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Calculus forumlae sheet for solvind differential equations and signal problems. Helps a lot for examinations.

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P (AB)

P (B)

Discrete random variable: x =

P

x

xp(x), x2 =

P

x

x2 p(x) 2x .

xf (x)dx, x2 =

x2 f (x) 2x .

c1 X1 ++cn Xn = c1 X1 + + cn Xn .

If X1 , . . . , Xn are independent random variables, the variance of any linear combination is given by

2

2

c21 X1 ++cn Xn = c21 X

+ + c2n X

.

n

1

special case with n = 1.

n

x

Hypergeometric: p(x) =

N R

(R

x )( nx )

, x =

N

(n)

nR

,

N

x2 =

nR

(1

N

R N n

)

.

N N 1

Negative binomial: p(x) =

x1

r1

1p

.

p2

pr (1 p)xr ; x = r, r + 1, . . .. x = pr , x2 =

r(1p)

.

p2

N (0, 1).

2

e2+ .

Exponential: f (x) = ex , x > 0. x =

Uniform distribution: f (x) =

1

,

ba

1

,

x2 =

/2

, y2 = e2+2

1

.

2

a < x < b. x =

a+b

,

2

x2 =

(ba)2

.

12

Central Limit Theorem: If X1 , . . . , Xn are independent random variables each with mean and standard

deviation , then the following hold approximately:

S = X1 + + Xn N (n, n 2 )

X=

X1 + + Xn

2

N (,

)

n

n

Large sample confidence interval for :

X z/2 .

n

2

z/2

2

B2

r

p z/2

where n

= n + 4, p =

p(1 p)

n

X+2

.

n+4

2

z/2

p (1p )

B2

where p is a guess of p.

X tn1,

s

.

n

/2

r

X Y z/2

2

2

X

+ Y.

nX

nY

CI for pX pY :

r

pX pY z/2

where pX =

X+1

,

nX +2

pY =

Y +1

,

nY +2

pX (1 pX )

pY (1 pY )

+

n

X

n

Y

n

X = nX + 2, n

Y = nY + 2.

2

Small-sample CI for X Y based on independent samples, when X

6= Y2 :

r

X Y t,

/2

s2X

s2

+ Y

nX

nY

where

=

s2

X

nX

/nX )2

(s2

X

nX 1

s2

Y

nY

2

/nY )2

(s2

Y

nY 1

(1)

2

= Y2 :

Small-sample CI for X Y based on independent samples, when X

r

X Y tnX +nY 2,

where

r

sp =

/2 sp

1

1

+

nX

nY

.

nX + nY 2

D tn1,

sD

/2

where D = X Y .

Large sample test for : Test statistic z =

X

0.

/ n

(

P value =

pp

if H1 : > 0

if H1 : < 0

if H1 : 6= 0 .

p0 (1p0 )/n

(

P value =

(

P value =

P (Z > z )

P (Z < z )

2 P (Z > |z |)

P (Z > z )

P (Z < z )

2 P (Z > |z |)

if H1 : p > p0

if H1 : p < p0

if H1 : p 6= p0 .

X

0.

s/ n

P (tn1 > t )

P (tn1 < t )

2 P (tn1 > |t |)

if H1 : > 0

if H1 : < 0

if H1 : 6= 0 .

XY 0

2 /n + 2 /n

X

X

Y

Y

(

P value =

P (Z > z )

P (Z < z )

2 P (Z > |z |)

if H1 : X Y > 0

if H1 : X Y < 0

if H1 : X Y =

6 0 .

(2)

p

X p

Y

p(1

p)(1/n

X +1/nY )

p =

X+Y

nX +nY

where pX =

X

nX

, pY =

Y

nY

and

.

P (Z > z )

P (Z < z )

2 P (Z > |z |)

(

P value =

if H1 : pX > pY

if H1 : pX < pY

if H1 : pX 6= pY .

2

Small-sample test for X Y , independent samples (assume X

6= Y2 ): Test statistic: t = p

P (t > t )

P (t < t )

2 P (t > |t |)

(

P value =

XY 0

s2

/nX +s2

/nY

X

Y

if H1 : X > Y

if H1 : X < Y

if H1 : X 6= Y

where is as in (1).

2

Small-sample test for X Y , independent samples (assume X

= Y2 ): Test statistic: t =

XY 0

sp

1/nX +1/nY

where sp is as in (2).

(

P value =

P (tnX +nY 2 < t )

2 P (tnX +nY 2 > |t |)

D

0 ,

sD / n

(

P value =

if H1 : X > Y

if H1 : X < Y

if H1 : X 6= Y .

where D = X Y .

P (tn1 > t )

P (tn1 < t )

2 P (tn1 > |t |)

if H1 : D > 0

if H1 : D < 0

if H1 : D 6= 0 .

2 =

k

X

(Oi Ei )2

Ei

i=1

Chi-Square test of homogeneity: H0 : p1j = p2j = = pIj for each j (j = 1, . . . , J). Test statistic:

2 =

J

I

X

X

(Oij Eij )2

i=1 j=1

where Eij =

Oi. O.j

O..

Eij

Pn

i=1

r = pPn

x2

i=1 i

xi yi nxy

nx2

pPn

i=1

yi2 ny 2

1+

2

1

distributed with mean W = 21 loge 1

and variance W

= n3

.

1+r

,

1r

r n2

To test for = 0, use U =

, which has a tn2 distribution under H0 .

2

1r

Pn

xi yi nxy

Least squares regression coefficients: 1 = Pi=1

, 0 = y 1 x.

n

2

2

i=1

xi nx

s

s0 = s

1

x2

+ Pn

,

n

(xi x)2

i=1

s1 = pPn

i=1

s

(xi x)2

r

and

s=

(1 r2 )

Pn

(yi y)2

.

n2

i=1

s

sy = s

(x x)2

1

+ Pn

n

(xi x)2

i=1

s

spred = s

1+

(x x)2

1

+ Pn

n

(xi x)2

i=1

Pn

yi y)2 , Error SS (SSE) =

Analysis of variance identity: SST = SSR + SSE.

s2 =

SSE

.

np1

Coefficient of determination R2 =

To test H0 : 1 = = p = 0, use F =

Pn

i=1

SSR

.

SST

SSR/p

.

SSE/(np1)

Under H0 , F Fp,np1 .

SST r =

I

X

Ji X i. N X ..

i=1

SSE =

Ji

I

X

X

I

X

2

Xij

i=1 j=1

Ji X i.

i=1

SST r

SSE

M ST r

M ST r =

, M SE =

, F =

I 1

N I

M SE

Under H0 : 1 = = I , F FI1, N I .

100(1 )% CI for i is X i. tN I,

q

/2

M SE

Ji

100(1 )% CI for (i j ) is X i. X j. tN I,/2

M SE( J1i +

1

Jj

r

|X i. X j. | > tN I,/2

M SE(

1

1

+ )

Ji

Jj

100(1 )% CI for (i j ) is X i. X j. tN I,/(2C)

M SE( J1i +

1

Jj

r

|X i. X j. | > tN I,/(2C)

M SE(

1

1

+ )

Ji

Jj

100(1 )% CI for (i j ) is X i. X j. qI,N I,

M SE 1

( Ji

2

1

Jj

r

|X i. X j. | > qI,N I,

M SE 1

1

( + )

2

Ji

Jj

Pn

i=1

(yi y)2 .

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