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World Cultures 11

Unit III: Latin America

Name: ______________________________
Date:

LATIN AMERICAN PEOPLES WIN INDEPENDENCE


Directions: After reading the document below, please answer the following questions completely and
Thoroughly in complete sentence format.
Background Question:
1. What three factors motivated the people of Latin America to rebel against their European
controllers?
The successful American Revolution, the French Revolution and the Enlightenment changed the people
of Latin Americas minds.
Haitian Independence
1. Who controlled the colony of Haiti and what two leaders where responsible for their
independence?
The colony of Haiti was controlled by the French. Toussaint and Dessalines are responsible for their
freedom
2. Why were they able to win their independence so quickly and easily?
They had more slaves than masters, they were greatly outnumbered.

3. How was this movement for independence different from revolutions in the rest of Latin
America? [You will have to answer this question after reading the entire document.]
It was different because these revolutions happened without all the violent upheavals or widespread
bloodshed.

Viceroyalty of Peru
1. Identify and explain the specific events on the European continent effected the movement for
independence in Peru.
Napoleons conquest of Spain in 1808 triggered revolts in the Spanish colonies. Napoleon made his
brother the king of Spain.
2. The movement from independence was spearheaded by what two creoles. Who were they and
explain how they were able to gain it.
San Martin and Bolivar. Bolivar had his army march through the Andes, he took the Spanish army by
surprise and came out victorious.

3. What name did they give to the independent viceroyalty?


Gran Colombia
Viceroyalty of New Spain
1. How did the movement for independence differ from that of Peru?
San Martin left his army in Bolivars control, and together they defeated the Spanish at the battle of
Ayacucho.
2. The movement began with the leadership of what two leaders? Explain their rebellion and its
successes/failures.
This movement began with two leaders: San Martin and Bolivar. Bolivar was called the George
Washington of South America. He planned to unite the Spanish colonies of South America into a single
country and call it Gran Colombia. The upper part of Peru was named Bolivia in his honor. San Martin
spent much of his youth in Spain as a military officer. He fought with Spanish forces against napoleon.
He became the liberator of Argentina, Chile and Peru.

3. Ironically, a creole DID eventually was successful in gaining freedom from Spain. Who was he,
and whey did favor independence in 1820 when he did not earlier?
Agustin de Iturbide gained Mexicos independence. He was a man who defeated the rebel Padre
Morelos.

4. What government/title did this liberator give the newly independent viceroyalty?
What happened to his government?
The United Provinces of Central America. The future countries of Nicaragua, Guatemala,
Honduras, El Salvador and Costa Rica would develop in the region.

Brazil
1. Why was this colony governed differently than the Spanish colonies just prior to independence?

Brazil was under Portugals control


2. How did the movement for independence differ in this Portuguese colony than those of the
Spanish colonies?
Brazil had won its independence in a bloodless revolution.