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NGHIN CU QU TRNH GI HA CCH IN CA VT LIU COMPOSIT

DNG TRONG CC THIT B IN CAO P BNG M HNH TH NGHIM


LO HA TNG TC.
INVESTIGATION ON AGING PROCESS OF ELECTRIC COMPOSITE INSULATION
MATERIAL USING IN HIGHVOLTAGE ELECTRIC EQUIPMENTS BY
ACCELERATED AGING METHOD.
TS. Nguyn Hu Kin; ThS. V Thanh Hi
Vin Nng lng B Cng Thng
TM TT
Bi bo trnh by kt qu nghin cu qu trnh gi ha cch in ca vt liu composite
nn nha epoxy ct si thy tinh bng m hnh th nghim lo ha tng tc. Qu trnh
khuych tn ca nc vo trong cc mu vt liu ny c mang ra nghin cu v phn tch
di gc v vt liu k thut in. Phng php ph in mi l mt phng php k thut
ph hp chn on cch in v l phng php chn on khng ph hy cch in,
nhng c kh nng cung cp thng tin hin thi ca h cch in. Qua xc nh c trng
kt qu lo ha do nhit - m cao, nhn bit hu qu ca n i vi cch in v nh
gi s lo ha ca vt liu cch in.
ABSTRACT
The paper presents results of research on aging process of composite insulation
material - glass fiber reinforced epoxy resin (epoxy/glass) by accelerated aging method of
experiment in laboratory. Process of water diffusion into composite insulation material glass fiber reinforced epoxy resin (epoxy/glass) was investigated and analyzed. The research
was conducted using spectroscopy dielectric method for insulation non- breakdown
diagnostic of insulation system. By this method the aging process and its consequences by
high temperature and humid was determined.
I. T VN
Vt liu composite (VLC) l loi vt liu
mi ngy cng c ng dng rng ri
trong cc ngnh khoa hc k thut v cng
nghip tin tin trn th gii: hng khng v
tr; ng tu; k thut in; t c kh; du
kh; xy dng dn dng v trong i sng
nh kt hp c cc c tnh c hc v vt
l hc m bnh thng khng th c c
vi mt vt liu n. Trong ngnh in
VLC ny c s dng rng ri lm cch
in cao p nh: cch in xuyn trong trm
bin p v cch in ng dy, cch in
trong my bin p, vch ngn trong cc trm
phn phi kiu GIS (Gas Insulated
Substation), cch in stator ca my in
quay [4]. Tuy nhin, do c tnh composit
vng tip gip [1; 4] gia cc thnh phn
lun l vng xung yu do lin kt ho hc
v kt cu vt l vng ny khng n nh
bng lin kt trong bn thn tng thnh
phn. V vy, trong qu trnh vn hnh, iu
kin lm vic cc kt cu thng xuyn chu

tc ng khc nghit ca nhiu tc nhn


nh: in, c hc, ha hc, nhit , m,
thi tit v mi trng thay i lm cho cc
thnh phn ca vt liu b gi ho; c bit
l khi chu tc dng ca mi trng nh :
nhit v nc lm cho lin kt gia cc
thnh phn ti lp tip gip b suy yu. Khi
hp th mt vi phn trm khi lng nc,
cc c tnh in mi b suy gim mnh:
in tr sut gim, hng s in mi v tn
hao tng v c th dn ti hin tng phng
in chc thng (breakdown).
Hin nay hu ht cc thit b in c
cch in bng VLC c nhp t nc
ngoi, tuy nhin bn cht lo ha cch in
ca VLC vn cha c cp ti v cha
c nghin cu mt cch c th.
Phng th nghim trng im Quc gia
in cao p (HVLAB) s c s nghin cu
mnh v vt liu cch in v thit b in
cao p, vi nng lc ca mnh nhiu nghin
cu, th nghim, i tng th nghim s ln
u tin c thc hin Vit Nam, trong
1

c th nghim lo ha tng tc chn


on sm qu trnh gi ha ca cch in
composit.
Bi bo ny trnh by v qu trnh
nghin cu tp trung cng tc chun on
sm hin tng lo ha hay xc nh
ngng lo ha ca cc vt liu cch in
composit v s c s dng nc ta,
trong c VLC nn nha epoxy ct si
thy tinh, nhm ng dng ci thin trong
sn xut thit b in nc ta.
II. PHNG PHP NGHIN CU
- S dng phng php th nghim lo
ha tng tc (Accelerated Experiment)
xc nh cc c tnh in mi ca vt liu
cch in composite di tc ng tng hp
ca cc yu t. Cc phng php th nghim
vi cc thng s ph hp vi iu kin vn
hnh ti Vit Nam kim sot v nh
lng s xung cp ca vt liu. Nhiu
tham s nh hng n s khuch tn ca
nc s c xem xt nh: nhit , m
cao v dy. Cc c ch khuch tn ca
nc vo vt liu cch in composite cng
s c phn tch c th v chi tit thng
qua m hnh ton.
- S dng phng php ph in mi
trn min tn s (Frequence Spectroscopy
Dielectric Method-FSDM) xc nh cc
thng s in mi nhm nh gi s xung
cp ca vt liu cch in di tc ng ca
nhit v m cao. Xc nh c trng
kt qu lo ha do nhit - m cao v
nhn bit hu qu ca n i vi cch in.
nhy ca phng php ph in mi vi
cc tnh cht in v in mi i vi s lo
ho, cng nh kh nng trin khai nhanh
chng.

Mu vt liu nghin cu thuc h


composite epoxy c dy 0,5; 1; 1,5; 2;
2,5; 3 v 3,5mm, hnh trn =60mm. Tt c
cc mu th c lm kh trong t sy
nhit 110120C v di chn khng bc
mt 10-1 mBar trong thi gian by ngy.
Mc ch l xc nh trng lng tham
chiu cho mi mu trng thi hon ton
kh. Sau c ngm trong b nc ct
ti cc mc nhit khc nhau. Vi mo l
trng lng tham chiu ca mu th kh v
mi l trng lng mu th vo thi im i,
lng nc khuch tn vo trong mu th
nghim (tnh theo %) c tnh theo cng
thc sau:
M=

m m
i
o 100 (%)
m
o

Hnh 2 . Cc mu gia cng o c c ch


ca vic khuch tn nc.

Hnh 3. Hp b th nghim o c tnh in


mi ca vt liu.
2. Kt qu th nghim

Hnh 1. Nguyn l o ph in mi.


III. KT QU TH NGHIM
1. Chun b mu v thit b th nghim

Hnh 4. Kt qa phn tch mu th nghim


Cc kt qu ny s gip chng ta trong
vic xc nh hm lng nc trong VLC
theo thi gian ngm bng cc php o c
in mi v sau.
3. o c tnh in mi ca VLC
Tan
2.000
1.000
0.500

0.200
0.100
0.050

0.020
0.010
0.005

0.002
0.0010

0.0100

0.1000

1.0000

10.0000

100.0000

m=0%(kh)

m=0,08%

m=0,12%

m=2,1%(Bo ha)

m=0,15%

m=0,4%

m=0,67%

m=0,62%

1000.0000

f/Hz

Hnh 5. Tc ng ca hm lng nc (cho


ti khi bo ho) i vi tan
Kt qu cho thy vi m=0,62% ti 50Hz
tan tng ln ti 0,5%, (gp 2,5 ln trong
iu kin kh). Khi vt liu bo ha
m=2,1% tan tng mnh (>2%) tc l gp
10 ln trong iu kin kh.
a). Vi m = 0%

b). Vi m = 0,08%

Hnh 6. Tan theo tn s ti in trng


khc nhau vi mu th kh v mu 0,08%
Vi kt qu ny ta thy c tan bin
thin t theo in trng trong mu kh,
tan tng khi mu b m (m=0,08%) v
gim mnh theo tn s <50Hz cn cn
nhc k nhng ni m hiu ng khng ln
ca in trng ln tan.
IV. KT LUN.
1. c tnh cch in ca VLC b nh
hng mnh m bi s xm nhp ca nc,
khi hm lng nc ngm vo trong vt liu
tng t 00,35% in tr sut ca vt liu
gim rt mnh (t 1015.cm xung
1010.cm). c tnh ny c miu t rt c
th bi l thuyt thm thu trong knh
dn dng in c hnh thnh t cc nhm
phn t nc nm trong vt liu.
2. Khi hp th mt vi phn trm khi
lng nc, phm cht ca c tnh in
mi gim rt mnh ti tn s 50Hz ca in
trng cao khi hm lng nc cao (in
hnh khong 0,96%). Khi cch in b
nhim m, nc m ng li lm cho lin
kt gia cc thnh phn ti lp tip gip
(epoxy-si thy tinh) b suy yu dn n
kt dnh thp, phn lp bn trong ti vng
mt phn cch lm tng hin tng b mt
khi hp th nc. ng sut v in cao dn
n s khi u ca phng in cc b,
chuyn ng ca cc in tch c truyn
dc theo mt phn cch bn trong, cc c
tnh in mi ca vt liu b suy gim mnh:
in tr sut gim, hng s in mi v tn
hao tng v in trng phng in chc
thng c th gim theo in trng vn hnh
cui cng l phng in chc thng.

3. Vic h thng cch in ca thit b


in vn hnh nhit cao trong mt thi
gian di l nguyn nhn gy ra s mt lin
kt ca cc lp cch in ny. C hai qu
trnh gi ho c hc v nhit gy ra s
phn lp ny, v iu ny dn n s
hnh thnh nhng l trng trong cch in.
S phn lp l kt qu ca qu trnh cc cht
nh: khng kh, nc hoc cc phn t khi
lng nh thm nhp vo trong vt liu cch
in trong qu trnh lu ho. S gn kt gia
epoxy v si thy tinh s tt hn khi mt
phn lp trong vt liu gim i.
4. Qu trnh gi ho do nhit , m
v in trng ln cch in composite
epoxy/thy tinh s to nn s phn tch
trong vt liu, t hnh thnh v pht trin
cc l trng trong vt liu, cc l trng mi
hnh thnh ny s kt hp vi cc l trng
tn ti trong vt liu hnh thnh nn cc
ng nt ln v gy nn qu trnh lo ho
v suy gim cch in trong VLC.
V. LI CM N
hon thnh ti ny nhm nghin
cu gi li cm n ti PGS.TS. Trn Vn
Tp, PGS.TS. Nguyn nh Thng, TS.
Phm Hng Thnh b mn H thng in Trng i hc Bch khoa H Ni, GS.TS.

Bi Chng v cc chuyn vinTrung tm


nghin cu vt liu Polyme-Trng i hc
Bch khoa H Ni; TS. Nguyn c Hong
Cc ng dng v pht trin cng ngh-B
Khoa hc v Cng ngh.
Nhm nghin cu rt mong nhn c
s b sung, gp hon thin ni dung t cc
chuyn gia, bn b ng nghip nhm nng
cao tnh kh dng ca ti ny.
TI LIU THAM KHO
1. Nguyn nh Thng; Vt liu k thut
in; NXB Khoa hc K thut, 2004.
2. Phm Vn Bnh v L Vn Doanh; My
bin p l thuyt vn hnh, bo dng, th
nghim; NXB Khoa hc v K thut, 2002.
3. G.Beer, G.Gasparani, F.Osimo, and
F.Ross; Experimental Data on the Dryingout of Insulation Samples and Test Coil for
Transformers; CIGRE Paper No.135,1996.
4. T. Pham Hong; These de Doctorat; UJF
2005.
5. Crank J.; The mathematics of diffusion;
Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1975
6. Springer S. G. ; Environmetal Effects on
Composite
Materials ;
Technomic
Publication, 1981.