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A metal ion indicator was used to show the endpoint in this experiment.

The compound forms a colored


metal ion complex at a certain range of pM, much like how acid-base indicators are. EBT has a range of
6.3 to 11.6 [Harris, 242] and the color changes can be shown by the following equations:

Pa-math type
H2In- (red) + H2O <-> HIn2- (blue) + H3O+ K1 = 5x10-7
HIn2- (blue) + H2O <-> In3- (orange) + H3O+ K2 = 2.8x10-12

It can be seen that its color in an acidic medium is red (eq #) and its color in a basic medium is orange
(eq #). This becomes useful when the titration involves various metal ions which form red complexes at
a pH range of 7 to 11 such as Mg
2+
and Ca
2+
. Here, it is important the pH is kept above 7 since HIn
2-
is
what needs to be dominant so that it reacts with the cations
Math type
Ca2+ + HIn2- (blue) + H2O <-> CaIn- (wine red) + H3O+
Mg 2+ + HIn2- (blue) + H2O <-> MgIn- (wine red) + H3O+ (x)

The complexes CaIn
-
, MgIn
-
, [Ca-EDTA]
-
and [Mg-EDTA]
-
have differing stabilities. Arranged according to
increasing stability, the following order is obtained
CaIn
-
< MgIn
-
< MgY
-
< CaY
-
This suggests that as EBT is added to the solution containing the buffer and the cations, the MgIn
-

complex (eq x) would form, making the solution become a wine red color.