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;
,
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, ,
.

1.1 ,
,

: 2=8 []; U1=660 []; n1=600 [-1]; m1=3; f1=50 [];
- ; ;
; ;
- 2;
; F.

:
60 f 1

p n
1

60 50
5;
600

2p=10.
[1] 2 2=10 .1
h=160 [].
, .1:
h =160 [],
D1 =0,278 [].
d 1 d1=Kg* D1;
2=10 Kg=0,74-0,75 Kg=0,75; d1=0,2085[].
, :

d1 3.14 0.2085

0,06547
2p
10

[].

,
:
1=
.

K E P2

, =1/U1 .2;

2=10 D1=0.278 [] =0.95;


=0.85-0.9; =0,85;
P1=

0,95 8
0,85

=8,941 [].

,
[1]: D1=0,278 [],
2=10 , .3 1 = 30 10 3 [/]. ,
.4 D1=0,278 2=10
; =0,82 [].
1 ,
1 .
1
:
l1 =

P1
d 1 K K 01 A1 B
2
1

=1,1,

1= 2 n1
60

2 600
62,8
60

[c-1];

K01=0,91;

l1=8,941*103/0,20852*62,8*1,1*0,91*30*103*0,82=0,13299 [].
l1 : =l1/ =0.13299/0,06547=2,03,
2=10


l1.
, l1= l2.

:
=(0,25+d1)*10-3=(0,25+208,5)*10-3=208,75*10-3;

0,230 []. 10%


.

1.2

.
, t1. t1
, .5 .
=0,0654 [] t1 =8 [].
:
Z1=*d1/t1=3.14*209/8=82.
Z1 , ,
,
: q1=Z1/2p*m1=3 - . Z1=2p*m1*q1, q1=2-5;
q=3-4, q1=3; Z1=90. :
t1=*d1/Z1=3,14*209/90=7,29 [];
t1 0,71, 0.8 %.
:
un1= ;
un1=*d1*A1/I1*Z1;
P1
8,941 10 3

5,716
I1= m U
3 660 0,79
1 1 cos 1

[A].

cos .6 [1]:
P2 2=10 cos

=0,83.

: un1=3,14*0,209*30*103/5,716*90=38,27; un1=38.
1.3
:
m1*W1=3W1= un1*Z1/2=38*90/2=360;
. :
W1=m1*W1/m1- ;W1=570;

, : Wa=un1*Z1/2*m1=570;
Wa=W1= .
: 1= 2*I1* W1* m1/ *d1=2*5,716*570*3/3,14*0,209=30
[/]; 35 , 1 %.
:
=1/4,44*W1*K01*f1;
Ke=E1/U1=0,95; K01=0,91;
E1=U1*Ke=660*0,95=627[];
=627/4,44*570*0,91*50=0,0054 [];
01=1*1.
:
=/**l1;=0,64-0,7;
=0,7;
=0,0054/0,7*0,06547*0,13299=0,83[], .
1.4 ,

:S 1

I 1
j

[2]. [1]

Ai*ji; , .7,
A i ji

D1 2=10 Ai*ji=220*103 [A2/3]. j1= A , A1=30*103


1
[A/] ; j1=220/30=7,33 [A/2]; S1=5,716/7,33=0,78 [2]. [1]
.2 : S1=0,785[2]; d=1,0; du=1,08;
-155.
:
j1=I1/S1=5,716/0,785=7,281 [/2].
.

.
.

10

hn1 , hn1=hz1.

. .8
.
:
h1=(D1-d1)/2=(278-209)/2=34,5 [].
: 1=1,4-1,6 [],
1=1,5 [], 2013.
:
/2=1**l1*h1;

l1 h 1

;
=0,97 - ;
: h1= /2*1**l1=0,0054/2*1,5*0,95*0,13299=0,0142[]=14,2[].
:
hn1=hc1-h1=34,5-14,2=20,3 [];
:
B t1 l1 BZ 1 l1 bZ 1 K C ;

- B z1=1,7-1,9[], Bz1=1,8 [];


t1=8 [];
B t l

0.88 8

1
1
bz1 B l K 1.8 0.95 4 [].
Z1
1
C

:
b1=*(d1+2*h1)/Z1-bz1=3,14*(209+2*20,3)/90-4=9,11 [].
: b1=9,11 []; h1=20,3 []; bz1=4 []; hc1=34,5 []; h1=14,2
[]; h=2 []; b1=3,5 []; h+hk=3,5 [] - ;
h1=h1-(h+hk)=20,3-3,5=16,8[]; hk=1,5 []. b1
[1]: .3 h=160[] 2=10 b1=3,5[].
:
b2=*(d1+2*h+2hk)/Z1-bz1=3,14(209+2*2+2*1,5)/90-4=7,88 [];
b2=7,88 [].

11

,
:
1=2h1+b1+b2=2*16,8+9,11+7,88=50,59 [].
,
: S1=(b11+b12)*h1/2[]; b11,b12-
;
b11 b1 2

9,11 2 0,55 8

[];

b12 b2 2 7,88 2 0,55 6,78 [];


h11 h1 2

16,8 2 0,55 15,7

[];

S1=(8+6,78)*15,7/2=116,023 [2].
.9
.

=0,76;
=0,65.
, u1=38. n=76.
: d=1,0 []; - d=1,08 [].

S11=du2*n=1,082*2*38=88,64 [2].
:
=S11/S1=88,64/116,023=0,76.
:=S1/S1;
S1 d 2 n

12 2 38 76

[2]; =76/116,023=0,65.

1.5

:m2=Z2;
. : Z1=90 2=10
.4 Z2=110 .
Z2<=1,25Z1, :Z2=110.

12

:
D2=d1-2=209-2*208,75*10-3=208,58 [];
l2=l1=132,99[].
:
t2=D2/Z2=3,14*208,58/110=5,95 [];
d2

: d2=dB;

dB=KB*D1.
[1] .5 h=71-250 2=2-10 =0,23;
dB=0,23*0,278=0,06394 []=63,94 [].
:
hc2=(D2-dB)/2=(208,58-63,94)/2=72,32 [].

h2=( D2-2h2-dB)/2.
:
I2 K M

I 1 K i

[A];

K I1/I2;
[1] , .10; cos 1=0,79 =0,65;
:
i=m1*W1*K01/m2*W2*K02=3*570*0,91/110*0,5*1=28,3.
:
I2=0,65*5,716*28,3=105.145 [A].
02=1, m2=Z2=110, W2=1/2 .

( ).
: S2=I/j2[2];
j2=2,5-3,5[ /2]; j2= 3
[/2];
S2=105,145/3=35 [2].

13

1.6 ,
2 50 []
, ,
. .11
. : - h =0,7 [];
h1=0,3 []; h +h1=0,7+0,3=1 [].
h2 [1]: D 1 .12
h2=hz2 =42 [] 2=10. bz2
: bz2*Bz2*l2*Kc=B*l1*t2; bz2=B*l1*t2/Bz2*l2*Kc

- Bz2 =1,8 [] 2013


Bz2=1,8 []; bz2=0,83*5,95/1,8*0,95=2,88 [].
.12 : b=t 2bz2=5,95-2,88=3,07 [] D2.
b1 :
b1=[*(D2-2h+2h1)-Z2*bz2]/(+Z2)
b1=[3,14*(208,58-2*0,7+2*0,3)-110*2,88]/(3,14+110)=2,93 [];
b1=3 []- .
:
b2=[

(D2-2h2)-Z2*bz2]/(Z2-)=[3,14*(208,58-2*42)-110*2,88]/(110-3,14)=0,69

b2=0,7 [].
:
h1=(b1-b2)*Z2/2=(3-0,7)*110/2*3,14=40,3 []. h1=40 [].
:
2,5-3 [];
b2/2=0,35 []- ;
-b1/2=1,5 [].
.

14

1.7
.
:
S2=*(b12+b22)/8+(b1+b2)*h1/2=3,14*(32+0,72)/8+(3+0,7)*40/2=78 [2].
, :
j2=I2/S2=105,145/78=1,35 [/2];
:
S2=78 [2].
:
hz2=h2/bz2=*(D2-2h+2h1)/Z2-b1=3,14*(208,58-2*0,7+2*0,3)/110-3=6,06

[2];

bz2=6,06 [] Bz; b1
.
b2, :
bz2=*(D2-2h-2h1-2h1-b1)/Z2-b2
bz2=3,14*(208,58-2*0,7-2*0,3-2*40-4)/110-0,7=3,7[2].
.
,
Bz=1,8 [].
:
h2=h+h1+b1/2+h1+b2/2=0,7+0,3+3/2+40+0,7/2=42,85[];
, h2=42 [].
1.8

.
.
, . .13
.
.

15

: Sk=Ik/jk [2],
Ik ; Ik=I2/2sin(*p/Z2); sin(*p/Z2)=sin(180*10/110)=0,28;
Ik=105,145/2*0,28=187,75 [A]; jk=2,4 [/2];
Sk=187,75/2,4=78,23

[2].

.
: Sk=ak*bk; bk>1.2h2; bk=50 [],
ak=Sk/bk=78,23/50=1,56 []; Sk=ak*bk=78,23 [2].
2-3
, Z2:
n1=Z2/(2-3)=110/(2-3)=36,7-55; n1=50.

16

2.
2.1

.
,
1/2 .
, (
). .14
.
.
. :
,
. ,
.
, ,

.
: ;
; ;
.
:
( , ),
( ),
, ,
.

.

17

2.2
:
F=*2*=[]; ;
=208,75*10-3 []; - =K*;
=t1/(t1-j1*); 1=(b/)2/(5+b/);
b1=3.5 [];
1=(3,5/0,2)2/(5+3,5/0,2)=13,61;

=8/(8-7,281*208,75*10-3)=1,23;
1,23 * 208,75 *10 3 0,256 [];

=/ 0; 0=4* *10 7 =0,000001256 [A/];


F=*2* / 0=0,83*2*0,256*10-3/0,000001256=338,34 [A]
:
Bz1*bz1*l1*Kc=B*t1*l1;
Bz1=*t1*l1/bz1*l1*Kc=0,83*8/4*0,95=1,8[]; =0,0054 [].
:
Bz2=*t2*l2/bz2*l2*Kc=0,83*5,95/2,88*0,95=1,8 []; Bz2=1,8 [].
.
:
( );
1=/2h1*l1*Kc=0,0054/(2*14,2*132,99*0,95*10-6)=1,5 [].
:
2=/2h2*l2*Kc=0,0054/(2*30,32*132,99*0,95*10-6)=0,7 [];
h2=(D2-2h2-db)/2=(208,58-2*42-63,94)/2=30,32 [].
.
:
Fz1=Hz1*2hz1[]; hz1=h1 []; [1] .6

18

2013 z1=1,8 []
Hz1=1520 [/].
:
Fz1=1520*2*0,0203=61,7 [].
:
Fz2=Hz2*2hz2[]; hz2=h2=42 []; [1]
2013 z2=1,8 [] .6 Hz2=1520 [/]. :
Fz2=1520*2*0,042=127,68 [].
: z=1+
(Fz1+Fz2)/F=1+(61,37+127,68)/338,34=0,56;
z=0,56 1,2.
: F1=H1*l1[A] , l1 :
l11= (D1- h1)/2p=3,14*(278-14,2)/8=82,83 [];
l1=l11+h1= 82,83 + 14,2 = 97 [] [1] .7
2013 1=1,5 []
H1=520 [/]. : F1=520*0,097=50,4 [].
: F2=H2*l2[A] ,
l2- ;
l2=*(d+h2)/2p+2(h2)/2; h2=30,32 [];
2=0,7 []; d=d2=63,94 []; l2=3,14*(63,94+30,32)/8+30,32=67,31 [].
[1] 2013 2=0,7 []
H2=221 [/]. :
F2=100*0,0673=6,73 [].

: Fz1=61,7 [], Fz2=127,68 [], F1=50,4 [], F2=6,73 [], F=338,34 [].

.

19

2.3
.

:
F=61,7+127,68+50,4+6,73+338,34=584,85 [].
:
=0,0054

[].

,
I w1.

F/

F=338,34/584,85=0,578;
60 90%;
.
I

p F
5 584,85

2
0,9 m1 x 1 K 01 0,9 3 570 0,91

[A].

:
IM

I 1

5,716

0,35 .

0,2 0,35;
, , .
:
I01=I0=I=2 [].

20

3
3.1
,
,
, . ,

,
. .15
.

:
S .
, - .
: R1

p L1
S1

[],

=1/57*106 [*] [ 0];

- L1=l1*w1[]; l1-
; l1=2(l1 +l); l ;
l 1,4

1,4 65,47 91,65 [];

l1=2*(0,13299+0,09165)=0.449[];
L1=0,449*570=256[].
R1=256/(57*106*0,785*10-6)=5,68 [].

21

3.2
R
R .
:
R2=R+2R/[2sin(*p/z2)]2 []; R= c*l2/Sc[];
1/ c =30*106 [*]
115[0]; Sc=S2=78 [2]; S=78,23[2].

R=*Dkcp* c/z2*Sk=3,14*0,16658/30*106*110*78,23*10-6=2*10-6 [];
Dkcp=D2-h2=208,58-42=166,58 [];
2R/[2sin(*p/z2)]2=2*2*10-6/[2*sin(180*5/110)]2=49,4*10-6 [O].
R=0,13299/30*106*78*10-6=56,83*10-6 []. :
R2=56,83*10-6+49,4*10-6=106,23*10-6 [].
:
R21= R2*4m1(w1*K01)2/Z2[]; R21=R2*K;
K=m1(w1*K01)2/m2(w2*K02)2=m1(w1*K01)2/Z2(1/2*1)2=4*m1(w1*K01)2/Z2=
=4*3*(570*0,91)2/110=29350,87 []; R21=3,12 [].
3.3
:
X1=15.8*f/100*(w1/100)2*l1/p*q1*(a1+1+Xg1)[], q1-
; a- ,

( 1, 1, q1).

[1] .10 :
1=h1/3b2+(hk/6*b2 +3 hk/ (b2 +2b) + h/b); h1=40 []; b2 =0,7 []; hk=1,5 [];

b=1 [];
h=0,7[];
1=40/3*0,7+(1,5/6*0,7+3*1,5)/(0,7+2*1)+1,5/1=22,58.

22

: 1=(0,34* q1/ l1)*( l1-0,64* );


l1=132,99 []; =0,06547 []; 1=(0,34*3/132,99)*(132,990,64*0,06547)=1,02.
: q1=t1/12*K; t1=8 [];
=208,75*10-3 []; K=1,23; q1=8/12*208,75*10-3*1,23=2,6.
:
X1=15,8*50/100*(570/100)2*0,13299/5*3*(22,58+1,02+2,6)=0,086 [].
3.4

: X2=7,9*f1*l2*10-6*( 2+ 2+ g2)[], 2, 2,

q2

,
; l2=0,13299 []. [1] .12
: 2=h1/3b1*(1- b21/8 Sc)2+0.96; h1=40 [];
b1 =3 []; Sc=78 [2]; 2=40/3*3*(1-3,14*32/8*78)2+0,96=5.83
: 2 =2,3D/Z2 l2[2sin(*p/z2)]2*lg4.7D/(2k+);
D2 =D=208,58 []; Z2=110; l2=132,99 []; k=1,56 []; 2sin(*p/z2)=0,28;
2 =2,3*208,58/110*132,99*0,282*0,672*208,58/(2*1,56+50)=1,1.

: q2 =t2/12*K; t2=5,95 [];


=208,75*10-3 []; K=1.23; q2=5,95/12*208,75*10-3*1,23=2,37. :
X2=7,9*50*0,13299*10-6*(5,83+1,1+2,37)=0,488*10-3 [].
:
X21= X2*4*m1(w1*K01) 2/Z2=0,488*10-3*4*3*(570*0,91)2/110=14,32 []
3.5

:

X12

U 1 I M X 1
IM

660 2 0,086
330
2

[]

( .16 , X12=X0, I0=I, R12=R0).


R12 :
R12= Pc1/m1* I2 [], Pc1-
( ); R12=174,5/3*3302=0,0005 [], Pc1=174,5
[].
3.6


.
U1

I 1.

X1*=(I1*X1)/U1=(5,716*0,0186)/660=0,00074;
R1*=(I1*R1)/U1=(5,716*5,68)/660=0,0492;
X2*1=(I1*X21)/U1=(5,716*14,32)/660=0,124;
R2*1=(I1*R21)/U1=(5,716*3,12)/660=0,027;
X12*=(I1*X12)/U1=(5,716*330)/660=2,858;
R12*=(I1*R12)/U1=(5,716*0,0005)/660=0,0000043.
: X1*=0,00074;
R1*=0,0492; X2*1=0,124; R2*1=0,027; X12*=2,858; R12*=0,0005.

.
.

.
.

23
24

( ),

, ,
.

,
.
,
.
.
4.1

:
2
2
1 R1 m1 I 1 5,68 3 5,716 556,74 [].

:
2 R2 m2 I 2 [].
2

2 R2 m2 I 22 Z 2 I 22 R2 106,23 10 6 110 105,145 129,186 [].

Z2=m2; R2=0.12 [].


:
Ki

2 m1 1 K 01 2 3 570 0,91

28,29 ;
Z2
110

25

105,145

2
R21=0.12 []; I21 K 28,29 3,71 [A];
i

2 R2 m1 I 2 3,12 3 3,712 129,29 [].


2

4.2

: Pc1= P1/50*(f1/50)3*( K*B2*m +Kz*Bz2*mz)[], P1/50-
, /; K=1,6 Kz=1,8 -
; m z m-
, .
:
m1 K C V1 1 0,95 0,001164 7800 8,6 []; V1 S 1 l 1 -
;
S1=(*D12/4)-*(d1+2h1)2/4=(3,14*2782/4)-3,14*(209+2*20,3)2/4=0,012 [2];
V1=S1* l1=0,012*0,097=0,001164 [3]; B1=1,5 []; Bz1=1,8 [].
:
mz1=K*V1z* 1=0,95*0,0009*7800=6,66[];
V1z=Sz1*l1*z1=0,00008*0,13299*90=0,00009 [3];
Sz1=bz1*hz1=0,004*0,0203=0,00008 [2].
: Pc1=2,5*(50/50)1,5*(1,6*1,52*8,6+1,8*1,82*6,66)=174,5 [].
4.3

.
.
.

26

-
.

: 12= *Kc* 12[],

12

= f(/).

=0 , , /=0.

:
1/=16

= f(1/); 1=3,5 []. [1] .16

=0,47.

, (2)
: 2=0,5*K2*(Z1*n1/10000)1.5*(12*t1*103)2 [/2],
K2=1,4-1,8 ; K2=1,6;
12=*Kc*12=0,83*0,95*0,47=0,37 [];
2=0,5*1,6*(90*600/10000)1.5*(0,37*8)2=87,94 [/2].
:
2=2*z2*l2*Z2=87,94*2,8*10-3*132,99*10-3*110=3,6 [].

= 1+ 2=5,38 [], 1=0.


, 2=3,5 [], .17 2/=16

=0.47. :

1=0.5*K1*( Z2*n1/10000)1.5 *(12* t2*10-3)2 [/2], K1=1,4;


12=0,4 []; 1=0,5*1,4*(110*600/10000)1,5*(0,37*5,95)=37,3 [/2].
:
1=1*z1*l1*Z1=37,3*0,004*0,13299*90=1,785 [].

:
= 1+ 2=1,785+3,6=5,38 [].



: 1= *z1* /2*t1 []; 2= *z2* /2*t2 [].
, z1=1,8 [];
z2=1,8[]. :
1=(1/)2/(5+1/)=162/(5+16)=12,19;

2=(2/)2/(5+2/)=12,19.

27

:
1=12,19*1,8*208,75*10-3/2*8=0,286 [].
:
2=12,19*1,8*208,75*10-3/2*5,95=0,407 [].
:
1=0,11*(Z2*n1*1/1000)2*mz1=0,11*(110*600*0,286/1000)2*6,66=261,02 [].
:
2=0,11*(Z1*n1*2/1000)2*mz2=0,11*(90*600*0,407/1000)2*13,1=696,049 [].

:
mz2= K*V2z* 1=0,95*1,769*10-3*7800=13,1 [];
V2z=Sz2*l2*z2=120,96*10-6*0,13299*110=1,769*10-3 [3];
Sz2=bz2*hz2=2,88*47=120,96 [2].
: 2=696,049 [].
:
2+ 1=261,02+696,049=957,07 [].


:
2+ 1+ 2 + 1 = g=957,07+5,38=962,449 [].

: = 1+
g=174,5+962,449=1136,949 [].
4.4
.


.
: =*(n1/1000)2*(10*D2)3[ ].
D2=0,20858 [] 2=10 =6. :
=6*(600/1000)2*(10*0,20858)3=19,6 [ ].

28

4.5

: ,
,

. 0.5 %
1: g=0.005*1=0,005*8941=44,7 [].

:
g= g*(I1/I1)2=44,7[].
4.6 ,

:
=2/1=8/8,941=0,894;

2=8000 [];

.=1+2+1+1+2+1+2.+.+=
=556,74+129,29+174,5+5,38+957,07+19,6+44,7=1887,28();
=89,4 [ %].


I I :

I=

(I2+I2) [].

.
: (); (1)
(2+ 1+ 2 + 1);

29

, (
);
(.).

:
=m1*I2*R1=3*4*5,68=68,16 [ ].
:
(1++g+)=m1*I*U1;
I=(1++g+)/m1*U1
I=(174,5+19,6+962,449+556,74+129,29)/3*660=0,93 [].

:
I= I=2 [].
:
I=

(0,93 2 2 ) 2,2

[].

:
Cos = Ia/I=0,93/2,2=0,42.

30

5.

.
2 U1=const f1= const :
1; I1;
; n2; S;
Cos1; .
5.1
-
, . 17.
: S=0 1,4 S.
S=1 S
.

: 2=8 []; U1=660 []; 2=10; I1=5,716 [];


(1++g)=174,5+19,6+962,449=1156,54[]; 1=1+X1/X12=1+0.086/330=1;
g = 44,7 []; I=0,93 []; I=2 []= I;
R1=5,68 []; R12=3,12 [];
=1*R1=1*5,68=5,68 []; 1=12=1;
=1*(X1+1*X12)=1*(0,086+1*14,32)=14,4

[];

1=0.

S=R12*=0,027.
S=0,005, 0,01, 0,015, 0,022, 0,025, 0,03.

31

S, P2
S=f(P2).

5.2
:

:
- ,
1* R21/S, S;
- :
R=+1*R12/S=5,68+1*3,12/0,005=629,68[];
- ,
X==1*(X1+1*X12)=14,4 [];
-
Z=R2+X2=(629,682+14,42)=629,84[];
-
:
I211=U1/Z=660/629,84=1,047[];
- :
Cos12= R/Z=629,68/629,84=0,99;
- Sin12= X/Z=14,4/629,84=0,0228;
- ,
I1= I0+I211*Cos12=0,93+1,047*0,99=1,96 [];
-
:
I1= I0 + I211* Sin12 = 2+1,047*0,0228=2,023 [];

32

- ,
:
I1=I12+I12=

1,96 2 2,023 2 2,817 ();

- :
I21=1*I211=1*1,047=1,047();
- , ,
:
1=3*U1*I1=3*660*1,96=3880,8 [];
- ,
1 =3 I12* R1= 3 2,817 2 5,68 135,22 ();
- ,
2 =3 I22* R21= 3 1,047 2 3,12 10,26 ();
- ,
,
g=g(I1/I1)2= 44,7 (2,817 / 5,716) 2

10,856 ();

-
,
=1+2+1++ g=135,22+10,26+174,5+19,6+10,856=350,436();
- ,
2.=1- =3880,8 350,436=3530,364 [];
-
, =1- / 1= 1 1887,28/8941=0,8;
- ,
n2=n1(1-S)=600(1 0,005)=597(/);
- ,
=9.552./n2=9.55*3530,364/597=56,47(*);
- ,
Cos1 =I1/I1=1,96/2,817=0,695;
- .1
;

33

- , . 1
, .1.

1 .

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.022

0.027

0.032

a *R /S

624

312

208

141,8

115,5

97,5

629,7

317,68

213,68

147,5

121,18

103,18

I2

1,047

2,075

3,081

4,453

5,409

6,335

cos2

0,999

0,998

0,997

0.995

0,993

0,990

sin2

0,0228

0,0452

0,0672

0,0971

0,118

1,138

I1a

1,96

3,0

4,001

5,36

6,301

7,201

I1p

1,023

2,093

2,207

2,432

2,6382

2,874

I1

2,817

3,657

4,569

5,885

6,831

7,753

I2

1,051

2,078

3,084

4,456

5,411

6,341

10

P1

3880

5940

7921

10621

12475

14257

11

P1

135,22

227,88

355,72

590,15

795,13

1024,257

12

P2

10,26

40,3

88,85

185,6

273,84

375,637

13

10,856

18,296

28,56

47,382

63,839

82,236

14

350,436

480,576

667,23

1017,23

1326,9

1482,13

15

P2

3529,5

5459,4

7253,7

9603,7

11148,1

12774,87

16

91

92

91,6

90,5

90

89,7

17

n2

-1

597

594

591

587

584

581

18

56,46

87,7

117,21

156,24

182,3

209,98

19

Cos1

0,695

0,82

0,875

0,91

0,922

0,928

34

.1 : P1= f(P2); I1= f(P2); M= f(P2); n2= f(P2); S= f(P2); cos1= f(P2); = f(P2).

5.3

R2

.8 S=0,027 []; R a a
Z

R2 X

I211

5,68 1

3,12
121,23 (); X=14,4 [];
0,027

121,23 2 14,4 2 122 [];

U 1
Z

660
5,4
122

[];

R 121,23

0,993 ;
Z
122

Cos12

X 14,4

0,118 ;
Z
122

Sin12

I1 I 0 a I 2 cos 2 0,93 5,4 0.993 6,292 [];


I1 I 0
I1

I 2 sin 2 2 5,4 0,118 2,63


I 12a I 12p

6,29 2 2,63 2 6,81

[];

[];

I21 C1 I 2 1 5,4 5,4 [];


1 3 U 1 I 1a

3 660 6,292 12458,16

1 3 I 1 R1 3 6,81
2

5,68 791.9

[];

[];

2 3 I 22 R2 3 5,4 2 3,12 272,93 [];

I 1

g P

I 1

P1 2

5,716

6,81

44,7

31,49

[];

791,9 272,93 1136,949 19,6 31,49 2252,8 [];

2= 1 12,46 2,25 10,2 [ ];


1

P 1
P1

2,25
0,82 ;
12,46

n2 n1 (1 S ) 600 (1 0,027) 584 [-1];


P

10200

2
9.55 n 9,55 584 166,79 [*];
2

6,292

1a
Cos1 I 6,81 0,923 .
1

.
.

35
36

(.18)
: 2 =8 [];
[]; I1=5,716 []; Cos1=0.92; =90 %; S=0.027;

U1=660

=166,79 []; n2 =584 [-1].


5.4

,
.
,
.
=f(S) I1= f(S)
S=1 S, S.
2=10: / 2 2.2;
I/I1- 5 7.5.

:
m1 U 12

R R 2 X C X 2 [*],
1
1
1
1
1
1
2

2 f 1 2 50

78.5
4
4

[c-1]; c1=1; m1=3; R1=5,68 []; X1=0,086 [];

X12=14,32 [O];

3 660 2

78,5 1 5,68 5,68 2 5,68 2 (0,086 1 14,32) 2

1740,65

[*].

: = /;
n2 n1 (1 S ) 600 (1 0,027) 584 [-1];
P2

9.55 n
1740

130,82

9.55

8000
130,82
584

13,3 .

:
.

[*];

37

p m1 U 12 R2

1 ( R1 C1 R2 ) 2 ( X 1 C1 X 2 ) 2

5 3 660 2 3,12
911,3 [];
78.5 (5,68 1 3,12) 2 (0,08 1 14,3) 2

:
M

911,3 / 130,82 2.2 .

:
C 1 R2

R ( X 1 C1 X 2 )
2
1

1 3,12

0.696 .

5,68 (1,086 1 14,32) 2

S=0.5:

2 M
2 1740,65

1649,9
Sk
0,696
0,5
S
[*].

0,5
0,696
S Sk

=f(S), : S= 1, =911,3;
S=0.5, =1649,9; =1740,65, S=0.696; , S; S=0, =0.
.2.

. :

I21

U 1
2

C R
2
R1 1 2 X 1 C1 X 2
S

660
1
2

S=1; I =

1 3,12

5,68

39,1

0,086 1 14,32

[];

I21/I21=39,1/5,716=6,84.
I1 I 0 I 2 k 2 39,1 41,1 [].
S:
660
1
2

I =

1 3,12
5,68

0,696

0.086 1 14,32

37,438
2

[];

I1 I 0 I 2 k 2 37,438 39,438 [].


S=0 I1=I0=2 [].

38

S=0.5:
660
1
2

I =

1 3,12
5,68

0.5

0.086 1 14,32

35,299
2

[];

I1= I0+ I21=2+35,299=37,299 []. I1= f(S),


: S=1; I1=41,1; S=0.5, I1=37,299; S=0,027, I1=5,716; S=0, I10=2 [].
.3.

39

.2 : M=f(S) I1=f(S)

6
6.1
,
.

, .
,
; .
, ,
.

.
,
,
( ),
.
,
.
6.2
,

, : V C B B [3/],
, ; =1100[/3]

.
.

40
41

; =-.
F
(15) 2 , =30. :
1887,28

- =1887,28 []; V= 1100 30

0.0572

[3/].

() :
H=Z*V2[],

, H*2/2.

.
, , Z
=2/n. , [1] . 20, =
8000

600

13,33

Z=875

[*2/6].

Z V
: H=Z*V2= 875 0.0572 2

2,86

[].


.
,

V 1

0.1 m n D22
100
[3/],

m=1,25-3 2=8.

. =1.25; :
V1= 0.1 2.5 600 0,20858 2 / 100 0.0652 [3/].
4% (V 1/V=
0,0652 / 0,0 1,139 ),

;
( ).

42


:
2

D2 n
3.14 0,20858 600 / 60 6,5 [/].
60

,
.
:
n= 5.

43

7

I ,
.
I t0: i + t0=ti.

t0=115. i
.
, .
7.1

: =1*X+2[C].
:
Q=*(1-1)S/ [],
, /; S=(1+2+2h1)*l1[2]-
, Q
; - , ; (1-1)-

: Q=/Z1=

1887,28
20,96
90

1,

[C].

[]; 1=3 []; 2=0,7

[] ,
( ); h1=40 [];
S= 3 0,7 2 40 132,99 10 6

0,0107

[2];

1=1*/*S*Z1=135,22*0,012/0,16*0,0107*90=10,5[C];

44

7.2

.
.
.

-: Q1= 1(1-0)*
S1[],
Q1=(1+1+1+1)=174,5+1,785+261,02+792=1229,3 []
- ; 1 -
,
[/]; 1 - ; 0 -

; S1 - [2].

Q1=1229,3

[];

: 0=0;
1= 140 [/]; 2=6,5 [/]- ;
SC1=*d1*l1+2*(D12/4-d12/4) [2]- ,
SK=D1*l1*Kn ,
(Kn0 -
);
3,14 0278 2 3,14 0,2085 2

4
4

S C1 3,14 0,2085 0,13299 2

S K 3.14 0,278 0,13299 1 0,116

0,139

[2].

[2].


- =20 [/],

45

SC1=0,139 [2]. 1=120 [/]


SK=0,116 [2]. :
1229,3

(1-0)=Q1/(*S+1*S1)= 20 0,116 120 0,139

64,7 [C].

: 1=(1-0)=64,7[C].
1 ,
1 :
1=1+1=64,7+20=79,7[C].

,
.
7.3

. ,

, .

.
: Q2=2*(2-0)*S2 [], 2 ; 0-
( ); 2-
, [/]; S2-
, [2].
:
Q2=(+2+2+g+2)=19,6+3,6+696,049+44,7+129,186=893,135 [];
2=120 [/];
S2=*D2*l2+(D22/4-d22/4)*2
3.14 0,20858 2 3.14 0,06394 2

4
4

S2= 3.14 0,20858 0,13299


:
.

0.118 [

2].

46

893,195

(2-0)= Q2/2* S2= 120 0.118

63 [C].

: (2-0)=45.

: 64,7[C].; 79,7[C].;
- 63[C]..

( F).

47

8
:
;
;
;

.
,
,
.
8.1
,

, -

. ,
,
.
, .21,
.
, : ,
,
. [1]:
65 [], - 18 [], - 11 [],

630 [*].

48

.
.
.
.
:
m2=K*V2*2; V2=S2*l2;
D2 2h 2
3,14 (0,20858 2 0,042)

0,012 2
2
2
[ ];
d2
0
,
06394
4 3,14
4
4
4
2

S2

V2=

0,012 0,06731 0,00082 [3]

m2= 0.95 0,00082 7800 6,07 [];


m2= 6,07 [].
:
mz2=K*Vz2* 2= 0.95 0,000895 7800 6,63 [];
Vz2=Sz2*l2*z2= 0,00012096 0,06731 110 0,000895 [3];
Sz2=z2*hz2= 2,88 10 3 42 10 3

0,00012096

[2];

z2=2,88 []; hz2=h2=42 [];mz2=6,63 [].

:
m2=m2+mz2= 6,07 6,63 12,7 [].
:
m=V* 2= 0000425 7800 3,31 [];
V=S*l= S 0,13299 0,0032 0,000425 [3];
2

S= d

3,14 0,06394 2
0,0032
/4=
4

[2].

:
m=m2+m=12,7+3,31=16 [].
, :
Gp=9,81*m= 9,81 16 157,15 [H].

49

Gp
, 10%
(0.267 []). =2.06*1011[],
3600*105 []; - 252*106 [/2].

. , :
=2+4()2[/2]; - , /2.
:

M
130,82

3916766,5 [/2].
3
0.1 d B 0.1 0,0639433

k M
2 130,32

5004590,66 [/2],
3
0.2 d B 0.2 0,06394 3

=2.
:

3916766,5 2 4( 2 5004590,66) 2 20397938,69 20,4 10 6

[/2].

,
(252*106 [/2]).
0.7 .45.
8.2
1 .
. . 22.
: 213, - 65 [], - 120
[], 23 [], - =44000 [],
- 0=34000 [], 5000 [-1], . . 22
.

50


: Ra(a+)-Gp*=0; R(a+)-Gp*=0; a==125 [];
Gp=157,15 [H];
Ra=Gp*/(a+);
R=Gp*/(a+);
125

R=157,15 (125 125)


125

R=157,15 (125 125)

78,575

[H];

78,575

[H].

Q= *R [H],
=2. Q=2*78,575=157,15 [H].
:
= Q3n/25.6=27386 [].

.
8.3

( d=65 [])
1 .11
9. .24. :
- 2766 [H];
- 60 []; 75 [];
295 []; ,
- 210 []; 30 []; - 8;
( ) - 142 [].
Fn,
, :
Fn=*/R[H],
:

51

- , [H];
= 0,3 ;
R : R =295/2=147,5[];
Fn=0,3*130,82/147,5=266 [H].

.

, ,
.
R R Fn
. Fn ,
.

52


1.

, ,

,
.
: U1=220 ; Cos
=0,92;

2=8 (); I1= 6(); n=600(-1);

=90 %;

- l30= 318(); - d30=278();


l1=140(); h=160().

.
2.

, ,

.
3.

.
4.


,
.

53


1.

: . /

. . , .. , .. .; . .. .: . 1980. 496 .
2.

: . /

. . ,

.. , .. , .. ; . ..

- 3- . . .-.: ./- 2002. 757 .


3.

4: / .. , ..

, .. , .. . .: .-1982.-504 .
4.

/ . .. ; ..

.- .: .-1988.- 456 .
5.

.. ..

: . .-.:
.-1989.- 360 .
6.

.. :

. .:.-.:.1984.-360 .
7.

.. .. :

. .: .-.:.1988.-496.
8.

: .

/ . . .. .-.: .-1989.-309.

54



: 54 ., 8 , 2 ., 1., 8
.

,
.
,
,
, ,
.
,
,

,
.
: ,

; ,
,
; ;


.
, ,
, , .

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6
1 ------7
1.1 ,
, ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7
1.2 ------------------------------------------9
1.3 -----------------------------------------------------9
1.4 , ------------------------------------------------------10
1.5 ----------------------------------------------------------------12
1.6 , -------------------------------------------------------14
1.7 -------------------------------------------------------15
1.8 --------------------------------------------------------15
2 -----------------------------------------------------------------17
2.1 , --------------------------------------------17
2.2 ----------------------------18
2.3 ------------------------------------------------------------------------20
3 ---------21
3.1 ------------------------------------21
3.2 --------------21
3.3 ------------------------------22
3.4 -------------------------------------------23
3.5 --------------------23
3.6 ---------------------------------------------------24
.

4
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------25
4.1 ---------------------25
4.2 -------------------------------------26
4.3 ------------------------------------------26
4.4 ----------------------------------------------28
4.5 ---------------------------------29
4.6 ,
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------29
5 -------31
5.1 ----------------------------------------------------31
5.2 ---------------------------------------32
5.3 ----------------------------------------36
5.4 -------------------------------------37
6 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------41
6.1 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------41
6.2 ---------------------------41
7 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------44
7.1 --------------------------44
7.2 ----------------------------------45
7.3 ------------------------------------46
8 ------------------------------------48
8.1 ------------------------------------------------------48
8.2 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------50
8.3
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------51
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------53
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------54

:
..,

..

:
-06

..

2010