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This is the presentation i gave to our profs titled "Block Shear Failure in Tension Members". Its also having 2 animated videos for proper understanding of the concepts but i am skeptical whether the videos will work or not after one downloads it. Good some accolades for the ppt. So hope u will enjoy !!!!!

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Failure in Tension

Members

P re p a re d B y : Guided By :

Prakash Agarwal Prof A J

Shah

Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of

Technology

Surat - 395007

Tension Members

Linear members in which axial forces act so

as to elongate the member.

Tension members carry loads most

efficiently, since the entire cross-section is

subjected to uniform stress.

Since axially loaded tension members are

subjected to uniform tensile stress, their

load deformation behaviour is similar to

the corresponding basic material stress

strain behaviour.

Tension Members ( Contd.)

Design Strength of Tension

Members

The strength of tension members is the

minimum of the

following three categories as stated below:

Fracture of the effective net section

Block shear rupture

Block Shear Failure

Mechanism

In block shear mode, the failure of the member

occurs along a path involving tension on one

plane and shear on a perpendicular plane

along the fasteners.

Block Shear Failure

Mechanism ( Contd.)

When a tensile load applied to a particular

connection is increased, the fracture strength

of the weaker plane approaches.

The load can be increased until the fracture

strength of the stronger plane is reached and

during this time, the weaker plane yields.

The total strength of the connection equals the

fracture strength of the stronger plane plus

the yield strength of the weaker plane.

Block Shear Failure

Mechanism ( Contd.)

IS 800: 2007 assumes that when one plane,

either tension or shear, reaches ultimate

strength the other plane develops full

yield.

reached when

rupture occurs along the net tension

plane and

full yield is developed along the gross

shear plane.

Design Strength due to Block

Shear

The block shear strength, Tdb of a connection

is taken as the smaller of,

OR

Tdb = 0.9 Avn fu / √3 γm1 + Atg fy / γm0

shear

along a line of transmitted force respectively, and

Atg and Atn = minimum gross and net area in

tension

the hole to the toe of the angle perpendicular to

the line

of force respectively.

Block Shear Failure

Geometry

Block Shear Rupture in a

Gusset Plate

AISC 2005 Specification for

Block Shear

The model used in AISC 2005a assumes that

block shear failure occurs by rupture

(fracture) on the shear area and rupture on

the tension area.

where Ubs = 1.0 when the tension stress is uniform

(angles,

gusset plates and most coped beams), and

Ubs= 0.5

when the tension stress is non-uniform.

Eurocode 3 Specification for

Block Tearing

In Eurocode 3 pr-EN 1993-1-8: 20xx, the design

value for block shear (termed “block tearing” in

the standard) for symmetric bolt groups, is

determined from the equation:

Veff,1,Rd = fu Ant / γM2 + (1 / √3) fy Anv / γM0

(under centric loading)

(under eccentric loading)

Study of Ling et al . ( 2006 )

Investigated block shear tear out (TO) failure in

gusset-plate welded connections in both very

high strength (VHS) tubes and structural steel

hollow sections (SSHS).

The existing design rules for TO failure from the

American, Canadian and European standards

were examined by comparing their predictions

with both test results from welded connections in

VHS tubes and previous tests on similar

connections to SSHS.

The results suggested that the existing design rules

were not adequate to predict the connection

strength. Therefore, five modifications to the

existing design rules were examined.

Study of Topkaya ( 2004 )

This study reported on the experimental testing of

11 welded gusset plate specimens which were

subjected to tension, and ultimately to block

shear failure.

Finite element analyses were conducted to predict

the failure loads of the specimens and the

respective load-carrying capacities of the shear

and tension planes.

He concluded that the tension plane in the welded

connection details could develop stresses in

excess of the ultimate tensile strength due to the

presence of stress triaxiality. Finally, design

recommendations were given based on the

experimental and numerical findings.

Study of Gupta and Gupta ( 2004 )

Their study examined the block shear capacity of

steel angles (single as well as double angles), for

bolt holes in one or more rows, and with

staggered and non-staggered holes.

The area as per their improved approach was

termed as effective block gross shear area and

was somewhat less than the block gross shear

area, as per current practice.

There was a considerable improvement in values of

professional factors when the concept of effective

block gross shear area was used in the

computations.

Study of Epstein and McGinnis

( 2000)

The goal of their study was to accurately model

structural tee specimens using the finite element

method in order to predict the failure mode.

The finite element models were accurate in

predicting failure mode, especially when

compared to the results of the physical tests, and

normalized failure load plots showed similar

shapes.

In terms of behavior, it was noted that an eccentric

tension member was subjected not only to an

axial force but also to a moment due to the

connection eccentricity.

Numerical Example

An ISMB 600 is connected to a column by web

cleats with a single row of bolts. The applied

reaction is 350 kN and there are four 20-mm-

diameter bolts through the web as shown in

the following figure.

Numerical Example ( Contd.)

Block shear strength using different codal provisions:

AISC 2005: 484.56 kN

Eurocode 3: 367.7 kN

Hence, the design block shear strength for different

codes arranged in increasing order is:

Eurocode 3 < IS 800:2007 < AISC 2005 (LRFD

value)

i.e. 367.7 kN < 466.32 kN < 484.56 kN

Thus, all the three standards give the design block shear

strength which is greater than the applied reaction of

350 kN.

Conclusion

Block shear failure - An important limit state

Inconsistencies in various design standards used

for calculating block shear strength.

Stress concentrations, connection geometries and

other factors that may contribute to yield or

rupture of the tension plane without affecting the

shear plane can also be expected to reduce block

shear load capacity.

Equations having high safety indices than the

traditional target for connections can result in

uneconomical connections.

References

Epstein, H.I. and McGinnis M.J., “Finite element modeling of

block shear in structural tees”, Computers and Structures,

vol. 77, pp. 571 – 582, 2000.

Eurocode 3 , prEN 1993-1-8: 20xx, “Design of steel

structures” (English version), European Committee for

Standardisation, Brussels, 26 Feb. 2002.

Gupta, M and Gupta, L.M., “An improved approach to compute

block shear capacity of steel angles”, Connections in Steel

Structures V – Amsterdam, pp. 347 – 354, 2004.

Institute for Steel Development & Growth, “Chapter 5 -

Design of Tension Members” version II, (http://www.steel-

insdag.org/new/pdfs/Chapter5.pdf Accessed Nov. 20, 2009).

IS 800:2007, “General Construction in Steel – Code of

Practice”, Third Revision, Bureau of Indian Standards, New

Delhi.

References ( Contd.)

Ling, T.W., Zhao, X.L., Al-Mahaidi, R. and Packer, J.A.,

“Investigation of block shear tearout failure in gusset-plate

welded connections in structural steel hollow sections and

very high strength tubes”, Engineering Structures, vol. 29,

pp. 469 – 482, 2007.

Segui, T. William, “Design of Steel Structures”, Cengage

Learning India Private Limited, New Delhi, 2009.

Subramanian, N., “Code of Practice on Steel Structures - A

Review of IS 800: 2007”, Civil Engineering & Construction

Review, pp. 114 – 134, August 2008

Subramanian, N., “Design of Steel Structures”, Oxford

University Press, New Delhi, 2008.

Topkaya, C., “Block shear failure of gusset plates with welded

connections”, Engineering Structures, vol. 29, pp. 11 – 20,

2004.

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