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Linking verbs and predicated words

Some verbs do not express action. Instead, they tell of a state of being. These verbs link the subject of a sentence with a word or
group of words in the predicate.
Example: Jessica is a soprano. Thomas must be angry.
The verb to be is the most commonly used linking verb. To be can have many forms.
Be been is was
Being am are were

The verbs be, being, and been can be used with helping verbs
should be were being had been
may be was being could have been
will be is being might have been

The word linked to the subject by linking verbs: are like to be are called (predicate words)
The three kinds of predicate words are:
Predicate noun Brad is a plumber
Predicate pronoun That is he
Predicate adjective Carlotta was happy

Other common linking verbs: (these may be action or linking)
Appear seen sound grow
Feel look taste become

Note: Of a being verb (the verbs in the top list) can be substituted for one of the verbs from the common linking verb list, the verb
will be linking.
Example. 1. John grew weary. Substitute: John was weary. Grew is linking
Example 2. John grew vegetables. Substitute. John was vegetables. Cannot substitute was for grew; therefore, the verb grew is
action.



Helping Verbs
The verb may consist of one word, or of several words. The verb may be composed of a main verb and one or more helping
verbs.
Helping verbs Main verb Verb
Will return will return
Would expect would expect
Is leaving is leaving
Must have should shown must have show

To name the verb in any sentence, you must name all the words that make up the verb.
These words are frequently used as helping verb.
am are have will may
Is be do would might
Was has does can shall
Were had did could should
Must being been

Separated parts of a verb: These you will find inserted between the parts of a verb, These words are not included in the
verb.

Examples:
Cassie had never driven a tractor.
My friends cold not offer any advice.
The artist will surely show you her work.

Common Usage Problems
Solving Usage Problems
Study the items in the usage glossary in your textbook, paying particular attention to similar spellings, words that should be never be used, pairs that
are often misused, and problems with verb forms.

Types of Problems
Similar spellings accept and except; then and than
Wrong words aint alright somewheres
Misused pairs among and between ; bring and take
Verb forms has done should have done

Exercise A: Avoiding Some Common Usage Problems. Underline the word in parentheses that correctly complete each sentence.
Example: Free (advice, advice) is often worth what it costs

1. This lawn mower (dont, doesnt) work as well as it used to.
2. Mom told Paul he had (laid, lain) as well as it used to
3. I should (have, of) known he couldnt keep a secret)
4. Air pollution (affects, effects) elderly people most of all.
5. The twins and I had only two dollars (among, between) us.
6. Will you (bring, take) this book back to the library when you go?
7. My answer to the last problem is different (from, than) yours
8. Carrot and celery sticks make a good and (healthful, healthy) snack.
9. Customers with (fewer, less) that than six items can use the express time.
10. Who says you cant (learn, teach) an old dog new tricks?


Understanding Short Stories

In a short story, each character creates a single, dominant impression. A plot is a series of events involving conflict.
Stages of a Plot
Exposition Introduces the setting and major characters
Establishes the narrators point of view
Opening incident Introduces the conflict and sets the plot in motion
Rising action Presents further incidents to develop plot and characters Intensifies
the conflict
Climax Brings the conflict to a high point
Falling action Can briefly show effects of the climax to prepare reader
for the conclusion
Conclusion Resolves the conflict and brings the story to a close
Kinds of Narrators
A story is narrated from a single, consistent point of view
First person The narrator tells the story and participates in the action
Limited The narrator is outside the story and unable to see into the minds
of the characters
Omniscient The narrator is outside the story but able to see into the minds of
the characters
Exercise A: Recognizing the Stages of a Plot. Identify each item below as (1) exposition (2) opening incident (3) rising action (4) climax or
(conclusion)
Example: The boys awoke to the sound of the sea gently rolling on to the beach
1. Never again. the boys promised each other, will we take the boat out alone..
2. The day began gloriously, with a bright sun beating down on the sandy beach.
3. For about my dad, Joe said. We can handle the boat by ourselves.
4. Just as the boat seemed about to capsize, the boys heard a Coast guard cutter approaching.
5. As the boat drifted into the open ocean, the wind picked up and the water became violent.

Exercise B. Identifying Kinds of Narrators. Identify the point of view expression in each item below as (1
st)
)person (2) limited third person
(3) omnisicent third person
1. I watched closely as the figure moved behind the tree
2. 2.Jake handed the hoe to the gardener
3. Janet wished that she had remembered her raincoat
4. How may I help you I asked the customer



Subject and Verb Agreement
TLW differentiate between singular and plural subjects
Number: Singular and Plural
Number refers to the two forms of a word, singular and plural. Singular words
indicate one; plural words indicate more than one.
Singular and Plural Subjects
A singular subject must have a singular verb. A plural subject must have a plural verb.
A phrase or clause that interrupts a subject and its verb does not affect subject-verb
agreement.
Formative Assessment: Exercise A: Determining the Number of Words )PH Prentice
Hall Writers Solution) Grammar Practice Book

Number of words
Part of Speech Singular Plural Singular or Plural
Nouns baby babies fish
toy toys deer
child children moose


Subject and Verb Agreement-Compound subjects
Confusing subjects
Always check certain kinds of subjects carefully to make sure they agree
with their verbs.

Subject after Verb In the middle of the second act appear two elves
Subject Versus Pred Nom These two socks are a pair
Collective nouns The family makes decisions together (as a group)
Plural form with singular
meaning Mumps was once a common illness
Amounts Two weeks is never enough vacation
Titles A Tale of Two Cities is a classic novel
Indefinite Pronouns One of the cups is missing (always singular)
Compound subjects
Compound subjects
A singular subject after or takes a singular verb. A plural subject after or
takes a plural verb. Compound subjects joined by and take a plural verb
unless they are thought of as one thing or modified by every or each.
Agreement with compound subjects
Joined by or
or nor Ed, Sue, or Pam has a good chance of winning.
Neither the cats nor the dogs eat table scraps.
Either the owner or the servants show tourists around.

Hot dogs and hamburgers are traditional picnic foods.
Ian and Pete are one the same team.
Bacon, lettuce, and tomato is my favorite sandwich.
Every man, man, woman, and child has a separate seat.
NeiN

Subject Verb Agreement (cont)
Subject Plural
She enjoys reading mysteries We have just missed the bus
A box of cookies is in the cupboard Two boxes of books are missing
That fish has unusual colors These fish have long whiskers

Summative Assessment: Prentice Hall Writers Solution Grammar Book

Exercise B

Ticket Out the Door: