You are on page 1of 19

Nationalism is

the belief that people


should be loyal to their nation rather
than to an empireto the people with
whom they share a culture and history

Italy

in 1815
was not
Parts were
independent
& a unified
had their
owndivided
king
nation;
it was
into 3 regions:
In the 1830s, nationalism led to a unification
movement as Italians began to see
themselves
Parts
were as having a shared history
(ancient
controlled
byRome, Renaissance), shared
territory,
the Popeshared enemies (Napoleonic Wars)

Parts were foreign


controlled by
Austria & France

Giuseppe Mazzini
Mazzini

was a radical
who established the
nationalist group
Young Italy in 1831
to unify Italy &
created a republic
Led a revolution in 1848 which led
to a brief Italian republic (but Italy
was not unified); Mazzini was
overthrown & seen as too radical

Count Camillo di Cavour


In

1849, the king of


Sardinia named Cavour
Prime Minister; Cavour
wanted to make
Sardinia very powerful
by increasing industry,
reducing the Popes influence, &
unifying Italy (but ONLY if Sardinia
led the unification movement)

Giuseppe Garibaldi
Meanwhile,

in Southern Italy
remained isolated, radical
nationalists prepared
for a revolution
Giuseppe Garibaldi was a
nationalist who had joined
Young Italy & helped in the South
American independence movements;
he wanted a unified Italy under a
republic

Unification
Garibaldi

successfully led the


unification of the South, but Cavour is
unhappy (does not want a republic;
wants Sardinias king in charge)
Cavour tricked Garibaldi into giving up
his conquests to SardiniaItalys
North & South are unified & a new
Constitutional Monarchy
By 1871, all French territories are
reclaimed & unification is complete

German Unification
RealPolitik & the
Belligerent
Bismarck

Germany in 1815
Germany

was the last European


country to unify
After the Congress of Vienna, 39
independent German states
merged into the German
Confederation

Prussia
Prussia

badly wanted to unify these


39 states into a new nation, Germany
Otto von Bismarck was
Prime Minister of Prussia
who used RealPolitik
pursue goals by any
means necessary (go to
war, lie, break treaties)

Franco-Prussian War against France to convince


the Catholics in southern Germany that
unification with Prussia was better than
unification with France

Seven Weeks War against Austria led to the


North German Confederation (a united northern
ToGermany
do this, Bismarck
led Prussia
to war
under Prussias
control)

A United Germany
As

a result of military victories,


Prussia gains support from all
German states for unification; 25
states become united under 1 union:
In 1871Wilhelm I becomes Kaiser
(emperor); Bismarck becomes
Chancellor (Prime Minister)
Each state has a local ruler, army, &
handles its own domestic affairs
Kaiser heads national government