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ThreatstoBiodiversity:AnOverviewGuidedViewing

Name:GalileaPatricio
1:NaturalCapital:Forests
EcologicalServices EconomicServices
Supportenergyflowandchemical
cycling
Fuelwood
Reducesoilerosion Lumber
Absorbandreleasewater Pulptomakepaper
Purifywaterandair Mining
Inluencelocalandregionalclimate Livestockgrazing
Storeatmosphericcarbon Recreation
providenumerouswildlifehabitats Jobs

2:Whatarethe3maintypesofforests?
The 3 main types of forests are the Oldgrowth forest (uncut or regenerated forest
that has not been seriously disturbed for several hundred years), the secondgrowth forest
(a stand of trees resulting from natural secondary succession. (60%)), and tree plantation
plantedstandsofaparticulartreespecies.(4%)).
3:Whataresomeoftheproblemsassociatedwithdeforestation?
The problems associated with deforestation are that there is decreased soil fertility
from erosion, runoff of eroded soil into aquatic systems, premature extiniction of species
with specialized niches, loss of habitat for native species and migratory species, regional
climate change from extensive clearing, release of CO2 into the atmosphere, and
accelerationofflooding.
4:Whatarethemethodsforharvestingtrees?
Themethodsforharvestingtreesareselectivecutting,clearcutting,andstripcutting.


5:ClearCuttingForests
Advantages Disadvantages
Highertimberyields Reducesbiodiversity
Maximumprofitsinshortesttime Disruptsecosystemprocesses
Canreforestwithfastgrowingtrees Destroysandfragmentswildlife
habitats
Shorttimetoestablishnewstandof
trees
Leaveslargeopenings

Needslessskillandplanning Increaseswaterpollution,flooding,
anderosiononsteepslopes
Goodfortreespeciesneedingfullor
moderatesunlight
Eliminatesmostrecreationalvalue

6:Whataresomesolutionsforsustainableforestry?
Some solutions for sustainable forestry are to identify and protect areas with high
biodiversity, stop logging of oldgrowth forests, and support timber that is gron by
sustainablemethods.
7:WhatistheHealthyForestRestorationAct?WhatarethePROSandCONS?
The Healthy Forest Restoration Act allows timber companies to cut medium and
large trees in 71% of the national forests and must clear smller fire prone trees and
underbrush, however scientist believe that fire resistant trees are removed while flammable
slashisletbehind.
8:LogginginNationalForests
Advantages Disadvantages
Helpsmeetcountriestimberneeds Providesonly4%oftimberneeds
Cutareasgrowback Ambleprivateforeslandtomeettimbr
needs
Keepslumberandpaperpricesdown Haslittleeffectontimberandpapaer
prices
Providesjobsinnearbycommunities Damagesnearbyriversandfisheries
Promoteseconomicgrowthinnearby
communities
Recreationinnationalforestsprovides
morelocaljobsandincomeforlocal
communitiesthanlogging
Decreasesrecreationalopportunities

9:Whataresomecausesoftropicaldeforestation?
Somecausesofthetropicaldeforestationsubsidies,populationgrowth,poverty,cropand
timberexports,fires,logging,roads,andtreeplantation.
10:Whyshouldwecareaboutthelossoftropicalforests?
We should care about the loss of tropical forests because they are the major
sources of biodiversity in the world such as the 2,100 out of 3,000 plants that are sources
ofcancerfightingchemicals.
11:SustainingTropicalForests
Prevention Restoration
Protectmostdiverseandendangered
areas
Reforestation
Educatesettlersaboutsustainable
agricultureandforestry
Rehabilitationofdegraded
areas
Phaseoutsubsidiesthatencourage
unsustainableforestuse
Concentratefarmingandranchingon
alreadyclearedareas
Addsubsidiesthatencourage
sustainableforestuse

Protectforestswithdebtfornature
swapsandconservationeasements

Certifysustainablygrowntimber
Reduceillegalcutting
Reducepoverty
Slowpopulationgrowth


12:Whyarerangelands/grasslandssoimportant?
Rangelands/grasslands are so important because they aid in soil formation, erosion
control,andnutrientcycling.
13:Howcanwesustainrangelandproductivity?Whataresomesolutionsto
overgrazing?
Rangeland productivity can be sustained by controlling the number and distribution
oflivestockinanareaandbyrestoringdegradedrangeland.
14:Whatisthe4pointstrategytorestoringbiodiversityworldwide?
The 4 point strategies to restoring biodiversity worldwide are to mp global
ecosystems, locate and protect endangered species, restore degraded ecosystems, and
makethedevelopmentofbiodiversityfriendly.
15:Whatisabiodiversityhotspot?Howmanyarethereworldwide?
A biodiversity hotspot is an identified locations of endangered centers of
biodiversity,currentlythereare34hotspotsworldwide.
16:Whatarethetop6hotspotsintheUnitedStates?
Thetop6hotspotsintheUnitedStatesarelocatedinHawaii,theSanFranciscoBay
area,theSouthernAppalachians,DeathValley,SouthernCalifornia,andFlorida
Panhandle.
17:Whatarethefivebasicsciencebasedprinciplesforecologicalrestoration?
The five basic science based principles of ecological restoration are to identify the
cause, stop the abuse by eliminating or reducing factors, reintroduce species if it is
necessary,protectareasfromfurtherdegradation,anduseadaptivemanagement.
18:Define:
Preservation: to set aside or protect undisturbed natural areas from harmful human
activities.
Remediation:Repairinganecosystemthathasbeendestroyed.
Sustainability:theabilityforasystemtsurviveforsomespecifiedtime.
18:Whataretheeightprioritiesforprotectingbiodiversity?
The eight priorities for protecting biodiversity are to take immediate action in order
to preserve the worlds biological hot spots, to keep the remaining old growth forests intact,
complete mapping the worlds biodiversity, determining marine hotspots, ensuring that the
full range of the earths ecosystems are included in the global conservation strategy, make
conservationprofitable,andinitiateecologicalrestoration.
19:Define:Reconciliation/AppliedEcology
Reconciliation/Applied Ecology establishes and maintains new habitats to conserve
speciesinplaceswherepeoplelive,itisacommunitybasedconservation.
20:Define:
BackgroundExtinction:thecontinuous,lowlevelofextinctionofspecies.
ExtinctionRate:theamountofspeciesthatcangoextinctwithinacertainperiodoftime
usuallyrepresentedasapercentageornumber.
MassExtinction:theextinctionofmanyspeciesinashortperiodoftime.
21:Whatarecharacteristicsofvulnerablespecies?
The characteristics of vulnerable species are that have low reproductive rates, have
specialized feeding habits, feed at high trophic levels, are of large size, have specialized
nestingorbreedingareas,andarefoundonlyinoneplaceorregion.
22:WhatisHIPPCO?
HIPPCO is a summary of most important causes of premature extinction which are
habitatdestruction,degradation,fragmentation,invasivespecies,andpopulationgrowth.
23:Whatcanyoudoaboutinvasivespecies?
What i can do for invasive species is to not allow wild species to escape, to not
spread wild plants to other areas, brush or wash my dogs after they visit the woods, or plant
avarietyoftreesandplantstoreducethelossfrominvasivespecies.
24:Whataresomecharacteristicsofsuccessfulinvaderspecies?
Some characteristics of successful invader species are that they have high
reproductive rates and short generation time, they are pioneer species, live long, have high
dispersalrates,andhavehighgeneticvariability.
25:Howispollutionaffectingspecies?
Pollution is affecting species by threatening 1/5th of the U.S.s endangered and
threatenedspeciesandhoneybeecolonies.
26:Whatisoverexploitation?
Overexploitation is the consumption and/or killing of species for their valuable parts,
toeliminatepredatorsandpeststhatarebothersome,andtradedlegallyandillegally.

27:WhatistheU.S.EndangeredSpeciesAct?
The U.S. Endangered Species Act forbids federal agencies from funding projects
that would jeopardize an endangered species and makes it illegal for Americans to hunt,
kill,ofcollectendangeredorthreatenedspecies.
28:WhatistheCITIESTreaty?
The CITIES Treaty bans all international trade in elephant products to protect the
elephantpopulations.
29:Whatcanyoudotohelpterrestrialbiodiversity?Whatcanyoudotohelpprotect
speciesworldwide?
Something I can do to help terrestrial biodiversity is to plat trees, recycle paper and
buy recycled products, and buy sustainable wood and wood products. To help protect
species worldwide one can not buy furs or other illegal products, to not buy wood and
paperproducts,andtonotbuyanimalstakenfromthewild.