jdpj; Jiw fpilahJ. Mdhy; PM tpUk; gpdhy; nfhLf; fyhk;. Nfgpdl;
$l;lq;fspy; nghJthf fye; J nfhs;s khl;lhh;.
Mdhy; rpwg;G miog;ghsuhf miof;fg; glyhk;.
Jiz mikr;rh;fs;- jdpj; Jiw fpilahJ. Nfgpdl; $l;lq;fspy; fye; J nfhs;s KbahJ.
xU mikr;rUf;F vjpuhd ek;gpf;if ,y;yh jPh; khdk; ntw; wp ngw; whYk; KO mikr;ruitAk;
uh[pdhkh nra;a Ntz;Lk;.
ehlhSkd;wk;

1) FbauRj; jiyth; (Art 79) 2) khepyq;fsit 3) kf;fsit
khepyq;fsit - uh[;argh - Nkyit (1954 Mf];l; 23y; ngah; ngw; wJ)
$l;lhl;rpapd; ; ,ay;Gfis gpujpgypf;fpwJ.
nkhj; j cWg; gpdh;fs;- 250 (238+12) jw;NghJ- 245 (233+12) (229+4+12) Delhi-3, Pondichery-1.
rKfg; gzp %yk; epakpf;Fk ;Kiw mah; yhe; jpypUe;J gpd;gw; wg;gLfpwJ.
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jiyth;- FbauR Jiz jiyth; - kNrhjh thf; ; ;nfLg;gpd; NghJ thf;fspf;f KbahJ.
mit epue; ; jukhdJ. cWg;gpdh; gjtp fhyk;- 6 Mz;Lfs;.
1/3 cWg;gpdh;fs; 2 Mz;LfSf;F xU Kiw Xa;T ngWth;.
Fiwe; jgl;r taJ g+h; j; jp - 30 khepy MLA-f;fshy; Njh;T.
ve; j kNrhjhitAk; jhf;fy; nra;ayhk; ; ;.
(except - gz kNrhjh> mikr;ruitapd; kP jhd ek; gpf;if ,y;yh jP h; khdk;.)
rpwg;G mjpfhuq;fs;- Jiz FbauRj; jiytUf;F vjpuhd Impeachment kNrhjh - Art 67
mfpy ,e; ; jpa gzpfis cUthf;Fk; kNrhjh -Art 312
jkpo; ehL- 18. mjpfk;- c.gp-31.
kf; fsit- Nyhf;rgh- fPoit (1954> Nk 14 Kjy; ngah; ngw; wJ)
nkhj; j cWg; gpdh;fs; - 550+2 (530+20+2) . jw;NghJ- 545 (543+2) (530+13+2) Upto 2026
1971 nrd; r];gb eph; zapf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. . a+dpad; gpuNjrq;fs; - nly;yp-7> Others - each 1.
Neubahf kf;fshy; Njh;T. . Fiwe; jgl;r taJ g+h; j; jp- 25
cWg; gpdh; gjtp fhyk;- 5 Mz;Lfs;.
Emergencyd; NghJ 1 Mz;L ePl;bf;fyhk ; - 5
th
Loksabha ePl;bf;fg; gl;lJ (1971-77)
gpujkh; MNyhrizapd; gb [dhjpgjp fiyf;fyhk;
1 mit jiyth; (rghehafh;) + 1 Jiz mit jiyth;
rghehafh;- $l;lj; ij $l;Lthh; . jiyik jhq;Fthh;.
nghJthf thf;fspf;f KbahJ. Mdhy; Casting Vote cz;L.
uh[pdhkh fbjk; JizrghehafUf;F vOj Ntz;Lk; . gjtp ePf;fk; nra;ayhk;.
murpaypy; eLepiy. Jiz jiyth; fl; rp $l;lq;fspy; gq;nfLf;fyhk; .
Nguit jiytuhf ,Ue; J [dhjpgjp Mdth;- rQ;rP t nul;b
kj; jpa rl;lkd; wj; jpw;F Njh; e;njLf; fg; gl;l Kjy; egh; - Fredrick Whyte (1921)
Kjy; ,e; jpah; - tpl;ly;gha; gNly;. Rje; ; jpu ,e; jpahtpy; - fNz\; thRNjt; kht;yq;fh; .
1/10 gq;F cWg;gpdh;fs; ,Ue;jhy; kl;LNk $l;lk; eilngWk; .
kf; fsitapy; jP h; khdk; Njhw;fbf;fg;gl;lhy; mikr;ruit gjtp tpyf Ntz;Lk;.
ghuhSkd; wk; tUlj; jpw;F 3 Kiw $Lk;. Fiwe;jgl;rk; 2 Kiw $l Ntz;Lk;.
o gl;n[l; $l;l njhlh ;- Feb May ePz;l njhlh; .
o kio fhyj; njhlh; - July August
o Fsph; fhyj; njhlh; - Nov- Dec Shortest
2 $l;lq;fSf;F ,ilg;gl;l fhy ,ilntsp 6 khjq;fSf;F Nky; ,Uf;f $lhJ.
mYty; nkhop- ,e; jp> Mq;fpyk; .
3 thrpg;Gfs;.
Lok Sabha , Rajya Sabha ,ize; j $l;lj; jpw;F miog;G tpLg;gth;- [dhjpgjp
jiyik- Nyhf;rgh rghehafh; . ,J tiu- 1961> 1978> 2002-y; $l;lg;gl;Ls;sJ.

epiwNtw; wg;gl;l kNrhjh [dhjpgjpapd; xg;GjYf;F gpwNf rl;lkhFk; ;.
epiwNtw; wg;gl;l kNrhjhit [dhjpgjpapd epuhfhpf;f KbahJ.
Mdhy; kWghprPyiz nra;af; Nfhhp [dhjpgjp jpUg;gp mDg; gyhk;
(gzkNrhjh> murpay; rhrz jpUj; j kNrhjhf;fisj; jtpu)
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gz kNrhjh- Art 110 jP h; khdpg;gth; rghehaafh;. (epjp kNrhjh vd;gJ NtW)
[dhjpgjpapd; Kd; mDkjp Njit Nyhf;rghtpy; kl;LNk jhf;fy; nra;a KbAk;
uh[;argh jd; fUj; ;ij 14 ehl;fSf;Fs; ghpe;Jiufis nra;a Ntz;Lk;.
[dhjpgjp fz;bg;ghf xg;Gjy; mspf;f Ntz;Lk;- Art 111

ghuhSkd; ; wj; jpd; Kjd; ikg; ; gzp- rl;lk; ,aw; WtJ. 2tJ gzp- eph; thfj; jpid fl; Lg;gLj; JtJ.
Art 112d; gb gl;n[l; jhf;fy; nra;ag;gLfpwJ (khepy gl;n[l; - 202)
jkpo; ehL- 39 mjpfk;- c.gp-80
jdpj; njhFjpfs;- 131 (84+47) 19 khepyq;fspy; kl;LNk jdpj; njhFjpfs;. mjpfk; - c.gp-17
jkpo; ehL- 7 rpjk;guk;> fhQ;rpGuk;> ehif> ePyfphp> jpUts;Sh; > njd;fhrp> tpOg;Guk;.
Kjy; kf; fsit- 1952> May 13- 489 Seats jw;NghJ- 15
th
mit. (2009)
Vjph; f;fl;rp jiyth; gjtp rhrdj; jpy; Kjypy; Fwpg;gplg;gltpy;iy.
1977 ghuhSkd; w rl;lj; jpd; gb cUthf;fg; gl;lJ. Kjy; egh; - Y.B rthz;.
Nfgpdl; ke; jphp me; j]; J cz;L
nkhj; ; j cWg; gpdh;fspy; 1/10 ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.
Pro- Term Speaker- MLA or MP-f;fis gjtp epakdk; nra;Ak; jw;fhypf rghehafh;
MP njhFjp Nkk;ghL epjp- 5 Nfhb. .1993ypUe; J toq;fg; gLfpwJ.
khepy fl;rp mq;fPfhuk;-1) njhlh; r;rpahf 5 tUlq;fs; murpay; eltbf;; iffspy; ; <Lgl;bUf;f Ntz;Lk;.
2) khepyj; jpYs;s nkhj;;j Nyhf;rgh cWg;gpdh;fspy; 25 MP-f;fSf;F 1 MP vd;w tPjj; jpy; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; or
3) nkhj; j MLA-f;fspy; 30 MLA-f;fSf;F xUth; vd; w tPjj; jpy; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; or
4) rl;lkd; w Njh; jypNyh or Nyhf;rgh Njh; jypNyh 6% thf;Ffs; ngw;wpUf;f Ntz;Lk;.
Njrpa fl; rp mq;fPfhuk;- 4 or mjw;F Nkw;gl;l khepyq;fspy; khepy fl;rp vd mq;fPfhuk; ngw;wpUe;jhy;
mJ Njrpa fl;rp vd mq;fPfhpf;fg;gLk;.
jw;NghJ ,e; jpahtpy; 6 Njrpa fl; rpfs;- BJP, Congress, CPM, CPI, BSP, Njrpathj fhq;fpu]; fl;rp
,il Njh; jy;- gjtp tpyfy; or ,wg;gpdhy; Vw;gLk; fhyp ,lj;ij epug;g elj; jg;gLk; Njh; jy;.
cg Njh; jy;- gjtpf; fhyk; KbAk; Kd; Ng elj; jg;gLk; nghJ Njh; jy;.
Nfs;tp Neuk;- xt;nthU ehSk; Kjy; 1 kzp Neuk; (11-12) . G+[;a Neuk;- jpdKk; 12-1

el;rj; jpu Fwpapl;l tpdh-
tha;nkhopahf tpil jUthh;. Jiz tpdh Nfl; fyhk;. tpthjk; elf;Fk;.
el;rj; jpu Fwpapy;yh tpdh-
vOj; J %ykhf tpil jUthh; Jiz tpdh Nfl;f KbahJ. tpthjk; elf;fhJ.
FWfpa fhy tpdh-
nghJ Kf;fpaj; Jtk; tha; e; ;j epfo;r;rp Fwpj; J. 10 ehl;fSf;Fs; tpilaspf;f Ntz;Lk;.

Censure Motion (fz;ldj; jP h; khdk;)- kf; fsitapy; nfhz;L tu Ntz;Lk;.
No confidence Motion (ek; gpf;if ,y;yh jPh; khdk;)- vjph; f;fl;rpahy; nfhz; L tug;gLk;
ek; gpf;ifj; jP h; khdk;- MSq;fl; rpahy; nfhz;L tug;gLk;.
Kjd; Kjypy; - ruz;rpq; mikr;ruit (1979)> 1990 - tp.gp.rpq;> 1997 - Njt nfslh
ntl; Lj; jP h; khdk;- khdpaq;fspd; msit Fiwf;f. Nyhf; ; rghtpy; kl;LNk nfhz;L tu KbAk;.


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i 3tJ mq;fk; . . Rje; jpukhd> Rahl;rp nfhz;l xUq;fpizf;fg;gl;l mikg;G.
cr; r ePjpkd;wk; (Art 124- 147)
1774y; cUthf;fg; gl;lJ - jiyik eP jpgjp- ,yp[h ,k;Ng . 1950 [dthp 28
Kjypy; vz;zpf;if- 1 +7 . 1986y; 1 + 25 vd cah; j; jg;gl;lJ.
2008y; 1+30 . jw;Nghija vz;zpf;; if- 1+26 ( as on April 27, 2012)
eP jpgjpfspd; vz;zpf;ifia $l;lNth or Fiwf;fNth nra;Ak; mjpfhuk;- Parliament
mbg;gil chpikfspd; ghJfhtyd;.
GJ nly; ;ypapy; cs;sJ. Njitg;gl;lhy;; NtW vq;Fk; mkh; T nra;ayhk; - President mDkjpAld;.
eP jpgjpfis epakpg;gth;- President. . Xa;T ngWk; taJ- 65
jFjpfs;- njhlh; r;rpahf 5 Mz;Lfs; cah;ePjpkd;w ePjpgjpahf gzp mDgtk; or
10 Mz;Lfs; cah; eP jpkd; w tof;fwpQuhf gzp mDgtk; or
[dhjpgjpapd; fUj; Jg;gb rpwe;; j rl;l ty; Yeh; .
gjtpf; fhyj; jpw;Fg; gpd; ; vq;Fk; tof;fhl KbahJ.
gjtp ePf;fk; - ghuhSkd; wj; jpy; Impeachment %yk; . . xt;nthU mitapYk; 2/3 ngUk;ghd;ik Njit.
fhuzk; - jpwikapd;ik> epUgpf;fg;gl;l jtwhd elj; ij
gjtp tpyfy; fbjk;- [dhjpgjpf;F vOj Ntz;Lk; .
Mtz eP jpkd; wkhf nray;gLfpwJ- Art 129
rh;r;irf;Fhpa xU rl;lj; ij murpayikg;G rl;lj;jpw;F KuzhdJ vdf; $Wk; ePjpkd; w kWMa;T mjpfhuk;
ngw; Ws;sJ.
Kjy; eP jpgjp- Harilal J. fhdpah. 2tJ eP jpgjp- M.P. rh]; jphp. . jw;NghJ fghbah (38tJ)
Kjy; ngz;- ghj; jpkh gPtp. . Kjy; jypj;- K.G ghyfpU\;zd;.
cah; ePjpkd;wk; (Art 214-237)
9 Njhw; Wtpf;fg; gl;lJ- 1862. . fy;fj;jh> gk; gha;> nkl;uh]; (1862 [_d; 26)
9 Art 214- xt;nthU khepyj; jpw;Fk; cah; ePjpkd;wq;fs; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.
9 Art 215- Mtz eP jpkd; wk; .
9 mDkjpf;fg; gl;l vz;zpf;if-60. jw;NghJ- . 1+ 53 . ePjpgjpfis epakpg;gth;- [dhjpgjp.
9 epakdk; :- jiyik eP jpgjp - MSeuhy;. . ,ju eP jpgjpfs;- jiyik ePjpgjpahy;.
9 jFjpfs;- 10 Mz;Lfs; cah; eP jpkd; w tof;fwpQuhf gzp mDgtk; or
10 Mz;Lfs; cah; eP jpkd; wj; jpy; eP jpj; Jiw gzp mDgtk;
9 Xa;T ngWk; taJ- 65 . uh[pdhkh nra;a tpUk;gpdhy; fbjk; [dhjpgjpf;F vOj Ntz;Lk;.
9 gjtp ePf;fk; - ghuhSkd; wj; jpy; Impeachment %yk; . . xt;nthU mitapYk; 2/3 ngUk;ghd;ik Njit.
9 fhuzk; - jpwikapd;ik> epUgpf;fg;gl;l jtwhd elj; ij.
9 jw;NghJ- 21 cah; eP jpkd; wq;fs;.
ghz; br; Nrhp- nkl;uh];. yl;rj; jPT- Nfush me; ; jkhd; epf;Nfhgh; - fy;fj;jh
fTfhj; jp- 7 khepyq;fs; Nfhth> ilA lhkd; > jhj; uh ehfh; fNtyp- gk; gha;
jiyefhpy; mikahjitfs;- 9
Nfush> c.gp> mNrhk;> F[uhj;> k.gp> xhprh> uh[];jhd;> cj; jh;fhz;l;> rl;B];fh;.

ePjpj; Jiw
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9 Xd; Wf;F Nkw;gl;l khepyq;fSf;F xNu ePjpkd; wk; ,Uf;fyhk;- Art 231
9 kJiu fpis Jtf;fk;- 2004 [_iy 24 Jtf;fpath;- yNfhl;b
tuk; Gf;Fl;gl;l khtl; lq;fs;-12
fd;dpahFkhp> jpUney;Ntyp> Jhj;Jf;Fb> kJiu> jpz;Lf;fy;> uhkehjGuk;>
tpUJefh; > rptfq; ; ; ;; ; ;; ; ;; ;; ; ;; ; ;if> GJf;Nfhl; ;il> jQ;rht+h; > jpUr;rp> f&h;

fPo;epiy ePjpkd;wq;fs;: (Art 233 - 237)
i khtl; l eP jpgjpfis epakpg;gth; - MSeh; .
i 7 Mz;Lfs; VjhtJ xU eP jpkd; wj; jpy; tof;fwpQh; gzp mDgtk;.



3 mq;fq;fs;.
. khepy eph; thfk; . rl;l kd; wk; . eP jpj; Jiw

khepy eph; thfj; jpd; euk;G kz; lyk;- jiyik nrayfk;

MSeh;: (152- 160)
. ngaustpy; khepy murpd; jiyth;. . eph; thf mjpfhuq;fs; midj; Jk; ,thplk; cs;sd.
. [dhjpgjpahy; epakpf;fg;gLfpwhh;. . gjtpg;gpukhzk;- cah; eP jpkd; w jiyik eP jpgjp.
. 35 taJ g+h; j; jp . gjtpf; fhyk;- 5 Mz;Lfs; . khw; wNth> ePf;fNth mjpfhuk;- [dhjpgjpf;F.
. gy;fiyf;fofq;fspd; Nte; jh;. . kj; jpa murpd; Nehpil gpujpepjp.
. khepy muRg; gzpahsh; Njh; thizaj; jplkpUe;J Mz;L mwpf;;iffis ngWfpwhh;
. khepy epiyikfs; Fwpj; J kj; jpa murpw;F 15 ehl;fSf;F xU Kiw gUt mwpf;iffis mDg;Gfpwhh;.
. kj; jpa gFjpfis kj; ; jpa muR Nehpilahf eph; thfk; nra;fpwJ.
. kjuhR khepyk; 1967y; jkpo; ehL vd jP h; khdk; nra;ag;gl;lJ (ghuhSkd; wj; jpy; )
. jkpo; ehL vd 1969y; ngah; khw; wk; nra;ag;gl;lJ. nkl;uh]; -nrd; id vd khw; wg;gl;lJ 1996y;.
. a+dpad; gpuNjr MSeh; fs;- nyg;bndd; l; fth;dh; vd miof;fg; gLthh; .
. nyg;bndd; l; fth; dh;- lhkd; ; ila+. Chief Commissioner- me; jkhd; epf;Nfhgh; > rz;bfh; .
Administrator- yl;rj; jP Tfs;.
. kj; jpa khepy cwT Kiw- rh;f;fhhpah fkp\d; (1983) - mwpf;if- 1987.
khepy Kjyikr;rh; - khepy eph; thfj; jpd; Kd; Ndhb.
. rl;lkd; wk; : xU mit or ,U mit nfhz; ljhf ,Uf;Fk;.
rl;lg; Nguit- tpjhd; rgh
. khepyj; jpd; cz;ikahd mjpfhu ikak;.
. kf;fshy; Neubahf Njh; T.
. mjpfgl;r vz;zpf;if- 500 . Fiwe; ; jgl;rk;- 60 . jkpo; ehl;by;- 234
. gjtpf; fhyk;- 5 Mz;Lfs;. . 25 taJ g+h; j; jpaile;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;.
. jkpo; ehl;by; Reserved seats- 44+2

khepy muR (Art 152- 237)
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rl;l Nkyit: tpjhd; ghp\j; .
. khepy MLA f;fs; vz;zpf;ifapy; 1/3 f;F Nky; ,Uf;f $lhJ. . Fiwe; jgl;rk;- 40
. taJ tuk;G- 30 g+h; j; jp . gjtpf; fhyk;- 6 Mz;Lfs;.
. cWg;gpdh;fs; Njh;T: 1/3 cWg;gpdh;fs;- khepy rl;lkd;wj; jpdhy;
1/3 cWg;gpdh;fs;- cs;shl;rp kd;w cWg;gpdh;fshy;
1/6 cWg;gpdh;fs;- MSeuhy;
1/12 cWg;gpdh;fs- Mrphpah; fshy;
1/12 cWg;gpdh;fs;- gl;ljhhpfshy;
. Nkyitia fiyf;f mk; khepyj; jpd; jP h; khdj; Jld; ehlhSkd; w rl;lj; jpd; %yk; ; fiyf;fyhk;.
. jkpo; ehl;by; fiyg;G- 1986- k.ngh.rptQhdk;- MGR Ml;rpf; fhyk;
. <uit cila khepyq;fs;- gPfhh;> [k; K fh\;kP h;> fh; ehlfh> kfuh\;buh> cj; jpugpuNjrk; > Me; jpuh.
. ,uz;L mitfSk; ,ize; j $l;lk; ; $l;l KbahJ.
. gz kNrhjhit 14 ehl;fs; jhkjg;gLj; ; jyhk; ; ;. rhjhuz kNrhjhit 3 khjq;fs; jhkjg;gLj; ;jyhk;
. jkpo; ehl;by; Kjy; nghJ Njh; jy;- 1952. Kjy; Kjyikr;rh;- uh[h[p (1952-54). fhkuh[h; - (1954-57)
. jp.K.f- 1949
Cjpak; ;:
. FbauRj; jiyth;- 1>50>000 . Jizf; FbauRj; jiyth;- 1>25>000
. ghuhSkd; w cWg;gpdh;fs;- 30>000 (Pay) DA- 1000/ day ($l;lk; eilngWk; NghJ)
njhFjp mytd;];- 20000/khjk; mYtyfr; nryT- 14000 kw; Wk; ; ,ju rYiffs; cz; L.

. gpujkh;- 1>60>000 (vy;yk; Nrh;j; J- in 2010)
. cr;r eP jpkd; wk; - jiyik eP jpgjp- 1>00>000 (33000) . ,ju ePjpgjpfs;- 90>000 (30>000)
. cah; eP jpkd; wk; - jiyik eP jpgjp- 90>000 (30>000) . ,ju eP jpgjpfs;- 80>000 (26>000)
ml;ltizfs; (Schedules)
I khepyq;fs; kw; Wk; kj; jpa Ml;rpg;gFjpfspd; ngah; gl;bay;fs;
II- [dhjpgjp> Jiz [dhjpgjp> MSeh;fs;> eP jpgjpfs;> CAG Nghd; wth; fspd; rk;gsk; > ,ju rYiffs;
III - gjtp gpukhzk; > ufrpa fhg;Gg;; gpukhzk;; Nghd; w cWjpnkhopfs;
IV- xt;nthU khepyj; jpw;Fk; uh[;argh cWg;gpdh;fspd; vz;zpf;ifia eph; zapg;gJ
V- Mjp jpuhtplh; kw; Wk; goq;Fbapdh; thOk; gFjpfspd; eph; thfk; .
VI- mNrhk;> Nkfhyah> jphpGuh> kpNrhuhk;> mUzhr;ryg; gpuNjrk; Nghd;wtw;wpy; trpf;Fk; S.T gFjpfspd; eph;thfk; .
VII- mjpfhu gfph; T- 3 tifahd gl;bay;- kj; jpa gl;;bay; khepy gl;bay; nghJ gl;;bay;
VIII- mq;fPfhpf;fg;gl;l 22 nkhopfspd; ; ngah; gl;bay;
. rhrdk; Vw; Wf; ; nfhs;sg; gl;l NghJ- 14 . 15tJ nkhop- rpe; ; jp- 21tJ rl;l jpUj;jk;- 1967
. nfhd;fdp> kzpg;Ghp> Neghsp- 71tJ rl;l jpUj; jk;- 1992
. re; jpyp> ikjpyp> NghNlh> Nlhf;hp - 92tJ rl;l jpUj;jk;- 2003
. rk];fpUjk; > cUJ- mq;fPfhpf;fg;gl;l nkhopfs;. . Mq;fpyk;- mq;fPfhpf;fg;gl;l nkhop my;y

IX - eP jpkd; wq;fSf;F nry;y Kbahj rl;lq;fs; ; gw; wp (284 rl;lq;fs; ; cs;sd)
. Kjy; murpay; rhrd jpUj;jk;> 1951-d;gb ,izf;fg; gl;lJ.
. jkpo; ehl;L ,l xJf;fPL rl;lk; > [kpd; jhhp Kiw xopg;G> epy rPh; jpUj; ; jr; rl;lk; > uapy;Nt rl;lq;fs;

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X- fl; rp jhty; jilr; ; rl;lk;
52tJ jpUj; jk;> 1985-d; gb ,izf;fg; gl;lJ.
XI- %d; wLf;F gQ;rhaj; J uh[; rl;lk; gw;wp
73tJ jpUj; jk;> 1992-d; gb ,izf;fg; gl;lJ- eurpk; kuht; fhyk;
XII- %d; wLf;F efh;ghypfh rl;lk; gw; wp
74tJ jpUj; jk;> 1992-d; gb ,izf;fg; gl;lJ- . 73&74 rl;ljpUj; jq;fs; 1993y;; eilKiw
kj;;jpa gl;bay;- 99 Jiwfs;
. ntspAwT . ghJfhg;G . &gha;; mr; rpLjy; . ntspehl;L thzpgk; .jghy; je; jp
khepyg; gl;bay;- 66 Jiwfs;
. fhty; Jiw . cs;shl;rp .rpiwr;rhiy .rl;lk; xOq;F .Rfhjhuk; .ePh; ghrdk; .Ntshz;;ik
nghJg; gl;bay;- 46 Jiwfs;
. fy;tp .kf;fs;njhif fl; Lg;ghL .FLk;g eyk; .gj; ; jphpf;if .jpUkzk; .njhopyhsh; eyk;
. vQ;rpa mjpfhuq;fs; - kj; jpa murplk; .
ghuhSkd; w FOf;fs;
. Public Accounts Committee - 22 members - 15(LS) +7(RS) - vjph;f;fl;rp cWg; gpdh; jiytuhf ,Ug;ghh;.
. Estimate Committee 30 Members (LS) - vjph;f;fl;rp cWg; gpdh; jiytuhf ,Ug;ghh;.
. Rules Committee 15 Members (LS) - jiyth;- rghehafh;
. Business Advisory Committee 15 Members (LS) - jiyth;- rghehafh;
. Committee on Private Members Bills and Resolutions 15 Members (LS) - jiyth;- Jiz rghehafh;
Kf;fpa murpay; rhrd jpUj;jq;fs;:
9 murpay; rhrd jpUj; j topKiw- Art 368
1tJ jpUj; jk;-1951 - 9tJ ml;ltiz Nrh;g;G . 26tJ jpUj; jk;- 1971- kd;dh; khdpak; xopg;G
31tJ jpUj; jk;- 1973 - kf;fsit njhFjpfspd; vz;zpf;if 525 ypUe; J 545 mf cah;j; jg;gl;lJ
42tJ jpUj; jk;- 1976 rpwpa murpayikg;G rhrdk;
rkj; Jtk;> kjr;rhh; gpd; ik> xUikg;ghL Nghd; w thh; j; ijfs; Nrh;f;fg;gl;lJ
44tJ jpUj; jk;- 1978- nrhj; Jhpik ePf;fk; .
52tJ jpUj; jk;- 1985- fl;rp jhty; ; jilr; rl;lk;
61tJ jpUj; jk;- 1988 thf;fspf;Fk; taJ 18 Mf Fiwg;G uh[pt; ; fhe; jp- 1989y; eilKiw
69tJ jpUj; jk;- 1991 nly;yp- Njrpa jiyefh; gFjp vd mwptpf;fg;gl;lJ- eurpk; kuht;
71tJ jpUj; jk;- 1992 8
tJ
ml;ltizapy; 3 nkhopfs;; ,izg;G
73tJ jpUj; jk;- 1992 gQ;rhaj; J uh[; rl;lk; 74tJ jpUj; jk;- 1992 efh; ghypfh rl;lk; - eurpk; kuht;
76tJ jpUj; jk;- 1994 jkpo; ehl;L ,l xJf;fPL njhlh; ghd rl;lq;fs; 9tJ ml;ltizapy; Nrh;g;G
84tJ jpUj; jk;- 2000 Gjpjhf 3 khepyq;fs; cjak;- rl;b];fh; > cj;jh;fhz;l;> [hh;fz;l;
86tJ jpUj; jk;- 2002 fl; lha fy;tp chpikr; ; rl;lk;-
92tJ jpUj; jk;- 2003 ---- 8
tJ
ml;ltizapy; 4 nkhopfs; ; ,izg;G



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ml;lh; dp n[duy; (jiyik tof;fwpQh;)- Art 76
gzp - murhq;fj;; jpw;F rl;l MNyhrizfs; toq;f> rl;lg; gzpfs; nra;tJ.
jFjp- cr; rePjpkd; w eP jpgjpahf epakpf;fg;gLtjw;fhd jFjp ngw;wpUf;f Ntz;Lk;
epakpg;gth;- [dhjpgjp . gjtpf; fhyk;- [dhjpgjp tpUk; Gk; tiu.
,e; jpahtpd; Kjy; rl;l mYtyh; . . ghuhSkd; w $l;lq;fspy; gq;nfLf;f> Ngr chpik cz;L.
MP -f;Fhpa mizj; J rYiffisAk; ngwyhk;.
Kjy; ml;lh; dp n[duy;- M.C. Setalvad (1950) . jw;NghJ- G.E. Vahanvati
ml;tNfl; n[duy; - khepyj; jpd; ; Kjy; rl;l mjpfhhp. . epakdk; - MSeuhy;.
jiyik jzpf;if mjpfhhp (CAG) - Art 148-151
nghJ gzq;fspd; ghJfhtyd;. . kj; jpa khepy muRfspd; fzf;Ffis jzpf;if nra;tJ.
epakpg;gth;- [dhjpgjp . gjtpf; fhyk;- 6 Mz;Lfs; or 65 taJ g+h; j; jp tiu.
cr; r eP jpkd; w eP jpgjpfis gjtp ePf;fk; nra;Ak; topKiwapd; gb gjtp ePf;fk; nra;ayhk;.
jiyik jzpf;if mjpfhhp rl;lk; 1976y; ,aw;wg;gl;lJ.
,e; jpa murpayikg;gpd; kpf Kf;fpakhd mYtyfk; ; - Dr. mk;Ngj; fh; .
jw;Nghija CAG - tpNdhj; uha;
Njh; jy; Mizak; (eph; thrd; rjd; )
1950 [dthp 25y; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. . [dthp 25- thf;fhsh; jpdk;(2011)
RNal;irahd Mizak;- Art 324 . Rje; jpukhd murpay; rhrd mikg;G
jiyik Njh; jy; Mizah; + 2 Njh; jy; Mizah; (1989ypUe;J) - miztUk; rkk; (1993)
epakpg;gth;- [dhjpgjp. . gjtpf; fhyk;- 6 Mz;Lfs; or 65 taJ g+h; j; jp tiu.
cr; r eP jpkd; w eP jpgjpfSf;F ,izahdth;fs;.
gzpfs;: . ehlhSkd; w Njh; jy; elj; Jjy;. . khepy rl;lkd; w Njh; jy; elj;Jjy;.
. [dhjpgjp> Jiz [dhjpgjp Njh; jy; elj; Jjy;. . thf;fhsh; gl;bay; jahhpj; jy;
. fl; rpfis mq;fpfhpj; ; jy; rpd;dq;fs; toq;Fjy; . Njh; jy; Njjp eph; zapj; jy;
cr; r eP jpkd; w eP jpgjpfis gjtp ePf;fk; nra;Ak; topKiwapd; gb gjtp ePf;fk; nra;ayhk;.
jiyik Njh; jy; Mizah; - V.S. rk;gj; (NtYhh;) . Njh; jy; Mizah; fs;- Hari Sankar Brahma
jkpo; ehL jiyik Njh; ; jy; mjpfhhp (Chief Electoral Officer) - gputpz; Fkhh;.
Njh; jy; rk;ge; jg;gl;l tof;Ffis cah; eP jpkd;wq;fNs tprhhpf;Fk;.
[dhjpgjp> Jiz [dhjpgjp Njh; jy; tof;Ffis cr; r eP jpkd;wNk tprhhpf;Fk;
Njh; jy; Mizaj; jpd; Mizfs; ; Fwpj; J cr; r ePjpkd; wj; jpy; kl;LNk Kiwapl KbAk; .
khepy Njh; ;jy; Mizak;
murpayikg;G rl;l jpUj; jq;fs; 73> 74-d; gb khepy Njh; ;jy; ; Mizaq;fs; mikf;fg;gl;Ls;sd.
jdp mikg;G . cs;shl;rp Njh; jy;fis elj; jfpd; wd.
thf;fspf;Fk; taJ- 18 . Cuhl;rp cWg; gpduhf taJ tuk; G- 21
Township - efhpak;. .Contonment- uhZt FbapUg;G .Notified Area- mwptpf;fg;gl;l gFjp FOf;fs;
cs;shl;rp mikg;Gfspy; 1/3 ngz;fSf;F xJf;fPL.
khtl; l gQ;rhaj; J- 29 . Cuhl;rp xd; wpak;- 385 . Cuhl;rp- 12618
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.khefuhl;rp- 10 . efuhl;rp- 152 . lTz; gQ;rhaj; J- 611
khepy Njh; jy; Mizah; - Nrh. ma;ah;

kj;jpa Njh;thizak; (Art 315-323)
1926 Oct 1. . . ghpe; Jiu- Lord Lee Commission. . Kjy; Chairman- Ross Barkar
Art 315- xU ika Njh;thizaKk;> khepyq;fspy; xU khepy Njh;thizaKk; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;
kj; jpa Njh;thizak;- gjtpf; fhyk;- 6 Mz;Lfs; or 65 taJ g+h;j; jp tiu- epakpg;gth; [dhjpgjp
khepy Njh;thizak;- gjtpf; fhyk;- 6 Mz;Lfs; or 62 taJ g+h; j; jp tiu- epakpg;gth; MSeh;
xU Kiw kl;LNk epakdk; nra;ag; ;gl KbAk; . jw;NghJ- 1+9. .Chairman- D.P.Agarwal.
vz;zpf;if eph; zapg;gth; - UPSC - [dhjpgjp. . khepyj; jpw;F - MSeh;
epjpf; FO (Art 280)
1951 . vz;zpf;if- 1 + 4 . gjtpf; fhyk;- 5 Mz;Lfs;
kj; jpa khepy muRfSf;fpilNa epjpapid gfph; e; J nfhs;tJ
khdpaj; njhiff;F ghpe;Jiug;gJ
Kjy; jiyth;- K.C. epNahfp 10- K.C ge; j; 11- A.M. Khusro 12-C.uq;fuh[d; 13- tp[a; nfy;fh;
11tJ epjpf;FOtpd; ghpe; Jiuapd; gb tpiuT ePjpkd;wq;fs; mikf;fg; gl;lJ (01.04.2001 Kjy;)
jpl;lf; FO khh;r; 15>1950
murpayikg;gpd; gb cUthf; fg; gl;l FO my;y.
K.C. epNahfp-apd; ghpe; Jiu(1946)d;gb mikf;fg;gl;;lJ. . vz;zpf;if- 1+ 1+8
jiyth;- gpujkh; . Jizj; jiyth; - KO Neu eph; thfj; jiyth; - Nfgpdl; ke; jphp me; j];J
Kjy; jiyth;- NeU .,uz; lhtJ jiyth;- yhy; gfJhh; rh];jphp
Kjy; Jiz jiyth;- Fy;rhhpyhy; ee; ;jh .jw;NghJ- 10
th
- M.S. Aluwalia
khepyj; jpl;l FOtpd; jiyth; -Kjyikr;rh;.
khtl; l jpl;lf; FOtpd; jiyth;- khtl; l gQ;rhaj; J jiyth;.
gQ;rhaj; J uh[;
khepyg; gl;baypy; 5tjhf Fwpf;fg; gl;Ls;sJ.
gy;te;j; uha; Nkj; jh fkpl;b ghpe; Jiu mbg;gilapy; mikf;fg; gl;lJ
gQ;rhaj; J uh[; rl;lj; jpd; kfhrhrdk;. .fkpl;b mikf; fg; gl;l tUlk;- 1956. .ghpe;Jiu- 1957
%d; wLf;F Kiw - . khtl;l gQ;rhaj; ; J> . Cuhl;rp xd; wpak; > . fpuhk gQ;rhaj; J
Kjypy; eilKiwg;gLj; jg;gl;l khepyk;- uh[];jhd; (1959 mf;Nlhgh; 2)-ehf; $h; khtl; lk;- NeU
,ju fkpl;bfs;- .mNrhf; Nkj; jh fkpl;b- 1977y; mikf; fg; gl;lJ. mwpf;if- 1978- ,uz;L mLf;F
. GVK uht; fkpl;b- 1985. . L.M.rpq;tp fkpl;b- 1986
. jkpo; ehl;L gQ;rhaj; J rl;lk; 1994y; epiwNtw; wg;gl;lJ
. fl; rp jhty; jilr; rl;lk; cs;shl;rp kd; wq;fSf;F nghUe;jhJ

i Art 343 - ,e; ; jp nkhopapd; Njtefhp vOj;J Kiw - ,e; jpahtpd; Ml;rp nkhopahf mwptpg;G 1965
. (10 Mz;LfSf;F Mq;fpyk; ,izg;G nkhopahf mwptpf;fg; gl;lJ)
. Mq;fpyk; epue; ; ju ,izg;G nkhopahf 1967 ypUe;J mwptpf;fg;gl;lJ
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x Xw;iw khw; wj; jf;f thf;F [dhjpgjp> Jiz [dhjpgjp> uh[;argh> khepy rl;l Nkyit Njh; jy;fspy;
filgpbf;fg; gLfpwJ. M]; jpNuypahtpypUe; J gpd;gw; wg;gLfpwJ.
x ,lJrhhp > tyJrhhp France y; ; Njhd; wpaJ.
x Lame-Duck Session Njh; jy; ; Njjp mwptpf;fg;gl;;l gpwF ghuhSkd; wj; jpd; filrp $l;lj;njhlh;.
x [k; K fh\;kP h; - rpwg;G me; ; j];J Art 370.
. jdp rhrdk;. ([dthp 26> 1957ypUe;J eilKiw) . ,ul;il FbaAhpik
. ,uz;L mit rl;lkd;wk; . epjp neUf;fb gpwg;gpf;f KbahJ . mYty; nkhop- cUJ
x Njrpa ngz;fs; Mizak; - 1992 [dthp 31 Kjy; jiytp n[ae;j; gl; ehaf;
x SC/ST Njrpa Mizak; - 1978 [_iy 21. . ngah; khw; wk; - 1987
x Njrpa rpWghz; ;ik Mizak; - 1979.
x ejp ePh; jP h; g;ghaq;fs;
. eh;kjh ejp ePh; jP h; g;ghak; - 1969 -1978y; jP h; g;G 1979y; muR mwpf;if ntspapL.
. fpU\;zh ejp ePh; jP h; g;ghak; - 1969 - 1973y; jP h; g;G 1976y; muR mwpf;if ntspapL
. fhNthp ejp ePh; jP h; g;ghak; - 1991 jkpo; ehL & Nfush - 2007y; jP h; g;G
. 1929y; ; Vw;gl;l cld; ghl;il kP wpaNj gpur; idf;Ff; fhuzk; .
x khepyq;fSf;fpilapyhd FO (Inter State Council) - 1990
x Zonal Council (kz; lyf; FOf;fs;) 5. . kj; jpa cs; Jiw mikr;rh; - jiyth;.
nghJj; Njh;jy;fs;:
9 I 1952 (1951 Oct t- 4 months) 489 fhq;fpu]; - NeU. . ,uz;lhtJ nghpa fl;rp- CPI
9 II 1957 490 fhq;fpu]; - NeU.
9 III 1962 fhq;fpu]; - NeU 64y; kuzk;- rh]; jphp 66y; kuzk; - ,e; jpuh
9 IV 1967 fhq;fpu]; - ,e; jpuh gpsT ]; jhgd fhq;fpu]; & ,e; jpuh fhq;fpu];
9 ,e; jpuh fhe; ; jp gLnfhiy 1984 . uh[pt; fhe;; jp gLnfhiy 1991
Njh; jy; rPh;jpUj;jf; fkpl;bfs;:
. thf;fhsh; ; milahs ml;il mwpKfk; - 1993 T.N.Seshan fhyk; .
. 1974 jhh;f;Fz; Nl fkpl;b . 1990 jpNz\; Nfh];thkp fkpl;b
. N.N. Vohra committee
. 2004 mizj; J ghuhSkd; w njhFjpfSf;Fk; kpz;zZ thf;Fg; gjpT ,ae; ;jpuk; mwpKfk; .
Nyhf;ghy;: - kj; jpa murpd; murpay; eph; thf cWg;gpdh;fs; & MPf;fs;; Coy; Ghpgth; fis jz; ;bf;f
. 1966> Adminstrative Reforms Committee ghpe; Jiuapd;gb mikf;fg; gl;lJ.
Community Development programme 1952 . 20 mk;r jpl;lk; - 1975
Ntiyf;F czT jpl;lk; - 1977-78 . TRYSEM 1979
IRDP 1980 . JRY 1989 . NRY 1989
Nghl;bfs; FO ( Competition Act) 2001
eph; thf jP h; g;ghaq;fs; Art 323 A 42tJ rl;l jpUj; ; jj; jpd; gb mikf; fg; gl;ld.
eph; thf jP h; g;ghaq;fs; rl;lk; > 1985d;gb kj; ; jpa eph; thf jPh; g;ghaq;fs;(CAT)1958y; mikf;fg; gl;ld.
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kj; jpa Coy; jLg;Gf; FO (Central Vigilance Commission) 1964y; mikf; fg; gl;lJ. rl;l mq;fPfhuk; - 1998
. ghpe; Jiu re; ; jhdk; FO . ghuhSkd; wj; jpw;F nghWg;GilaJ.

i kjr; rhh; gpd; ik (Secularism) yj; ; jpd; nkhop
. 1789 gpnuQ;r; Gul;rp ,f; fUj; ;ij gpugyg;gLj; jpaJ.
. 1791 gpnuQ;r; murpayikg;G rhrdk; gpuhd;ir kjr;rhh; gw;w ehlhf khw;wpaJ.
. murhq;fj;jpd; nfhs;; ifahf kjr;rhh; gpd; ikia filgpbj; ; jth; uQ;rpj; ; rpq;.
. 1888y; fhq;fpu]; fl;rp kjr;rhh; gpd; ik fye;j Njrpaj;ij mwpKfg;gLj;jpaJ.
. murpayikg;G rl;lj; jpy; 5tJ topfhl;Lk; nfhs;ifahf mike; Js;sJ.
. ,e; jpahtpd; Kjd;ikahd kjk; ,e; J kjk;.
i kf; fshl;rp (Democracy) fpNuf;f nkhop
. kf;fshl;rp muRf;F mbj; ; jsk; [dehafk; -n`ull;l];
. kf;fshl;rp vd;gJ gyUila murhq;fk; - mhp];lhl;by;
. kf;fNs> kf;fSf;fhf kf; fshy; elj; jg;gLk; Ml;rp - Mgpufhk; ypq;fd;.
. kf;fshl;rp murpd; Kjd; ;ikahd mjpfhuq;fs;- kf;fs;.
. kf;fshl;rpapd; Jhz;fs; - murpay; fl; rpfs; & nghJ Njh;jy;fs;.
. kf;fshl;rpapd; tif - 2
. Neub kf;fshl;rp murhq;f nray;ghLfspy; ; kf; fs; Neubahf gq;nfLg;gJ. - ];tpl;rh;;yhe; J.
. kiwKf kf;fshl;rp kf;fspd; gpujpepjpfshy; Ml;rp.
i fl; rp Kiw 3 tif.
. xU fl;rp Kiw - rPdh> u\;ah .,U fl;rp Kiw - America & England .gy fl;rp Kiw - ,e;jpah
. ,e; jpahtpy; 2 tifahd murpay; fl; rpfs; cs;sd. 1) Njrpa fl; rp 2) khepyf; fl;;rp
. kf;fshl;rpapd; capUk; > uj; ; jKkhf tpsq;FtJ murpay; fl; rpfs;. murpay; fl;rpfs; ,y;yhj kf;fshl;rp
khYkp ,y;yhj fg; giyg; ; Nghd; wJ> JLg;G ,y;yhj glifg; Nghd;wJ. NeU.

i rh;tNjr kdpj chpikfs; gpufldk; - 1948 Dec 10.
i ,e; ; jpa kdpj chpikfs; Mizak; - 1993 mf;Nlhgh; 12
. 1 + 4 cWg; gpdh;fs;. . jiyth; - xa;T ngw; w cr; reP jpkd;w jiyik eP jpgjp
. gjtpf; fhyk;-jiyth;- 5 Mz;Lfs; my;yJ 70 taJ g+h;j; jp. . cWg;gpdh;fs;-5 Mz;Lfs;
. Fw; wr;rhl;bd; Nghpy; Gyzha;T nra; J mwpf;if rkh; g;gpf;Fk; ( 1 khj fhyj; jpw;Fs;)
. Mz;L mwpf;iffisAk; rkh; g;gpf;Fk;. . Fbikapay; ; eP jpkd; wj; ;jpw;Fhpa mjpfhuk;
ngw; Ws;sJ.
i kdpjd; xU rKf tpyq;F - mhp];lhl; ;by;.
. Kjy; rKjha mikg;G - FLk;gk; . ,e; ; jpahtpd; caph; ehb fpuhkq;fs; - NeU.
i nghJ nrhj; J rPuopT rl;lk; - nrd; id khfhz muR -1937
i nghJ nrhj; J ,og;G kw;wk; mopj; ; jy; jLg;Gr; rl;lk; - 1982


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i kf; fshl;rp mikg;gpd; caph; ehb - cs;shl;rp mikg;Gfs;.
. fpuhk Cuhl;rpapd; Ma;thsh; - khtl; l Ml;rpah; . fpuhk rig Mz;Lf;F 4 Kiw $Lk;.
1) [dthp 26 2) Nk 1 3) Mf];l; 15 4) mf;Nlhgh; 2
i jkpo; ehl; ;bd; 31tJ khtl;lk; - mhpaYhh; (2007) 32tJ khtl; lk; - jpUg;g+h; (2008)
i khefuhl;rp -10 nrd;id> Nfhit> kJiu> jpUr;rp> jpUney;Ntyp> Nryk;> <NuhL> jpUg;g+h;> NtYhh;> Jhj; Jf;Fb.
i FW tl;lq;fis ftdpg;gth; - tUtha; Ma;thsh; .
i khtl; l mkh; T eP jpkd; wk; - fphpkpdy; ; tof;F . chpikapay;; ePjpkd; wk; - rptpy; tof;F
i ,e; jpahtpd; ehfhpfk; 5000 Mz;Lfs; goikahdJ
i ,e; jpah gy ,dq;fspd; mUq;fhl;rpafk;- Dr. Vincent Smith
i ,e; jpahtpy; ghurPfh; fs; te;J FbNawpa gFjp- tl Nkw;F
i ,e; ; jpahtpw;F te;jth; fspy; ,e; ; jpahtpd; gz;ghl;L ePNuhl;lj; jpy; xd; W Nruhjth; fs; ma;Nuhg;gpah;fs;.
i ,e; jpa ruhrdpf; fl; ll fiy- ,e; jpa ghurpf fl; ll fiy
i itFe; ; j ngUkhs; ; Nfhapy;- fhQ;rpGuk; gpufjp];tuh; Myak; -jQ;ir
i uhkehj Rthkp Nfhapy; - uhNk];tuk; . Eluhrh; Myak; - rpjk;guk;
i rKjhaj; ; jpd; mbg;gil mq;fk; -FLk;gk; . mbg;gil gs;sp - ,y;yk; .
i ,e; ; jpa nghUshjuj; jpd; KJnfYk; G fpuhkq;fs;.
i ,e; jpahtpd; nrk;nkhopfs; -4. jkpo; (2004) rk];fpUjk; (2005) fd;dlk; > njYq;F (2008)
i nghJthf FbAhpik 2 tifg; gLk;.
i Democracy- Greek Secular, Citizen, federation Latin. Budget- French
i tsUk; ehLfspd; tWik> grp Nghf;f [.eh. FOtpd; jiytuhf gzpahw; wpath; C. Rg;gpukzpak; .
i midj; Jf; fpuhk mz;zh kWkyh;r;rpj; jpl;lk; - Cuhl;rpfspy; mbg;gil fl; likg;G trjpfs; nra;jy;.
i midtUf;Fk; fy;tp ,af;fk; (S.S.A) 2001 njhlf;ff;; fy;tp Nkk;ghL
i Mq;fpNyah;fs; fhyj; jpy; [kpd; jhh; fs; cUthdhh;fs;
i kf; fs; ; Fiw jPh; f;Fk; ehs; - jpq;fs; ; ; fpoik.
i kf; fs; ; njhlh; Gj; jpl;lehs; - tUtha; j; Jiw mYtyh;fs; fpuhkq;fSf;F nrd; W Fiw jPh; g;gJ.
i Cuhl;rpapd; Kf;fpa tUtha; - tPl;L thp> Foha; ePh; thp> njhopy; thp> nrhj; J thp
i kj; jpa khepy muRfs; gy;NtW jpl;l epjpfisAk; > khdpaq;fisAk; khtl;l Cuf tsh; r;rp Kfik (DRDA)
%ykhf Cuhl;rpfsf;F toq;Ffpd; wd.
i Cuhl;rp Kiw fpuhk Cuhl;rp> Cuhl;rp xd; wpak; > khtl; l Cuhl;rp
i efuhl;rp Kiw NgUuhl;rp> efuhl;rp khefuhl;rp
i lhf; lh; Kj; Jnyl;Rkp kfsph; Fyj; jpyfk;.
. gpwg;G - 1886 [_iy 30. GJf;Nfhl;il. . GJf;Nfhl; ;il fy; Yhhpapy; Kjy; khztp
. nrd;id kUj; Jtf; fy; Yhhpapy; kUj; Jth; gl;lk; ; ngw; w Kjy; ,e; jpag; ngz;kzp (1912)
. nrd;id rl;lkd; wj; jpy; epakpf;fg; gl;l Kjy; ngz;. . nrd;id efuhl;rpapd; Kjy; mjpfhhp.
. nrd;id milahwpy; Gw; WNeha; kUj; Jtkidia epWtpdhh;.

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