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Nicholas Henlon

January 20, 2015


Period 4A
Forensic Science
1. Why is it necessary for the trachea to have rings of cartilage in its walls?
This helps in maintaining the structure of the trachea so that it will not collapse.
2. What is the purpose of the hormone thyroxine, which is produced by the
thyroid gland?
This hormone maintains iodine balance within the body and is also used to maintain
metabolism within the body.
3. Why do the lungs have a large number of blood vessels?
This allows the oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange to occur more rapidly in the
lungs after the blood is pumped out of the right ventricle of the heart.
4. Explain what must happen for the lungs to expand, allowing you to inhale.
The diaphragm must contract in order for the lungs to expand.
5. Why is it necessary to close the opening of a puncture wound in the chest?
This is important to ensure that blood can still get oxygenated and to minimize
bleeding.
6. What is the purpose of the pericardial sac that surrounds the heart in
mammals?
This is used to minimize friction when the heart contracts and to minimize damage
as a result of this.
7. Why do arteries have an interior ring of smooth muscle?
This is to help propel blood to the rest of the body since the heart is the major
pressure system for the body in the cardiovascular system.
8. Which arteries sometimes become blocked in a human and are then
bypassed by using veins from the patient's legs?
Cardiac arteries are sometimes blocked in a human.
Cardiac arteries
9. What are the two major veins of the pig's heart that return deoxygenated
blood from the body?
The two major veins are the anterior and superior vena cava.

Nicholas Henlon
January 20, 2015
Period 4A
Forensic Science
10.Why is pulmonary circulation bypassed in the unborn fetal pig, and how is it
bypassed?
It is bypassed because the pig is unable to breathe on its own since its lungs are
immature. The umbilical artery supplies the pig with blood.
11.What are the main functions of the liver in mammals?
It helps detoxify substances in the body. The liver also produces bile which aids in
the breakdown of lipids in the body.
12.What is the stomach muscle that controls the passage of food into the small
intestine?
The pyloric sphincter controls the passage of food into the small intestine
13.What is the purpose of the villi and microvilli of the small intestine?
They help the small intestine better absorb nutrients because increased surface
area increases the rate of absorption of material within cells.
14.What is the primary function of the large intestine?
The primary function of the large intestine is to absorb water from the chyme
produced in the digestive tract.
15.What is the purpose of rugae in the stomach lining, and what glands are
found between them?
The rugae allows the stomach to expand and contract and gastric glands are found
between them.
16.If a mammal drinks large amounts of saltwater, what will this do to its urinary
output?
It will increase urinary output because the excess salt in the salt water will increase
the solute concentration of salt in the body creating a hypertonic solution for cells.
Water will leave the cells and this excess water will be excreted through the urinary
system.
17.Why is there an advantage for female pigs to have long uterine horns and a
small uterine body, whereas in humans the situation is reversed?
This allows the pigs to have multiple babies at once.
18.Why is it important for the testes in pigs and other mammals to completely
descend into the scrotum?

Nicholas Henlon
January 20, 2015
Period 4A
Forensic Science
It is important because sperm production requires an environment with a lower
temperature than the body.
19.Explain the function of the nephrons in the pig kidneys.
These help remove excess or toxic substances and waste from pigs.
20.What is the unique difference between female egg production and male
sperm production in mammals?
In female egg production, during meiosis polar bodies are produced during meiosis
1 and meiosis 2 to allow the ovum to have the maximum amount of cytoplasm and
material to allow for a viable egg. In mall sperm production, 4 sperm are generated
as a result of spermatogenesis. This allows for the increased chance of an egg
getting fertilized.