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1

1
, ,
( )

: 6 , 5
(economics)
(oikonomia) (oikos+nem )
(oikos) : (household)
(nem) : ,
:
( .)
1776
(Adam Smith, 17231790) (An Inquiry into the Nature
and Causes of the Wealth of Nations)
(goods) :
( : , , , , , )
(services) :

( : , , , ,
, )
(resources) : (factors
of production) (inputs) .
(land), (labor), (capital)
- 1 -

: ,
:
: , ,
:
()

(output)
(input)


()
() ()


- (free goods) :
( : , , , , , )
- (economic goods) :


- (consumer's goods) :
- (producer's goods=) :
(economic behavior) :

(economy) :

: ( : economic efficiency)

(economic principle)


( ) ( )

( ) ( )
() () (=)
- 2 -

: , ,
.
: (, , , )
(), (), ()

()

()
()
()
()

()
()

( ) :

-
.
()
.
(
) .
- , , , , , ,
.
.
.
(law of scarcity) :


( )
( )
, .
(production possibilities curve : PPC) :


()
- 3 -

:
:
: ,
100%
:

: ,

(opportunity cost) :
(F.V. Wieser)
( )



.
:
1 () (
)
(shadow price) :



3
- (= )
- P.A. Samuelson


, (what and how much to produce)? : /
(how to produce)? : /
(for whom to produce)? :
(when to produce)? ( )
- 4 -

[] 3

(scarcity)





2
(economic systems)
- ,
,
-
- 3 ()
(),
, ,
:
:


:

- 5 -

<> () ()







/
/




( )









()




/

:

:

.

.
,
.


.

.
- 6 -

1
1. (economics)



,
, ,

2.
(economic history)(economic theory)(economic policy)
- :
(= )
- :

- :

(positive economics) (normative economics)



- : (, , )
( : . .)
- :
( , )
( : .)
,
.

- 7 -

(microeconomics) (macroeconomics) :

- : (, )
( , , , )
- :
(, , , , , , , )


(partial equilibrium) (general equilibrium)
- :
( )
- :

(static economics) (dynamic economics)
- :
( : , , , )
- :
( : , , )
(comparative statics) : ,
( : )
(mathematical economics) (econometrics)
- :
- :

2
1.
1) :

.

- 8 -

2) 3 :

, () ,
(assumption) :
(, )
(hypothesis) :
(= =)
(test) :




( )
( )


.
2. :
1)
2) (post hoc fallacy) : post hoc

( : ,
. : )
3) (fallacy of composition) :
,

( : , )

- 9 -

3. :
1)


)
, .
2)

) .
D x= f ( P x), PD x <0
x

3)

P1
P2
0

Q1

Q2

- 10 -

1
1. ?
1
() 1
2.
- ( ) (invisible hand)


3.
: 1
:
: ( )
: ( )
:
:
2 (demand)
1. :
-
-

-
(demand) (quantity demand)
(desire) (need) .
(willingness) (ability)
.
- 11 -

(flow)
(maximum quantity desired)
(demand price) : ()

<> (stock) (flow)

(stock)
, , , , ,
(flow) , , , , , , ,
2.
(individual demand) , (market demand)

(individual demand) :
(market demand) : (horizontal summation)

3.
(demand schedule) :
.
<>

A
B
C
D
E

()
15,000
10,000
7,000
5,000
4,000

()
1
2
3
4
5

(demand curve) :

- 12 -

[]

A
15,000
B

10,000
7,000
5,000
4,000
0

C
3

<>

()
A
15,000
B
10,000
C
7,000
D
5,000
E
4,000

E
5

()
A B
1
0
2
1
3
2
4
3
5
4

()
1
3
5
7
9

[]

15,000
10,000
7,000
5,000
4,000

B A

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
, ()

- 13 -


,
(-) .
(law of
demand).
(-) .
( )
(law of demand)
:

(income effect) :

(real income) -
(substitution effect) :


. ,
.
.
(-)

3. ( )

( : Giffen's goods)
(=, =)
(, )





- 14 -

, TV, .
(J.K. Galbraith) (dependent effect)

(demand function) .
D x = f ( P x, I, P 1 , P 2 , , T, t, F, W, A , )

, .

D x= f( P x) , (ceteris paribus = the otherthings


D x X , f , P x X

being equal)

4.
1) :


D x = f( P x)

P1

P2

Q1 Q2

2) :
(, ,
, , , , )

- 15 -

D x = f ( I, P 1 , P 2 , , T, t, F, W, A , )

D2

D1

D3

0 Q2 Q1 Q3


1. (inferior goods) :
2. (normal goods) :
( : /, /, / )
. .

1. (substitute goods) :

.
( : / , / , / )
(+/-) (+/-) .
2. (complementary goods) :


( : / , / , / )
(+/-) (-/+) .
3 (supply)
1. :
-
-

-
(supply) (quantity supply)
- 16 -

.
(willingness) (ability)
.
(flow)
(maximum quantity desired)
(supply price) :

2.
(individual supply) , (market supply)

(individual supply) :
(market supply) : (horizontal summation)

3.
(supply schedule) :
.
<>

A
B
C
D
E

()
15,000
10,000
7,000
5,000
4,000

()
5
4
3
2
1

(supply curve) :

- 17 -

[]

15,000
10,000
7,000
5,000
4,000

0
1 2 3
<>

()
A
15,000
B
10,000
C
7,000
D
5,000
E
4,000

()
A B
5
4
4
3
3
2
2
1
1
0

()
9
7
5
3
1

[]

B A
15,000
10,000
7,000
5,000
4,000
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
, ()

- 18 -


,
(+) .
(law of
supply) .
(+) .

(law of supply)
:
(profit)
3. ( )










(supply function) .

S x = g( P x, T, P 1 , P 2 , , t, f, C, G, F )

, .

S x= g( P x) , (ceteris paribus = the otherthings


S x X , g , P x X

- 19 -

being equal)

4.
1) :


S x = g( P x )

P2

P1
0
Q1 Q2
2. :
( ,
, , , , ,
)

S x = g( T, P 1 , P 2 , , t, f, C, G, F )

S2 S1 S3

P
0

Q Q Q
2

- 20 -

4
1.
?
- ,
(market mechanism)
- ,

,

(market mechanism or price mechanism) :
-
-
(A. Smith) (invisible hand)
[]

P1
PE
P2

E()

QD1 QS2 Q QS1 QD2


E


(equilibrium price), (equilibrium quantity)
0

(law of demand and supply) :



(excess demand) :

- 21 -

.
(excess supply) :

.
() () .
() () .
.
0
-
(seller's market) .
-
(buyer's market) .
(equilibrium) ,
equi() libra()


(Alfred Marshall)

, .

<
= 0
)

<
= 0
)
- 22 -

2. ( )
1)

P1
PE
P2

E2

E1

Q2 Q Q1
0
E
2)

2
E1
P1
E E2
PE
P2

Q1
Q2 Q

0
E
3. 4
()
()
()
()
. ()
().
.

- 23 -

5.
1)
- ( )
- /
<
[]

0
2)
- ()
- /
>
[]

3)
- ()
- () = ()
- 24 -

=
[]



(M.J. Eziekel) (cob-web theorem) .

- 25 -

,
,



(elasticity)
() () .

Y = f ( X ) Y , X .

1 (elasticity of demand)
1. (price elasticity of demand)


E d ( )=
Ed =

Q
P
P

(%)
(%)

Q
P

QP


.
(%)
.
(-) .
- ( , )
- (-) ,
-

- 26 -

2.
(arc elasticity) (point
elasticity)
1) : (; )

.
,
.
, .


Ed =

( Q 1+ Q 2)
2
P

( P 1+ P 2)
2

Q
P

( P 1+ P 2)
( Q 1+ Q 2)

[]

P1

P2

Q1

b
Q2

2) : (; d)


- 27 -

Ed =

lim

P0

Q
P

Q
P
P

dQ P
dP Q

P 0

dQ
dP

[]

(A)

Ed =

dQ
Q
dP
P

M
T
0
[] (A) ,
MT
dQ
dP ( ) = - AM
P () = AM
Q () = OM
A

(B)

D
T

P dQ
AM MT
MT
Q dP = OM AM = OM

A
( COT CBA, AMT )

MT = BO = AT
OM CB CA

[] (B) , A
A AT
CA .
BO AT
(B) A MT
OM = CB = CA
- 28 -

3. : 0 ()
1) (perfectly inelastic) : E d = 0

2) (inelastic) : E d 1

3) (unitary inelastic) : E d = 1

4) (elastic) : E d 1

5) (perfectly elastic) : E d =

[]

B Ed =
Ed 1
P1

AE d = 1

Ed

Q
1

1
Ed = 0

[]
(A) -
(B) -
(C) -
(rectangular hyperbola) :
( ; PQ) .

- 29 -


P2
P1

(A)

Ed = 0

0
Q2 Q
1
4.

(B) E d =
(C) E d = 1

1) :
()
- .
.
- .
.
( : / , , )
2) ( ) :

- .
( : , , )
- .
( : , , , )
3) :
, .
- .
( : , , , )
- .
( : )
4) :
- ,
.
- 30 -

( : , )
-
.
( : , )
5.
1) :

Ey =
Ey =

(%)
(%)
Q

Q = Q Y =
Q Y
Y





Q
Y

YQ

-
(+) .
: (+)
: (-)
- (+, -) .
: + , .
(, ) : , - .
.
( : , )
2) :

(%)
E xy = XY
(%)
Qx
E xy = QPx = QQ x PPy =
y
x
y
Py

- 31 -

Qx Py
Py
Qx

- (+, -) .
: (+) ( : / )
: (-) ( : / )
: 0 ( : / )
2
,
,



(elasticity)
() () .

Y = f( X ) Y , X .

1. (price elasticity of supply)


-

E s (
Es=

Q =
P

Q
P

(%)
(%)

QP

(+) .
- ( , )
2.
- (arc elasticity)
(point elasticity)
- 32 -

1) : (; )

Q

Q =
P

Es=

Q
P

QP

2) : (; d)

Q

Q = dQ P
E s = lim
dP Q
P0 P
P
QP P 0 dQ
dP

[]

B
A

[]
AM
dQ
dP ( ) = MC
P () = MC
Q () = OM
C

dQ
Q = dQ P = AM MC = AM
E s = dP
dP Q
MC OM
OM
P

- 33 -

1) [] AM OM
1 . C B .
dQ
Q = dQ P = AM MC = AM
E s = dP
dP Q
MC OM
OM
P

[]

>1

0 A
M

2) [] 1 .
dQ
Q = dQ P = AM MC = AM
E s = dP
dP Q
MC OM
OM
P

[] 1

<1

0
M

3) [] 1.

- 34 -

dQ
Q = dQ P = AM MC = AM
E s = dP
dP Q
MC OM
OM
P

=1

[]

(A) E s = 0
P0

(B)

Es=

0
Q

0
[] (=)

S2
S1
E2
E1
0

[] (),
, E 1 E 2 .

E 1 E 2

3. : 0 ()
- [] C B
1 .
- .
.
.
- 35 -

1) (perfectly inelastic) : E s = 0

( : , , )
2) (inelastic) : E s 1

3) (unitary inelastic) : E s = 1

4) (elastic) : E s 1

5) (perfectly elastic) : E s =

OP 0 , OP 0
4.
1) :
- .
- .
2) :
- .
- .
3) :
- .
( : )
- .
( : , )
4) :
-
( < ).
5.
-
( = )
(= ) = ; R = P Q
- .
- 36 -

[]

0
0
(=)

1) :
.
- >
- >

2) :
( = 1).
- .
3) :
.
- <
- <
() ()
<>


()

()
()

()
()

()

- 37 -


()
()
()
()
()
()

1
1. (consumer's surplus)
- (A. Marshall)
(consumer's surplus)

- ()

[]

P1
P2
A
PE
B

: A
: A+B
: B

S
E

:
- P E
:
( - P E)

D
0 Q1 Q2 QE

-

. (consumer's surplus)
- .
- .
0.
, .

2. (producer's surplus)
-

- 38 -

[]

PE
P2
P1

: C
: D
: C+D

S
E

:
P E -
:
(P E - )

D
0 Q1 Q2 QE

-

. (producer's surplus)
- .
- .
0.
, .
3. (social total surplus)
-
( = + )
[]

PE

A
C

S
E

: A+C
: A
: C

D
0 Q1 QE Q2

- :

- 39 -

2
1. (tax incidence) :
1)
:


- :
- :
- :
:

()
2)
- T ( ) T
( )
:
- (= )

S1

T S
PE+T

A
D
P
( )
E
PE
PS=PD-T
B
( )
D

Q1 QE

- 40 -

2.
-
() ()
() ()
- ,

3.
1) (=) :
- .
S'
P
D
S
P
PE
0

QE

2) (=) :
- .
P
S'
S
PE
D

P
Q1 QE
0
Q

- 41 -

3) ( < )
- >
P
P
PPE

Q1QE

S'
S

4) ( > )
- <
P
S' S
PPE
P

0
Q
Q1 QE
<>


Ed = Es

Ed > Es
,
E d = > E s
Ed < Es
,
E d < E s =

- 42 -

4. ( )
1) :
- = +

2) :
- = -

3) :
- (ABE )
- = +
- = +
- = +
- = +
P
S'
PE+T
T S

A
P
()
PE E

P
=P-T
B
()
D

0
Q1 QE
Q

- 43 -

4
(price control) :
,

1. (maximum price system = )
1) :
( )
2) :
3) : , ,
4) :
:
:
(black market)


5) - ,
6) :
P
S

PE

Q2

QE

Q1

2. (minimum price system = )


1) :
( )
2) : , ()
3) :
- 44 -

4) :
:
: ( )

5) :
P
S

PE
0

Q2

QE

Q1

3.
1) : ( ) ()

2) : ,
3) :
:

:

.


P
S

PE

QE

Q1

- 45 -

4. (= )
1) : , ,


2) :
(t) - (t) : D t = f( P t)
(t) - (t-1) : S t = g( P t - 1 )
P
S S'
PE

P1
0

E'
D

QE Q1

- 46 -

3
6

1
1. (utility)
.
.
-
- (cardinal utility) (ordinal utility)
2.
1) :
2) :

()

3.

()

()

-
- (C. Menger), (W.S. Jevons), (L. Walras)
(theory of marginal utility)
- (V. Pareto), (J.R. Hicks), (E. Slutsky), (R.G.D. Allen)
(theory of indifference curve)
- (P.A. Samuelson), (J.R. Hicks), (H.S. Houthakker)
(revealed preference theory)
- 47 -

. .
.
(G. Cassel) (J.A. Shumpeter)
, .
,

.
2
(theory of marginal utility; ; cardinal utility theory) :
-
-
- 1870
- (marginal revolution)
- : (C. Menger), (L. Walras),
(A. Marshall), (S. Jevons)
1.
.
.
-
- (cardinal utility) (ordinal utility)
1) (total utility : TU )
-
- .

(saturation point) ,
.
( )
( )

- 48 -

(utility function)
-

U = f( Q ); U , Q X

-
.
2) (average utility : AU )
- 1
( AU)

( TU)
( Q )

-
- .
3) (marginal utility : MU )
-

- ( U) ( Q)
MU x =

U
Q

Q U
. .
MU x = dU
dQ

- (Q) 1 (
)

- ,
,
.
, .
2.
- .

, 0 .
, (-) (=
- 49 -

=) .
- .
[]
(U )
MU = dU
AU = U
Q

dQ

MU , AU

(Q)

AU

(Q)

MU
- []
0 ,
(-) .
-
(law of diminishing marginal utility) (H. Gossen)
1 .


> 0 :
= 0 :
< 0 :

- 50 -

3.
1)
-
(MU ) ( )
MU x = MU y = MU z = ;
-
.
- 0
, .
-


(consumer's choice)




.
2) (utility maximization)
- X Y ,
U = f( X , Y),

X X , Y Y

- 1(1)

MU x = MU y
Px
Py
x
MU
P x X 1(1)
MU y
P y Y 1(1)

1(1)
.

- 51 -

MU y
x
- MU
P x > P y X 1 Y
1 .
X , Y .

MU y
x
- MU
P x < P y X 1 Y
1 .
X , Y .

(law of equi-marginal utility; 2) :


1
MU x > MU y
Px
Py

MU x = MU y
Px
Py

MU x < MU y
Px
Py

X , Y
Y , X
MU x , MU y MU x , MU y
MU
MU
MU
MU

x
y
P x = P y

x
y
P x = P y

()
.

.
PxX + PyY = I ; I , P xX X , P y Y Y
4.
1)
x
- MU
Px =
- X

P x

MU y
P y
MU x > MU y
Px
P y .

- 52 -

- X , Y
- X , X .
2)
MU y
MU x
x
- MU
P x = P y = I P x = I
- I = 1 MU x= P x , .
Q x() MU x() P x()
( Q x) ( P x) (-)
[]

0
5.

MU

1) (Smith's paradox = ; paradox of value)


:
,


: (=) , (=) .
: (=) , (=) .
() :

,

- 53 -



Q D P D ,
Q W P W
[]

G
F
PD C
PW
0 QD

E MU
W

MU D

QW

2)
(progressive
income taxes) ()
(=)
[]

MU
0

L L'

H' H

- 54 -

3)


() .

.
.

.


.
(marginal revolution) :


.

- 55 -

1
(indifference curve theory; ; ordinal utility theory) :
- (theory of marginal utility; ; cardinal utility theory)


- ,
(bundle of goods)
(ordinal utility)
- (=)
- 1900
- : (V. Pareto), (F. Edgeworth), (E. Slutsky),
(J.R. Hicks), (R.G.O. Allen)
1. (indifference curve)
1) :
-

[]
Y

Indifference curve
X

2)
. (-)
.
- 56 -

. ( MRS x, y)
.
[]
Y

D
G
B
E
F
A

[]
Y
C

I0
I1
0
X
2. (marginal rate of substitution : MRS)
B

1) :
- X 1
Y
- X Y

- X Y .
MU x
MRS x, y = - XY = MU
y

- 57 -

[]
Y
A
P
Y1
Y
Q
Y2
X

I0

0 X1 X2
B
X
- P Q ,
X X MU xX
Y Y MU y Y
MU xX = - MU y Y
MU x
- XY = MU
y
3)
X ( MRS)

X MU x
Y MU y
MU x = MRS
MU
x, y
y
[]
Y
A
B

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

I0

X
- 58 -

[]
(A)
Y
(500)
4

(B)

Y
()
2
1

2
0 1 2

(1,000)

3. (=; price line=budget line)

X
()

1)
- (I ) , X (P x) Y (P y) ,

- X Y
( )
-
P xX + P y Y = I ( I )
Y = PI - PP x X
y
y
[]
Y
I
Py

= - PP x
y

- 59 -

2)
- .


- ( ) ,
( )
( ( PP yx ) )
Y

0
X

-

- ( PP yx )


,
(A) X
(B) Y
Y
Y
Y
Y

X X

X
- 60 -


- .
2
1.
-

PP yx = MRS x, y .
P xX + P y Y = I .
- (tangency)
MRS x, y ( ) = PP yx ( )
MRS x, y = -

Y
X

MU x
= MU

MU x = MU y (
Px
P y

[]
Y

I0

I1

I2
( =- Px
Py )
X

- 61 -

2.
1)
-


(income consumption curve : ICC) .
-
(income effect)
- 0 0
- .
(X, Y) : X, Y (normal goods)
(+)
X , Y : X (-) , Y
(+)
X (inferior goods), Y (normal goods)
(-)
X , Y : X (+) , Y
(-)
X (normal goods), Y (inferior goods)
(-)
[]
Y
Y2
Y1
Y0

E1
E0
0

(ICC)
E2

X0 X1 X2

I0

I1

I2
X

- 62 -

[]
(A) X
Y
ICC
Y1

E1
E0

Y0

I1

(B) Y

Y 0 E0
Y1
0 X0

I0 E1
X1

I1 ICC
I0
X
0 X1X0
X
(Engel curve)?


[]
Y
Y2
Y1
Y0
(I)

E1
E0
0

(ICC)

E2

X0 X1 X2

I0

I1

I2
X

I2
I1
I0
0

X0 X1 X2

- 63 -


1 :
1 :
1 :
0 () :
[]
0

1
1
1

0
X
2)
- ,


,
(price consumption curve : PCC) .
- , X X
(price effect)
[]
Y
(PCC)
Y2
Y1
Y0

E0
0

E2

E1

I0

X0 X1 X2

I2

I1

X
- 64 -

(demand curve)?


[]
Y
(PCC)
Y2
Y1
Y0

E0
0

E2

E1

I0

I2

I1

X0 X1 X2

P2
P1
P0
0 X0 X1 X2
3.

(price effect)
(substitution effect)



=
E 0 E 1
E 0 E 2
()

- 65 -

(income effect)


+
E 1 E 2

1)
PP yx ( ) X
P x()
() X
[]
Y
A0
C

E0
E1

E2

I0

0 X0 X2 B0

X1 D

I1
B1 X

2)
PP yx ( ) X
P x()
() X
[]
Y
A0
E1
C E0
I1
E2

I0

0 X0 X1 X2B
D
0

B1 X

- 66 -

3)
PP yx ( ) X
P x()
() X
[]
Y
A 0 E1
I1
C
E0
E2
0 X1 X0 X2B
D
0

I0

B1 X

3
1. : (Marshall)

() .
(Giffen's goods)
2.



(Hicks) (Slutsky)
()
()
3.
:
:
- 67 -

[]
Y
a
c d
0 X0

P0
P1

X2 X3 X1

a'
c' d'
0 X0

b'
S D
D
H
D

X2 X3 X1

I1

a =b
a =b
a =b

I0 I2


> >

- 68 -

1. (theory of revealed preference) :


- ,
(revealed; , )
-

- : (P.A. Samuelson), (J.R. Hicks), (H.S. Houthakker)
2. :
1) (directly revealed preference)
- Q 1 Q 2 Q 1 Q 1 Q 2
.
- Q 1
Q 1
2) (directly revealed preference)
- Q 1 Q 2 (), Q 2 Q 3 () Q 1
Q 3 .
-
-
[]
(A)
Y

(B)

Q1=(X1, Y1)
Q2=(X2, Y2)

Q1=(X1, Y1)
Q2=(X2, Y2)

0
- 69 -

Q3=(X3, Y3)

3. :
1) (weak axiom)
- , .
= = (J.R. Hicks)
A B A A B
A B (AB BA).
2) (strong axiom)
- .

A, B, C A B , B C A
C (AB BC AC).
-
[]
Y
C
A
F

AB E
CD
CD
FG
FE
EG

E
B G

[]
Y
C
A

G
E

I
B

X
AB E
CD
CD
CG X
GI X, Y
ID Y

J
D

X
- 70 -

4.
-
.
- .
- ( ) .
[]
Y
A
D
A'
E0

Y0

E1

E2

X0 X1 B X2

P0
P1
P2

B'

E0 :
AB :
AB' : X
E0E1 :
E1E2 :


C X DC

X0 X1 X2

- 71 -

1.
-


-
- (H. Leibenstein)
2.
1) (bandwagon effect : )


( : , , )

[]

DL( )
E1

P1
P2

E2
0

Q Q
1

E3

(bandwagon demand curve)


DS( )
Q

2) (snob effect : )



( )

- 72 -

[]

E1
P1

(snob demand curve)


E2
P2
E3
DS( )
DL( )
Q
0 Q Q
1
3en effect) : 2
3) (vebl




(T. Veblen)

[]

(Veblen demand curve)


P2 E2
E3
E1
P1
DPH( )
DPL( )
QQ
0 Q

1 3

- 73 -

1
1.
(cash transfer)
, (in-kind transfer),
(price subsidy) .
1)
:
- ( AB CD)
-
- ( E 1 E 2 )
- ( I 1 I 2 )
:
- (X) ( AE 3 )
( AB AE 3D)
-
- ( E 1 E 3 )
- ( I 1 I 3 )
[]
Y
C
E2
I2
A
E
3
I3
E1
I1
0 X1 X2
D X
B
() .
- 74 -

2)
:
- ( AB CD)
-
- ( E 1 E 3 )
- ( I 1 I 2 )
- : AC = FG
:
- (X) ( )
( AB AB' )
- =
- ( E 1 E 2 )
- ( I 1 I 2 )
- : Y 2Y 3 = E 2 G
[]
Y
C
E3
A
Y E1
E2
1Y
F
2
I2
Y
I1
G
B' X
3 0 X1 X3 X2 B D
2.
.
. (
: , , , )
.

- 75 -

:
- ( AB FG)
-
- ( E 1 E 2 )
- ( I 1 I 2 )
- : JH = AF
:
- ( X ) ( )
( AB AB' )
- =
- ( E 1 E 3 )
- ( I 1 I 3 )
- : JH= DE 3
[]

C
A
D
J
F
E1
H
E3 E2
I1
I2I3
0 X1 B' G
B X
3.
-
.
- (J.R. Hicks) (Value and Capital)
()
(consumer's surplus) :

- 76 -

: E 1
- X X 1 AY 1
- A
- E 2 AY 2 X X 1 ( )
OA
AY 2 X X 1

( AY 2 ) - ( AY 1 ) = Y 1Y 2
[]

A
F
E1
Y
1Y
E2
2

X1

I1
I2
B X

- 77 -

4
8

1
:

(N )

(K)
Q=f(N ) :
(Q)

Q=f(N , K) :

1.
:
: ,
2.
1)
:

- (=; L), (N )
- (K)
(production function) :

Q = f ( L, N, K, M)
X , L

, N , K , M

- 78 -

:
(flow)
(maximum quantity)
()
2)

(short-run) :

(fixed factors)
( : , )
() (variable factors)
( : , )
(short-run) :

.
2
1.

(=)

Q = f ( N, K) ;

Q , N , K

, .

(total product : TP )
- .
.
- (+) ,
(-) .

- 79 -

[] (total product curve : TPC)

MP = dQ
dN

AP N = QN

TP

N1 N2

N3

2.
(average product : AP ) :

1
AP N = TP
N


(marginal product : MP ) :
1
MP N =

TP
N


[]
MP N, AP N

N1 N2

N3
MP N

AP N

- 80 -

3. , ,
:
MP N > 0 TP N
MP N = 0 TP N
MP N < 0 TP N
:
MP N > AP N AP N
MP N = AP N AP N
MP N < AP N AP N
MP N AP N
MP N AP N , .
(law of increasing marginal product) =



dMP N > 0
dN

(law of diminishing marginal product) =





dMP N < 0
dN

,
.
4. 3
() ()
3
- 81 -

[] 3
MP N, AP N
2 3

N
1

N
2

AP N
MP N

1) 1( AP N ) :

AP N MP N
.
2) 2( AP N MP N 0 ) :
( > 0, > 0)
3) 3 ( MP N < 0 ) :

TP N .
3
:

Q = f( N, K) ;

Q , N, K

1. (isoquant curve) = (equal product curve)


:

- 82 -

[]

Isoquant curve

0
:
.
.
. ( MRTS N, K)
.
[]


D
G
B
E
F
A

:
.
.
2. (marginal rate of technical substitution of N in terms of K)
1


1
- 83 -


K N

MRTS N, K = -

K
N

[]

A
C
K1
K
D
K2
N

B
0 N1 N2

:
( )
.
N MP N = - K MP K
N N MP N
K K MP K
MRTS N, K = -

MP

K
N

= MP L
K

[]

A
B

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

- 84 -

[]
(A)

(B)

2
1

0 1 2
0 1 2

:
( KN )

[]

A ()
B ()
0

4 (returns to scale)

1.

.
Q = f ( N, K)

- 85 -

1) (increasing returns to scale) :


t
t
t kQ = f ( tN, tK)
k>1 . (economies of scale)
: ,
[]

3
2
1
0

1 2 3

Q3=60
Q2=30
Q1=10

2) (constant returns to scale) :


t
t
t kQ = f ( tN, tK)
k=1 .
[]

3
2
1
0

1 2 3

Q3=30
Q2=20
Q1=10

- 86 -

3) (diminishing returns to scale) :


t
t
t kQ = f ( tN, tK)
k<1 . (diseconomies of scale)
: ,
[]

3
2
1
0

1 2 3

Q3=18
Q2=15
Q1=10

Cobb-Douglas : Q = AN K
+ > 1 :
+ = 1 :
+ < 1 :

2.

,

- 87 -

[]

K
N2

0 N1

Q3=30
Q2=20
Q1=10
N3

5 (technological progress)



[]

K1
K2
0

E
G

N2

N
1

Q1( )
Q1( )

- 88 -

10

1
1.
1) (opportunity cost) :

( )

2) (real cost) :

2.
1) (=; explicit cost) :

( : , , (depreciation) )
2) (= + + )
()
(implicit cost= , )
-
(normal profit)
-

3.
1) (fixed cost) :

( : , , , , )
2) (variable cost)

( : , , )

- 89 -

4.
1) (private cost) :

2) (social cost)

2
1. (total cost : TC)
-
- (fixed cost) (variable cost)
1) (total fixed cost : TFC) :
-
-


.
( : , , )
2) (total variable cost : TVC) :
-
- , .
.
[] , ,

(TC)
(TVC)

(TFC)

- 90 -

3) (total cost : TC) :


-
TC = TFC + TVC

-
, 0
2. (average cost : AC)
-
TFC + TVC
AC = TC
Q AC (= AFC + AVC ) =
Q
- (average fixed cost : AFC) (average variable
cost : AVC)
1) (average fixed cost : AFC) :
-
AFC = TFC
Q

-
.
,
0 0
. .
[]
(A)

P
0

Q1

S
Q2

R
Q3

(B)

P'
TFC

S'
R'
0

- 91 -

Q1

Q2

AFC

Q3

2) (average variable cost : AVC) :


-
AVC = TVC
Q

-
.
, U
TVC AVC .
[]
(A)

TVC
T
P

(B)
AVC

0 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 0 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
3) (average cost : AC) :
-
-
- ( AC) = ( AFC) + ( AVC)
- AC AFC AVC
- AC AFC AVC
- AC AFC .
AC AVC AFC
TFC
TVC
AC = TC
Q = Q + Q
AFC + AVC

- 92 -

[]
(A)

TC

(B)
AC

0 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 0 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
[]

TC
TVC

3. (marginal cost : MC)


- 1
MC =

TC
Q

TVC
Q

TFC
Q

TFC

= 0 .

1
-
.
, U
-
( ),
( ).

- 93 -

[]
(A)

TC
R
P

(B)

MC

0 Q1 Q2
4.

Q3

Q1

Q2

Q3

[]

AC
MC
AVC

AFC

AC, AVC , MC U , AFC


AC MC < AC, AC MC > AC
AC MC = AC
MC AC
MC AVC
AC AVC ,
AC (optimum rate of output)

.
- 94 -

3
- ,
-
1.
1) (isocost) :
-
- (cost equation)
TC = Kr + Nw ; TC , r , w ,
w
K = TC
r - r N
: - wr ( )


[]

TC 1
r

TC 1

TC 0
r

TC 0

=-

TC 0
w

TC 1
w

w
r

2)
:
(minimizing cost subject to a given output)
(maximizing output for given cost)

- 95 -

[]

A
E

K0

B Q

0
N0
[]

A
E
Q1
B Q0

3)

.
[]

E
Q0
0

- 96 -


MP N
MRTS N, K =- K
N = MP K

(
MRTS N, K = - KN

PN
PK )

MP N = P N
= MP
PK
K

MP K = MP N :
PK
P N

(expansion path : = scale line = ) :


.

[]

(EP )
E0

E1

E2
Q2
Q1
Q0

4)
-
-


- 97 -

[]
(A)

(B)
LTC

(EP )

TC 2
r
TC 1
r
TC 0
r

E0

E1

E2

E2

TC 2

Q2
Q1
Q0

TC 1
TC 0

E0
0

E1

Q0 Q1

Q2



(envelopment line)
[]

STC2
LTC
TC
E2
STC1
STC0
TC
E1
TC
E0
0 Q0 Q1
Q2
2

1
0





2. (long-run average cost : LAC)
-
- 98 -

-

-
U ()
, U .
: ( )
: ( )
[]

STC2
LTC
TC
E2
STC1
STC0
TC
E1
TC
E0
Q2
0 Q0 Q1

LAC
SAC2
SAC0
SAC1
E2
E0
E1
2

0 Q0

Q1

Q2

3.
- ,
.
-
.
- 99 -


(optimum scale of plant) ,
.
( L ) :

L .
- :




[]

SAC1 SAC2

SAC3
LAC

Q1

4.
- .
-
.

- 100 -

[]

STC2
LTC
TC
E2
STC1
STC0
TC
E1
TC
E0
0 Q0 Q1
Q2

SMC0
SAC2 LMC
SMC1
E2
E0
E1
2

0 Q0

Q1

Q2

- 101 -

5
10

1
1.
1) :





:
2)

, ,
,
, ,

2.
1)
(perfectly competitive market)

2) : ,
(price taker)

- 102 -

()
() (entry) (exit)
((AR )=(LAC))

.
(law of one price)
2
1.
1) :

.
.
[]
(A)

D
S
E

P0
0

(B)

P0
0


-

(Q P )
(Q P )

- 103 -

2) :
(total revenue : TR)

TR = PQ
-

[]

TR = PQ

(average revenue : AR )

PQ
AR = TR
Q = Q =P
-

(marginal revenue : MR)
1
-
PQ
MR = TR
Q = Q = P
-

- 104 -

[]

AR = MR

2.


= - ( = TR - TC)
[]

TC TR

0 Q1

Q2

Q0 Q3

P0
0 Q1

Q2

MC AC

Q0 Q3

P = AR = MR

- 105 -

1) 1() :
(=) (=)
MR = MC

P = AR = MR
P = AR = MR = MC

2) 2() :

MR < MC

3.
1)
P > AVC :
P < AVC :
P = AVC : ( )
( AVC)
( MC)
2)
: ( AC )
: 1 ( AFC) ( AVC
)
[]

MC

P2
P1

P0
0

Q0 Q1 Q2

AC AVC
AR 2 = MR 2
AR 1 = MR 1
AR 0 = MR 0

- 106 -

4.
- (industry)
- ( MC)
1)
(P 1 P 2)

q2 , Q2

[]
(B)
(A)

MC

MC

P2
P1

P2
P1
0

q1 q2

Q2

Q1

[]
(B)
(A)

S MC 2
S

MC 1

P2

P2

P1

P1
0

q1 q2 q3

- 107 -

Q1 Q2

MC 1

Q3

2)
(P 1 P 2)

q2 , Q2
S, S


5. :
1) ()
-
- :

- :
2)
- ( MR) ( MC)
- :

- : ( AVC)
( MC)
[]
(A) ()

S
P*

q*

MC

P*

(B)

D = P = AR = MR

- 108 -

Q
*

3
1.
1) :
,

( P = LAC)
2) :
/



3) :


( LAC)
(law of cost)
SAC = SMC = LMC = LAC = P = MR = AR


.
[]
(A) ()

S1
E1
S*
P1
E*
P*
0

Q1

Q
*

(B)

P1

SMC 1SAC

LMC
SMC * SAC *

P*

e*
0

- 109 -

q1

q*

LAC

2.
-
- ,
.
- : (= )
1)
( D 1D 2 )
( S 1S 2 )
( E 2)
[]
(A) ()

S2

P2

E2

E1

P1

(B)
MC
AC

P2
P1

E1

D2

D1

q1 q2

Q1 Q2 Q3
0
0
[]
(A) ()

S1
S 2
P2
P2
E2
P1
P1 E1
0

Q1

Q2

(B)

MC 2 AC 2

E2
E1

AC 1

MC 1

D2
D1

- 110 -

q1

2)
( D 1D 2 )
( S 1S 2 )
( E 2 )
3)
( D 1D 2 )
( S 1S 2 )
( E 2 )
[]
(A) ()

S1
P1
P2

E1

S2

E2
D1

Q1
0
Q2
4

D2

(B)

MC 1 AC 1

P1
P2

AC 2

E1
E2
MC 2

q1 q2

- .
(marginal cost pricing) .
- ( P)=( MC) .
-
-

-
- .
- .

- 111 -

11

1
1.
- (monopoly market)
, .
-
2.



(=) .
(price setter), (price maker)
, .
,

,
.
2


:
: , , ,

: (coke), ,

: ,

:

- 112 -



3
1.
1) :


[]

MR

D=AR

2) :
(total revenue : TR )

TR = PQ
- .
(average revenue : AR)

PQ
AR = TR
Q = Q =P
-
(marginal revenue : MR)
1
-
- 113 -

MR =

TR
Q

P = a - bQ ( ),
TR = PQ
= ( a - bQ )Q
= aQ - bQ 2
MR = TR
Q
= a - 2bQ ( )

,
2 ()
[]
(A)

TR

(B)

D = AR

MR

- 114 -

2.

P = AR > MR = MC

[]
(A)

TC

TR

QM

(B)
MC

AC

D = AR

QM

MR


() : P > AC
: P = AC
: P < AC
3.
- ( MC)
- .
.
- 115 -

4
1.
()
.
.
( LAC)
( )
( LMC) ( MR)
P = AR > LAC = MR

[]

R
S

PM
P1
PC

LMC
SMC M
SAC M
SAC C

LAC
D = AR

QM Q0

QC

MR

2.




> ( P > MC) .
3.
1) :

- 116 -


: P = MC
: P > MC

2) :

=

P- MC

P- MC
P

P- P(1- E1 )
P- MC = P- MR =
d = 1
=
P
P
P
Ed
( MR = MC, MR = P(1- E1 ))
d

- =0
- () 0.
5
1) (price discrimination) :


: ,
2) :
() (=) .
.
.
.
3) :
1 ()


- 117 -

[] 1 ()

2 ()



[] 2 ()

P1
P2
P3

0 Q1 Q2 Q3
3 ( )

:

: ,

: ,
- 118 -

[] 3 ( )
(B)
(A)

P2
P1

D2

MR2
Q2

Q1

MR1

D1MC

6
1.




[]

A
B
C

PM
PC

F
E
G

S(=MC)
D

Q QC MR

M
- P C QC, P M
QM. ,
- ( P = MC),
0

- 119 -

( P > MC).
- A+B+F , A.
- C+G, B+C.
- A+B+C+F+G,
A+B+C.
( ) (Harberger's
triangle)' ,
2.
:
.
: R&D


.
3.

()

.
4.
X -(X-inefficiency)
(H. Leibenstein)


X-


.



.

- 120 -