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Unit name: Kitchen Chemistry: Exploring chemical change

Lesson:

Making Toffee

Prior Knowledge: Understanding of physical change


Learning about dissolving, melting, freezing, evaporation and condensation
Key Scientific Knowledge:
A chemical change is one in which:
The amounts of reactants decrease over time
New substances are formed and the amounts
of these increase over time
The total mass of the new substances that
have been formed at any time is the same as
the total mass of reactants that have been
consumed
The number of atoms of each element in the
new substances that have been formed at any
time is the same as the number of those
atoms in the amounts of reactants that have
been consumed
During reaction, chemical bonds between
some atoms in the reactant molecules are
broken and chemical bonds between other
atoms are formed, creating new molecules
Because chemical change involves the
redistribution of atoms, molecules of the
reactants are not conserved
The molar amounts of new substances that
have been formed at any time are related,
usually by simple ratios, to the molar amounts
of reactants that have been consumed
(Bucat and Fensham, 1995)

Pertinent Loan of Knowledge:

Substances need to be seen as new


substances once change has been made
Materials can be in contact with each other
and not be changed
Matter cannot just be created, it needs to be
formed from other substances

Science & Technology Outcomes & Indicators: ST3-12MW: Identifies the observable
properties of solids, liquids and gases and that changes made to materials are reversible or
irreversible.
ST3-4WS: Investigates by posing questions, including testable questions, making
predictions and gathering data to draw evidence based conclusions and develop
explanations.
ST3-1VA: Shows interest in and enthusiasm for science and technology, responding to their
curiosity, questions and perceived needs, wants and opportunities.
Other Key Learning Area's
EN3-3A: Uses an integrated range of skills, strategies and knowledge to read, view and
comprehend a wide range of texts in different media and technologies.
MA3-11MG: Selects and uses the appropriate unit to estimate, measure and calculate
volumes and capacities, and converts between units of capacity.
MA3-12MG: Selects and uses the appropriate unit and device to measure the masses of

objects, and converts between units of mass.


Resources
Hotplates enough for one between 4 children
Sugar
Water
One saucepan per group
Muffin pans and patty cases
Refrigerator
Wooden spoons a couple per group
Video on making toffee
Different measurement containers eg. Measuring cups, spoons

Lesson outline:
Recap chemical change being irreversible
Watch video on making toffee
Record different ideas on ingredients and resources needed
Record what is supposed to happen when the sugar and the water combine over heat
Split into groups and have students brainstorm amount of ingredients needed
Once agreed upon, have students experiment with the different containers and record
results
Once students have desired results, they need to pour mixture into patty cases and
refrigerate until set
To conclude lesson, brainstorm ideas about whether cooling can have a similar effect on
ingredients as heating ie have an irreversible change

Simplification:
Have one group member record the process
needed for the rest of the group.
Have the video accessible to the groups
during the process of the experiment.

Evaluation:

Extension:
Have students create own experiments using
different ingredients and heat and record the
results.