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Marine Engineering System

Introduction
Life and Measurement
Administration
 Course content
 Class
 Class notes
 Assessment
 -Homework assignments and solutions
 Final Exam
 Labs
 Others : Collaborative work, attitude,
communication, learning through
variation and creativity and new ideas.
Variation

• We only learn because


of variation – when
something new or
different challenges our
pre-conceived ideas
• What we learn depends
on the variation we
have experienced
Subject General Objective
Introduction to shipping ships and general
marine engineering systems
Coverage:

 Common marine engineering terms


 Safe working practice onboard ships
 Type of Merchant ships
 Type of Naval ships
 Type of auxiliary crafts
 Shipboard systems
 Engine room and Machinery layout
Course Navigation

- Marine engineering terms and system


- Operating principle, characteristics and
classification of marine engines and
supporting systems
- Principle of operation ships auxiliary
machineries system
- Marine electrical power generation and
distribution system
- Marine propulsion system
This lecture – Introduction to
marine engineering and ship
system
At the end of the lesson student will be able
to :
 Define common terms of ship and marine
engineering system
 Ship types
 Marine engineering system
 Propulsion layout
 Hull
 Safety consideration
 Design consideration
A. Marine engineering and
marine engine
Evolution of marine engine

 Effort to apply mechanical power to


propulsion and operation of ship since
eighteen century as never been easy.

 Why?
Design requirement
 Because ship is a have never been a simple product

 It require exceptional number of specialization to plan ,design


and build a ship

 This make maritime technology distinctive integrated technology


in part of many engineering disciplines require for the design of
system of transport, exploration, naval craft which have one thing
in common. What ?
Design requirement
 Operate on the surface of water
 The field of engineering under maritime technology
– naval architecture and marine engineering is with
at least the following:
 Inland waterway and ocean transportation
 Naval engineering
 Ocean engineering
 Contention between naval architecture and marine
engineer in system design
1. Common terms
Common terms
 Ships
 Vessels
 Submarines
 Tugs
 Ferries
 Boats
 Class societies & Mardep
 Propulsion system
Common terms (Contd)
 Auxiliary Power system
 Air system
 SW system
 FW system
 Fuel system
 Hospitality systems
 Navigation and steering system
2. Safe working practice
Safe working practice
 Special constraints of ship operation
 Ship is a floating and moving object
 Subject to flooding, rolling & Pitching
 Limited space for machinery
 Operates away from shore facilities
 No neutral line to earth
 Carries heavy and dangerous cargo
How to enforce Safety
 Proper safety attire
 Regular and effective maintenance
 Repairs / drydocking/inspection
 Load Testing of lifting equipment
 Test of Firefighting system
 Periodic certification and validation of ships and its
systems
3. Ship Types
&
Hull Forms
Types of Ships  Naval Ships
 Merchant ships  Frigates

 Bulk carriers  Destroyers

 Oil Tankers  Cruisers

 Chemical tankers  Aircraft carriers

 LNG tankers  Patrol crafts

 Container ships  Survey ships

 Passenger liners  Submaries

 Auxiliary Vessels
 Tugs
 Ferries
 Support vessels
 Barges
3.1 Classification of Ship by
Usage
 Merchant Ship
 Naval & Coast Guard Vessel
 Recreational Vessel

 Utility Tugs

 Research & Environmental Ship


 Ferries
3.2 Classification of Ship by Support Type
• Aerostatic Support
- ACV (Air Cushion Vehicles)
- SES (Captured Air Bubble)

• Hydrodynamic Support
- Hydrofoil
- HYSWAS (HYdrodynamic Small Waterplane Area Ship)
-Planning Hull

• Hydrostatic Support
- Conventional Ship
- Catamaran
- SWATH (Small Waterplane Area Twin Hull)
- Deep Displacement

• Submarine
- Submarine
- AUV/ROV
3.3.1 Aerostatic Support

- Supported by cushion of air generated by a fan.


- ACV (Air Cushion Vehicle)
hull material : rubber
propeller : placed on the deck
amphibious operation
- SES (Surface Effect Ship)
side hull : rigid wall(steel or FRP)
bow : skirt
propulsion system : placed under the water
water jet propulsion
supercavitating propeller
not amphibious operation
SES Ferry

NYC SES
Fireboat

E
250’ SES Ferry
3.3.2 Hydrodynamic Support
• Planning Hull
- supported by the hydrodynamic pressure developed
under the hull at high speed
- V or flat type shape
- commonly used in pleasure boat, patrol boat,
missile boat, racing boat

Destriero
3.3.3 Hydrodynamic Support
• Hydrofoil Ship
- supported by a hydrofoil, like wing on an aircraft
- fully submerged hydrofoil ship
- surface piercing hydrofoil ship

Hydrofoil Ferry
HYSWAS Quest
Hydroplane vessel
3.3.4 Hydrostatic Support
• Displacement ship
- conventional type of ship
- carries high payload
- low speed
• SWATH
- small waterplane area twin hull (SWATH)
- low wave-making resistance
- excellent roll stability
- large open deck
- disadvantage : deep draft and cost
• Catamaran/Trimaran
- twin hull
- other characteristics are similar to the SWATH
• Submarine
SWATH vessel
SWATH vessel Seashadow
Tri-Hull combat concept vessel
4. Shipboard systems
Shipboard systems
 Propulsion system
 Steam
 Diesel
 Gas turbine
 All electric
 CODAD
 CODAG
 COSAG
 Aux power system
 AC/DC
 LV
 HV
contd
 Sea Water system
 Fire fighting system
 Pumping and flooding system
 FW system
 Aircon and ventilation system
 FW system
 Cargo system
 Navigation system and steering
Fuel oil Piping System
FRESH WATER SYSTEM

Fresh Water Cooling System EXPANSION / HEADER TANK

TURBOCHARGER S/W OUT

TO & F ROM
DIESEL GENERA TOR
J ACKET
WATER
COOLER

J KT. WATER COOLING P /P S


CYLINDER BLOCK S/W IN
& CYLINDER HEAD
DISTRIB UTION M A NIFOLD

HEATER S/W OUT

P ISTONS
MAIN DISTRIBUTION M ANIFOLD P ITON
DIESEL WA TER
ENGINE P ISTON WATER COOLING P /P S COOLER

COLLEC TION M ANIFOLD S/W IN


F ROM P ISTON

P ISTON DRA IN TA NK
LUBRICATION OIL SYSTEM
Lubrication Oil System CYLINDER LUBRICATING
OIL SERVICE TANK

TEMPERATURE
CYLINDER CONTROL VALVE
LUB RICATION
BOXES
SEA WATER OUTLET

CROSSHEAD & P ISTON LUB


DISTRIB UTION OIL
M A NIFOLD COOLER

MAIN SEA WATER INLET


DIESEL
ENGINE
FINE FILTERS
M AIN BEAR ING & CRA NKP IN
DISTRIBUTION M ANIFOLD
LUB OIL PUMPS
STRAINERS DRY SUMP TANK MAGNETIC FILTERS

STEAM LUBRICATING OIL


HEATING COLLECTING TANK
LUB OIL PURIFIER
HEATER
SEA WATER COOLING SYSTEM

Sea Water Cooling System


TURBOCHARGER

J A CKET
FRESH
WATER
COOLER

CHA RGE
AIR C OOLER

MAIN PISTON LUB OIL


DIESEL WATER COOLER
ENGINE COOLER

SEA WATER
COOLING
P UM P S
FILTER FILTER SEA C HEST
SEA CHEST
STARTING AIR SYSTEM

Air Starting System


STARTING AIR VALVES

P ILOT
VA LVE

AIR BOTTLE
No 1 OR No 2

RESER VOIR

MAIN
DIESEL AIR DISTRIBUTOR
ENGINE

M AIN A IR No 1 No 2

C OM P RESSORS
Main Diesel Engine
Cooling System
5. Types Marine Engine
MARINE PROPULSION ENGINE

STEAM GAS TURBINE DIESEL


ENGINE ENGINE ENGINE

STEAM RECIPROCATING
TURBINE STEAM ENGINE
ENGINE
SPARK COMPRESSION
IGNITION IGNITION

TWO STROKE FOUR STROKE


CATERGORIES
 Steam Turbine Engine

 Gas turbine engine

 Steam Engine

 Diesel engine
Prime movers
Gas Turbines
 Gas turbine have been selected as the future prime mover primarily
because of their high power to weight ratio.
 4. Weight sensitive ship designs favor gas turbines and projected light
weight fuel cell power plants such as PEM.
 They also provide significant reduction in the amount of routine
maintenance required when compared with diesel generators.
 The other significant factor is the low emissions.

Diesel engine
 Diesel engines offer fuel costs savings of 50% if heavy fuels can be
used, and if emissions can be maintained at acceptable levels.
 Maintenance may include engine modifications such as dual fuel
capability for in-port use, water injection, and timing retard, and exhaust
treatment such as selected catalytic reduction and oxidation catalysts.
 Heavy fuel use also requires careful selection of cylinder material and
lube oil
Turbine
 A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a rotary engine
that extracts energy from a flow of hot gas produced by combustion of
gas or fuel oil in a stream of compressed air.
 It has an upstream air compressor radial or axial flow mechanically
coupled to a downstream turbine and a combustion chamber in
between.
 Energy is released when compressed air is mixed with fuel and ignited
in the combustor
 The resulting gases are directed over the turbine's blades, spinning the
turbine, and, mechanically, powering the compressor.
 Finally, the gases are passed through a nozzle , generating additional
thrust by accelerating the hot exhaust gases by expansion back to
atmospheric pressure.

 A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy


from pressurized steam , and converts it into useful mechanical work.
Steam Turbine engine
 The Steam turbine is use to obtain mechanical work
from the energy stored in steam.
 Steam enters the turbine with high energy content
and leaves after giving up most of it.
 The high pressure steam from the boiler is
expanded in nozzles to create a high velocity jet of
steam, which produces the force which causes
rotation of the shaft.
Gas turbine
 The Gas turbine is use for obtaining mechanical
work from the energy stored in Gases in which
combustion take place in the combustion chamber.
 The hot gases enters the turbine with high energy
content and leaves after giving up most of it.
 The high pressure gases from the combustion
chamber is expanded in nozzles to create a high
velocity jet of gases, which produces the force which
causes rotation of the shaft.
Gas Turbine
First 3 shaft concept, January 1945
Coberra 6000 Starting Sequence

Typical Arrangement
RT - 56
RB211
GG COMBUSTOR
RT - 62 Centrifugal
Compressor
AIR
INTAKE
POWER
TURBINE GEAR
BOX
IP HP

GG COMPRESSORS GG TURBINES

Roll Royce
Gas Generator
Steam engine
COGAG
 Combined gas turbine and gas
turbine (COGAG) is propulsion
system for ships using two gas
turbines connected to a single
propeller shaft.

 A gearbox and clutches allow


either of the turbines to drive the
shaft or both of them combined.

 Using one or two gas turbines has


the advantage of having two
different power settings.

 Since the fuel efficiency of a gas


turbine is best near its maximum
power level, a small gas turbine
running at its full speed is more
efficient compared to a twice as
powerful turbine running at half
speed, allowing more economic
transit at cruise speeds.
Diesel engine
Electric drive
 Electric drive transmissions have a higher specific fuel consumption, specific
weight and volume than mechanical drive systems, but has advantages in
arrangement which may compensate for these disadvantages.
 Advanced technology motors can be located very close to and on line with the
propulsors, at the extreme aft end of the ship, or in external pods.
 Electrical generator sets can be optimally spaced around the ship and
electrically connected. In the longer term, combined with fuel cells, SFC, specific
weight and volume are comparable with gas turbine and diesel prime movers for
direct drive systems.
Zone Concept :
 The concept of dividing future classes of ship into zones to maximize
survivability also extends to the power system.
 Each zone would be autonomous and include ventilation systems, cooling
systems, power distribution and other services which could be affected by
damage to another part of the ship.
 At least two supplies would be provided for all essential loads. Current classes,
using split generation and distribution, rely on the provision of normal and
alternative supplies via Automatic Change-Over Switches
Fuel cell
 The fuel cell stack operates by utilizing electrochemical reactions between
an oxidant (air) and a fuel (hydrogen), with two electrodes separated by a
membrane.
 The voltage of the fuel cell output can be controlled by a converter and it is
therefore able to connect to any point in the ship service or propulsion
distribution system.
 The fuel cell stack is modularity give redundancy advantage. It also has the
additional advantages of zero noxious emissions, and low thermal and
acoustic signatures.
 In the short term the fuel cell system is required to use marine diesel fuel.
Diesel fuel will require reforming within the fuel cell stack, or using an
external process, to produce a hydrogen rich gas which the fuel cell stack is
capable of processing.
 The reformer will clearly add both size, weight and complexity to the fuel cell
system. In the longer term technologies such as the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell
(SOFC) are contenders, which are more forgiving of impurities and can use
a fuel available world-wide, either methanol or gasoline.
Storage option
 The technologies being assessed for energy storage include are electro-
chemical batteries (both conventional and advanced), regenerative fuel
cells (otherwise known as redox flow cells ) Superconducting Magnetic
Energy Storage (SMES) and Supercapacitors.

 Regenerative fuel cells store or release electrical energy by means of a


reversible electrochemical reaction between two salt solutions (the
electrolytes). The reaction occurs within an electrochemical cell.

 The cell has two compartments, one for each electrolyte, physically
separated by an ion-exchange membrane.

 In contrast to most types of battery system, the electrolytes flow into and
out of the cells and are transformed electrochemically inside the cells.
The power is therefore determined by the size of the cell but the
endurance is determined by the size of the two electrolyte tanks
Storage system
Prime movers and emission
 All prime movers are potentially compliant with emerging emission
requirements, however, complexity for achieving compliance varies with
prime mover and fuel type.

 Diesels require the most attention to emissions control followed at some


distance by gas turbines, where ultra low emissions levels have been
achieved for land-based systems.

 Fuel cells emit the lowest levels of pollutants of all the prime movers
 Heavier fuel cell systems and diesels represent larger machinery and
structural weight.

 Fuel cells can be used as a prime mover in an Integrated Full Electric


Propulsion (IFEP) system providing DC electrical power output, and are being
developed as a replacement for diesel generators and gas turbine alternators.
Sail and solar power ship
Skysail
Propulsion system layout
Propulsion system Layout
 Depends on the type of ship,its size and role
 Direct coupled
 Geared
 Azipods
97
Ship Drive Train and Power

Ship Drive Train System


EHP

Engine Reduction
Gear Strut Screw
Bearing Seals

THP

BHP SHP DHP

98
Ship Drive Train and Power

Horse Power in Drive Train


Brake Horse Power (BHP)
- Power output at the shaft coming out of the engine before
the reduction gears

Shaft Horse Power (SHP)


- Power output after the reduction gears
- SHP=BHP - losses in reduction gear

99
Ship Drive Train and Power

Delivered Horse Power (DHP)


- Power delivered to the propeller
- DHP=SHP – losses in shafting, shaft bearings and seals
Thrust Horse Power (THP)
- Power created by the screw/propeller
- THP=DHP – Propeller losses
BHP SHP DHP THP EHP
E/G R/G Shaft Prop. Hull
Bearing

Relative Magnitudes

BHP>SHP>DHP>THP>EHP 100
Effective Horse Power (EHP)

• EHP : The power required to move the ship hull at a given


speed in the absence of propeller action
(EHP is not related with Power Train System)
• EHP can be determined from the towing tank experiments at
the various speeds of the model ship.
• EHP of the model ship is converted into EHP of the full scale
ship by Froude’s Law.
Measured EHP
V
Towing Tank Towing carriage

101
Effective Horse Power (EHP)

Effective Horsepower, EHP (HP)


POWERCURVE
YARDPATROL CRAFT

1000

800

600

400

200

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Ship Speed, Vs (Knots)

Typical EHP Curve of YP 102


Typical 30 MW Steam Propulsion

Blow down gas 1 m3 /s release 30 MW


power but in port requirement is only 6
MW
Typical Diesel Propulsion

Main and aux power sources separate


and independent, re-liquefaction (5 MW)
Typical Diesel Propulsion

Main and aux power sources separate


and independent, re-liquefaction (5 MW)
Typical Diesel Propulsion

Main diesel engines drive aux generators


Typical Diesel Propulsion
Typical Schematic of IEPS
Layout of Typical IEPS
Medium speed 4-s diesel
Pictorial View of First IEPS
Hull
Wave-Making Resistance (cont)

Bulbous Bow

113
Summary

 Development of marine engineering system


 Common terms of marine engineering system
 Overview of marine engineering system
 Overview of marine engines - LO, Fuel Valve
cooling, Cylinder LO etc.,
 Overview of marine propulsion layout