You are on page 1of 1

What is Cloning?

Is the method of producing two or more genetically identical organisms


by asexual reproduction
Only one parent cell, the DNA sequence of cloned organisms is exactly
same as the parent cell
Clones can happen naturally identical twins, animals that produce
asexually such as bacteria and yeast
However, for the purpose of this presentation, we refer to cloning as
artificial cloning
Timeline
Humans have been cloning plants for at least a couple thousand years. Many of
the fruits we eatincluding bananas, grapes, and applescome from artificially
created clones. Unlike the complex process of cloning a mammal, cloning a plant
can be as simple as cutting a branch from one tree and grafting it onto another.
Animal cloning also has a long history. Artificial embryo twinning, which
involves dividing an early embryo to form separate, genetically identical
organisms, was first done in a vertebrate over 100 years ago. And the first
successful nuclear transfer was done in a frog in the 1970s

1885
Sea urchin, using artificial embryo twinning
Showed that each cell in an embryo has its complete set of genetic
instructions
1902
Salamander, first vertebrate using artificial embryo twinning
Showed that complex animals can be twinned but up to a certain
stage in development
1928
Salamander
Evidence to show that the cell nucleus controls embryonic
developmeant
1952
Frog
Evidence to show that cells early in development are better for
cloning than in later stages